Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo
2005-01-01
The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases
Low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harada, Masayasu; Kugo, Taichiro; Yamawaki, Koichi.
1994-01-01
We prove to all orders of the loop expansion the low energy theorems of hidden local symmetries in four-dimensional nonlinear sigma models based on the coset space G/H, with G and H being arbitrary compact groups. Although the models are non-renormalizable, the proof is done in an analogous manner to the renormalization proof of gauge theories and two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models by restricting ourselves to the operators with two derivatives (counting a hidden gauge boson field as one derivative), i.e., with dimension 2, which are the only operators relevant to the low energy limit. Through loop-wise mathematical induction based on the Ward-Takahashi identity for the BRS symmetry, we solve renormalization equation for the effective action up to dimension-2 terms plus terms with the relevant BRS sources. We then show that all the quantum corrections to the dimension-2 operators, including the finite parts as well as the divergent ones, can be entirely absorbed into a re-definition (renormalization) of the parameters and the fields in the dimension-2 part of the tree-level Lagrangian. (author)
Skyrmions with holography and hidden local symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nawa, Kanabu; Hosaka, Atsushi; Suganuma, Hideo
2009-01-01
We study baryons as Skyrmions in holographic QCD with D4/D8/D8 multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory, and also in the nonlinear sigma model with hidden local symmetry. Comparing these two models, we find that the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature can largely change the role of (axial) vector mesons for baryons in four-dimensional space-time. In the hidden local symmetry approach, the ρ-meson field as a massive Yang-Mills field has a singular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a strong repulsion for the baryon as a stabilizer. When the a 1 meson is added in this approach, the stability of Skyrmion is lost by the cancellation of ρ and a 1 contributions. On the contrary, in holographic QCD, the ρ-meson field does not appear as a massive Yang-Mills field due to the extra dimension and its nontrivial curvature. We show that the ρ-meson field has a regular configuration in Skyrmion, which gives a weak attraction for the baryon in holographic QCD. We argue that Skyrmion with π, ρ, and a 1 mesons become stable due to the curved extra dimension and also the presence of the Skyrme term in holographic QCD. From this result, we also discuss the features of our truncated-resonance analysis on baryon properties with π and ρ mesons below the cutoff scale M KK ∼1 GeV in holographic QCD, which is compared with other 5D instanton analysis.
The pion form factor within the hidden local symmetry model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benayoun, M.; David, P.; DelBuono, L.; Leruste, P.; O'Connell, H.B.
2003-01-01
We analyze a pion form factor formulation which fulfills the Analyticity requirement within the Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) Model. This implies an s-dependent dressing of the ρ-γ VMD coupling and an account of several coupled channels. The corresponding function F π (s) provides nice fits of the pion form factor data from s=-0.25 to s=1 GeV 2 . It is shown that the coupling to KK has little effect, while ωπ 0 improves significantly the fit probability below the φ mass. No need for additional states like ρ(1450) shows up in this invariant-mass range. All parameters, except for the subtraction polynomial coefficients, are fixed from the rest of the HLS phenomenology. The fits show consistency with the expected behaviour of F π (s) at s=0 up to O(s 2 ) and with the phase shift data on δ 1 1 (s) from threshold to somewhat above the φ mass. The ω sector is also examined in relation with recent data from CMD-2. (orig.)
Anomalies of hidden local chiral symmetries in sigma-models and extended supergravities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vecchia, P. di; Ferrara, S.; Girardello, L.
1985-01-01
Non-linear sigma-models with hidden gauge symmetries are anomalous, at the quantum level, when coupled to chiral fermions in not anomaly free representations of the hidden chiral symmetry. These considerations generally apply to supersymmetric kaehlerian sigma-models on coset spaces with hidden chiral symmetries as well as to extended supergravities in four dimensions with local SU(N) symmetry. The presence of the anomaly implies that the scenario of dynamical generation of gauge vector bosons has to be reconsidered in these theories. (orig.)
Dynamical generation of gauge bosons of hidden local symmetries in nonlinear sigma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koegerler, R.; Lucha, W.; Neufeld, H.; Stremnitzer, H.
1988-01-01
We demonstrate how quantum corrections generate a kinetic term for the (at tree-level non-propagating) gauge fields of hidden local symmetries in nonlinear sigma models in four space-time dimensions. (orig.)
Bosonization, dual transformation and non-local hidden symmetry in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Hiroyuki
1985-01-01
The non-local hidden symmetry is investigated in the bosonized non-abelian Thirring model and the dual representation of the chiral model. In these representations the first non-local symmetry is spontaneously broken in naive pertubation theory. (orig.)
Hidden beauty baryon states in the local hidden gauge approach with heavy quark spin symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Valencia (Spain)
2013-11-15
Using a coupled-channel unitary approach, combining the heavy quark spin symmetry and the dynamics of the local hidden gauge, we investigate the meson-baryon interaction with hidden beauty and obtain several new states of N around 11 GeV. We consider the basis of states {eta}{sub b} N, {Upsilon};N, B {Lambda}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Lambda}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} and find four basic bound states which correspond to B {Sigma}{sub b}, B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} and B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *}, decaying mostly into {eta}{sub b} N and {Upsilon}N and with a binding energy about 50-130 MeV with respect to the thresholds of the corresponding channel. All of them have isospin I = 1/2, and we find no bound states or resonances in I = 3/2. The B {Sigma}{sub b} state appears in J = 1/2, the B {Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} in J = 3/2, the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2 and the B{sup *}{Sigma}{sub b}{sup *} appears nearly degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2. These states have a width from 2-110 MeV, with conservative estimates of uncertainties, except for the one in J = 5/2 which has zero width since it cannot decay into any of the states of the basis chosen. We make generous estimates of the uncertainties and find that within very large margins these states appear bound. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Raifeartaigh, L.
1979-01-01
This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)
Hidden conformal symmetry in Randall–Sundrum 2 model: Universal fermion localization by torsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Alencar
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this manuscript we describe a hidden conformal symmetry of the second Randall–Sundrum model (RS2. We show how this can be used to localize fermions of both chiralities. The conformal symmetry leaves few free dimensionless constants and constrains the allowed interactions. In this formulation the warping of the extra dimension emerges from a partial breaking of the conformal symmetry in five dimensions. The solution of the system can be described in two alternative gauges: by the metric or by the conformon. By considering this as a fundamental symmetry we construct a conformally invariant action for a vector field which provides a massless photon localized over a Minkowski brane. This is obtained by a conformal non-minimal coupling that breaks the gauge symmetry in five dimensions. We further consider a generalization of the model by including conformally invariant torsion. By coupling torsion non-minimally to fermions we obtain a localized zero mode of both chiralities completing the consistence of the model. The inclusion of torsion introduces a fermion quartic interaction that can be used to probe the existence of large extra dimensions and the validity of the model. This seems to point to the fact that conformal symmetry may be more fundamental than gauge symmetry and that this is the missing ingredient for the full consistence of RS scenarios.
Equation of state with scale-invariant hidden local symmetry and gravitational waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Hyun Kyu
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The equation of state (EoS for the effective theory proposed recently in the frame work of the scale-invariant hidden local symmetry is discussed briefly. The EoS is found to be relatively stiffer at lower density and but relatively softer at higher density. The particular features of EoS on the gravitational waves are discussed. A relatively stiffer EoS for the neutron stars with the lower density induces a larger deviation of the gravitational wave form from the point-particle-approximation. On the other hand, a relatively softer EoS for the merger remnant of the higher density inside might invoke a possibility of the immediate formation of a black hole for short gamma ray bursts or the appearance of the higher peak frequency for gravitational waves from remnant oscillations. It is anticipated that this particular features could be probed in detail by the detections of gravitational waves from the binary neutron star mergers.
Conformal barrier and hidden local symmetry constraints: Walking technirhos in LHC diboson channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hidenori S. Fukano
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We expand the previous analyses of the conformal barrier on the walking technirho for the 2 TeV diboson excesses reported by the ATLAS Collaboration, with a special emphasis on the hidden local symmetry (HLS constraints. We first show that the Standard Model (SM Higgs Lagrangian is equivalent to the scale-invariant nonlinear chiral Lagrangian, which is further gauge equivalent to the scale-invariant HLS model, with the scale symmetry realized nonlinearly via SM Higgs as a (pseudo-dilaton. The scale symmetry forbids the new vector boson decay to the 125 GeV Higgs plus W/Z boson, in sharp contrast to the conventional “equivalence theorem” which is invalidated by the conformality. The HLS forbids mixing between the iso-triplet technirho's, ρΠ and ρP, of the one-family walking technicolor (with four doublets ND=NF/2=4, which, without the HLS, would be generated when switching on the standard model gauging. We also present updated analyses of the walking technirho's for the diboson excesses by fully incorporating the constraints from the conformal barrier and the HLS as well as possible higher order effects: still characteristic of the one-family walking technirho is its smallness of the decay width, roughly of order Γ/Mρ∼[3/NC×1/ND]×[Γ/Mρ]QCD≃70 GeV/2 TeV (ND=NC=4, in perfect agreement with the expected diboson resonance with Γ<100 GeV. The model is so sharply distinguishable from other massive spin 1 models without the conformality and HLS that it is clearly testable at the LHC Run II. If the 2 TeV boson decay to WH/ZH is not observed in the ongoing Run II, then the conformality is operative on the 125 GeV Higgs, strongly suggesting that the 2 TeV excess events are responsible for the walking technirhos and the 125 GeV Higgs is the technidilaton.
Hidden symmetries in five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, M.
2003-05-01
This thesis is concerned with the study of hidden symmetries in supergravity, which play an important role in the present picture of supergravity and string theory. Concretely, the appearance of a hidden G 2(+2) /SO(4) symmetry is studied in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions - a parallel model to the more famous E 8(+8) /SO(16) case in eleven-dimensional supergravity. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, I give a derivation that includes fermionic terms. This sheds new light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction, and shows up an unusual feature which follows from an analysis of the R-symmetry associated with N=4 supergravity and of the supersymmetry variations, and which has no parallel in the eleven-dimensional case: The emergence of an additional SO(3) as part of the enhanced local symmetry, invisible in the dimensional reduction of the gravitino, and corresponding to the fact that, of the SO(4) used in the coset model, only the diagonal SO(3) is visible immediately upon dimensional reduction. The uncovering of the hidden symmetries proceeds via the construction of the proper coset gravity in three dimensions, and matching it with the Lagrangian obtained from the reduction. (orig.)
Hidden symmetries in minimal five-dimensional supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poessel, Markus; Silva, Sebastian
2004-01-01
We study the hidden symmetries arising in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, we give a derivation that includes fermionic terms, shedding light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction
Hidden Symmetries of Stochastic Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boyka Aneva
2007-05-01
Full Text Available In the matrix product states approach to $n$ species diffusion processes the stationary probability distribution is expressed as a matrix product state with respect to a quadratic algebra determined by the dynamics of the process. The quadratic algebra defines a noncommutative space with a $SU_q(n$ quantum group action as its symmetry. Boundary processes amount to the appearance of parameter dependent linear terms in the algebraic relations and lead to a reduction of the $SU_q(n$ symmetry. We argue that the boundary operators of the asymmetric simple exclusion process generate a tridiagonal algebra whose irriducible representations are expressed in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The Askey-Wilson algebra arises as a symmetry of the boundary problem and allows to solve the model exactly.
Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry
Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.
2017-12-01
Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).
Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.
Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David
2017-01-01
The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.
Hidden and generalized conformal symmetry of Kerr–Sen spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghezelbash, A M; Siahaan, H M
2013-01-01
It is recently conjectured that generic non-extremal Kerr black hole could be holographically dual to a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) in two dimensions. Moreover, it is known that there are two CFT duals (pictures) to describe the charged rotating black holes which correspond to angular momentum J and electric charge Q of the black hole. Furthermore these two pictures can be incorporated by the CFT duals (general picture) that are generated by SL(2,Z) modular group. The general conformal structure can be revealed by looking at charged scalar wave equation in some appropriate values of frequency and charge. In this regard, we consider the wave equation of a charged massless scalar field in the background of Kerr–Sen black hole and show that in the ‘near region’, the wave equation can be reproduced by the Casimir operator of a local SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry. We find the exact agreement between macroscopic and microscopic physical quantities like entropy and absorption cross section of scalars for Kerr–Sen black hole. We then find an extension of vector fields that in turn yields an extended local family of SL(2,R) L ×SL(2,R) R hidden conformal symmetry, parameterized by one parameter. For some special values of the parameter, we find a copy of SL(2,R) hidden conformal algebra for the charged Gibbons–Maeda–Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole in the strong deflection limit. (paper)
Hidden symmetries of the Principal Chiral Model unveiled
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.
1996-12-01
By relating the two-dimensional U(N) Principal Chiral Model to a Simple linear system we obtain a free-field parametrization of solutions. Obvious symmetry transformations on the free-field data give symmetries of the model. In this way all known 'hidden symmetries' and Baecklund transformations, as well as a host of new symmetries, arise. (author). 21 refs
Gauging hidden symmetries in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samtleben, Henning; Weidner, Martin
2007-01-01
We initiate the systematic construction of gauged matter-coupled supergravity theories in two dimensions. Subgroups of the affine global symmetry group of toroidally compactified supergravity can be gauged by coupling vector fields with minimal couplings and a particular topological term. The gauge groups typically include hidden symmetries that are not among the target-space isometries of the ungauged theory. The gaugings constructed in this paper are described group-theoretically in terms of a constant embedding tensor subject to a number of constraints which parametrizes the different theories and entirely encodes the gauged Lagrangian. The prime example is the bosonic sector of the maximally supersymmetric theory whose ungauged version admits an affine e 9 global symmetry algebra. The various parameters (related to higher-dimensional p-form fluxes, geometric and non-geometric fluxes, etc.) which characterize the possible gaugings, combine into an embedding tensor transforming in the basic representation of e 9 . This yields an infinite-dimensional class of maximally supersymmetric theories in two dimensions. We work out and discuss several examples of higher-dimensional origin which can be systematically analyzed using the different gradings of e 9
The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaffe, A.
2001-01-01
We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-01-01
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
Localization of hidden Chua's attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Vagaitsev, V.I.
2011-01-01
The classical attractors of Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, Chen, and other widely-known attractors are those excited from unstable equilibria. From computational point of view this allows one to use numerical method, in which after transient process a trajectory, started from a point of unstable manifold in the neighborhood of equilibrium, reaches an attractor and identifies it. However there are attractors of another type: hidden attractors, a basin of attraction of which does not contain neighborhoods of equilibria. In the present Letter for localization of hidden attractors of Chua's circuit it is suggested to use a special analytical-numerical algorithm. -- Highlights: → There are hidden attractors: basin doesn't contain neighborhoods of equilibria. → Hidden attractors cannot be reached by trajectory from neighborhoods of equilibria. → We suggested special procedure for localization of hidden attractors. → We discovered hidden attractor in Chua's system, L. Chua in his work didn't expect this.
Applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri
2011-01-01
This work is a brief review of applications of hidden symmetries to black hole physics. Symmetry is one of the most important concepts of the science. In physics and mathematics the symmetry allows one to simplify a problem, and often to make it solvable. According to the Noether theorem symmetries are responsible for conservation laws. Besides evident (explicit) spacetime symmetries, responsible for conservation of energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a system, there also exist what is called hidden symmetries, which are connected with higher order in momentum integrals of motion. A remarkable fact is that black holes in four and higher dimensions always possess a set ('tower') of explicit and hidden symmetries which make the equations of motion of particles and light completely integrable. The paper gives a general review of the recently obtained results. The main focus is on understanding why at all black holes have something (symmetry) to hide.
Hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry in eleven dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno
2004-01-01
First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional super Poincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve-dimensional super Poincare symmetry that governs the theory
Dimensional reduction in field theory and hidden symmetries in extended supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremmer, E.
1985-01-01
Dimensional reduction in field theories is discussed both in theories which do not include gravity and in gravity theories. In particular, 11-dimensional supergravity and its reduction to 4 dimensions is considered. Hidden symmetries of supergravity with N=8 in 4 dimensions, global E 7 and local SU(8)-invariances in particular are detected. The hidden symmmetries permit to interpret geometrically the scalar fields
Duality and hidden symmetries in interacting particle systems
Giardinà, C.; Kurchan, J.; Redig, F.H.J.; Vafayi, K.
2009-01-01
In the context of Markov processes, both in discrete and continuous setting, we show a general relation between duality functions and symmetries of the generator. If the generator can be written in the form of a Hamiltonian of a quantum spin system, then the "hidden" symmetries are easily derived.
Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuzentsov, Vadim b
1996-01-01
The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel...... functions are also discussed....
Hidden symmetry of a free fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazhanov, V.V.; Stroganov, Yu.G.
1984-01-01
A well-known eight-vertex free fermion model on a plane lattice is considered. Solving triangle equations and using the symmetry properties of the model, an elliptic parametrization for Boltzmann vertex weights is constructed. In the parametrization the weights are meromorphic functions of three complex variables
Hidden symmetry in the presence of fluxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubiznak, David; Warnick, Claude M.; Krtous, Pavel
2011-01-01
We derive the most general first-order symmetry operator for the Dirac equation coupled to arbitrary fluxes. Such an operator is given in terms of an inhomogeneous form ω which is a solution to a coupled system of first-order partial differential equations which we call the generalized conformal Killing-Yano system. Except trivial fluxes, solutions of this system are subject to additional constraints. We discuss various special cases of physical interest. In particular, we demonstrate that in the case of a Dirac operator coupled to the skew symmetric torsion and U(1) field, the system of generalized conformal Killing-Yano equations decouples into the homogeneous conformal Killing-Yano equations with torsion introduced in D. Kubiznak et al. (2009) and the symmetry operator is essentially the one derived in T. Houri et al. (2010) . We also discuss the Dirac field coupled to a scalar potential and in the presence of 5-form and 7-form fluxes.
Hidden symmetries of integrable conformal mechanical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakobyan, Tigran; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Nersessian, Armen
2010-01-01
We split the generic conformal mechanical system into a 'radial' and an 'angular' part, where the latter is defined as the Hamiltonian system on the orbit of the conformal group, with the Casimir function in the role of the Hamiltonian. We reduce the analysis of the constants of motion of the full system to the study of certain differential equations on this orbit. For integrable mechanical systems, the conformal invariance renders them superintegrable, yielding an additional series of conserved quantities originally found by Wojciechowski in the rational Calogero model. Finally, we show that, starting from any N=4 supersymmetric 'angular' Hamiltonian system one may construct a new system with full N=4 superconformal D(1,2;α) symmetry.
Hidden U (1 ) gauge symmetry realizing a neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model with dark matter
Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi
2018-04-01
We propose a neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model with hidden local U (1 ) symmetry, where active neutrinos are Dirac type, and a fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate is naturally induced as a result of remnant symmetry even after the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, a physical Goldstone boson arises as a consequence of two types of gauge singlet bosons and contributes to the DM phenomenologies as well as an additional neutral gauge boson. Then, we analyze the relic density of DM within the safe range of direct detection searches and show the allowed region of dark matter mass.
New infinite-dimensional hidden symmetries for heterotic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yajun
2007-01-01
The symmetry structures of two-dimensional heterotic string theory are studied further. A (2d+n)x(2d+n) matrix complex H-potential is constructed and the field equations are extended into a complex matrix formulation. A pair of Hauser-Ernst-type linear systems are established. Based on these linear systems, explicit formulations of new hidden symmetry transformations for the considered theory are given and then these symmetry transformations are verified to constitute infinite-dimensional Lie algebras: the semidirect product of the Kac-Moody o(d,d+n-circumflex) and Virasoro algebras (without center charges). These results demonstrate that the heterotic string theory under consideration possesses more and richer symmetry structures than previously expected
Hidden symmetries in one-dimensional quantum Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curado, E.M.F.; Rego-Monteiro, M.A.; Nazareno, H.N.
2000-11-01
We construct a Heisenberg-like algebra for the one dimensional infinite square-well potential in quantum mechanics. The number-type and ladder operators are realized in terms of physical operators of the system as in the harmonic oscillator algebra. These physical operators are obtained with the help of variables used in a recently developed non commutative differential calculus. This square-well algebra is an example of an algebra in large class of generalized Heisenberg algebras recently constructed. This class of algebras also contains q-oscillators as a particular case. We also show here how this general algebra can address hidden symmetries present in several quantum systems. (author)
Hidden Symmetries for Thermodynamics and Emergence of Relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Liu
2010-01-01
Erik Verlinde recently proposed an idea about the thermodynamic origin of gravity. Though this is a beautiful idea, which may resolve many long standing problems in the theories of gravity, it also raises many other problems. In this article I will comment on some of the problems of Verlinde's proposal with special emphasis on the thermodynamical origin of the principle of relativity. It is found that there is a large group of hidden symmetries of thermodynamics, which contains the Poincare group of the spacetime for which space is emergent. This explains the thermodynamic origin of the principle of relativity. (general)
Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiva, Vandana.
1978-12-01
The status of hidden variables in quantum theory has been debated since the 1920s. The author examines the no-hidden-variable theories of von Neumann, Kochen, Specker and Bell, and finds that they all share one basic assumption: averaging over the hidden variables should reproduce the quantum mechanical probabilities. Von Neumann also makes a linearity assumption, Kochen and Specker require the preservation of certain functional relations between magnitudes, and Bell proposes a locality condition. It has been assumed that the extrastatistical requirements are needed to serve as criteria of success for the introduction of hidden variables because the statistical condition is trivially satisfied, and that Bell's result is based on a locality condition that is physically motivated. The author shows that the requirement of weak locality, which is not physically motivated, is enough to give Bell's result. The proof of Bell's inequality works equally well for any pair of commuting magnitudes satisfying a condition called the degeneracy principle. None of the no-hidden-variable proofs apply to a class of hidden variable theories that are not phase-space reconstructions of quantum mechanics. The author discusses one of these theories, the Bohm-Bub theory, and finds that hidden variable theories that re all the quantum statistics, for single and sequential measurements, must introduce a randomization process for the hidden variables after each measurement. The philosophical significance of this theory lies in the role it can play in solving the conceptual puzzles posed by quantum theory
Rational first integrals of geodesic equations and generalised hidden symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Arata; Houri, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We discuss novel generalisations of Killing tensors, which are introduced by considering rational first integrals of geodesic equations. We introduce the notion of inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, which cannot be constructed from ordinary Killing tensors. Moreover, we introduce inconstructible rational first integrals, which are constructed from inconstructible generalised Killing tensors, and provide a method for checking the inconstructibility of a rational first integral. Using the method, we show that the rational first integral of the Collinson–O’Donnell solution is not inconstructible. We also provide several examples of metrics admitting an inconstructible rational first integral in two and four-dimensions, by using the Maciejewski–Przybylska system. Furthermore, we attempt to generalise other hidden symmetries such as Killing–Yano tensors. (paper)
Generalized hidden symmetry for low-energy hadron phsics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiser, N.; Meissner, U.G.
1990-01-01
We present a detailed study of an effective chiral meson lagrangian involving pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons. We employ the recently proposed technique to introduce vector and axial-vector mesons as composite gauge bosons of an extended hidden gauge symmetry of the non-linear σ-model. In particular, we write down the most general anomalous action (Wess-Zumino term) in accordance with low-energy theorems and chiral symmetry. The global flavor anomalies of QCD are given by the standard (5-dimensional) Wess-Zumino-Witten action of the pseudoscalar mesons, whereas all the processes violating natural parity for the vectors and axials are chirally (gauge) symmetric and therefore do not contribute to the Wess-Zumino anomaly equation. We find fourteen independent terms with a priori unknown (real) coefficients. We are able to fix some of these coefficients from anomalous hadronic and radiative vector/axial-vector meson decays. A comparison to the gauged Wess-Zumino action in the so-called massive Yang-Mills approach shows that both anomalous actions are indeed equivalent for a special choice of the unknown coefficients. We finally propose a realistic two-flavor chiral effective lagrangian incorporating pions, the vector mesons ρ and ω as well as the axial A 1 meson which should be used in skyrmion physics at energy scales up to about 1 GeV. (orig.)
A Hidden Twelve-Dimensional SuperPoincare Symmetry In Eleven Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bars, Itzhak; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Pasqua, Andrea; Zumino, Bruno
2003-12-13
First, we review a result in our previous paper, of how a ten-dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, has a hidden eleven-dimensional superPoincare symmetry. Then, we show that the physical sector is defined by three first-class constraints which preserve the full eleven-dimensional symmetry. Applying the same concepts to the eleven dimensional superparticle, taken off-shell, we discover a hidden twelve dimensional superPoincare symmetry that governs the theory.
Higher-dimensional black holes: hidden symmetries and separation of variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frolov, Valeri P; Kubiznak, David
2008-01-01
In this paper, we discuss hidden symmetries in rotating black hole spacetimes. We start with an extended introduction which mainly summarizes results on hidden symmetries in four dimensions and introduces Killing and Killing-Yano tensors, objects responsible for hidden symmetries. We also demonstrate how starting with a principal CKY tensor (that is a closed non-degenerate conformal Killing-Yano 2-form) in 4D flat spacetime one can 'generate' the 4D Kerr-NUT-(A)dS solution and its hidden symmetries. After this we consider higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics and demonstrate that they possess a principal CKY tensor which allows one to generate the whole tower of Killing-Yano and Killing tensors. These symmetries imply complete integrability of geodesic equations and complete separation of variables for the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in the general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics
Hidden symmetry of the beam spread function resulting from the reciprocity theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolin, Lev S.
2016-01-01
It is shown that the optical reciprocity theorem imposes certain constraints on the radiation field structure of a unidirectional point source (beam spread function (BSF)) in a turbid medium with spatially uniform optical properties. To satisfy the reciprocal relation, the BSF should have an additional symmetry property along with axial symmetry. This paper mathematically formulates the BSF symmetry condition that follows from the reciprocity theorem and discusses test results of some approximate analytical BSF models for their compliance with the symmetry requirement. A universal method for eliminating symmetry errors of approximate BSF models is proposed. - Highlights: • Symmetry properties of beam spread function (BSF) are considered. • In uniform turbid medium BSF has hidden symmetry property besides axial symmetry. • The examples of BSF models with and without the required symmetry are given. • A universal method for BSF symmetry error elimination is proposed.
Kac-Moody algebra is not hidden symmetry of chiral models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Devchand, C.; Schiff, J.
1997-01-01
A detailed examination of the infinite dimensional loop algebra of hidden symmetry transformations of the Principal Chiral Model reveals it to have a structure differing from a standard centreless Kac-Moody algebra. A new infinite dimensional Abelian symmetry algebra is shown to preserve a symplectic form on the space of solutions. (author). 15 refs
Towards the establishment of nonlinear hidden symmetries of the Skyrme model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera-Aguilar, A.; Kanakoglou, K.; Paschalis, J. E.
2006-01-01
We present a preliminary attempt to establish the existence of hidden nonlinear symmetries of the SU(N) Skyrme model which could, in principle, lead to the further integration of the system. An explicit illustration is given for the SU(2) symmetry group
Local discrete symmetries from superstring derived models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraggi, A.E.
1996-10-01
Discrete and global symmetries play an essential role in many extensions of the Standard Model, for example, to preserve the proton lifetime, to prevent flavor changing neutral currents, etc. An important question is how can such symmetries survive in a theory of quantum gravity, like superstring theory. In a specific string model the author illustrates how local discrete symmetries may arise in string models and play an important role in preventing fast proton decay and flavor changing neutral currents. The local discrete symmetry arises due to the breaking of the non-Abelian gauge symmetries by Wilson lines in the superstring models and forbids, for example dimension five operators which mediate rapid proton decay, to all orders of nonrenormalizable terms. In the context of models of unification of the gauge and gravitational interactions, it is precisely this type of local discrete symmetries that must be found in order to insure that a given model is not in conflict with experimental observations
On E(11) of M-theory: 1. Hidden Symmetries of Maximal Supergravities and Lego of Dynkin Diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurmagambetov, A.J.
2007-01-01
We review a graphical way of classifying hidden symmetry algebras and groups of D=11, 10 maximal supergravities in terms of Dynkin diagrams, the shapes of which are determined by the bosonic field content of supergravities supermultiplets. The approach we follow is tightly related to the West's conjecture on a hidden symmetry of M-theory, and we discuss benefits of the approach in compare to other ways of searching for hidden symmetries of String Theory
Resilience of hidden order to symmetry-preserving disorder
Strinati, Marcello Calvanese; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Russomanno, Angelo
2017-12-01
We study the robustness of nonlocal string order in two paradigmatic disordered spin-chain models, a spin-1/2 cluster-Ising and a spin-1 XXZ Heisenberg chain. In the clean case, they both display a transition from antiferromagnetic to string order. Applying a disorder, which preserves the Hamiltonian symmetries, we find that the transition persists in both models. In the disordered cluster-Ising model, we can study the transition analytically—by applying the strongest coupling renormalization group —and numerically—by exploiting integrability to study the antiferromagnetic and string order parameters. We map the model into a quadratic fermion chain, where the transition appears as a change in the number of zero-energy edge modes. We also explore its zero-temperature-singularity behavior and find a transition from a nonsingular to a singular region, at a point that is different from the one separating nonlocal and local ordering. The disordered Heisenberg chain can be treated only numerically: by means of MPS-based simulations, we are able to locate the existence of a transition between antiferromagnetic and string-ordered phase, through the study of order parameters. Finally, we discuss possible connections of our findings with many-body localization.
Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries. Sourendu Gupta. General Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
The hidden SO(4) symmetry of general SU(2) Thirring models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Curci, G.; Paffuti, G.; Rossi, P.
1988-01-01
General four-fermion interactions in two dimensions with SU(2) invariance are shown to possess a hidden SO(4) symmetry. As a consequence physical states belong to irreducible representations of the two commuting O(3) subgroups and their interactions decouple accordingly. Two independent stable trajectories of the renormalization group are shown to exist perturbatively and are consistently reproduced by abelian bosonization. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chau Ling-Lie; Ge Mo-Lin; Teh, Rosy.
1984-09-01
The Baecklund Transformations and the hidden symmetry algebra for Self-Dual Yang-Mills Equations, Landau-Lifshitz equations and the Extended Super Yang-Mills fields (N>2) are discussed on the base of the Regular Riemann-Hilbert Transform and the linearization equations. (author)
Quark confinement through hidden breaking of colour symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werle, J.
1993-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study of a non-linear mechanism of quark confinement. The sets of coupled equation for Dirac fields carrying colours and flavours are discussed. They contain non-linear self-interaction and mutual interaction terms of the same fractional form that was studied before for single Dirac fields (Phys.Lett. 71B, 357 (1977); Phys.Lett. 76B, 391 (1980); Acta Phys.Pol. B12, 601 (1981)). It turns out that the only way of preventing creation of isolated coloured objects consists in breaking global colour symmetry. An explicit form of the symmetry breaking term is proposed (different from that used in Acta Phys.Pol. B19, 203 (1988)), which implies that only white currents are conserved and the three colours are truly inseparable. Moreover, the new equations have the advantage of having strictly colour symmetric (white) solution that correspond to an absolute minimum of the symmetry breaking term of energy. (author). 4 refs
Local models and hidden nonlocality in Quantum Theory
Guerini, Leonardo
2014-01-01
This Master's thesis has two central subjects: the simulation of correlations generated by local measurements on entangled quantum states by local hidden-variables models and the revelation of hidden nonlocality. We present and detail the Werner's local model and the hidden nonlocality of some Werner states of dimension $d\\geq5$, the Gisin-Degorre's local model for a Werner state of dimension $d=2$ and the local model of Hirsch et al. for mixtures of the singlet state and noise, all of them f...
Using local symmetry for landmark selection
Kootstra, Geert; de Jong, Sjoerd; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.
2009-01-01
Most visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) methods use interest points as landmarks in their maps of the environment. Often the interest points are detected using contrast features, for instance those of the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The SIFT interest points, however, have problems with stability, and noise robustness. Taking our inspiration from human vision, we therefore propose the use of local symmetry to select interest points. Our method, the MUlti-scale Sy...
Hidden symmetries in N-layer dielectric stacks
Liu, Haihao; Shoufie Ukhtary, M.; Saito, Riichiro
2017-11-01
The optical properties of a multilayer system with arbitrary N layers of dielectric media are investigated. Each layer is one of two dielectric media, with a thickness one-quarter the wavelength of light in that medium, corresponding to a central frequency f 0. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmittance T is calculated for all possible 2 N sequences for small N. Unexpectedly, it is found that instead of 2 N different values of T at f 0 (T 0), there are only (N/2+1) discrete values of T 0, for even N, and (N + 1) for odd N. We explain this high degeneracy in T 0 values by finding symmetry operations on the sequences that do not change T 0. Analytical formulae were derived for the T 0 values and their degeneracies as functions of N and an integer parameter for each sequence we call ‘charge’. Additionally, the bandwidth at f 0 and filter response of the transmission spectra are investigated, revealing asymptotic behavior at large N.
Hidden conformal symmetry of a rotating black hole with four charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao Kainan; Zhang Zhibai
2011-01-01
Kerr/CFT correspondence exhibits many remarkable connections between the near-horizon Kerr black hole and a conformal field theory (CFT). Recently, Castro, Maloney, and Strominger showed that a hidden conformal symmetry exists in the solution space of a Kerr black hole. In this paper we investigate a rotating black hole with four independent U(1) charges derived from string theory which is known as the four-dimensional Cvetic-Youm solution, and we prove that the same hidden conformal symmetry also holds. We obtain the exact black hole entropy using the temperatures derived. The entropy and absorption cross section agree with the previous results [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, Nucl. Phys. B506, 107 (1997).] and [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2009) 088.]. In addition, we clarify a previous explanation on the temperatures of the Cvetic-Youm solution's dual CFT. This work provides more robust derivation of the hidden conformal symmetry of Kerr-like black holes and as well as Kerr/CFT correspondence.
Hybrid local-order mechanism for inversion symmetry breaking
Wolpert, Emma H.; Overy, Alistair R.; Thygesen, Peter M. M.; Simonov, Arkadiy; Senn, Mark S.; Goodwin, Andrew L.
2018-04-01
Using classical Monte Carlo simulations, we study a simple statistical mechanical model of relevance to the emergence of polarization from local displacements on the square and cubic lattices. Our model contains two key ingredients: a Kitaev-like orientation-dependent interaction between nearest neighbors and a steric term that acts between next-nearest neighbors. Taken by themselves, each of these two ingredients is incapable of driving long-range symmetry breaking, despite the presence of a broad feature in the corresponding heat-capacity functions. Instead, each component results in a "hidden" transition on cooling to a manifold of degenerate states; the two manifolds are different in the sense that they reflect distinct types of local order. Remarkably, their intersection, i.e., the ground state when both interaction terms are included in the Hamiltonian, supports a spontaneous polarization. In this way, our study demonstrates how local-order mechanisms might be combined to break global inversion symmetry in a manner conceptually similar to that operating in the "hybrid" improper ferroelectrics. We discuss the relevance of our analysis to the emergence of spontaneous polarization in well-studied ferroelectrics such as BaTiO3 and KNbO3.
Supergauge symmetry in local quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrara, S.
1974-01-01
The extension of supergauge symmetry to four-dimensional space-time allows to investigate the possible role of this symmetry in conventional local quantum field theory. The supergauge algebra is obtained by adding to the conformal group of space-time two Majorana spinor generators and the chiral charge. The commutation properties of the algebra are used to derive the most general form of the superfield. This field contains two Majorana spinors, two scalar fields, a chiral doublet, and a real vector field called the vector superfield. The covariant derivatives defined, together with the scalar and vector multiplets are the basic ingredients used in order to build up supergauge symmetric Lagrangians. It is shown that the only possible fields which can be considered as supergauge invariant Lagrangians are the F and D components of the scalar and vector multiplets respectively
Securing Localization With Hidden and Mobile Base Stations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Capkun, Srdjan; Srivastava, Mani; Cagalj, Mario
2006-01-01
localization based on hidden and mobile base stations. Our approach enables secure localization with a broad spectrum of localization techniques: ultrasonic or radio, based on received signal strength or signal time of flight. Through several examples we show how this approach can be used to secure nodecentric...
Diphoton excess from hidden U(1 gauge symmetry with large kinetic mixing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fuminobu Takahashi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We show that the 750 GeV diphoton excess can be explained by introducing vector-like quarks and hidden fermions charged under a hidden U(1 gauge symmetry, which has a relatively large coupling constant as well as a significant kinetic mixing with U(1Y. With the large kinetic mixing, the standard model gauge couplings unify around 1017 GeV, suggesting the grand unified theory without too rapid proton decay. Our scenario predicts events with a photon and missing transverse momentum, and its cross section is related to that for the diphoton excess through the kinetic mixing. We also discuss other possible collider signatures and cosmology, including various ways to evade constraints on exotic stable charged particles. In some cases where the 750 GeV diphoton excess is due to diaxion decays, our scenario also predicts triphoton and tetraphoton signals.
The Power of Poincar\\'e: Elucidating the Hidden Symmetries in Focal Conic Domains
Alexander, Gareth P.; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Kamien, Randall D.
2010-01-01
Focal conic domains are typically the "smoking gun" by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally-spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincar\\'e symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal...
A radiative neutrino mass model in light of DAMPE excess with hidden gauged U(1) symmetry
Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi; Wu, Peiwen
2018-05-01
We propose a one-loop induced neutrino mass model with hidden U(1) gauge symmetry, in which we successfully involve a bosonic dark matter (DM) candidate propagating inside a loop diagram in neutrino mass generation to explain the e+e‑ excess recently reported by the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment. In our scenario dark matter annihilates into four leptons through Z' boson as DM DM → Z' Z' (Z' → l+ l‑) and Z' decays into leptons via one-loop effect. We then investigate branching ratios of Z' taking into account lepton flavor violations and neutrino oscillation data.
Power of the Poincaré group: elucidating the hidden symmetries in focal conic domains.
Alexander, Gareth P; Chen, Bryan Gin-Ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A; Kamien, Randall D
2010-06-25
Focal conic domains are typically the "smoking gun" by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincaré symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal conic textures, including the concentric cyclides of Dupin, polygonal textures, and tilt-grain boundaries.
Power of the Poincare Group: Elucidating the Hidden Symmetries in Focal Conic Domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, Gareth P.; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Kamien, Randall D.
2010-01-01
Focal conic domains are typically the 'smoking gun' by which smectic liquid crystalline phases are identified. The geometry of the equally spaced smectic layers is highly generic but, at the same time, difficult to work with. In this Letter we develop an approach to the study of focal sets in smectics which exploits a hidden Poincare symmetry revealed only by viewing the smectic layers as projections from one-higher dimension. We use this perspective to shed light upon several classic focal conic textures, including the concentric cyclides of Dupin, polygonal textures, and tilt-grain boundaries.
On hidden symmetries of a super gauge theory and twistor string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, Martin
2005-01-01
We discuss infinite-dimensional hidden symmetry algebras (and hence an infinite number of conserved nonlocal charges) of the N-extented self-dual super Yang-Mills equations for general N=4 by using the supertwistor correspondence. Furthermore, by enhancing the supertwistor space, we construct the N-extended self-dual super Yang-Mills hierarchies, which describe infinite sets of graded abelian symmetries. We also show that the open topological B-model with the enhanced supertwistor space as target manifold will describe the hierarchies. Furthermore, these hierarchies will in turn - by a supersymmetric extension of Ward's conjecture - reduce to the super hierarchies of integrable models in D<4 dimensions. (author)
Hidden Uq (sl(2)) Uq (sl(2)) Quantum Group Symmetry in Two Dimensional Gravity
Cremmer, Eugène; Gervais, Jean-Loup; Schnittger, Jens
1997-02-01
In a previous paper, the quantum-group-covariant chiral vertex operators in the spin 1/2 representation were shown to act, by braiding with the other covariant primaries, as generators of the well known Uq(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry (for a single screening charge). Here, this structure is transformed to the Bloch wave/Coulomb gas operator basis, thereby establishing for the first time its quantum group symmetry properties. A Uq(sl(2)) otimes Uq(sl(2)) symmetry of a novel type emerges: The two Cartan-generator eigenvalues are specified by the choice of matrix element (Vermamodules); the two Casimir eigenvalues are equal and specified by the Virasoro weight of the vertex operator considered; the co-product is defined with a matching condition dictated by the Hilbert space structure of the operator product. This hidden symmetry possesses a novel Hopf-like structure compatible with these conditions. At roots of unity it gives the right truncation. Its (non-linear) connection with the Uq(sl(2)) previously discussed is disentangled.
Neutrino mixing and masses in SO(10) GUTs with hidden sector and flavor symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, Xiaoyong [International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, I-34100 Trieste (Italy); Smirnov, Alexei Yu. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics,Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, I-34100 Trieste (Italy)
2016-05-23
We consider the neutrino masses and mixing in the framework of SO(10) GUTs with hidden sector consisting of fermionic and bosonic SO(10) singlets and flavor symmetries. The framework allows to disentangle the CKM physics responsible for the CKM mixing and different mass hierarchies of quarks and leptons and the neutrino new physics which produces smallness of neutrino masses and large lepton mixing. The framework leads naturally to the relation U{sub PMNS}∼V{sub CKM}{sup †}U{sub 0}, where structure of U{sub 0} is determined by the flavor symmetry. The key feature of the framework is that apart from the Dirac mass matrices m{sub D}, the portal mass matrix M{sub D} and the mass matrix of singlets M{sub S} are also involved in generation of the lepton mixing. This opens up new possibilities to realize the flavor symmetries and explain the data. Using A{sub 4}×Z{sub 4} as the flavor group, we systematically explore the flavor structures which can be obtained in this framework depending on field content and symmetry assignments. We formulate additional conditions which lead to U{sub 0}∼U{sub TBM} or U{sub BM}. They include (i) equality (in general, proportionality) of the singlet flavons couplings, (ii) equality of their VEVs; (iii) correlation between VEVs of singlets and triplet, (iv) certain VEV alignment of flavon triplet(s). These features can follow from additional symmetries or be remnants of further unification. Phenomenologically viable schemes with minimal flavon content and minimal number of couplings are constructed.
The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I discuss in detail the result that the Bell's inequalities derived in the context of local hidden variable theories for discrete quantized observables can be satisfied only if a fundamental conservation law is violated on the average. This result shows that such theories are physically nonviable, and makes the demarcating criteria ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jalalzadeh, S.; Rostami, T. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moniz, P.V. [Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes-UBI, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Departamento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal)
2015-01-01
A framework associating quantum cosmological boundary conditions to minisuperspace hidden symmetries has been introduced in Jalalzadeh and Moniz (Phys Rev D 89:083504, 2014). The scope of the application was, notwithstanding the novelty, restrictive because it lacked a discussion involving realistic matter fields. Therefore, in the present letter, we extend the framework scope to encompass elements from a scalar-tensor theory in the presence of a cosmological constant. More precisely, it is shown that hidden minisuperspace symmetries present in a pre-big bang model suggest a process from which boundary conditions can be selected. (orig.)
Hidden variable interpretation of spontaneous localization theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bedingham, Daniel J, E-mail: d.bedingham@imperial.ac.uk [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)
2011-07-08
The spontaneous localization theory of Ghirardi, Rimini, and Weber (GRW) is a theory in which wavepacket reduction is treated as a genuine physical process. Here it is shown that the mathematical formalism of GRW can be given an interpretation in terms of an evolving distribution of particles on configuration space similar to Bohmian mechanics (BM). The GRW wavefunction acts as a pilot wave for the set of particles. In addition, a continuous stream of noisy information concerning the precise whereabouts of the particles must be specified. Nonlinear filtering techniques are used to determine the dynamics of the distribution of particles conditional on this noisy information and consistency with the GRW wavefunction dynamics is demonstrated. Viewing this development as a hybrid BM-GRW theory, it is argued that, besides helping to clarify the relationship between the GRW theory and BM, its merits make it worth considering in its own right.
Symmetry Breaking in NMR Spectroscopy: The Elucidation of Hidden Molecular Rearrangement Processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. McGlinchey
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy is probably the most convenient and sensitive technique to monitor changes in molecular structure in solution. Rearrangements that are rapid on the NMR time-scale exhibit simplified spectra, whereby non-equivalent nuclear environments yield time-averaged resonances. At lower temperatures, when the rate of exchange is sufficiently reduced, these degeneracies are split and the underlying “static” molecular symmetry, as seen by X-ray crystallography, becomes apparent. Frequently, however, such rearrangement processes are hidden, even when they become slow on the NMR time-scale, because the molecular point group remains unchanged. Judicious symmetry breaking, such as by substitution of a molecular fragment by a similar, but not identical moiety, or by the incorporation of potentially diastereotopic (chemically non-equivalent nuclei, allows the elucidation of the kinetics and energetics of such processes. Examples are chosen that include a wide range of rotations, migrations and other rearrangements in organic, inorganic and organometallic chemistry.
Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries.
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F
2017-01-01
We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory.
Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)
2017-11-15
We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory. (orig.)
Quasigroup of local-symmetry transformations in constrained theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chitaya, N.P.; Gogilidze, S.A.; Surovtsev, Yu.S.
1996-01-01
In the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism by Dirac, the local symmetries of dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints are investigated in the general case without restrictions on the algebra of constraints. The method of constructing the generator of local-symmetry transformations is obtained from the requirement for them to map the solutions of the Hamiltonian equations of motion into the solutions of the same equations. It is proved that second-class constraints do not contribute to the transformation law of the local symmetry entirely stipulated by all the first-class constraints (only by them) of an equivalent set passing to which from the initial constraint set is always possible and is presented. A mechanism of occurrence of higher derivatives of coordinates and group parameters in the symmetry transformation law in the Noether second theorem is elucidated. In the latter case it is shown that the obtained transformations of symmetry are canonical in the extended (by Ostrogradsky) phase space. It is thereby shown in the general case that the degeneracy of theories with the first- and second-class constraints is due to their invariance under local-symmetry transformations. It is also shown in the general case that the action functional and the corresponding Hamiltonian equations of motion are invariant under the same quasigroup of local-symmetry transformations. 29 refs
Hidden symmetries and equilibrium properties of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes
González Arenas, Zochil; Barci, Daniel G.
2012-12-01
Multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes continue to attract attention in a wide area of scientific research. The variety of prescriptions available for defining them makes the development of general tools for their characterization difficult. In this work, we study equilibrium properties of Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. For this, we define the time reversal transformation for such processes, taking into account that the asymptotic stationary probability distribution depends on the prescription. Representing the stochastic process in a functional Grassmann formalism, we avoid the necessity of fixing a particular prescription. In this framework, we analyze equilibrium properties and study hidden symmetries of the process. We show that, using a careful definition of the equilibrium distribution and taking into account the appropriate time reversal transformation, usual equilibrium properties are satisfied for any prescription. Finally, we present a detailed deduction of a covariant supersymmetric formulation of a multiplicative Markovian white-noise process and study some of the constraints that it imposes on correlation functions using Ward-Takahashi identities.
Hidden symmetries and equilibrium properties of multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G
2012-01-01
Multiplicative white-noise stochastic processes continue to attract attention in a wide area of scientific research. The variety of prescriptions available for defining them makes the development of general tools for their characterization difficult. In this work, we study equilibrium properties of Markovian multiplicative white-noise processes. For this, we define the time reversal transformation for such processes, taking into account that the asymptotic stationary probability distribution depends on the prescription. Representing the stochastic process in a functional Grassmann formalism, we avoid the necessity of fixing a particular prescription. In this framework, we analyze equilibrium properties and study hidden symmetries of the process. We show that, using a careful definition of the equilibrium distribution and taking into account the appropriate time reversal transformation, usual equilibrium properties are satisfied for any prescription. Finally, we present a detailed deduction of a covariant supersymmetric formulation of a multiplicative Markovian white-noise process and study some of the constraints that it imposes on correlation functions using Ward–Takahashi identities. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbari, Alireza [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); MPI for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Thalmeier, Peter [MPI for the Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)
2015-07-01
The hidden order (HO) in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} has been determined as a high rank multipole formed by itinerant 5f-electrons with distinct orbital structure imposed by the crystalline electric field. Because this can lead to a considerable number of different multipoles it is of great importance to use microscopic techniques that are sensitive to their subtle physical differences. Here we investigate whether quasiparticle interference (QPI) method can distinguish between the two most frequently proposed HO parameter models: the even rank-4 hexadecapole and the odd-rank-5 dotriacontapole model. We obtain the quasiparticle dispersion and reconstructed Fermi surface in each HO phase adapting an effective two-orbital model of 5f bands that reproduces the main Fermi surface sheets of the para phase. We show that the resulting QPI spectrum reflects directly the effect of fourfold symmetry breaking in the rank-5 model which is absent in the rank-4 model. Therefore we suggest that QPI method should give a possibility of direct discrimination between the two most investigated models of HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Furthermore the signature of proposed chiral d-wave superconducting (SC) order parameter in QPI of the coexisting HO+SC phase is investigated.
Spontaneous Broken Local Conformal Symmetry and Dark Energy Candidate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Lu-Xin
2013-01-01
The local conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Local Lorentz invariance symmetry through the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting effective Lagrangian, in the unitary gauge, describes a cosmological vector field non-minimally coupling to the gravitational field. As a result of the Higgs mechanism, the vector field absorbs the dilaton and becomes massive, but with an independent energy scale. The Proca type vector field can be modelled as dark energy candidate. The possibility that it further triggers Lorentz symmetry violation is also pointed out
Local U(2,2) Symmetry in Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Finster, Felix
1997-01-01
Local gauge freedom in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived from a measurement principle for space and time. For the Dirac equation, one obtains local U(2,2) gauge transformations acting on the spinor index of the wave functions. This local U(2,2) symmetry allows a unified description of electrodynamics and general relativity as a classical gauge theory.
Local U(2,2) symmetry in relativistic quantum mechanics
Finster, Felix
1998-12-01
Local gauge freedom in relativistic quantum mechanics is derived from a measurement principle for space and time. For the Dirac equation, one obtains local U(2,2) gauge transformations acting on the spinor index of the wave functions. This local U(2,2) symmetry allows a unified description of electrodynamics and general relativity as a classical gauge theory.
Local E11 and the gauging of the trombone symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riccioni, Fabio
2010-01-01
In any dimension, the positive level generators of the very extended Kac-Moody algebra E 11 with completely antisymmetric spacetime indices are associated with the form fields of the corresponding maximal supergravity. We consider the local E 11 algebra, that is the algebra obtained by enlarging these generators of E 11 in such a way that the global E 11 symmetries are promoted to gauge symmetries. These are the gauge symmetries of the corresponding massless maximal supergravity. We show the existence of a new type of deformation of the local E 11 algebra, which corresponds to the gauging of the symmetry under rescaling of the fields. In particular, we show how the gauged IIA theory of Howe, Lambert and West is obtained from an 11-dimensional group element that only depends on the 11th coordinate via a linear rescaling. We then show how this results in ten dimensions in a deformed local E 11 algebra of a new type.
Locally Hamiltonian systems with symmetry and a generalized Noether's theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carinena, J.F.; Ibort, L.A.
1985-01-01
An analysis of global aspects of the theory of symmetry groups G of locally Hamiltonian dynamical systems is carried out for particular cases either of the symmetry group, or the differentiable manifold M supporting the symplectic structure, or the action of G on M. In every case it is obtained a generalization of Noether's theorem. It has been looked at the classical Noether's theorem for Lagrangian systems from a modern perspective
Generalizations of teleparallel gravity and local Lorentz symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.; Li Baojiu
2011-01-01
We analyze the relation between teleparallelism and local Lorentz invariance. We show that generic modifications of the teleparallel equivalent to general relativity will not respect local Lorentz symmetry. We clarify the reasons for this and explain why the situation is different in general relativity. We give a prescription for constructing teleparallel equivalents for known theories. We also explicitly consider a recently proposed class of generalized teleparallel theories, called f(T) theories of gravity, and show why restoring local Lorentz symmetry in such theories cannot lead to sensible dynamics, even if one gives up teleparallelism.
Momentum-resolved hidden-order gap reveals symmetry breaking and origin of entropy loss in URu2Si2
Bareille, C.; Boariu, F. L.; Schwab, H.; Lejay, P.; Reinert, F.; Santander-Syro, A. F.
2014-07-01
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in physical systems leads to salient phenomena at all scales, from the Higgs mechanism and the emergence of the mass of the elementary particles, to superconductivity and magnetism in solids. The hidden-order state arising below 17.5 K in URu2Si2 is a puzzling example of one of such phase transitions: its associated broken symmetry and gap structure have remained longstanding riddles. Here we directly image how, across the hidden-order transition, the electronic structure of URu2Si2 abruptly reconstructs. We observe an energy gap of 7 meV opening over 70% of a large diamond-like heavy-fermion Fermi surface, resulting in the formation of four small Fermi petals, and a change in the electronic periodicity from body-centred tetragonal to simple tetragonal. Our results explain the large entropy loss in the hidden-order phase, and the similarity between this phase and the high-pressure antiferromagnetic phase found in quantum-oscillation experiments.
Using Local Symmetry for Landmark Selection
Kootstra, Gert; de Jong, Sjoerd; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.; Fritz, M; Schiele, B; Piater, JH
2009-01-01
Most visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) methods use interest points as landmarks in their maps of the environment. Often the interest points are detected using contrast features, for instance those of the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The SIFT interest points, however,
Localizability and local gauge symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leveille, J.P.
1976-01-01
An attempt is made to generalize a theorem of Jauch on the equivalence of local gauge symmetry and Galilean symmetry to relativistic theories. One first proves a converse to Jauch's theorem deriving the Galilei algebra from a locality postulate. When generalized to the relativistic case the locality postulate leads one to the relativistic dynamical group g 5 . A possible physical interpretation of g 5 as a relativistic dynamical group is given. An attempt to describe the dynamics solely in Minkowski space-time leads, in conjunction with the locality postulate, to a new relativistic dynamical algebra. We found that this new algebra is realized by field theoretical examples which exclude quantum electrodynamics, however, and other known gauge theories. This latter development forces one to seriously question the validity of the locality postulate. One concludes by proving a general theorem about the nonimplementability of local transformations by global operators independent of space-time in field theory
Hidden symmetries and critical dimensions in the theory of modulated structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babich, A.V.; Berezovsky, S.V.; Klepikov, V.F.
2009-01-01
Some aspects of the theory of the critical phenomena in systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are considered. The applicability range of the mean field approximation for the systems with modulated structures is discussed. Connection between symmetries of a corresponding model and the existence of exact solutions is showed. The role of symmetries in the theory of dynamic long range ordering is discussed
Baryon states with hidden charm in the extended local hidden gauge approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchino, T.; Oset, E.; Liang, Wei-Hong
2016-01-01
The s-wave interaction of anti DΛ c , anti DΣ c , anti D * Λ c , anti D * Σ c and anti DΣ c * , anti D * Σ c * , is studied within a unitary coupled channels scheme with the extended local hidden gauge approach. In addition to the Weinberg-Tomozawa term, several additional diagrams via the pion exchange are also taken into account as box potentials. Furthermore, in order to implement the full coupled channels calculation, some of the box potentials which mix the vector-baryon and pseudoscalar-baryon sectors are extended to construct the effective transition potentials. As a result, we have observed six possible states in several angular momenta. Four of them correspond to two pairs of admixture states, two of anti DΣ c - anti D * Σ c with J = 1/2, and two of anti DΣ c * - anti D * Σ c * with J = 3/2. Moreover, we find a anti D * Σ c resonance which couples to the anti DΛ c channel and one spin degenerated bound state of anti D * Σ c * with J = 1/2,5/2. (orig.)
Baryon states with hidden charm in the extended local hidden gauge approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uchino, T.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Liang, Wei-Hong [Guangxi Normal University, Department of Physics, Guilin (China)
2016-03-15
The s-wave interaction of anti DΛ{sub c}, anti DΣ{sub c}, anti D{sup *}Λ{sub c}, anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c} and anti DΣ{sub c}{sup *}, anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c}{sup *}, is studied within a unitary coupled channels scheme with the extended local hidden gauge approach. In addition to the Weinberg-Tomozawa term, several additional diagrams via the pion exchange are also taken into account as box potentials. Furthermore, in order to implement the full coupled channels calculation, some of the box potentials which mix the vector-baryon and pseudoscalar-baryon sectors are extended to construct the effective transition potentials. As a result, we have observed six possible states in several angular momenta. Four of them correspond to two pairs of admixture states, two of anti DΣ{sub c} - anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c} with J = 1/2, and two of anti DΣ{sub c}{sup *} - anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c}{sup *} with J = 3/2. Moreover, we find a anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c} resonance which couples to the anti DΛ{sub c} channel and one spin degenerated bound state of anti D{sup *}Σ{sub c}{sup *} with J = 1/2,5/2. (orig.)
Anomaly-free gauged R-symmetry in local supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamseddine, A.H.; Dreiner, H.
1996-01-01
We discuss local R-symmetry as a potentially powerful new model building tool. We first review and clarify that a U(1) R-symmetry can only be gauged in local and not in global supersymmetry. We determine the anomaly-cancellation conditions for the gauged R-symmetry. For the standard superpotential these equations have no solution, independently of how many Standard Model singlets are added to the model. There is also no solution when we increase the number of families and the number of pairs of Higgs doublets. When the Green-Schwarz mechanism is employed to cancel the anomalies, solutions only exist for a large number of singlets. We find many anomaly-free family-independent models with an extra SU(3) c octet chiral superfield. We consider in detail the conditions for an anomaly-free family-dependent U(1) R and find solutions with one, two, three and four extra singlets. Only with three and four extra singlets do we naturally obtain sfermion masses of the order of the weak scale. For these solutions we consider the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry and the R-symmetry in the context of local supersymmetry. In general the U(1) R gauge group is broken at or close to the Planck scale. We consider the effects of the R-symmetry on baryon- and lepton-number violation in supersymmetry. There is no logical connection between a conserved R-symmetry and a conserved R-parity. For conserved R-symmetry we have models for all possibilities of conserved or broken R-parity. Most models predict dominant effects which could be observed at HERA. (orig.)
Five-fold local symmetry in metallic liquids and glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li M Z; Li F X; Zhang H P; Peng H L; Hu Y C; Wang W H
2017-01-01
The structure of metallic glasses has been a long-standing mystery. Owing to the disordered nature of atomic structures in metallic glasses, it is a great challenge to find a simple structural description, such as periodicity for crystals, for establishing the structure–property relationship in amorphous materials. In this paper, we briefly review the recent developments of the five-fold local symmetry in metallic liquids and glasses and the understanding of the structure–property relationship based on this parameter. Experimental evidence demonstrates that five-fold local symmetry is found to be general in metallic liquids and glasses. Comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations show that the temperature evolution of five-fold local symmetry reflects the structural evolution in glass transition in cooling process, and the structure–property relationship such as relaxation dynamics, dynamic crossover phenomena, glass transition, and mechanical deformation in metallic liquids and glasses can be well understood base on the simple and general structure parameter of five-fold local symmetry. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albright, Carl H.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab; Rodejohann, Werner; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.
2008-04-01
To address the issue of whether tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) is a softly-broken hidden or an accidental symmetry, we adopt a model-independent analysis in which we perturb a neutrino mass matrix leading to TBM in the most general way but leave the three texture zeros of the diagonal charged lepton mass matrix unperturbed. We compare predictions for the perturbed neutrino TBM parameters with those obtained from typical SO(10) grand unified theories with a variety of flavor symmetries. Whereas SO(10) GUTs almost always predict a normal mass hierarchy for the light neutrinos, TBM has a priori no preference for neutrino masses. We find, in particular for the latter, that the value of |U{sub e3}| is very sensitive to the neutrino mass scale and ordering. Observation of |U{sub e3}|{sup 2} > 0.001 to 0.01 within the next few years would be incompatible with softly-broken TBM and a normal mass hierarchy and would suggest that the apparent TBM symmetry is an accidental symmetry instead. No such conclusions can be drawn for the inverted and quasi-degenerate hierarchy spectra.
Dark energy and dark matter from hidden symmetry of gravity model with a non-Riemannian volume form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guendelman, Eduardo [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)
2015-10-15
We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by √(-g) (square root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric) and another non-Riemannian volume form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless ''dust'' fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decoupled from the dark energy. The form of both the dark energy and dark matter that results from the above class of models is insensitive to the specific form of the scalar field Lagrangian. By adding an appropriate perturbation, which breaks the above hidden symmetry and along with this couples dark matter and dark energy, we also suggest a way to obtain growing dark energy in the present universe's epoch without evolution pathologies. (orig.)
Streamwise-Localized Solutions with natural 1-fold symmetry
Altmeyer, Sebastian; Willis, Ashley; Hof, Björn
2014-11-01
It has been proposed in recent years that turbulence is organized around unstable invariant solutions, which provide the building blocks of the chaotic dynamics. In direct numerical simulations of pipe flow we show that when imposing a minimal symmetry constraint (reflection in an axial plane only) the formation of turbulence can indeed be explained by dynamical systems concepts. The hypersurface separating laminar from turbulent motion, the edge of turbulence, is spanned by the stable manifolds of an exact invariant solution, a periodic orbit of a spatially localized structure. The turbulent states themselves (turbulent puffs in this case) are shown to arise in a bifurcation sequence from a related localized solution (the upper branch orbit). The rather complex bifurcation sequence involves secondary Hopf bifurcations, frequency locking and a period doubling cascade until eventually turbulent puffs arise. In addition we report preliminary results of the transition sequence for pipe flow without symmetry constraints.
Predicting Eye Fixations on Complex Visual Stimuli Using Local Symmetry.
Kootstra, Gert; de Boer, Bart; Schomaker, Lambert R B
2011-03-01
Most bottom-up models that predict human eye fixations are based on contrast features. The saliency model of Itti, Koch and Niebur is an example of such contrast-saliency models. Although the model has been successfully compared to human eye fixations, we show that it lacks preciseness in the prediction of fixations on mirror-symmetrical forms. The contrast model gives high response at the borders, whereas human observers consistently look at the symmetrical center of these forms. We propose a saliency model that predicts eye fixations using local mirror symmetry. To test the model, we performed an eye-tracking experiment with participants viewing complex photographic images and compared the data with our symmetry model and the contrast model. The results show that our symmetry model predicts human eye fixations significantly better on a wide variety of images including many that are not selected for their symmetrical content. Moreover, our results show that especially early fixations are on highly symmetrical areas of the images. We conclude that symmetry is a strong predictor of human eye fixations and that it can be used as a predictor of the order of fixation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbagari, Souleymanou; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.
2013-01-01
The prolongation structure methodologies of Wahlquist—Estabrook [H.D. Wahlquist and F.B. Estabrook, J. Math. Phys. 16 (1975) 1] for nonlinear differential equations are applied to a more general set of coupled integrable dispersionless system. Based on the obtained prolongation structure, a Lie-Algebra valued connection of a closed ideal of exterior differential forms related to the above system is constructed. A Lie-Algebra representation of some hidden structural symmetries of the previous system, its Bäcklund transformation using the Riccati form of the linear eigenvalue problem and their general corresponding Lax-representation are derived. In the wake of the previous results, we extend the above prolongation scheme to higher-dimensional systems from which a new (2 + 1)-dimensional coupled integrable dispersionless system is unveiled along with its inverse scattering formulation, which applications are straightforward in nonlinear optics where additional propagating dimension deserves some attention. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonov, Y.; Scully, M.
2001-01-01
The folklore notion of the ''Non-Locality of Quantum Mechanics'' is examined from the point of view of hidden-variables theories according to Belinfante's classification in his Survey of Hidden Variables Theories. It is here shown that in the case of EPR, there exist hidden variables theories that successfully reproduce quantum-mechanical predictions, but which are explicitly local. Since such theories do not fall into Belinfante's classification, we propose an expanded classification which includes similar theories, which we term as theories of the ''third'' kind. Causal implications of such theories are explored. (orig.)
Measurement problem and local hidden variables with entangled photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muchowski Eugen
2017-12-01
Full Text Available It is shown that there is no remote action with polarization measurements of photons in singlet state. A model is presented introducing a hidden parameter which determines the polarizer output. This model is able to explain the polarization measurement results with entangled photons. It is not ruled out by Bell’s Theorem.
Baryon states with open charm in the extended local hidden gauge approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, W.H. [Guangxi Normal University, Department of Physics, Guilin (China); Uchino, T.; Xiao, C.W.; Oset, E. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Valencia (Spain); IFIC, Valencia (Spain)
2015-02-01
In this paper we examine the interaction of DN and D* N states, together with their coupled channels, by using an extension of the local hidden gauge formalism from the light meson sector, which is based on heavy quark spin symmetry. The scheme is based on the use of the impulse approximation at the quark level, with the heavy quarks acting as spectators, which occurs for the dominant terms where there is the exchange of a light meson. The pion exchange and the Weinberg-Tomozawa interactions are generalized and with this dynamics we look for states generated from the interaction, with a unitary coupled channels approach that mixes the pseudoscalar-baryon and vector-baryon states. We find two states with nearly zero width, which are associated to the Λ{sub c} (2595) and Λ{sub c} (2625). The lower state, with J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -}, couples to DN and D* N, and the second one, with J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, to D* N. In addition to these two Λ{sub c} states, we find four more states with I = 0, one of them nearly degenerate in two states of J{sup P} = 1/2, 3/2. Furthermore we find three states in I = 1, two of them degenerate in J = 1/2, 3/2. (orig.)
Hidden symmetries, AdSDxSn, and the lifting of one-time physics to two-time physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bars, I.
1999-01-01
The massive non-relativistic free particle in d-1 space dimensions, with a Lagrangian L=(m/2)r 2 , has an action with a surprising non-linearly realized SO(d,2) symmetry. This is the simplest example of a host of diverse one-time-physics systems with hidden SO(d,2) symmetric actions. By the addition of gauge degrees of freedom, they can all be lifted to the same SO(d,2) covariant unified theory that includes an extra spacelike and an extra timelike dimension. The resulting action in d+2 dimensions has manifest SO(d,2) Lorentz symmetry and a gauge symmetry Sp(2,R). The symmetric action defines two-time physics. Conversely, the two-time action can be gauge fixed to diverse one-time physical systems. In this paper three new gauge fixed forms that correspond to the non-relativistic particle, the massive relativistic particle, and the particle in AdS d-n xS n curved spacetime will be discussed at the classical level. The last case is discussed at the first quantized and field theory levels as well. For the last case the popularly known symmetry is SO(d-n-1,2)xSO(n+1), but yet we show that the classical or quantum versions are symmetric under the larger SO(d,2). In the field theory version the action is symmetric under the full SO(d,2) provided it is improved with a quantized mass term that arises as an anomaly from operator ordering ambiguities. The anomalous mass term vanishes for AdS 2 xS 0 and AdS n xS n (i.e., d=2n). A quantum test for the presence of two-time-physics in a one-time physics system is that the SO(d,2) Casimir operators have fixed eigenvalues independent of the system. It is shown that this test is successful for the particle in AdS d-n xS n by computing the Casimir operators and showing explicitly that they are independent of n. The strikingly larger symmetry could be significant in the context of the proposed AdS/CFT duality. thinsp copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Hongjian; Yin Furong
2011-01-01
We conjecture that all CP violations (both Dirac and Majorana types) arise from a common origin in the neutrino seesaw. With this conceptually attractive and simple conjecture, we deduce that μ-τ breaking shares the common origin with all CP violations. We study the common origin of μ-τ and CP breaking in the Dirac mass matrix of seesaw Lagrangian (with right-handed neutrinos being μ-τ blind), which uniquely leads to inverted mass ordering of light neutrinos. We then predict a very different correlation between the two small μ-τ breaking observables θ 13 -0 deg. and θ 23 -45 deg., which can saturate the present experimental upper limit on θ 13 . This will be tested against our previous normal mass-ordering scheme by the ongoing oscillation experiments. We also analyze the correlations of θ 13 with Jarlskog invariant and neutrinoless ββ-decay observable. From the common origin of CP and μ-τ breaking in the neutrino seesaw, we establish a direct link between the low energy CP violations and the cosmological CP violation for baryon asymmetry. With these we further predict a lower bound on θ 13 , supporting the ongoing probes of θ 13 at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO experiments. Finally, we analyze the general model-independent Z 2 x Z 2 symmetry structure of the light neutrino sector, and map it into the seesaw sector, where one of the Z 2 's corresponds to the μ-τ symmetry Z 2 μτ and another the hidden symmetry Z 2 s (revealed in our previous work) which dictates the solar mixing angle θ 12 . We derive the physical consequences of this Z 2 s and its possible partial violation in the presence of μ-τ breaking (with or without the neutrino seesaw), regarding the θ 12 determination and the correlation between μ-τ breaking observables.
Induction of novel macroscopic properties by local symmetry violations in spin-spiral multiferroics
Meier, D.; Leo, N.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Ramesh, R.; Fiebig, M.
2011-03-01
Incommensurate (IC) structures are omnipresent in strongly correlated electron systems as high-TC superconductors, CMR manganites, as well as multiferroics. In each case they are origin of a pronounced symmetry reduction reflecting the complexity of the underlying microscopic interactions. Macroscopically, this can lead to new phases and possibilities to gain control of the host material. Here we report how the IC nature of a spin-spiral multiferroic induces new physical properties by renormalizing the relevant length scales of the system. Local symmetry violations directly manifest in the macroscopic response of the material and co-determine the multiferroic order giving rise to additional domain states. These usually hidden degrees of freedom become visible when non-homogenous fields are applied and condition for instance the second harmonic generation. Our study shows that incommensurabilities play a vital role in the discussion of the physical properties of multiferroics -- they represent a key ingredient for further enhancing the functionality of this class of materials. This work was supported by the DFG through the SFB 608. D.M. thanks the AvH for financial support.
Hidden symmetry of four-point correlation functions and amplitudes in N=4 SYM
Eden, Burkhard; Korchemsky, Gregory P; Sokatchev, Emery
2012-01-01
We study the four-point correlation function of stress-tensor supermultiplets in N=4 SYM using the method of Lagrangian insertions. We argue that, as a corollary of N=4 superconformal symmetry, the resulting all-loop integrand possesses an unexpected complete symmetry under the exchange of the four external and all the internal (integration) points. This alone allows us to predict the integrand of the three-loop correlation function up to four undetermined constants. Further, exploiting the conjectured amplitude/correlation function duality, we are able to fully determine the three-loop integrand in the planar limit. We perform an independent check of this result by verifying that it is consistent with the operator product expansion, in particular that it correctly reproduces the three-loop anomalous dimension of the Konishi operator. As a byproduct of our study, we also obtain the three-point function of two half-BPS operators and one Konishi operator at three-loop level. We use the same technique to work ou...
Sun, Bao-Xi; Wan, Da-Ming; Zhao, Si-Yu
2018-05-01
The {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} interaction via a ρ or ω exchange is constructed within an extended hidden gauge symmetry approach, where the strange quark is replaced by the charm quark in the SU(3) flavor space. With this {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} interaction, a bound state slightly lower than the {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} threshold is generated dynamically in the isospin zero sector by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the coupled-channel approximation, which might correspond to the X(3872) particle announced by many collaborations. This formulism is also used to study the {{{B}}\\bar{{{B}}}}{{* }} interaction, and a {{{B}}\\bar{{{B}}}}{{* }} bound state with isospin zero is generated dynamically, which has no counterpart listed in the review of the Particle Data Group. Furthermore, the one-pion exchange between the D meson and the {\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} is analyzed precisely, and we do not think the one-pion exchange potential need be considered when the Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved.
Dark Matter candidate in Inert Doublet Model with additional local gauge symmetry U (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaitán, R.; De Oca, J.H. Montes; Garcés, E. A.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.
2016-01-01
We consider the Inert Doublet Model (IDM) with an additional local gauge symmetry U (1) and a complex singlet scalar to break the symmetry U (1). The continuous symmetry U (1) is introduced to control the CP-conserving interaction instead of some discrete symmetries as usually. We present the mass spectrum for neutral scalar and gauge bosons and the values of the charges under U (1) for which the model could have a candidate to dark matter. (paper)
Hidden in the background: a local approach to CMB anomalies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez, Juan C. Bueno, E-mail: juan.c.bueno@correounivalle.edu.co [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá D.C. 110231 (Colombia)
2016-09-01
We investigate a framework aiming to provide a common origin for the large-angle anomalies detected in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which are hypothesized as the result of the statistical inhomogeneity developed by different isocurvature fields of mass m ∼ H present during inflation. The inhomogeneity arises as the combined effect of ( i ) the initial conditions for isocurvature fields (obtained after a fast-roll stage finishing many e -foldings before cosmological scales exit the horizon), ( ii ) their inflationary fluctuations and ( iii ) their coupling to other degrees of freedom. Our case of interest is when these fields (interpreted as the precursors of large-angle anomalies) leave an observable imprint only in isolated patches of the Universe. When the latter intersect the last scattering surface, such imprints arise in the CMB. Nevertheless, due to their statistically inhomogeneous nature, these imprints are difficult to detect, for they become hidden in the background similarly to the Cold Spot. We then compute the probability that a single isocurvature field becomes inhomogeneous at the end of inflation and find that, if the appropriate conditions are given (which depend exclusively on the preexisting fast-roll stage), this probability is at the percent level. Finally, we discuss several mechanisms (including the curvaton and the inhomogeneous reheating) to investigate whether an initial statistically inhomogeneous isocurvature field fluctuation might give rise to some of the observed anomalies. In particular, we focus on the Cold Spot, the power deficit at low multipoles and the breaking of statistical isotropy.
A Proposal for Testing Local Realism Without Using Assumptions Related to Hidden Variable States
Ryff, Luiz Carlos
1996-01-01
A feasible experiment is discussed which allows us to prove a Bell's theorem for two particles without using an inequality. The experiment could be used to test local realism against quantum mechanics without the introduction of additional assumptions related to hidden variables states. Only assumptions based on direct experimental observation are needed.
Genuine tripartite entangled states with a local hidden-variable model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toth, Geza; Acin, Antonio
2006-01-01
We present a family of three-qubit quantum states with a basic local hidden-variable model. Any von Neumann measurement can be described by a local model for these states. We show that some of these states are genuine three-partite entangled and also distillable. The generalization for larger dimensions or higher number of parties is also discussed. As a by-product, we present symmetric extensions of two-qubit Werner states
Sharp Contradiction for Local-Hidden-State Model in Quantum Steering
Chen, Jing-Ling; Su, Hong-Yi; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Pati, Arun Kumar
2016-08-01
In quantum theory, no-go theorems are important as they rule out the existence of a particular physical model under consideration. For instance, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) theorem serves as a no-go theorem for the nonexistence of local hidden variable models by presenting a full contradiction for the multipartite GHZ states. However, the elegant GHZ argument for Bell’s nonlocality does not go through for bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) state. Recent study on quantum nonlocality has shown that the more precise description of EPR’s original scenario is “steering”, i.e., the nonexistence of local hidden state models. Here, we present a simple GHZ-like contradiction for any bipartite pure entangled state, thus proving a no-go theorem for the nonexistence of local hidden state models in the EPR paradox. This also indicates that the very simple steering paradox presented here is indeed the closest form to the original spirit of the EPR paradox.
Gauge symmetry breaking in the hidden sector of the flipped SU(5)xU(1) superstring model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antoniadis, I.; Rizos, J. (Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)); Tamvakis, K. (Theoretical Physics Div., Univ. Ioannina (Greece))
1992-03-26
We analyze the SU(5)xU(1)'xU(1){sup 4}xSO(10)xSU(4) superstring model with a spontaneously broken hidden sector down to SO(7)xSO(5) taking into account non-renormalizable superpotential terms up to eight order. As a result of the hidden sector breaking the 'exotic' states get a mass and the 'observable' spectrum is composed of the standard three families. In addition, Cabibbo mixing arises at sixth order and an improved fermion mass hierarchy emerges. (orig.).
Description of the atomic disorder (local order) in crystals by the mixed-symmetry method
Dudka, A. P.; Novikova, N. E.
2017-11-01
An approach to the description of local atomic disorder (short-range order) in single crystals by the mixed-symmetry method based on Bragg scattering data is proposed, and the corresponding software is developed. In defect-containing crystals, each atom in the unit cell can be described by its own symmetry space group. The expression for the calculated structural factor includes summation over different sets of symmetry operations for different atoms. To facilitate the search for new symmetry elements, an "atomic disorder expert" was developed, which estimates the significance of tested models. It is shown that the symmetry lowering for some atoms correlates with the existence of phase transitions (in langasite family crystals) and the anisotropy of physical properties (in rare-earth dodecaborides RB12).
Dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints. II. Local-symmetry transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chitaia, N.P.; Gogilidze, S.A.; Surovtsev, Y.S.
1997-01-01
In the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism by Dirac, local symmetries of dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints are investigated. The method of constructing the generator of local-symmetry transformations is presented both for theories with an algebra of constraints of a special form (a majority of the physically interesting theories) and in the general case without restrictions on the algebra of constraints. It is proven that second-class constraints do not contribute to the transformation law of the local symmetry entirely stipulated by all the first-class constraints. A mechanism of the occurrence of higher derivatives of coordinates and group parameters in the symmetry transformation law in Noether close-quote s second theorem is elucidated. In the latter case it is shown that the obtained transformations of symmetry are canonical in the extended (by Ostrogradsky) phase space. It is thereby shown that in the general case the degeneracy of theories with first- and second-class constraints is due to their invariance under local-symmetry transformations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Spontaneous symmetry breaking in local gauge quantum field theory; the Higgs mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strocchi, F.
1977-01-01
Spontaneous symmetry breakings in indefinite metric quantum field theories are analyzed and a generalization of the Goldstone theorem is proved. The case of local gauge quantum field theories is discussed in detail and a characterization is given of the occurrence of the Higgs mechanism versus the Goldstone mechanism. The Higgs phenomenon is explained on general grounds without the introduction of the so-called Higgs fields. The basic property is the relation between the local internal symmetry group and the local group of gauge transformations of the second kind. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of c-number gauge transformations of the second kind is shown to always occur if there are charged local fields. The implications about the absence of mass gap in the Wightman functions and the occurrence of massless particles associated with the unbroken generators in the Higgs phenomenon are discussed. (orig.) [de
Waste dumps in local communities in developing countries and hidden danger to health.
Anetor, Gloria O
2016-07-01
The rapid industrialisation and urbanisation fuelled by a fast-growing population has led to the generation of a huge amount of waste in most communities in developing countries. The hidden disorders and health dangers in waste dumps are often ignored. The waste generated in local communities is usually of a mixed type consisting of domestic waste and waste from small-scale industrial activities. Among these wastes are toxic metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), halogenated organic compounds, plastics, remnants of paints that are themselves mixtures of hazardous substances, hydrocarbons and petroleum product-contaminated devices. Therefore, there is the urgent need to create an awareness of the harmful health effect of toxic wastes in developing countries, especially Nigeria. This is a review aimed at creating awareness on the hidden dangers of waste dumps to health in local communities in developing countries. Many publications in standard outlets use the following keywords: cancer, chemical toxicity, modern environmental health hazards, waste management and waste speciation in PubMed, ISI, Toxbase environmental digest, related base journals, and some standard textbooks, as well as the observation of the researcher between 1959 and 2014. Studies revealed the preponderance of toxic chemicals such as Pb, Cd, As and Hg in dump sites that have the risk of entering food chain and groundwater supplies, and these can give rise to endemic malnutrition and may also increase susceptibility to mutagenic substances, thereby increasing the incidence of cancer in developing countries. Industrialisation and urbanisation have brought about a change in the waste that is generated in contemporary communities in developing countries. Therefore, there is the need to embrace speciation and sound management of waste, probably including bioremediation. The populations in the local communities need regulatory agencies who are health educators as positive change
Hidden U$_{q}$(sl(2)) x U$_{q}$(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry in two dimensional gravity
Cremmer, E; Schnittger, J
1997-01-01
In a previous paper, we proposed a construction of U_q(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry generators for 2d gravity, where we took the chiral vertex operators of the theory to be the quantum group covariant ones established in earlier works. The basic idea was that the covariant fields in the spin 1/2 representation themselves can be viewed as generators, as they act, by braiding, on the other fields exactly in the required way. Here we transform this construction to the more conventional description of 2d gravity in terms of Bloch wave/Coulomb gas vertex operators, thereby establishing for the first time its quantum group symmetry properties. A U_q(sl(2))\\otimes U_q(sl(2)) symmetry of a novel type emerges: The two Cartan-generator eigenvalues are specified by the choice of matrix element (bra/ket Verma-modules); the two Casimir eigenvalues are equal and specified by the Virasoro weight of the vertex operator considered; the co-product is defined with a matching condition dictated by the Hilbert space structure of...
Localized Symmetry Breaking for Tuning Thermal Expansion in ScF _{3} Nanoscale Frameworks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Lei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Qin, Feiyu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Sanson, Andrea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Padova I-35131, Italy; Huang, Liang-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Pan, Zhao [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Li, Qiang [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Sun, Qiang [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Wang, Lu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Guo, Fangmin [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Aydemir, Umut [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Department of Chemistry, Koc University, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450, Turkey; Ren, Yang [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Sun, Chengjun [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Deng, Jinxia [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Aquilanti, Giuliana [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Trieste I-34149, Italy; Rondinelli, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Chen, Jun [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Xing, Xianran [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2018-03-15
The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unu-sual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal expansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an isotropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engi-neered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K. This mechanism is investigated by the joint analysis of atomic pair dis-tribution function of synchrotron X-ray total scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra. A localized rhombohedral distortion presumably plays a critical role in stiffening ScF3 nano-scale frameworks and concomitantly suppressing transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms. This physical scenario is also theoretically corroborated by the extinction of phonon modes with negative Grüneisen parameters in the rhombohedral ScF3. The present work opens an untraditional chemical modification to achieve controllable thermal expansion by breaking local symmetries of materials.
Scale-chiral symmetry, ω meson, and dense baryonic matter
Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque
2018-05-01
It is shown that explicitly broken scale symmetry is essential for dense skyrmion matter in hidden local symmetry theory. Consistency with the vector manifestation fixed point for the hidden local symmetry of the lowest-lying vector mesons and the dilaton limit fixed point for scale symmetry in dense matter is found to require that the anomalous dimension (|γG2| ) of the gluon field strength tensor squared (G2 ) that represents the quantum trace anomaly should be 1.0 ≲|γG2|≲3.5 . The magnitude of |γG2| estimated here will be useful for studying hadron and nuclear physics based on the scale-chiral effective theory. More significantly, that the dilaton limit fixed point can be arrived at with γG2≠0 at some high density signals that scale symmetry can arise in dense medium as an "emergent" symmetry.
Feasibility of testing local hidden variable theories in a Charm factory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng
2006-01-01
It is commonly believed that the local hidden variable theories (LHVTs) can be tested through measuring the Bell inequalities. This scheme, for the massive particle system, was originally set up for the entangled K 0 K 0 pair system from the φ factory. In this paper we show that the J/Ψ→K 0 K 0 process is even more realistic for this goal. We analyze the unique properties of J/Ψ in the detection of basic quantum effects, and find that it is possible to use J/Ψ decay as a test of LHVTs in the future τ-charm factory. Our analyses and conclusions are generally also true for other heavy onium decays
Chiral Rings, Mirror Symmetry and the Fate of Localized Tachyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sin, Sang-Jin
2003-01-01
We study the localized tachyon condensation of non-supersymmetric orbifold backgrounds in their mirror Landau-Ginzburg picture. We first show that the R-charges of chiral primaries increase under the process of condensing the tachyon in the same chiral ring. Then, utilizing the existence of four copies of (2,2) worldsheet supersymmetry, we show that the minimal tachyon mass in twisted sectors increases in CFT and type 0 string and it plays the role of the c-function of the twisted sectors. We also study the GSO projection in detail and show that type II decays to only to type II while type 0 can mix with type 0 and II under the RG-flow
Chiral Rings, Mirror Symmetry and the Fate of Localized Tachyons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sin, Sang-Jin
2003-03-20
We study the localized tachyon condensation of non-supersymmetric orbifold backgrounds in their mirror Landau-Ginzburg picture. We first show that the R-charges of chiral primaries increase under the process of condensing the tachyon in the same chiral ring. Then, utilizing the existence of four copies of (2,2) worldsheet supersymmetry, we show that the minimal tachyon mass in twisted sectors increases in CFT and type 0 string and it plays the role of the c-function of the twisted sectors. We also study the GSO projection in detail and show that type II decays to only to type II while type 0 can mix with type 0 and II under the RG-flow.
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zela, F de [Departamento de Ciencias, Seccion Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru, Apartado 1761, Lima (Peru)
2008-12-19
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class.
A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zela, F de
2008-01-01
Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class
Impact of local symmetry breaking on the physical properties of tetrahedral liquids.
Shi, Rui; Tanaka, Hajime
2018-02-27
Water and silica are the most important materials with local tetrahedral symmetry. They have similar crystalline polymorphs and exhibit anomalous density maximum in the liquid state. However, water and silica also show very different characteristics. For instance, the density of water varies much more sharply than that of liquid silica near the maximum as temperature changes. More notably, silica is a very good glass-former, but water is an extremely poor one. The physical origins of these similarities and differences still remain elusive, due to the lack of a microscopic understanding of the structural ordering in these two important liquids. Here, by accessing microscopic structural information by computer simulations, we reveal that local translational symmetry breaking is responsible for the density anomalies. On the other hand, the difference in the degree of local orientational symmetry breaking between water and silica, which originates from the difference in their bonding nature, causes not only the difference in the sharpness of density anomalies, but also their distinct glass-forming abilities. Our work not only shows the crucial roles of local translational and orientational symmetry breaking in the physical properties of the two extremely important materials, water and silica, but also provides a unified scenario applicable for other tetrahedral liquids such as Si, Ge, C, BeF 2 , and GeO 2 .
Spatial symmetry, local integrability and tetrahedron equations in the Baxter-Bazhanov model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashaev, R.M.; Mangazeev, V.V.; Stroganov, Yu.G.
1992-01-01
It is shown that the Baxter-Bazhanov model is invariant under the action of the cube symmetry group. The three-dimensional star-star relations, proposed by Baxter and Bazhanov as local integrability conditions, correspond to a particular transformation from this group. Invariant Boltzmann weights, parameterized in terms of the Zamolodchikov's angle variables, apparently satisfy the tetrahedron equations. 12 refs
The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.
1984-05-01
Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagnoud, Maxime; Carlevaro, Luca
2006-01-01
We study T 11-D-q x T q /Z n orbifold compactifications of eleven-dimensional supergravity and M-theory using a purely algebraic method. Given the description of maximal supergravities reduced on square tori as non-linear coset σ-models, we exploit the mapping between scalar fields of the reduced theory and directions in the tangent space over the coset to construct the orbifold action as a non-Cartan preserving finite order inner automorphism of the complexified U-duality algebra. Focusing on the exceptional serie of Cremmer-Julia groups, we compute the residual U-duality symmetry after orbifold projection and determine the reality properties of their corresponding Lie algebras. We carry out this analysis as far as the hyperbolic e 10 algebra, conjectured to be a symmetry of M-theory. In this case the residual subalgebras are shown to be described by a special class of Borcherds and Kac-Moody algebras, modded out by their centres and derivations. Furthermore, we construct an alternative description of the orbifold action in terms of equivalence classes of shift vectors, and, in D 1, we show that a root of e 10 can always be chosen as the class representative. Then, in the framework of the E 10/10 /K(E 10/10 ) effective σ-model approach to M-theory near a spacelike singularity, we identify these roots with brane configurations stabilizing the corresponding orbifolds. In the particular case of Z 2 orbifolds of M-theory descending to type 0' orientifolds, we argue that these roots can be interpreted as pairs of magnetized D9- and D9'-branes, carrying the lower-dimensional brane charges required for tadpole cancellation. More generally, we provide a classification of all such roots generating Z n product orbifolds for n≤6, and hint at their possible interpretation
Local symmetry breaking and spin–phonon coupling in SmCrO3 orthochromite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Amrani, M.; Zaghrioui, M.; Ta Phuoc, V.; Gervais, F.; Massa, Néstor E.
2014-01-01
Raman scattering and infrared reflectivity performed on polycrystalline SmCrO 3 support strong influence of the antiferromagnetic order on phonon modes. Both measurements show softening of some modes below T N . Such a behavior is explained by spin–phonon coupling in this compound. Furthermore, temperature dependence of the infrared spectra has demonstrated important changes compared to the Raman spectra, suggesting strong structural modifications due to the cation displacements rather to those of the oxygen ions. Our results reveal that polar distortions originating in local symmetry breaking, i.e. local non-centrosymmetry, resulting in Cr off-centring. - Highlights: • We investigated Raman and infrared phonon modes of SmCrO 3 versus temperature. • Results reveal strong influence of the antiferromagnetic order on phonon modes. • Temperature dependence of the infrared spectra shows strong structural modifications suggesting local symmetry breaking
Local symmetry breaking and spin–phonon coupling in SmCrO{sub 3} orthochromite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Amrani, M. [GREMAN CNRS UMR 7347, Université F. Rabelais, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolatrie 41029 Blois cedex (France); Zaghrioui, M., E-mail: zaghrioui@univ-tours.fr [GREMAN CNRS UMR 7347, Université F. Rabelais, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolatrie 41029 Blois cedex (France); Ta Phuoc, V.; Gervais, F. [GREMAN CNRS UMR 7347, Université F. Rabelais, IUT de Blois, 15 rue de la Chocolatrie 41029 Blois cedex (France); Massa, Néstor E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Investigacion y Servicios en Espectroscopia Optica-Centro CEQUINOR, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C. C. 962, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2014-06-01
Raman scattering and infrared reflectivity performed on polycrystalline SmCrO{sub 3} support strong influence of the antiferromagnetic order on phonon modes. Both measurements show softening of some modes below T{sub N}. Such a behavior is explained by spin–phonon coupling in this compound. Furthermore, temperature dependence of the infrared spectra has demonstrated important changes compared to the Raman spectra, suggesting strong structural modifications due to the cation displacements rather to those of the oxygen ions. Our results reveal that polar distortions originating in local symmetry breaking, i.e. local non-centrosymmetry, resulting in Cr off-centring. - Highlights: • We investigated Raman and infrared phonon modes of SmCrO{sub 3} versus temperature. • Results reveal strong influence of the antiferromagnetic order on phonon modes. • Temperature dependence of the infrared spectra shows strong structural modifications suggesting local symmetry breaking.
Restoration of the local gauge symmetry and color confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hata, Hiroyuki
1982-01-01
Restoration of the local gauge symmetry and its connection to color confinement is investigated in non-Abelian gauge theories with covariant gauge fixing. We consider the Noether current J sub(μ,#betta#)sup(a) of the local gauge transformation with transformation functions #betta#sup(b)(x) linear in x sub(μ); #betta#sup(b)(x) = delta sup(ab)x sub(#betta#). This current is conserved only in the physical subspace of the state vector space and in perturbation theory contains a massless pole communicating to the gauge field. We define the local gauge symmetry restoration as the disappearance of this massless ''Goldstone'' pole from J sub(μ,#betta#)sup(a). The restoration condition is obtained and it coincides exactly with the color confinement criterion proposed earlier by Kugo and Ojima. Quarks and other colored particles are shown to be confined in the local gauge symmetry restored phase by using the Ward identities of J sub(μ,#betta#)sup(a). (author)
Construction of extremal local positive-operator-valued measures under symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Virmani, S.; Plenio, M.B.
2003-01-01
We study the local implementation of positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs) when we require only the faithful reproduction of the statistics of the measurement outcomes for all initial states. We first demonstrate that any POVM with separable elements can be implemented by a separable superoperator, and develop techniques for calculating the extreme points of POVMs under a certain class of constraint that includes separability and positive partial transposition. As examples we consider measurements that are invariant under various symmetry groups (Werner, isotropic, Bell diagonal, local orthogonal), and demonstrate that in these cases separability of the POVM elements is equivalent to implementability via local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We also calculate the extrema of these classes of measurement under the groups that we consider, and give explicit LOCC protocols for attaining them. These protocols are hence optimal methods for locally discriminating between states of these symmetries. One of many interesting consequences is that the best way to locally discriminate Bell-diagonal mixed states is to perform a two-outcome POVM using local von Neumann projections. This is true regardless of the cost function, the number of states being discriminated, or the prior probabilities. Our results give the first cases of local mixed-state discrimination that can be analyzed quantitatively in full, and may have application to other problems such as demonstrations of nonlocality, experimental entanglement witnesses, and perhaps even entanglement distillation
NLStradamus: a simple Hidden Markov Model for nuclear localization signal prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Provart Nicholas
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear localization signals (NLSs are stretches of residues within a protein that are important for the regulated nuclear import of the protein. Of the many import pathways that exist in yeast, the best characterized is termed the 'classical' NLS pathway. The classical NLS contains specific patterns of basic residues and computational methods have been designed to predict the location of these motifs on proteins. The consensus sequences, or patterns, for the other import pathways are less well-understood. Results In this paper, we present an analysis of characterized NLSs in yeast, and find, despite the large number of nuclear import pathways, that NLSs seem to show similar patterns of amino acid residues. We test current prediction methods and observe a low true positive rate. We therefore suggest an approach using hidden Markov models (HMMs to predict novel NLSs in proteins. We show that our method is able to consistently find 37% of the NLSs with a low false positive rate and that our method retains its true positive rate outside of the yeast data set used for the training parameters. Conclusion Our implementation of this model, NLStradamus, is made available at: http://www.moseslab.csb.utoronto.ca/NLStradamus/
Local hidden variable modelling, classicality, quantum separability and the original Bell inequality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loubenets, Elena R
2011-01-01
We introduce a general condition sufficient for the validity of the original Bell inequality (1964) in a local hidden variable (LHV) frame. This condition can be checked experimentally and incorporates only as a particular case the assumption on perfect correlations or anticorrelations usually argued for this inequality in the literature. Specifying this general condition for a quantum bipartite case, we introduce the whole class of bipartite quantum states, separable and nonseparable, that (i) admit an LHV description under any bipartite measurements with two settings per site; (ii) do not necessarily exhibit perfect correlations and may even have a negative correlation function if the same quantum observable is measured at both sites, but (iii) satisfy the 'perfect correlation' version of the original Bell inequality for any three bounded quantum observables A 1 , A 2 = B 1 , B 2 at sites 'A' and 'B', respectively. Analysing the validity of this general LHV condition under classical and quantum correlation scenarios with the same physical context, we stress that, unlike the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, the original Bell inequality distinguishes between classicality and quantum separability.
Localized surface plasmon resonance properties of symmetry-broken Au-ITO-Ag multilayered nanoshells
Lv, Jingwei; Mu, Haiwei; Lu, Xili; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Chao; Sun, Tao; Chu, Paul K.
2018-06-01
The plasmonic properties of symmetry-broken Au-ITO-Ag multilayered nanoshells by shell cutting are studied by the finite element method. The influence of the polarization of incident light and geometrical parameters on the plasmon resonances of the multilayered nanoshells are investigated. The polarization-dependent multiple plasmon resonances appear from the multilayered nanoshells due to symmetry breaking. In nanostructures with a broken symmetry, the localized surface plasmon resonance modes are enhanced resulting in higher order resonances. According to the plasmon hybridization theory, these resonance modes and greater spectral tunability derive from the interactions of an admixture of both primitive and multipolar modes between the inner Au core and outer Ag shell. By changing the radius of the Au core, the extinction resonance modes of the multilayered nanoshells can be easily tuned to the near-infrared region. To elucidate the symmetry-broken effects of multilayered nanoshells, we link the geometrical asymmetry to the asymmetrical distributions of surface charges and demonstrate dipolar and higher order plasmon modes with large associated field enhancements at the edge of the Ag rim. The spectral tunability of the multiple resonance modes from visible to near-infrared is investigated and the unique properties are attractive to applications including angularly selective filtering to biosensing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hodgdon, Jennifer A.; Sethna, James P.
1993-01-01
We derive a general crack-propagation law for slow brittle cracking, in two and three dimensions, using discrete symmetries, gauge invariance, and gradient expansions. Our derivation provides explicit justification for the ‘‘principle of local symmetry,’’ which has been used extensively to describe...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.
2010-01-01
By direct numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the split-step Fourier spectral method, we study different aspects of the localization of a cigar-shaped interacting binary (two-component) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a BEC [Roati et al., Nature 453, 895 (2008)]. We consider two types of localized states: (i) when both localized components have a maximum of density at the origin x=0, and (ii) when the first component has a maximum of density and the second a minimum of density at x=0. In the noninteracting case, the density profiles are symmetric around x=0. We numerically study the breakdown of this symmetry due to interspecies and intraspecies interactions acting on the two components. Where possible, we have compared the numerical results with a time-dependent variational analysis. We also demonstrate the stability of the localized symmetry-broken BEC states under small perturbation.
Current algebra and the local nature of symmetries in local quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doplicher, S.
In this report we mainly discuss the problem of finding local observables which measure the charges in a volume smaller than their localization region, in particular providing the existence of local observables with a specific physical interpretation. In the same way we can also establish the existence of a version of the current algebra structure. Similar local observables can be constructed for the energy-momentum; we also comment on the local implementation of supersymmetries. (orig./HSI)
Gauging Quantum States: From Global to Local Symmetries in Many-Body Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jutho Haegeman
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We present an operational procedure to transform global symmetries into local symmetries at the level of individual quantum states, as opposed to typical gauging prescriptions for Hamiltonians or Lagrangians. We then construct a compatible gauging map for operators, which preserves locality and reproduces the minimal coupling scheme for simple operators. By combining this construction with the formalism of projected entangled-pair states (PEPS, we can show that an injective PEPS for the matter fields is gauged into a G-injective PEPS for the combined gauge-matter system, which potentially has topological order. We derive the corresponding parent Hamiltonian, which is a frustration-free gauge-theory Hamiltonian closely related to the Kogut-Susskind Hamiltonian at zero coupling constant. We can then introduce gauge dynamics at finite values of the coupling constant by applying a local filtering operation. This scheme results in a low-parameter family of gauge-invariant states of which we can accurately probe the phase diagram, as we illustrate by studying a Z_{2} gauge theory with Higgs matter.
Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2011-07-01
Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to
Non-local ground-state functional for quantum spin chains with translational broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Libero, Valter L.; Penteado, Poliana H.; Veiga, Rodrigo S.
2011-01-01
Full text. Thanks to the development and use of new materials with special doping, it becomes relevant the study of Heisenberg spin-chains with broken translational symmetry, induced for instance by finite-size effects, bond defects or by impurity spin in the chain. The exact numerical results demands huge computational efforts, due to the size of the Hilbert space involved and the lack of symmetry to exploit. Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been considered a simple alternative to obtain ground-state properties for such systems. Usually, DFT starts with a uniform system to build the correlation energy and after implement a local approximation to construct local functionals. Based on our prove of the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem for Heisenberg models, and in order to describe more realistic models, we have recently developed a non-local exchange functional for the ground-state energy of quantum-spin chains. A alternating-bond chain is used to obtain the correlation energy and a local unit-cell approximation - LUCA, is defined in the context of DFT. The alternating chain is a good starting point to construct functionals since it is intrinsically non-homogeneous, therefore instead of the usual local approximation (like LDA for electronic systems) we need to introduce an approximation based upon a unit cell concept, that renders a non-local functional in the bond exchange interaction. The agreement with exact numerical data (obtained only for small chains, although the functional can be applied for chains with arbitrary size) is significantly better than in our previous local formulation, even for chains with several ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic bond defects. These results encourage us to extend the concept of LUCA for chains with alternating-spin magnitudes. We also have constructed a non-local functional based on an alternating-spin chain, instead of a local alternating-bond, using spin-wave-theory. Because of its non-local nature, this functional is expected to
Localization and chiral symmetry in 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David J. Antonio; Kenneth C. Bowler; Peter A. Boyle; Norman H. Christ; Michael A. Clark; Saul D. Cohen; Chris Dawson; Alistair Hart; Balint Joó; Chulwoo Jung; Richard D. Kenway; Shu Li; Meifeng Lin; Robert D. Mawhinney; Christopher M. Maynard; Shigemi Ohta; Robert J. Tweedie; Azusa Yamaguchi
2008-01-01
We present results for the dependence of the residual mass of domain wall fermions (DWF) on the size of the fifth dimension and its relation to the density and localization properties of low-lying eigenvectors of the corresponding hermitian Wilson Dirac operator relevant to simulations of 2+1 flavor domain wall QCD. Using the DBW2 and Iwasaki gauge actions, we generate ensembles of configurations with a $16^3\\times 32$ space-time volume and an extent of 8 in the fifth dimension for the sea quarks. We demonstrate the existence of a regime where the degree of locality, the size of chiral symmetry breaking and the rate of topology change can be acceptable for inverse lattice spacings $a^{-1} \\ge 1.6$ GeV.
The DSR-deformed relativistic symmetries and the relative locality of 3D quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Bianco, Stefano; Buonocore, Riccardo J
2013-01-01
Over the last decade there were significant advances in the understanding of quantum gravity coupled to point particles in 3D ((2+1)-dimensional) spacetime. Most notably it is emerging that the theory can be effectively described as a theory of free particles on a momentum space with anti-deSitter geometry and with noncommutative spacetime coordinates of the type [x μ , x ν ] = iℏℓε μν ρ x ρ . We here show that the recently proposed relative-locality curved-momentum-space framework is ideally suited for accommodating these structures' characteristics of 3D quantum gravity. Through this we obtain an intuitive characterization of the DSR-deformed Poincaré symmetries of 3D quantum gravity, and find that the associated relative spacetime locality is of the type producing dual-gravity lensing. (paper)
Liu, Jian; Ren, Zhongzhou; Xu, Chang
2018-07-01
Combining the modified Skyrme-like model and the local density approximation model, the slope parameter L of symmetry energy is extracted from the properties of finite nuclei with an improved iterative method. The calculations of the iterative method are performed within the framework of the spherical symmetry. By choosing 200 neutron rich nuclei on 25 isotopic chains as candidates, the slope parameter is constrained to be 50 MeV nuclear matter can be obtained together.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padmanabhan, Pramod [Fields, Gravity & Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 34037 (Korea, Republic of); Rey, Soo-Jong [Fields, Gravity & Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 34037 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy & Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 06544 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Basic Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Teixeira, Daniel; Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)
2017-05-25
Partial symmetries are described by generalized group structures known as symmetric inverse semigroups. We use the algebras arising from these structures to realize supersymmetry in (0+1) dimensions and to build many-body quantum systems on a chain. This construction consists in associating appropriate supercharges to chain sites, in analogy to what is done in spin chains. For simple enough choices of supercharges, we show that the resulting states have a finite non-zero Witten index, which is invariant under perturbations, therefore defining supersymmetric phases of matter protected by the index. The Hamiltonians we obtain are integrable and display a spectrum containing both product and entangled states. By introducing disorder and studying the out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOC), we find that these systems are in the many-body localized phase and do not thermalize. Finally, we reformulate a theorem relating the growth of the second Rényi entropy to the OTOC on a thermal state in terms of partial symmetries.
Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcotte, Christopher D.; Grigoriev, Roman O.
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals
Unstable spiral waves and local Euclidean symmetry in a model of cardiac tissue.
Marcotte, Christopher D; Grigoriev, Roman O
2015-06-01
This paper investigates the properties of unstable single-spiral wave solutions arising in the Karma model of two-dimensional cardiac tissue. In particular, we discuss how such solutions can be computed numerically on domains of arbitrary shape and study how their stability, rotational frequency, and spatial drift depend on the size of the domain as well as the position of the spiral core with respect to the boundaries. We also discuss how the breaking of local Euclidean symmetry due to finite size effects as well as the spatial discretization of the model is reflected in the structure and dynamics of spiral waves. This analysis allows identification of a self-sustaining process responsible for maintaining the state of spiral chaos featuring multiple interacting spirals.
Local conformal symmetry in non-Riemannian geometry and the origin of physical scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Cesare, Marco [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Moffat, John W. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Sakellariadou, Mairi [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2017-09-15
We introduce an extension of the Standard Model and General Relativity built upon the principle of local conformal invariance, which represents a generalization of a previous work by Bars, Steinhardt and Turok. This is naturally realized by adopting as a geometric framework a particular class of non-Riemannian geometries, first studied by Weyl. The gravitational sector is enriched by a scalar and a vector field. The latter has a geometric origin and represents the novel feature of our approach. We argue that physical scales could emerge from a theory with no dimensionful parameters, as a result of the spontaneous breakdown of conformal and electroweak symmetries. We study the dynamics of matter fields in this modified gravity theory and show that test particles follow geodesics of the Levi-Civita connection, thus resolving an old criticism raised by Einstein against Weyl's original proposal. (orig.)
Camproux, A C; Tufféry, P
2005-08-05
Understanding and predicting protein structures depend on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have recently set up a Hidden Markov Model to optimally compress protein three-dimensional conformations into a one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. Such a model learns simultaneously the shape of representative structural letters describing the local conformation and the logic of their connections, i.e. the transition matrix between the letters. Here, we move one step further and report some evidence that such a model of protein local architecture also captures some accurate amino acid features. All the letters have specific and distinct amino acid distributions. Moreover, we show that words of amino acids can have significant propensities for some letters. Perspectives point towards the prediction of the series of letters describing the structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence.
Kaya, Yılmaz
2015-09-01
This paper proposes a novel approach to detect epilepsy seizures by using Electroencephalography (EEG), which is one of the most common methods for the diagnosis of epilepsy, based on 1-Dimension Local Binary Pattern (1D-LBP) and grey relational analysis (GRA) methods. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and validate a novel approach, which is a computer-based quantitative EEG analyzing method and based on grey systems, aimed to help decision-maker. In this study, 1D-LBP, which utilizes all data points, was employed for extracting features in raw EEG signals, Fisher score (FS) was employed to select the representative features, which can also be determined as hidden patterns. Additionally, GRA is performed to classify EEG signals through these Fisher scored features. The experimental results of the proposed approach, which was employed in a public dataset for validation, showed that it has a high accuracy in identifying epileptic EEG signals. For various combinations of epileptic EEG, such as A-E, B-E, C-E, D-E, and A-D clusters, 100, 96, 100, 99.00 and 100% were achieved, respectively. Also, this work presents an attempt to develop a new general-purpose hidden pattern determination scheme, which can be utilized for different categories of time-varying signals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroer, Bert
2006-04-15
The holographic encoding is generalized to subalgebras of QFT localized in double cones. It is shown that as a result of this radically different spacetime encoding the modular group acts geometrically on the holographic image. As a result we obtain a formula for localization entropy which is identical to the previously derived formula for the wedge-localized subalgebra. The symmetry group in the holographic encoding turns out to be the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group. (author)
Schleicher, F; Halisdemir, U; Lacour, D; Gallart, M; Boukari, S; Schmerber, G; Davesne, V; Panissod, P; Halley, D; Majjad, H; Henry, Y; Leconte, B; Boulard, A; Spor, D; Beyer, N; Kieber, C; Sternitzky, E; Cregut, O; Ziegler, M; Montaigne, F; Beaurepaire, E; Gilliot, P; Hehn, M; Bowen, M
2014-08-04
Research on advanced materials such as multiferroic perovskites underscores promising applications, yet studies on these materials rarely address the impact of defects on the nominally expected materials property. Here, we revisit the comparatively simple oxide MgO as the model material system for spin-polarized solid-state tunnelling studies. We present a defect-mediated tunnelling potential landscape of localized states owing to explicitly identified defect species, against which we examine the bias and temperature dependence of magnetotransport. By mixing symmetry-resolved transport channels, a localized state may alter the effective barrier height for symmetry-resolved charge carriers, such that tunnelling magnetoresistance decreases most with increasing temperature when that state is addressed electrically. Thermal excitation promotes an occupancy switchover from the ground to the excited state of a defect, which impacts these magnetotransport characteristics. We thus resolve contradictions between experiment and theory in this otherwise canonical spintronics system, and propose a new perspective on defects in dielectrics.
Freed, Christopher R; Hansberry, Shantisha T; Arrieta, Martha I
2013-09-01
To examine a local primary health care infrastructure and the reality of primary health care from the perspective of residents of a small, urban community in the southern United States. Data derive from 13 semi-structured focus groups, plus three semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed inductively consistent with a grounded theory approach. Structural barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure include transportation, clinic and appointment wait time, and co-payments and health insurance. Hidden barriers consist of knowledge about local health care services, non-physician gatekeepers, and fear of medical care. Community residents have used home remedies and the emergency department at the local academic medical center to manage these structural and hidden barriers. Findings might not generalize to primary health care infrastructures in other communities, respondent perspectives can be biased, and the data are subject to various interpretations and conceptual and thematic frameworks. Nevertheless, the structural and hidden barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure have considerably diminished the autonomy community residents have been able to exercise over their decisions about primary health care, ultimately suggesting that efforts concerned with increasing the access of medically underserved groups to primary health care in local communities should recognize the centrality and significance of power. This study addresses a gap in the sociological literature regarding the impact of specific barriers to primary health care among medically underserved groups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo
2009-01-01
Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches
Enhanced symmetries of gauge theory and resolving the spectrum of local operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Yusuke; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye
2008-01-01
Enhanced global non-Abelian symmetries at zero coupling in Yang Mills theory play an important role in diagonalizing the two-point functions of multimatrix operators. Generalized Casimirs constructed from the iterated commutator action of these enhanced symmetries resolve all the multiplicity labels of the bases of matrix operators which diagonalize the two-point function. For the case of U(N) gauge theory with a single complex matrix in the adjoint of the gauge group we have a U(N) x4 global symmetry of the scaling operator at zero coupling. Different choices of commuting sets of Casimirs, for the case of a complex matrix, lead to the restricted Schur basis previously studied in connection with string excitations of giant gravitons and the Brauer basis studied in connection with brane-antibrane systems. More generally these remarks can be extended to the diagonalization for any global symmetry group G. Schur-Weyl duality plays a central role in connecting the enhanced symmetries and the diagonal bases.
Królikowski, Wojciech
2016-01-01
A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Trotta
Full Text Available Bistable dynamical switches are frequently encountered in mathematical modeling of biological systems because binary decisions are at the core of many cellular processes. Bistable switches present two stable steady-states, each of them corresponding to a distinct decision. In response to a transient signal, the system can flip back and forth between these two stable steady-states, switching between both decisions. Understanding which parameters and states affect this switch between stable states may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the decision-making process. Yet, answering such a question involves analyzing the global dynamical (i.e., transient behavior of a nonlinear, possibly high dimensional model. In this paper, we show how a local analysis at a particular equilibrium point of bistable systems is highly relevant to understand the global properties of the switching system. The local analysis is performed at the saddle point, an often disregarded equilibrium point of bistable models but which is shown to be a key ruler of the decision-making process. Results are illustrated on three previously published models of biological switches: two models of apoptosis, the programmed cell death and one model of long-term potentiation, a phenomenon underlying synaptic plasticity.
Localization of Hidden Insulinomas with ⁶⁸Ga-DOTA-Exendin-4 PET/CT: A Pilot Study.
Antwi, Kwadwo; Fani, Melpomeni; Nicolas, Guillaume; Rottenburger, Christof; Heye, Tobias; Reubi, Jean Claude; Gloor, Beat; Christ, Emanuel; Wild, Damian
2015-07-01
(111)In-DOTA-exendin-4 SPECT/CT has been shown to be highly efficient in the detection of insulinomas. We aimed at determining whether novel PET/CT imaging with [Nle(14),Lys(40)(Ahx-DOTA-(68)Ga)NH2]exendin-4 ((68)Ga-DOTA-exendin-4) is feasible and sensitive in detecting benign insulinomas. (68)Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT and (111)In-DOTA-exendin-4 SPECT/CT were performed in a randomized cross-over order on 5 patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. The gold standard for comparison was the histologic diagnosis after surgery. In 4 patients histologic diagnosis confirmed a benign insulinoma, whereas one patient refused surgery despite a positive (68)Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT scan. In 4 of 5 patients, previously performed conventional imaging (CT or MR imaging) was not able to localize the insulinoma. (68)Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT correctly identified the insulinoma in 4 of 4 patients, whereas (111)In-DOTA-exendin-4 SPECT/CT correctly identified the insulinoma in only 2 of 4 patients. These preliminary data suggest that the use of (68)Ga-DOTA-exendin-4 PET/CT in detecting hidden insulinomas is feasible. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, H. A.; Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.; Alfimov, G. L.; Salerno, M.
2007-01-01
We study localized modes in binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates embedded in one-dimensional optical lattices. We report a diversity of asymmetric modes and investigate their dynamics. We concentrate on the cases where one of the components is dominant, i.e., has a much larger number of atoms than the other one, and where both components have the numbers of atoms of the same order but different symmetries. In the first case we propose a method of systematically obtaining the modes, considering the ''small'' component as bifurcating from the continuum spectrum. A generalization of this approach combined with the use of the symmetry of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows for obtaining breather modes, which are also presented
Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich
2012-01-01
We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...
Pishtshev, A.; Rubin, P.
2018-04-01
By means of periodic density functional theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations, we investigate iron-site doping effects in a structural model of bulk FeAs2. Simulations performed within the projector augmented-wave method-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional scheme reveal that the impacts of the two stoichiometric substitutions Fe → Mg and Fe → Ni are radically different with respect to the structural and electronic behavior of the dopants. In particular, unlike the Ni dopant, the Mg dopant incorporated in FeAs2 occupies a noncentral equilibrium position characterized by an off-center displacement from the reference higher-symmetry position. Analysis of the respective electron and vibrational factors allows us to explain this result in terms of the local pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (pJTE). On the basis of DFT calculations, we deduce which electron orbitals and lattice vibrational modes are appropriate for promoting the local instability at the origin of the pJTE. Quantitative evaluations of the pJTE parameters performed within the polyatomic formalism of an effective tight-binding model show that it is just the enhanced vibronic interaction in the Mg-[FeAs6] cluster that is responsible for the local lattice symmetry breaking.
Local rhombohedral symmetry in Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2 near the morphotropic phase boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaolian; Pan, Xingwen; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Yinzhu; Yan, Mi; Li, Huiying; Fang, Minxia; Ren, Xiaobing
2014-01-01
The recently reported morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in a number of giant magnetostrictive materials (GMMs) has drawn considerable interest to the local symmetry/structure near MPB region of these materials. In this letter, by in-situ X-ray diffraction and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements, we show that Tb 0.3 Dy 0.7 Fe 2 , the typical composition of Terfenol-D GMMs, has coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases over a wide temperature range in the vicinity of MPB. High resolution transmission electron microscopy provides direct evidence for local rhombohedral symmetry of the ferromagnetic phase and reveals regular-shaped nanoscale domains below 10 nm. The nano-sized structural/magnetic domains are hierarchically inside a single micron-sized stripe-like domain with the same average magnetization direction. Such domain structures are consistent with the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy and easy magnetic/structural domain switching under magnetic field, thus generating large magnetostriction at low field
Karlita, Tita; Yuniarno, Eko Mulyanto; Purnama, I. Ketut Eddy; Purnomo, Mauridhi Hery
2017-06-01
Analyzing ultrasound (US) images to get the shapes and structures of particular anatomical regions is an interesting field of study since US imaging is a non-invasive method to capture internal structures of a human body. However, bone segmentation of US images is still challenging because it is strongly influenced by speckle noises and it has poor image quality. This paper proposes a combination of local phase symmetry and quadratic polynomial fitting methods to extract bone outer contour (BOC) from two dimensional (2D) B-modes US image as initial steps of three-dimensional (3D) bone surface reconstruction. By using local phase symmetry, the bone is initially extracted from US images. BOC is then extracted by scanning one pixel on the bone boundary in each column of the US images using first phase features searching method. Quadratic polynomial fitting is utilized to refine and estimate the pixel location that fails to be detected during the extraction process. Hole filling method is then applied by utilize the polynomial coefficients to fill the gaps with new pixel. The proposed method is able to estimate the new pixel position and ensures smoothness and continuity of the contour path. Evaluations are done using cow and goat bones by comparing the resulted BOCs with the contours produced by manual segmentation and contours produced by canny edge detection. The evaluation shows that our proposed methods produces an excellent result with average MSE before and after hole filling at the value of 0.65.
Rehren, K. -H.
1996-01-01
Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.
Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)
2010-11-07
These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilles, Hans Peter
2012-04-01
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-04-15
Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Philippe
1998-01-01
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shunkeev, K.; Sagimbaeva, Sh.; Shunkeev, S.
2007-01-01
Effect of auto-localized excitons (ALE) luminescence strengthening is conditioned by two mechanisms: either decrease of potential barrier divided of quasi-free states and auto-localized states or decrease of emission-less channel effectiveness of exciton decay on primary radiation defects. In considered range (80 K) all excitons are only in auto-localized state. Therefore a realization of the first mechanism is improbable, For instant, in KI crystal at 80-100 K luminescence of free exciton is completely putting out, and ALE luminescence has maximal intensity. It is known that in the temperature range when ALE luminescence putting out is beginning an effectiveness of radiation defects is beginning to grow. This effect is related with predominating at that time emission-less exciton decay on radiation defects (F-H pairs). Experimentally by luminescence spectroscopy method activation energy of temperature putting out of ALE in AHC under uniaxial deformation. It is revealed, that increase of activation energy value has observed in a number of crystals: KBr→NaCl→KI→Na Br→CsBr→RbI. It is concluded, that effect of ALE intensity building-up and decrease of effectiveness of radiation defect formation are interpreted by growth of potential barrier of ALE decay into radiation defects under low symmetry of AHC lattice of low-temperature uniaxial deformation
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, M.
2008-07-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas
2008-01-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolai Lang, Hans Peter Büchler
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Active quantum error correction on topological codes is one of the most promising routes to long-term qubit storage. In view of future applications, the scalability of the used decoding algorithms in physical implementations is crucial. In this work, we focus on the one-dimensional Majorana chain and construct a strictly local decoder based on a self-dual cellular automaton. We study numerically and analytically its performance and exploit these results to contrive a scalable decoder with exponentially growing decoherence times in the presence of noise. Our results pave the way for scalable and modular designs of actively corrected one-dimensional topological quantum memories.
Invisible axion in the hidden sector of no-scale supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Hikaru
1987-01-01
We propose a new axion model which incorporates the U(1) PQ symmetry into a hidden sector, as well as an observable sector, of no-scale supergravity models. The axion is a spin-zero field in the hidden sector. The U(1) PQ symmetry is naturally embedded in the family symmetry of the no-scale models. Invisible axions live in the gravity hidden sector without conflict with the cosmological and astrophysical constraints. (orig.)
Hidden symmetries of Kaluza-Klein theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1987-01-01
It is shown that the introduction of dynamical torsion in Kaluza-Klein theories makes it possible to increase the number of gauge fields extracted from the Lagrangian without increasing the number of additional dimensions. An example of spontaneous compactification of a studied model is considered
Solvable models and hidden symmetries in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yepez-Martinez, Tochtli; Hess, P. O.; Szczepaniak, A.; Civitarese, O.; Lerma H., S.
2010-01-01
We show that QCD Hamiltonians at low energy exhibit an SU(2) structure, when only few orbital levels are considered. In case many orbital levels are taken into account we also find a semi-analytic solution for the energy levels of the dominant part of the QCD Hamiltonian. The findings are important to propose the structure of phenomenological models.
Symmetry and symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.
1999-01-01
The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)
Hidden charm molecules in a finite volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albaladejo, M.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.
2014-01-01
In the present paper we address the interaction of charmed mesons in hidden charm channels in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and several methods for the analysis of these levels ("inverse problem") are investigated. (author)
Zhou, Hang; Yang, Yang; Shen, Hong-Bin
2017-03-15
Protein subcellular localization prediction has been an important research topic in computational biology over the last decade. Various automatic methods have been proposed to predict locations for large scale protein datasets, where statistical machine learning algorithms are widely used for model construction. A key step in these predictors is encoding the amino acid sequences into feature vectors. Many studies have shown that features extracted from biological domains, such as gene ontology and functional domains, can be very useful for improving the prediction accuracy. However, domain knowledge usually results in redundant features and high-dimensional feature spaces, which may degenerate the performance of machine learning models. In this paper, we propose a new amino acid sequence-based human protein subcellular location prediction approach Hum-mPLoc 3.0, which covers 12 human subcellular localizations. The sequences are represented by multi-view complementary features, i.e. context vocabulary annotation-based gene ontology (GO) terms, peptide-based functional domains, and residue-based statistical features. To systematically reflect the structural hierarchy of the domain knowledge bases, we propose a novel feature representation protocol denoted as HCM (Hidden Correlation Modeling), which will create more compact and discriminative feature vectors by modeling the hidden correlations between annotation terms. Experimental results on four benchmark datasets show that HCM improves prediction accuracy by 5-11% and F 1 by 8-19% compared with conventional GO-based methods. A large-scale application of Hum-mPLoc 3.0 on the whole human proteome reveals proteins co-localization preferences in the cell. www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/Hum-mPLoc3/. hbshen@sjtu.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Corbett-Detig, Russell; Nielsen, Rasmus
2017-01-01
Admixture-the mixing of genomes from divergent populations-is increasingly appreciated as a central process in evolution. To characterize and quantify patterns of admixture across the genome, a number of methods have been developed for local ancestry inference. However, existing approaches have a number of shortcomings. First, all local ancestry inference methods require some prior assumption about the expected ancestry tract lengths. Second, existing methods generally require genotypes, which is not feasible to obtain for many next-generation sequencing projects. Third, many methods assume samples are diploid, however a wide variety of sequencing applications will fail to meet this assumption. To address these issues, we introduce a novel hidden Markov model for estimating local ancestry that models the read pileup data, rather than genotypes, is generalized to arbitrary ploidy, and can estimate the time since admixture during local ancestry inference. We demonstrate that our method can simultaneously estimate the time since admixture and local ancestry with good accuracy, and that it performs well on samples of high ploidy-i.e. 100 or more chromosomes. As this method is very general, we expect it will be useful for local ancestry inference in a wider variety of populations than what previously has been possible. We then applied our method to pooled sequencing data derived from populations of Drosophila melanogaster on an ancestry cline on the east coast of North America. We find that regions of local recombination rates are negatively correlated with the proportion of African ancestry, suggesting that selection against foreign ancestry is the least efficient in low recombination regions. Finally we show that clinal outlier loci are enriched for genes associated with gene regulatory functions, consistent with a role of regulatory evolution in ecological adaptation of admixed D. melanogaster populations. Our results illustrate the potential of local ancestry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad.
1976-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is briefly exposed with the Bell theorem on hidden variables and the locality principle. The conditions for an ideal experiment are discussed and the results from γ-γ correlation experiments are given. The principle of an experimental measurement of the spin correlation function predicted by the quantum mechanics theory is derived, new hypotheses to be introduced are discussed. The formula giving the dependence of the counting asymmetry on the spin correlation function, polarimeter analyzing power, and geometric correlation is developed. The principle of a Monte Carlo calculation is also exposed. The experimental device is described with the methods for measuring the subsidiary quantities and experimental results are analyzed [fr
Symmetry aspects in emergent quantum mechanics
Elze, Hans-Thomas
2009-06-01
We discuss an explicit realization of the dissipative dynamics anticipated in the proof of 't Hooft's existence theorem, which states that 'For any quantum system there exists at least one deterministic model that reproduces all its dynamics after prequantization'. - There is an energy-parity symmetry hidden in the Liouville equation, which mimics the Kaplan-Sundrum protective symmetry for the cosmological constant. This symmetry may be broken by the coarse-graining inherent in physics at scales much larger than the Planck length. We correspondingly modify classical ensemble theory by incorporating dissipative fluctuations (information loss) - which are caused by discrete spacetime continually 'measuring' matter. In this way, aspects of quantum mechanics, such as the von Neumann equation, including a Lindblad term, arise dynamically and expectations of observables agree with the Born rule. However, the resulting quantum coherence is accompanied by an intrinsic decoherence and continuous localization mechanism. Our proposal leads towards a theory that is linear and local at the quantum mechanical level, but the relation to the underlying classical degrees of freedom is nonlocal.
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr. ... principle of symmetry was not held as something very fundamental ... principle of local symmetry: the laws of physics are invariant un- .... Next, we would show that different coefficients of a state ...
Hidden attractors in dynamical systems
Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh
2016-06-01
Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig
2013-01-01
to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...
Farmer, David W
1995-01-01
In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Groups and Symmetry is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: Its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequ
Symmetries of Maldacena-Wilson loops from integrable string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muenkler, Hagen
2017-01-01
This thesis discusses hidden symmetries within N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory or its AdS/CFT dual, string theory in AdS 5 x S 5 . Here, we focus on the Maldacena-Wilson loop, which is a suitable object for this study since its vacuum expectation value is finite for smooth contours and the conjectured duality to scattering amplitudes provides a conceptual path to transfer its symmetries to other observables. Its strong-coupling description via minimal surfaces in AdS 5 allows to construct the symmetries from the integrability of the underlying classical string theory. This approach has been utilized before to derive a strong-coupling Yangian symmetry of the Maldacena-Wilson loop and describe equiareal deformations of minimal surfaces in AdS 3 . These two findings are connected and extended in the present thesis. In order to discuss the symmetries systematically, we first discuss the symmetry structure of the underlying string model. The discussion can be generalized to the discussion of generic symmetric space models. For these, we find that the symmetry which generates the equiareal deformations of minimal surfaces in AdS 3 has a central role in the symmetry structure of the model: It acts as a raising operator on the infinite tower of conserved charges, thus generating the spectral parameter, and can be employed to construct all symmetry variations from the global symmetry of the model. It is thus referred to as the master symmetry of symmetric space models. Additionally, the algebra of the symmetry variations and the conserved charges is worked out. For the concrete case of minimal surfaces in AdS 5 , we discuss the deformation of the four-cusp solution, which provides the dual description of the four-gluon scattering amplitude. This marks the first step toward transferring the master symmetry to scattering amplitudes. Moreover, we compute the master and Yangian symmetry variations of generic, smooth boundary curves. The results leads to a coupling
Symmetries of Maldacena-Wilson loops from integrable string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muenkler, Hagen
2017-09-11
This thesis discusses hidden symmetries within N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory or its AdS/CFT dual, string theory in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5}. Here, we focus on the Maldacena-Wilson loop, which is a suitable object for this study since its vacuum expectation value is finite for smooth contours and the conjectured duality to scattering amplitudes provides a conceptual path to transfer its symmetries to other observables. Its strong-coupling description via minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 5} allows to construct the symmetries from the integrability of the underlying classical string theory. This approach has been utilized before to derive a strong-coupling Yangian symmetry of the Maldacena-Wilson loop and describe equiareal deformations of minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 3}. These two findings are connected and extended in the present thesis. In order to discuss the symmetries systematically, we first discuss the symmetry structure of the underlying string model. The discussion can be generalized to the discussion of generic symmetric space models. For these, we find that the symmetry which generates the equiareal deformations of minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 3} has a central role in the symmetry structure of the model: It acts as a raising operator on the infinite tower of conserved charges, thus generating the spectral parameter, and can be employed to construct all symmetry variations from the global symmetry of the model. It is thus referred to as the master symmetry of symmetric space models. Additionally, the algebra of the symmetry variations and the conserved charges is worked out. For the concrete case of minimal surfaces in AdS{sub 5}, we discuss the deformation of the four-cusp solution, which provides the dual description of the four-gluon scattering amplitude. This marks the first step toward transferring the master symmetry to scattering amplitudes. Moreover, we compute the master and Yangian symmetry variations of generic, smooth boundary curves. The results
Quantum symmetries in particle interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.
1983-01-01
The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields
Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation
Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong
2017-10-01
In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskildsen, M.R.; Fisher, I.R.; Gammel, P.L.
2000-01-01
Using small angle neutron scattering we have studied the square to hexagonal flux line lattice symmetry transition in different members of the borocarbide superconductors. The studies were performed using samples of ErNi2B2C, Lu(Ni1-xCox)(2)B2C with cobalt doping levels x = 1.5-9% and Y0.64Lu0.36Ni...
Soft Terms from Broken Symmetries
Buican, Matthew
2010-01-01
In theories of phyiscs beyond the Standard Model (SM), visible sector fields often carry quantum numbers under additional gauge symmetries. One could then imagine a scenario in which these extra gauge symmetries play a role in transmitting supersymmetry breaking from a hidden sector to the Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM). In this paper we present a general formalism for studying the resulting hidden sectors and calculating the corresponding gauge mediated soft parameters. We find that a large class of generic models features a leading universal contribution to the soft scalar masses that only depends on the scale of Higgsing, even if the model is strongly coupled. As a by-product of our analysis, we elucidate some IR aspects of the correlation functions in General Gauge Mediation. We also discuss possible phenomenological applications.
The origin of the hidden supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakubsky, Vit; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.
2010-01-01
The hidden supersymmetry and related tri-supersymmetric structure of the free particle system, the Dirac delta potential problem and the Aharonov-Bohm effect (planar, bound state, and tubule models) are explained by a special nonlocal unitary transformation, which for the usual N=2 supercharges has a nature of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show that in general case, the bosonized supersymmetry of nonlocal, parity even systems emerges in the same construction, and explain the origin of the unusual N=2 supersymmetry of electron in three-dimensional parity even magnetic field. The observation extends to include the hidden superconformal symmetry.
Hidden worlds in quantum physics
Gouesbet, Gérard
2014-01-01
The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...
Local rhombohedral symmetry in Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2} near the morphotropic phase boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Novel Materials for Information Technology of Zhejiang Province, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Liu, Xiaolian; Pan, Xingwen; Li, Xiang; Jiang, Yinzhu; Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse-yanmi@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Novel Materials for Information Technology of Zhejiang Province, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Huiying; Fang, Minxia [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaobing, E-mail: ren.xiaobing@nims.go.jp [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2014-11-10
The recently reported morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in a number of giant magnetostrictive materials (GMMs) has drawn considerable interest to the local symmetry/structure near MPB region of these materials. In this letter, by in-situ X-ray diffraction and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements, we show that Tb{sub 0.3}Dy{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2}, the typical composition of Terfenol-D GMMs, has coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases over a wide temperature range in the vicinity of MPB. High resolution transmission electron microscopy provides direct evidence for local rhombohedral symmetry of the ferromagnetic phase and reveals regular-shaped nanoscale domains below 10 nm. The nano-sized structural/magnetic domains are hierarchically inside a single micron-sized stripe-like domain with the same average magnetization direction. Such domain structures are consistent with the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy and easy magnetic/structural domain switching under magnetic field, thus generating large magnetostriction at low field.
Dissipative hidden sector dark matter
Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.
2015-01-01
A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.
Gauge symmetry from decoupling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Wetterich
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.
Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz
2017-07-01
A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.
Complete theory of symmetry-based indicators of band topology.
Po, Hoi Chun; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Watanabe, Haruki
2017-06-30
The interplay between symmetry and topology leads to a rich variety of electronic topological phases, protecting states such as the topological insulators and Dirac semimetals. Previous results, like the Fu-Kane parity criterion for inversion-symmetric topological insulators, demonstrate that symmetry labels can sometimes unambiguously indicate underlying band topology. Here we develop a systematic approach to expose all such symmetry-based indicators of band topology in all the 230 space groups. This is achieved by first developing an efficient way to represent band structures in terms of elementary basis states, and then isolating the topological ones by removing the subset of atomic insulators, defined by the existence of localized symmetric Wannier functions. Aside from encompassing all earlier results on such indicators, including in particular the notion of filling-enforced quantum band insulators, our theory identifies symmetry settings with previously hidden forms of band topology, and can be applied to the search for topological materials.Understanding the role of topology in determining electronic structure can lead to the discovery, or appreciation, of materials with exotic properties such as protected surface states. Here, the authors present a framework for identifying topologically distinct band-structures for all 3D space groups.
Nonlinear analysis of sequence symmetry of beta-trefoil family proteins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li Mingfeng [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Huang Yanzhao [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xu Ruizhen [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xiao Yi [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)]. E-mail: yxiao@mail.hust.edu.cn
2005-07-01
The tertiary structures of proteins of beta-trefoil family have three-fold quasi-symmetry while their amino acid sequences appear almost at random. In the present paper we show that these amino acid sequences have hidden symmetries in fact and furthermore the degrees of these hidden symmetries are the same as those of their tertiary structures. We shall present a modified recurrence plot to reveal hidden symmetries in protein sequences. Our results can explain the contradiction in sequence-structure relations of proteins of beta-trefoil family.
Prediction of Human Eye Fixations using Symmetry
Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.
2009-01-01
Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. In this paper, we discuss local symmetry as a measure of saliency. We propose a number of symmetry models and perform an eye-tracking study with human participants viewing photographic i...
Voisin, Claire
1999-01-01
This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...
Quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
1993-02-01
Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry
Sociology of Hidden Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Moradi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.
Appreciation of symmetry in natural product synthesis.
Bai, Wen-Ju; Wang, Xiqing
2017-12-13
Covering: 2012 to June 2017This review aims to show that complex natural product synthesis can be streamlined by taking advantage of molecular symmetry. Various strategies to construct molecules with either evident or hidden symmetry are illustrated. Insights regarding the origins and adjustments of these strategies as well as inspiring new methodological developments are deliberated. When a symmetric strategy fails, the corresponding reason is analysed and an alternative approach is briefly provided. Finally, the importance of exploiting molecular symmetry and future research directions are discussed.
Classical symmetries of some two-dimensional models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwarz, J.H.
1995-01-01
It is well-known that principal chiral models and symmetric space models in two-dimensional Minkowski space have an infinite-dimensional algebra of hidden symmetries. Because of the relevance of symmetric space models to duality symmetries in string theory, the hidden symmetries of these models are explored in some detail. The string theory application requires including coupling to gravity, supersymmetrization, and quantum effects. However, as a first step, this paper only considers classical bosonic theories in flat space-time. Even though the algebra of hidden symmetries of principal chiral models is confirmed to include a Kac-Moody algebra (or a current algebra on a circle), it is argued that a better interpretation is provided by a doubled current algebra on a semi-circle (or line segment). Neither the circle nor the semi-circle bears any apparent relationship to the physical space. For symmetric space models the line segment viewpoint is shown to be essential, and special boundary conditions need to be imposed at the ends. The algebra of hidden symmetries also includes Virasoro-like generators. For both principal chiral models and symmetric space models, the hidden symmetry stress tensor is singular at the ends of the line segment. (orig.)
Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries
Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.
1989-01-01
We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and Îº-symmetry and
Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Masahiro
2015-11-01
We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.
Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo
2013-09-13
Recently, the possibility of quantum simulation of dynamical gauge fields was pointed out by using a system of cold atoms trapped on each link in an optical lattice. However, to implement exact local gauge invariance, fine-tuning the interaction parameters among atoms is necessary. In the present Letter, we study the effect of violation of the U(1) local gauge invariance by relaxing the fine-tuning of the parameters and showing that a wide variety of cold atoms is still a faithful quantum simulator for a U(1) gauge-Higgs model containing a Higgs field sitting on sites. The clarification of the dynamics of this gauge-Higgs model sheds some light upon various unsolved problems, including the inflation process of the early Universe. We study the phase structure of this model by Monte Carlo simulation and also discuss the atomic characteristics of the Higgs phase in each simulator.
Jayakiruba, S; Chandrasekaran, S Selva; Murugan, P; Lakshminarasimhan, N
2017-07-05
Eu 3+ activated phosphors are widely used as red emitters in various display devices and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission characteristics of Eu 3+ depend on the local site symmetry. The present study demonstrates the role of excitation-dependent local symmetry changes due to the structural reorganization on the emission colour tuning of Eu 3+ from orange-red to orange in single host lattices, Ba 2 Mg(BO 3 ) 2 and Ba 2 Ca(BO 3 ) 2 . The choice of these lattices was based on the difference in the extent of strain experienced by the oxygen atoms. The samples with Eu 3+ at Ba or Mg (Ca) sites were synthesized using the conventional high-temperature solid-state reaction method. The samples were characterized using powder XRD, 11 B MAS-NMR, FT-IR, and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) recorded using different excitation wavelengths revealed a clear difference in the PL emission features due to symmetry reversal from non-inversion to inversion symmetry around Eu 3+ . The reorganization of highly strained oxygen atoms leads to such symmetry reversal. First-principles calculations were used to deduce the optimized structures of the two borate host lattices, and local geometries and their distortions upon Eu 3+ substitution. The outcomes of these calculations support the experimental findings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lummen, Tom T. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Leung, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Kumar, Amit [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT71NN Northern Ireland UK; Wu, X. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA; Ren, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA; VanLeeuwen, Brian K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Haislmaier, Ryan C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA; Holt, Martin [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Lai, Keji [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712 USA; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN 37831 USA; Gopalan, Venkatraman [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA
2017-06-19
The design of new or enhanced functionality in materials is traditionally viewed as requiring the discovery of new chemical compositions through synthesis. Large property enhancements may however also be hidden within already well-known materials, when their structural symmetry is deviated from equilibrium through a small local strain or field. Here, the discovery of enhanced material properties associated with a new metastable phase of monoclinic symmetry within bulk KNbO3 is reported. This phase is found to coexist with the nominal orthorhombic phase at room temperature, and is both induced by and stabilized with local strains generated by a network of ferroelectric domain walls. While the local microstructural shear strain involved is only approximate to 0.017%, the concurrent symmetry reduction results in an optical second harmonic generation response that is over 550% higher at room temperature. Moreover, the meandering walls of the low-symmetry domains also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity on the order of 1 S m(-1). This discovery reveals a potential new route to local engineering of significant property enhancements and conductivity through symmetry lowering in ferroelectric crystals.
A preon model with hidden electric and magnetic type charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, J.C.; Strathdee, J.
1980-11-01
The U(1) x U(1) binding forces in an earlier preonic composite model of quarks and leptons are interpreted as arising from hidden electric and magnetic type charges. The preons may possess intrinsic spin zero; the half-integer spins of the composites being contributed by the force field. The quark-lepton gauge symmetry is interpreted as an effective low-energy symmetry arising at the composite level. Some remarks are made regarding the possible composite nature of the graviton. (author)
Madanat, Rami; Hussey, Daniel K; Donahue, Gabrielle S; Potter, Hollis G; Wallace, Robert; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Malchau, Henrik
2015-10-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether patients with bilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements have symmetric adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) at follow-up. An MRI of both hips was performed at a mean time of six years after surgery in 43 patients. The prevalence and severity of ALTRs were found to be similar in simultaneous hips but differences were observed in sequential hips. The order and timing of sequential hip arthroplasties did not affect the severity of ALTRs. Thus, in addition to metal ion exposure from an earlier MoM implant other factors may also play a role in the progression of ALTRs. Bilateral implants should be given special consideration in risk stratification algorithms for management of patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siddhartha Sen
2010-07-01
Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stairs, Allen
2007-01-01
Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs
Partially Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma
1996-01-01
Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.M.
1984-01-01
The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr
Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.
Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian
2015-12-14
We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.
Cosmoparticle physics of family symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khlopov, M.Yu.
1993-07-01
The foundations of both particle theory and cosmology are hidden at super energy scale and can not be tested by direct laboratory means. Cosmoparticle physics is developed to probe these foundations by the proper combination of their indirect effects, thus providing definite conclusions on their reliability. Cosmological and astrophysical tests turn to be complementary to laboratory searches of rare processes, induced by new physics, as it can be seen in the case of gauge theory of broken symmetry of quark and lepton families, ascribing to the hierarchy of the horizontal symmetry breaking the observed hierarchy of masses and the mixing between quark and lepton families. 36 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disney, M.
1985-01-01
Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Oeverlier, Lasse; Syverson, Paul F
2006-01-01
.... Announced properties include server resistance to distributed DoS. Both the EFF and Reporters Without Borders have issued guides that describe using hidden services via Tor to protect the safety of dissidents as well as to resist censorship...
Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests
Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana
2015-04-01
Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.
Cohomology for Lagrangian systems and Noetherian symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popp, O.T.
1989-06-01
Using the theory of sheaves we find some exact sequences describing the locally Lagrangian systems. Using cohomology theory of groups with coefficients in sheaves we obtain some exact sequences describing the Noetherian symmetries. It is shown how the results can be used to find all locally Lagrangian dynamics Noetherian invariant with respect to a given group of kinematical symmetries.(author)
Quantum group and quantum symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Zhe.
1994-05-01
This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1981-09-01
Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces
Bohlin transformation: the hidden symmetry that connects Hooke to Newton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saggio, Maria Luisa
2013-01-01
Hooke's name is familiar to students of mechanics thanks to the law of force that bears his name. Less well-known is the influence his findings had on the founder of mechanics, Isaac Newton. In a lecture given some twenty years ago, W Arnol'd pointed out the outstanding contribution to science made by Hooke, and also noted the controversial issue of the attribution of important discoveries to Newton that were actually inspired by Hooke. It therefore seems ironic that the two most famous force laws, named after Hooke and Newton, are two geometrical aspects of the same law. This relationship, together with other illuminating aspects of Newtonian mechanics, is described in Arnol'd's book and is worth remembering in standard physics courses. In this didactical paper the duality of the two forces is expounded and an account of the more recent contributions to the subject is given. (paper)
Phase transitions, interfacial fluctuations and hidden symmetries for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
puter simulations show the non-perturbative influence of NL interactions. ...... model satisfies the necessary requirement of classical wedge covariance (eq. .... Universidades (Spain), co-financed by the European Social Fund, and from the.
Phase transitions, interfacial fluctuations and hidden symmetries for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
progress in this area paying particular attention to filling transitions pertinent to fluid ..... not a general feature of the mean-field theory of filling and critical wetting. For ... where the volume of integration is restricted to z ≥ tan α|x| for every x. The.
Hidden symmetries of the Kaluza-Klein-type theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popov, A.D.
1987-01-01
It is shown that introduction of dynamical torsion in Kaluza-Klein theories makes is possible to increase the number of gauge fields extracted from the Lagrangian without increasing the number of extra dimentions. An example of spontaneous compactification of the model investigated is considered
Breaking the hidden symmetry in the Ginzburg-Landau equation
Doelman, A.
1996-01-01
In this paper we study localised, traveling, solutions to a Ginzburg-Landau equation to which we have added a small, O(e), 0 < e << 1, quintic term. We consider this term as a model for the higher order nonlinearities which appear in the derivation of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. By a combination
Breaking the hidden symmetry in the Ginzburg-Landau equation
Doelman, A.
1997-01-01
In this paper we study localised, traveling, solutions to a Ginzburg-Landau equation to which we have added a small, O ( " ), 0 < "? 1, quintic term. We consider this term as a model for the higher order nonlinearities which appear in the derivation of the Ginzburg-Landau equation. By a combination
Nucleon form factors and hidden symmetry in holographic QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, D.K.; Rho, M.; Yee, H.-U.; Yi, P.
2007-10-01
The vector dominance of the electromagnetic (EM) form factors both for mesons and baryons arises naturally in holographic QCD, where both the number of colors and the 't Hooft coupling are taken to be very large, offering a bona-fide derivation of the notion of vector dominance. The crucial ingredient for this is the infinite tower of vector mesons in the approximations made which share features that are characteristic of the quenched approximation in lattice QCD. We approximate the infinite sum by contributions from the lowest four vector mesons of the tower which turn out to saturate the charge and magnetic moment sum rules within a few % and compute them totally free of unknown parameters for momentum transfers Q 2 approx.= 1 GeV 2 . We identify certain observables that can be reliably computed within the approximations and others that are not, and discuss how the improvement of the latter can enable one to bring holographic QCD closer to QCD proper. (author)
Solovev, V
The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.
At the origins of mass: elementary particles and fundamental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliopoulos, Jean; Englert, Francois
2015-01-01
After a brief recall of the history of cosmology, the author proposes an overview of the different symmetries (symmetries in space and in time, internal symmetries, local or gauge symmetries), describes the mass issue (gauge interactions, quarks and leptons as matter mass constituents, chirality), addresses the spontaneous symmetry breaking (the Curie theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in classical physics and in quantum physics, the Goldstone theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in presence of gauge interactions), presents the standard theory (electromagnetic and weak interactions, strong interactions, relationship with experiment). An appendix presents elementary particles, and notably reports the story of the neutrino
Tanaka, Kenta K.; Ichioka, Masanori; Onari, Seiichiro
2018-04-01
Local NMR relaxation rates in the vortex state of chiral and helical p -wave superconductors are investigated by the quasiclassical Eilenberger theory. We calculate the spatial and resonance frequency dependences of the local NMR spin-lattice relaxation rate T1-1 and spin-spin relaxation rate T2-1. Depending on the relation between the NMR relaxation direction and the d -vector symmetry, the local T1-1 and T2-1 in the vortex core region show different behaviors. When the NMR relaxation direction is parallel to the d -vector component, the local NMR relaxation rate is anomalously suppressed by the negative coherence effect due to the spin dependence of the odd-frequency s -wave spin-triplet Cooper pairs. The difference between the local T1-1 and T2-1 in the site-selective NMR measurement is expected to be a method to examine the d -vector symmetry of candidate materials for spin-triplet superconductors.
Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1982-12-01
These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed
Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence
Barnard, Edward S.
2011-10-12
We perform spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging nanoscopy using a 30 keV electron beam to identify the resonant modes of an ultrathin (20 nm), laterally tapered plasmonic Ag nanostrip antenna. We resolve with deep-subwavelength resolution four antenna resonances (resonance orders m = 2-5) that are ascribed to surface plasmon polariton standing waves that are confined on the strip. We map the local density of states on the strip surface and show that it has contributions from symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes, each with a very different mode index. This work illustrates the power of CL experiments that can visualize hidden modes that for symmetry reasons have been elusive in optical light scattering experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Birgitte; Jensen, Karsten Klint
“The Hidden Values - Transparency in Decision-Making Processes Dealing with Hazardous Activities”. The report seeks to shed light on what is needed to create a transparent framework for political and administrative decisions on the use of GMOs and chemical products. It is our hope that the report...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henley, E.M.
1987-01-01
Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs
Hidden vortex lattices in a thermally paired superfluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, E. K.; Sudboe, A.; Babaev, E.
2008-01-01
We study the evolution of rotational response of a statistical mechanical model of two-component superfluid with a nondissipative drag interaction as the system undergoes a transition into a paired superfluid phase at finite temperature. The transition manifests itself in a change of (i) vortex-lattice symmetry and (ii) nature of the vortex state. Instead of a vortex lattice, the system forms a highly disordered tangle which constantly undergoes merger and reconnecting processes involving different types of vortices with a 'hidden' breakdown of translation symmetry
McGregor, Anthony; Jones, Peter M; Good, Mark A; Pearce, John M
2006-07-01
Naive male Hooded Lister rats (Rattus norvegicus) were required to find a submerged platform in a right-angled corner between a long and a short wall of a pool in the shape of an irregular pentagon. Tests in a rectangular pool revealed a preference for the corners that corresponded with the correct corner in the pentagon. These findings indicate that rats identified the correct corner in the pentagon by local cues. They contradict the suggestion that rats navigate by moving in a particular direction relative to the principal axis of the shape of their environment.
A κ-symmetry calculus for superparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauntlett, J.P.
1991-01-01
We develop a κ-symmetry calculus for the d=2 and d=3, N=2 massive superparticles, which enables us to construct higher order κ-invariant actions. The method relies on a reformulation of these models as supersymmetric sigma models that are invariant under local worldline superconformal transformations. We show that the κ-symmetry is embedded in the superconformal symmetry so that a calculus for the κ-symmetry is equivalent to a tensor calculus for the latter. We develop such a calculus without the introduction of a wordline supergravity multiplet. (orig.)
Quasiparticle scattering image in hidden order phases and chiral superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thalmeier, Peter [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Akbari, Alireza, E-mail: alireza@apctp.org [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, and Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-02-15
The technique of Bogoliubov quasiparticle interference (QPI) has been successfully used to investigate the symmetry of unconventional superconducting gaps, also in heavy fermion compounds. It was demonstrated that QPI can distinguish between the d-wave singlet candidates in CeCoIn{sub 5}. In URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} presumably a chiral d-wave singlet superconducting (SC) state exists inside a multipolar hidden order (HO) phase. We show that hidden order leaves an imprint on the symmetry of QPI pattern that may be used to determine the essential question whether HO in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} breaks the in-plane rotational symmetry or not. We also demonstrate that the chiral d-wave SC gap leads to a crossover to a quasi-2D QPI spectrum below T{sub c} which sharpens the HO features. Furthermore we investigate the QPI image of chiral p-wave multigap superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • The chiral multigap structure of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} leads to rotation of QPI spectrum with bias voltage. • 5f band reconstruction in hidden order phase of URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is obtained from two orbital model. • The chiral superconductivity in URu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} leads to quasi-2D quasiparticle interference (QPI).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric
1999-01-01
A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...
Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A
2007-01-01
The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.
Peppers, Emily
2008-01-01
The Cultural Collections Audit project began at the University of Edinburgh in 2004, searching for hidden treasures in its 'distributed heritage collections' across the university. The objects and collections recorded in the Audit ranged widely from fine art and furniture to historical scientific and teaching equipment and personalia relating to key figures in the university's long tradition of academic excellence. This information was gathered in order to create a central database of informa...
Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains
Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad
2015-01-01
Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...
A realistic extension of gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking model with superconformal hidden sector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asano, Masaki; Hisano, Junji; Okada, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shohei
2009-01-01
The sequestering of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking parameters, which is induced by superconformal hidden sector, is one of the solutions for the μ/B μ problem in gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking scenario. However, it is found that the minimal messenger model does not derive the correct electroweak symmetry breaking. In this Letter we present a model which has the coupling of the messengers with the SO(10) GUT-symmetry breaking Higgs fields. The model is one of the realistic extensions of the gauge mediation model with superconformal hidden sector. It is shown that the extension is applicable for a broad range of conformality breaking scale
Structural symmetry and protein function.
Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J
2000-01-01
The majority of soluble and membrane-bound proteins in modern cells are symmetrical oligomeric complexes with two or more subunits. The evolutionary selection of symmetrical oligomeric complexes is driven by functional, genetic, and physicochemical needs. Large proteins are selected for specific morphological functions, such as formation of rings, containers, and filaments, and for cooperative functions, such as allosteric regulation and multivalent binding. Large proteins are also more stable against denaturation and have a reduced surface area exposed to solvent when compared with many individual, smaller proteins. Large proteins are constructed as oligomers for reasons of error control in synthesis, coding efficiency, and regulation of assembly. Symmetrical oligomers are favored because of stability and finite control of assembly. Several functions limit symmetry, such as interaction with DNA or membranes, and directional motion. Symmetry is broken or modified in many forms: quasisymmetry, in which identical subunits adopt similar but different conformations; pleomorphism, in which identical subunits form different complexes; pseudosymmetry, in which different molecules form approximately symmetrical complexes; and symmetry mismatch, in which oligomers of different symmetries interact along their respective symmetry axes. Asymmetry is also observed at several levels. Nearly all complexes show local asymmetry at the level of side chain conformation. Several complexes have reciprocating mechanisms in which the complex is asymmetric, but, over time, all subunits cycle through the same set of conformations. Global asymmetry is only rarely observed. Evolution of oligomeric complexes may favor the formation of dimers over complexes with higher cyclic symmetry, through a mechanism of prepositioned pairs of interacting residues. However, examples have been found for all of the crystallographic point groups, demonstrating that functional need can drive the evolution of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suppes, P.; Zanotti, M.
1984-01-01
This paper is concerned with inferences from phenomenological variables to hidden causes or hidden variables. A number of theorems of a general sort are stated. The paper concludes with a treatment of Bell's inequalities and their generalization to more than four observables. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Philippe [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)
1998-12-31
In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation 17 refs., 16 figs.
Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in onedimensional loop ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in ... Keywords. Non-local transformation; broken symmetry; sine-Gordon; sech interaction. ... A specific type of classically broken symmetry is restored in quantum theory. One-dimensional sine-Gordon system and ...
Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)
2017-01-15
The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.
Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.
1987-01-01
The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.
1993-01-01
An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberg, S.
1976-01-01
The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy
Hidden Liquidity: Determinants and Impact
Gökhan Cebiroglu; Ulrich Horst
2012-01-01
We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stockâ€™s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, ...
Adaptive filtering for hidden node detection and tracking in networks.
Hamilton, Franz; Setzer, Beverly; Chavez, Sergio; Tran, Hien; Lloyd, Alun L
2017-07-01
The identification of network connectivity from noisy time series is of great interest in the study of network dynamics. This connectivity estimation problem becomes more complicated when we consider the possibility of hidden nodes within the network. These hidden nodes act as unknown drivers on our network and their presence can lead to the identification of false connections, resulting in incorrect network inference. Detecting the parts of the network they are acting on is thus critical. Here, we propose a novel method for hidden node detection based on an adaptive filtering framework with specific application to neuronal networks. We consider the hidden node as a problem of missing variables when model fitting and show that the estimated system noise covariance provided by the adaptive filter can be used to localize the influence of the hidden nodes and distinguish the effects of different hidden nodes. Additionally, we show that the sequential nature of our algorithm allows for tracking changes in the hidden node influence over time.
Hidden gauge structure of supersymmetric free differential algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrianopoli, Laura [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy); D’Auria, Riccardo [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); Ravera, Lucrezia [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy)
2016-08-16
The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q{sup ′} introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(82)90376-5 and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B{sup (2)} and B{sup (3)} in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of two nilpotent fermionic generators in the hidden algebra. We propose that our approach, where all the invariances of the FDA are expressed as Lie derivatives of the p-forms in the hidden supergroup manifold, could be an appropriate framework to discuss theories defined in enlarged versions of superspace recently considered in the literature, such us double field theory and its generalizations.
Atlas of solar hidden photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2015-07-20
Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.
Atlas of solar hidden photon emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain)
2015-07-01
Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.
Sheela, K. Juliet; Subbulakshmi, N.; Subramanian, P.
2018-04-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies have been investigated on Cu2+ ion incorporated into the single crystals of potassium succinate-succinic acid (KSSA) at room temperature. Two magnetically in-equivalent Cu2+ sites in the lattice are identified, among them site I has been reported. The spin Hamiltonian parameters are determined with the fitting of spectra to rhombic symmetry crystalline field. The co-ordination of the Cu2+ ion in this molecule is a distorted dodecahedron. From the calculated gxx, gyy, gzz and Axx, Ayy, Azz and their directional cosines values, location of site I impurity ion Cu2+ could be identified as a substituitional one. Also the ground state wave function of the impurity ion was found to be d2z.
Raibert, M H
1986-03-14
Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.
Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina
2018-05-01
Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.
Parastatistics and gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1982-01-01
A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian
2015-01-01
A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.
... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...
Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.
Emergent rotational symmetries in disordered magnetic domain patterns.
Su, Run; Seu, Keoki A; Parks, Daniel; Kan, Jimmy J; Fullerton, Eric E; Roy, Sujoy; Kevan, Stephen D
2011-12-16
Uniaxial systems often form labyrinthine domains that exhibit short-range order but are macroscopically isotropic and would not be expected to exhibit precise symmetries. However, their underlying frustration results in a multitude of metastable configurations of comparable energy, and driving such a system externally might lead to pattern formation. We find that soft x-ray speckle diffraction patterns of the labyrinthine domains in CoPd/IrMn heterostructures reveal a diverse array of hidden rotational symmetries about the magnetization axis, thereby suggesting an unusual form of emergent order in an otherwise disordered system. These symmetries depend on applied magnetic field, magnetization history, and scattering wave vector. Maps of rotational symmetry exhibit intriguing structures that can be controlled by manipulating the applied magnetic field in concert with the exchange bias condition. © 2011 American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainzer, K.
1988-01-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mainzer, K
1988-05-01
Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arima, A.
2003-01-01
(1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)
From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.
2016-01-01
Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.
Harris, A. Brooks
2006-01-01
This paper represents a detailed instruction manual for constructing the Landau expansion for magnetoelectric coupling in incommensurate ferroelectric magnets. The first step is to describe the magnetic ordering in terms of symmetry adapted coordinates which serve as complex valued magnetic order parameters whose transformation properties are displayed. In so doing we use the previously proposed technique to exploit inversion symmetry, since this symmetry had been universally overlooked. Havi...
A topological approach unveils system invariances and broken symmetries in the brain.
Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F
2016-05-01
Symmetries are widespread invariances underscoring countless systems, including the brain. A symmetry break occurs when the symmetry is present at one level of observation but is hidden at another level. In such a general framework, a concept from algebraic topology, namely, the Borsuk-Ulam theorem (BUT), comes into play and sheds new light on the general mechanisms of nervous symmetries. The BUT tells us that we can find, on an n-dimensional sphere, a pair of opposite points that have the same encoding on an n - 1 sphere. This mapping makes it possible to describe both antipodal points with a single real-valued vector on a lower dimensional sphere. Here we argue that this topological approach is useful for the evaluation of hidden nervous symmetries. This means that symmetries can be found when evaluating the brain in a proper dimension, although they disappear (are hidden or broken) when we evaluate the same brain only one dimension lower. In conclusion, we provide a topological methodology for the evaluation of the most general features of brain activity, i.e., the symmetries, cast in a physical/biological fashion that has the potential to be operationalized. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.
2009-01-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Broken colour symmetry and liberated quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, E.
1976-01-01
A quark model of hadrons is presented and discussed, in which local SU(3) gauge symmetry is completely broken and yet asymptotic freedom is preserved. There is no infrared slavery in this model, and isolated quarks are free to exist. Colour becomes a global symmetry which is only approximate under SU(3) but nearly exact under SU(2) x U(1), as far as the usual hadron spectroscopy is concerned. (Auth.)
Supersymmetric Musings on the Predictivity of Family Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kadota, Kenji; Kersten, Joern; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana
2010-06-01
We discuss the predictivity of family symmetries for the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in the framework of supergravity. We show that unknown details of the messenger sector and the supersymmetry breaking hidden sector enter into the soft parameters, making it difficult to obtain robust predictions. We find that there are specific choices of messenger fields which can improve the predictivity for the soft parameters. (author)
Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2015-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxton, W.C.
1988-01-01
I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig
2016-01-01
The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.
Quantum symmetry for pedestrians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.
1992-03-01
Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)
Charged fluids with symmetries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...
Marchis, Iuliana
2009-01-01
Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.
Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben
2014-01-01
This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....
The Hidden Costs of Offshoring
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben
2011-01-01
of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...
Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises
... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...
Symmetry and symmetry breaking in modern physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barone, M; Theophilou, A K
2008-01-01
In modern physics, the theory of symmetry, i.e. group theory, is a basic tool for understanding and formulating the fundamental principles of Physics, like Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics. In this work we focus on the relation between Mathematics, Physics and objective reality
Hidden in plain sight: the formal, informal, and hidden curricula of a psychiatry clerkship.
Wear, Delese; Skillicorn, Jodie
2009-04-01
To examine perceptions of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula in psychiatry as they are observed and experienced by (1) attending physicians who have teaching responsibilities for residents and medical students, (2) residents who are taught by those same physicians and who have teaching responsibilities for medical students, and (3) medical students who are taught by attendings and residents during their psychiatry rotation. From June to November 2007, the authors conducted focus groups with attendings, residents, and students in one midwestern academic setting. The sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for themes surrounding the formal, informal, and hidden curricula. All three groups offered a similar belief that the knowledge, skills, and values of the formal curriculum focused on building relationships. Similarly, all three suggested that elements of the informal and hidden curricula were expressed primarily as the values arising from attendings' role modeling, as the nature and amount of time attendings spend with patients, and as attendings' advice arising from experience and intuition versus "textbook learning." Whereas students and residents offered negative values arising from the informal and hidden curricula, attendings did not, offering instead the more positive values they intended to encourage through the informal and hidden curricula. The process described here has great potential in local settings across all disciplines. Asking teachers and learners in any setting to think about how they experience the educational environment and what sense they make of all curricular efforts can provide a reality check for educators and a values check for learners as they critically reflect on the meanings of what they are learning.
Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation
Zak, Michail
2011-01-01
Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.
Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Reza Andarvazh
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD
Scaling dimensions in hidden Kerr/CFT correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowe, David A.; Messamah, Ilies; Skanata, Antun
2011-01-01
It has been proposed that a hidden conformal field theory (CFT) governs the dynamics of low frequency scattering in a general Kerr black hole background. We further investigate this correspondence by mapping higher order corrections to the massless wave equations in a Kerr background to an expansion within the CFT in terms of higher dimension operators. This implies the presence of infinite towers of CFT primary operators with positive conformal dimensions compatible with unitarity. The exact Kerr background softly breaks the conformal symmetry and the scaling dimensions of these operators run with frequency. The scale-invariant fixed point is dual to a degenerate case of flat spacetime.
Protecting the axion with local baryon number
Duerr, Michael; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Unwin, James
2018-05-01
The Peccei-Quinn (PQ) solution to the Strong CP Problem is expected to fail unless the global symmetry U(1)PQ is protected from Planck-scale operators up to high mass dimension. Suitable protection can be achieved if the PQ symmetry is an automatic consequence of some gauge symmetry. We highlight that if baryon number is promoted to a gauge symmetry, the exotic fermions needed for anomaly cancellation can elegantly provide an implementation of the Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov 'hidden axion' mechanism with a PQ symmetry protected from Planck-scale physics.
Gapless Symmetry-Protected Topological Order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Scaffidi
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We introduce exactly solvable gapless quantum systems in d dimensions that support symmetry-protected topological (SPT edge modes. Our construction leads to long-range entangled, critical points or phases that can be interpreted as critical condensates of domain walls “decorated” with dimension (d-1 SPT systems. Using a combination of field theory and exact lattice results, we argue that such gapless SPT systems have symmetry-protected topological edge modes that can be either gapless or symmetry broken, leading to unusual surface critical properties. Despite the absence of a bulk gap, these edge modes are robust against arbitrary symmetry-preserving local perturbations near the edges. In two dimensions, we construct wave functions that can also be interpreted as unusual quantum critical points with diffusive scaling in the bulk but ballistic edge dynamics.
Hidden ion population: Revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.
1985-01-01
Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential
Symbolic Detection of Permutation and Parity Symmetries of Evolution Equations
Alghamdi, Moataz
2017-06-18
We introduce a symbolic computational approach to detecting all permutation and parity symmetries in any general evolution equation, and to generating associated invariant polynomials, from given monomials, under the action of these symmetries. Traditionally, discrete point symmetries of differential equations are systemically found by solving complicated nonlinear systems of partial differential equations; in the presence of Lie symmetries, the process can be simplified further. Here, we show how to find parity- and permutation-type discrete symmetries purely based on algebraic calculations. Furthermore, we show that such symmetries always form groups, thereby allowing for the generation of new group-invariant conserved quantities from known conserved quantities. This work also contains an implementation of the said results in Mathematica. In addition, it includes, as a motivation for this work, an investigation of the connection between variational symmetries, described by local Lie groups, and conserved quantities in Hamiltonian systems.
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-01-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Sequential flavor symmetry breaking
Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas
2009-08-01
The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2015-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.
Orbital symmetry fingerprints for magnetic adatoms in graphene
Uchoa, Bruno; Yang, Ling; Tsai, S.-W.; Peres, N. M. R.; Castro Neto, A. H.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we describe the formation of local resonances in graphene in the presence of magnetic adatoms containing localized orbitals of arbitrary symmetry, corresponding to any given angular momentum state. We show that quantum interference effects which are naturally inbuilt in the honeycomb lattice in combination with the specific orbital symmetry of the localized state lead to the formation of fingerprints in differential conductance curves. In the presence of Jahn-Teller distortion effects, which lift the orbital degeneracy of the adatoms, the orbital symmetries can lead to distinctive signatures in the local density of states. We show that those effects allow scanning tunneling probes to characterize adatoms and defects in graphene.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragon, N.
1979-01-01
The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...
Statistical symmetries in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA
1994-01-01
Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs
Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...
Dynamical symmetries for fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M.
1989-01-01
An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs
Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Antonov
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.
Flavour from accidental symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferretti, Luca; King, Stephen F.; Romanino, Andrea
2006-01-01
We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)
2013-06-15
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Hidden photons in connection to dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas; Goodsell, Mark D.
2013-06-01
Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-06-10
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, Alexander Simon
2009-01-01
This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)
The priority of internal symmetries in particle physics
Kantorovich, Aharon
2003-12-01
In this paper, I try to decipher the role of internal symmetries in the ontological maze of particle physics. The relationship between internal symmetries and laws of nature is discussed within the framework of ;Platonic realism.; The notion of physical ;structure; is introduced as representing a deeper ontological layer behind the observable world. I argue that an internal symmetry is a structure encompassing laws of nature. The application of internal symmetry groups to particle physics came about in two revolutionary steps. The first was the introduction of the internal symmetries of hadrons in the early 1960s. These global and approximate symmetries served as means of bypassing the dynamics. I argue that the realist could interpret these symmetries as ontologically prior to the hadrons. The second step was the gauge revolution in the 1970s, where symmetries became local and exact and were integrated with the dynamics. I argue that the symmetries of the second generation are fundamental in the following two respects: (1) According to the so-called ;gauge argument,; gauge symmetry dictates the existence of gauge bosons, which determine the nature of the forces. This view, which has been recently criticized by some philosophers, is widely accepted in particle physics at least as a heuristic principle. (2) In view of grand unified theories, the new symmetries can be interpreted as ontologically prior to baryon matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malykh, A A; Nutku, Y; Sheftel, M B
2003-01-01
We extend the Mason-Newman Lax pair for the elliptic complex Monge-Ampere equation so that this equation itself emerges as an algebraic consequence. We regard the function in the extended Lax equations as a complex potential. Their differential compatibility condition coincides with the determining equation for the symmetries of the complex Monge-Ampere equation. We shall identify the real and imaginary parts of the potential, which we call partner symmetries, with the translational and dilatational symmetry characteristics, respectively. Then we choose the dilatational symmetry characteristic as the new unknown replacing the Kaehler potential. This directly leads to a Legendre transformation. Studying the integrability conditions of the Legendre-transformed system we arrive at a set of linear equations satisfied by a single real potential. This enables us to construct non-invariant solutions of the Legendre transform of the complex Monge-Ampere equation. Using these solutions we obtained explicit Legendre-transformed hyper-Kaehler metrics with a anti-self-dual Riemann curvature 2-form that admit no Killing vectors. They satisfy the Einstein field equations with Euclidean signature. We give the detailed derivation of the solution announced earlier and present a new solution with an added parameter. We compare our method of partner symmetries for finding non-invariant solutions to that of Dunajski and Mason who use 'hidden' symmetries for the same purpose
Detecting hidden particles with MATHUSLA
Evans, Jared A.
2018-03-01
A hidden sector containing light long-lived particles provides a well-motivated place to find new physics. The recently proposed MATHUSLA experiment has the potential to be extremely sensitive to light particles originating from rare meson decays in the very long lifetime region. In this work, we illustrate this strength with the specific example of a light scalar mixed with the standard model-like Higgs boson, a model where MATHUSLA can further probe unexplored parameter space from exotic Higgs decays. Design augmentations should be considered in order to maximize the ability of MATHUSLA to discover very light hidden sector particles.
Hidden Crises and Communication: An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises
dr. Annette Klarenbeek
2011-01-01
In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in
Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises
dr. Annette Klarenbeek
2011-01-01
In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in
Basic quantum theory and measurement from the viewpoint of local quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroer, Bert
1999-04-01
Several aspects of the manifestation of the causality principle in LQP (local quantum physics) are reviewed or presented. Particular emphasis is given to those properties which are typical for LQP in the sense that they do go beyond the structure of general quantum theory and even escape the Lagrangian quantization methods of standard QFT. The most remarkable are those relating causality to the modular Tomita-Takesaki theory, since they bring in the basic concepts of antiparticles, charge superselections as well as internal and external (geometric and hidden) symmetries. (author)
Quasi Hopf quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.
1991-05-01
In quantum theory, internal symmetries more general than groups are possible. We show that quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebras G * as introduced by Drinfeld permit a consistent formulation of a transformation law of states in the physical Hilbert space H, of invariance of the ground state, and of a transformation law of field operators which is consistent with local braid relations of field operators as proposed by Froehlich. All this remains true when Drinfelds axioms are suitably weakened in order to build in truncated tensor products. Conversely, all the axioms of a weak quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebra are motivated from what physics demands of a symmetry. Unitarity requires in addition that G * admits a * -operation with certain properties. Invariance properties of Greens functions follow from invariance of the ground state and covariance of field operators as usual. Covariant adjoints and covariant products of field operators can be defined. The R-matrix elements in the local braid relations are in general operators in H. They are determined by the symmetry up to a phase factor. Quantum group algebras like U q (sl 2 ) with vertical strokeqvertical stroke=1 are examples of symmetries with special properties. We show that a weak quasitriangular quasi Hopf algebra G * is canonically associated with U q (sl 2 ) if q P =-1. We argue that these weak quasi Hopf algebras are the true symmetries of minimal conformal models. Their dual algebras G ('functions on the group') are neither commutative nor associative. (orig.)
Gauge symmetry breaking in gauge theories -- in search of clarification
Friederich, Simon
2013-01-01
The paper investigates the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries in gauge theories from a philosophical angle, taking into account the fact that the notion of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry, though widely employed in textbook expositions of the Higgs mechanism, is not supported by
Non-geometric fluxes and mixed-symmetry potentials
Bergshoeff, E.A.; Penas, V.A.; Riccioni, F.; Risoli, S.
2015-01-01
We discuss the relation between generalised fluxes and mixed-symmetry potentials. We refer to the fluxes that cannot be described even locally in the framework of supergravity as ‘non-geometric’. We first consider the NS fluxes, and point out that the non-geometric R flux is dual to a mixed-symmetry
Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries
Amelino-Camelia, G
2002-01-01
Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Entry deterrence and hidden competition
Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter
This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on
Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage
1996-01-01
Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....
The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.
Jacso, Peter
1994-01-01
Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王丹丹; 徐越; 宋怀波; 何东健
2015-01-01
果实采摘点的精确定位是采摘机器人必须解决的关键问题。鉴于苹果目标具有良好对称性的特点，利用转动惯量所具有的平移、旋转不变性及其在对称轴方向取得极值的特性，提出了一种基于轮廓对称轴法的苹果目标采摘点定位方法。为了解决分割后苹果目标边缘不够平滑而导致定位精度偏低的问题，提出了一种苹果目标轮廓平滑方法。为了验证算法的有效性，对随机选取的20幅无遮挡的单果苹果图像分别利用轮廓平滑和未进行轮廓平滑的算法进行试验，试验结果表明，未进行轮廓平滑算法的平均定位误差为20.678°，而轮廓平滑后算法平均定位误差为4.542°，比未进行轮廓平滑算法平均定位误差降低了78.035%，未进行轮廓平滑算法的平均运行时间为10.2 ms，而轮廓平滑后算法的平均运行时间为7.5 ms，比未进行轮廓平滑算法平均运行时间降低了25.839%，表明平滑轮廓算法可以提高定位精度和运算效率。利用平滑轮廓对称轴算法可以较好地找到苹果目标的对称轴并实现采摘点定位，表明将该方法应用于苹果目标的对称轴提取及采摘点定位是可行的。%The localization of picking points of fruits is one of the key problems for picking robots, and it is the first step of implementation of the picking task for picking robots. In view of a good symmetry of apples, and characteristics of shift, rotation invariance, and reaching the extreme values in symmetry axis direction which moment of inertia possesses, a new method based on a contour symmetry axis was proposed to locate the picking point of apples. In order to solve the problem of low localization accuracy which results from the rough edge of apples after segmentation, a method of smoothing contour algorithm was presented. The steps of the algorithm were as follow, first, the image was transformed from RGB color space into
Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter
2014-01-01
This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme. Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology. The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...
Schwichtenberg, Jakob
2018-01-01
This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .
Hidden ion population of the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, R.C.
1982-01-01
Particle data from two geosynchronous satellites (Applied Technology Satellite 6 and SCATHA) show a normally hidden ion population appearing when the satellites are in the earth's shadow. Ion and electron data show the spacecraft potential dropping from +10 V in sunlight to +4 and +5 V in eclipse at local midnight, in low-energy (T/sub e/ -2 ), isotropic ion population appears which was invisible in sunlight because of the larger positive spacecraft potential. Higher-energy populations generally cover the tails of the hidden ion populations, so they cannot be inferred from daylight data. The isotropic populations appears only in a few percent of the spacecraft eclipse events, appearing only at times of low Kp (2 or less, preceded by a day with Σ Kp< or =20). A low-energy (T = 1--2 eV) field-aligned population often appears with and without the isotropic population, at slightly higher flux levels. These fluxes are visible in sunlight, but again the distribution functions obtained in eclipse differ from those that would be inferred from daylight data. Measurement of the thermal plasma population on a consistent basis, particularly in the plasma sheet, will require some method of controlling the detector potential with respect to the ambient plamsa
BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking
Ryder, L. H.
2005-11-01
One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would
Symmetry, structure, and spacetime
Rickles, Dean
2007-01-01
In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chimento, Luis P.
2002-01-01
We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology
Effect of orbital symmetry on the anisotropic superexchange interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Beom Hyun; Min, B I
2011-01-01
Employing the microscopic superexchange model incorporating the effect of spin-orbit interaction, we have investigated the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction in perovskite transition-metal (TM) oxides and explored the interplay between the DM interaction and the TM-3d orbital symmetry. For d 3 and d 5 systems with isotropic orbital symmetry, the DM vectors are well described by a simple symmetry analysis considering only the bond geometry. In contrast, the DM interaction for d 4 systems with anisotropic orbital symmetry shows slightly different behavior, which does not obey simple symmetry analysis. The direction as well as the strength of the DM vector varies depending on the occupied orbital shape. We have understood this behavior based on the orbital symmetry induced by local crystal field variation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abílio Amiguinho
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.
Nuclear Symmetry Energy with QCD Sum Rule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, K.S.; Lee, S.H.
2013-01-01
We calculate the nucleon self-energies in an isospin asymmetric nuclear matter using QCD sum rule. Taking the difference of these for the neutron and proton enables us to express an important part of the nuclear symmetry energy in terms of local operators. Calculating the operator product expansion up to mass dimension six operators, we find that the main contribution to the difference comes from the iso-vector scalar and vector operators, which is reminiscent to the case of relativistic mean field type theories where mesons with aforementioned quantum numbers produce the difference and provide the dominant mechanism for nuclear symmetry energy. (author)
QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang [Beihang University, School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei; Steele, T.G. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-10-15
We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin J = (1)/(2)/(3)/(2)/(5)/(2) and quark contents uudc anti c. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and we select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Besides them, we also find (a) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} has the mass 4.33{sup +0.17}{sub -0.13} GeV, while the one of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +} is significantly higher, that is, around 4.7-4.9 GeV; (b) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} has the mass 4.37{sup +0.18}{sub -0.13} GeV, consistent with the P{sub c}(4380) of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, while the one of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} is also significantly higher, that is, above 4.6 GeV; (c) the hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup -} has a mass around 4.5-4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the P{sub c}(4450) of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup +}. (orig.)
Spontaneous symmetry breaking as a basis of particle mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quigg, Chris
2007-01-01
Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions-so different in their manifestations-to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the 'standard model' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout and Englert and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble: the agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W ± and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story-though an incomplete story-and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some 'big questions' that will guide our explorations
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quigg, Chris
2007-01-01
Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout and Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W ± and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN
2007-04-01
Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.
Introduction to Chiral Symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-05-09
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.
Jinzenji, Masao
2018-01-01
This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...
Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians
Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.
Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy
Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per
2006-01-01
The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...
Introduction to chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, V.
1996-01-01
These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented
Pels, D.L.
While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...
Symmetries in fundamental physics
Sundermeyer, Kurt
2014-01-01
Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sezgin, E.
1991-08-01
We review the structure of W ∞ algebras, their super and topological extensions, and their contractions down to (super) w ∞ . Emphasis is put on the field theoretic realizations of these algebras. We also review the structure of w ∞ and W ∞ gravities and comment on various applications of W ∞ symmetry. (author). 42 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojman, Sergio A.
1996-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to present some of the ways in which non-Noetherian symmetries are used in contemporary mathematical physics. These include, among others, obtaining conservation laws for dynamical systems, solving non-linear problems, getting alternative Lagrangians for systems of differential equations and constructing symplectic structures and Hamiltonians for dynamical systems starting from scratch
Detection symmetry and asymmetry
du Buf, J.M.H.
1991-01-01
Experiments were performed on the detection symmetry and asymmetry of incremental and decremental disks, as a function of both disk diameter and duration. It was found that, for a background luminance of 300cd.m-2, thresholds of dynamic (briefly presented) foveal disks are symmetrical for all
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, J.
2000-01-01
The problem of a uniform description of symmetries, their dynamic disturbing and the structure of the vacuum is discussed. The role which problems of this kind played in searching for and understanding the Standard Model of elementary particles from the 1960s till now is also highlighted. (Z.J.)
Fields, symmetries, and quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosel, U.
1989-01-01
'Fields, symmetries, and quarks' covers elements of quantum field theory, symmetries, gauge field theories and phenomenological descriptions of hadrons, with special emphasis on topics relevant to nuclear physics. It is aimed at nuclear physicists in general and at scientists who need a working knowledge of field theory, symmetry principles of elementary particles and their interactions and the quark structure of hadrons. The book starts out with an elementary introduction into classical field theory and its quantization. As gauge field theories require a working knowledge of global symmetries in field theories this topic is then discussed in detail. The following part is concerned with the general structure of gauge field theories and contains a thorough discussion of the still less widely known features of Non-Abelian gauge field theories. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is important for the understanding of hadronic matter, is discussed in the next section together with the quark compositions of hadrons. The last two chapters give a detailed discussion of phenomenological bag-models. The MIT bag is discussed, so that all theoretical calculations can be followed step by step. Since in all other bag-models the calculational methods and steps are essentially identical, this chapter should enable the reader to actually perform such calculations unaided. A last chapter finally discusses the topological bag-models which have become quite popular over the last few years. (orig.)
Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 1. Symmetry of adults.
Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V
2001-02-01
Priapulids possess a radial symmetry that is remarkably reflected in both external morphology and internal anatomy. It results in the appearance of 25-radial (a number divisible by five) symmetry summarized as a combination of nonaradial, octaradial, and octaradial (9+8+8) symmetries of scalids. The radial symmetry is a secondary appearance considered as an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of bottom sediment. The eight anteriormost, or primary, scalids retain their particular position because of their innervation directly from the circumpharyngeal brain. As a result of a combination of the octaradial symmetry of primary scalids, pentaradial symmetry of teeth, and the 25-radial symmetry of scalids, the initial bilateral symmetry remains characterized by the single sagittal plane. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Symbolic Detection of Permutation and Parity Symmetries of Evolution Equations
Alghamdi, Moataz
2017-01-01
conserved quantities. This work also contains an implementation of the said results in Mathematica. In addition, it includes, as a motivation for this work, an investigation of the connection between variational symmetries, described by local Lie groups
Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Ibarra, Alejandro [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Weniger, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2009-12-15
Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)
Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas
2009-12-01
Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)
Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph
2010-01-01
Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities
Bilateral symmetry analysis of breast MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alterson, Robert; Plewes, Donald B
2003-01-01
Mammographic interpretation often uses symmetry between left and right breasts to indicate the site of potential tumour masses. This approach has not been applied to breast images obtained from MRI. We present an automatic technique for breast symmetry detection based on feature extraction techniques which does not require any efforts to co-register breast MRI data. The approach applies computer-vision techniques to detect natural biological symmetries in breast MR scans based on three objective measures of similarity: multiresolution non-orthogonal wavelet representation, three-dimensional intensity distributions and co-occurrence matrices. Statistical distributions that are invariant to feature localization are computed for each of the extracted image features. These distributions are later compared against each other to account for perceptual similarity. Studies based on 51 normal MRI scans of randomly selected patients showed that the sensitivity of symmetry detection rate approached 94%. The symmetry analysis procedure presented in this paper can be applied as an aid in detecting breast tissue changes arising from disease
Hidden supersymmetry and large N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, J.
1988-01-01
In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)
Symmetries in physics and harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolk, D.
2006-01-01
In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)
Extended global symmetries of the bosonic string. Their current algebra and anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piguet, O.; Schwarz, D.; Schweda, M.
1990-01-01
The quantization of the bosonic string is discussed in a class of general homogeneous gauges. The corresponding bosonic string model may be characterized effectively by three global symmetries: the linearized BRS symmetry, the ghost-number symmetry, and the Lagrange-multiplier-field symmetry. In order to discuss the possible gauge (in)dependence of Noether currents and anomalies consistently, we enlarge these rigid symmetries to extended ones. In addition we construct the local version of the above global symmetries in a systematic way, by introducing appropriate external gauge fields. The possible anomalies are analysed with the help of Wess-Zumino consistency relations. (orig.)
Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang
2005-01-01
The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.
Symmetry and topology in evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.
1991-10-01
This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)
Long Memory of Financial Time Series and Hidden Markov Models with Time-Varying Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik
2016-01-01
Hidden Markov models are often used to model daily returns and to infer the hidden state of financial markets. Previous studies have found that the estimated models change over time, but the implications of the time-varying behavior have not been thoroughly examined. This paper presents an adaptive...... to reproduce with a hidden Markov model. Capturing the time-varying behavior of the parameters also leads to improved one-step density forecasts. Finally, it is shown that the forecasting performance of the estimated models can be further improved using local smoothing to forecast the parameter variations....
Charge independence and charge symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.
Charge independence and charge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.A.
1994-09-01
Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs
Symmetry energy in nuclear surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny
2009-01-01
Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)
Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.
Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.
1996-01-01
An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs
Unified flavor symmetry from warped dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frank, Mariana, E-mail: mariana.frank@concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Hamzaoui, Cherif, E-mail: hamzaoui.cherif@uqam.ca [Groupe de Physique Théorique des Particules, Département des Sciences de la Terre et de L' Atmosphère, Université du Québec à Montréal, Case Postale 8888, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3P8 (Canada); Pourtolami, Nima, E-mail: n_pour@live.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada); Toharia, Manuel, E-mail: mtoharia@physics.concordia.ca [Department of Physics, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6 (Canada)
2015-03-06
In a model of warped extra-dimensions with all matter fields in the bulk, we propose a scenario which explains all the masses and mixings of the SM fermions. In this scenario, the same flavor symmetric structure is imposed on all the fermions of the Standard Model (SM), including neutrinos. Due to the exponential sensitivity on bulk fermion masses, a small breaking of this symmetry can be greatly enhanced and produce seemingly un-symmetric hierarchical masses and small mixing angles among the charged fermion zero-modes (SM quarks and charged leptons), thus washing out visible effects of the symmetry. If the Dirac neutrinos are sufficiently localized towards the UV boundary, and the Higgs field leaking into the bulk, the neutrino mass hierarchy and flavor structure will still be largely dominated and reflect the fundamental flavor structure, whereas localization of the quark sector would reflect the effects of the flavor symmetry breaking sector. We explore these features in an example based on which a family permutation symmetry is imposed in both quark and lepton sectors.
Dark discrete gauge symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batell, Brian
2011-01-01
We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.
Symmetries and microscopic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.
1997-01-01
This book is based on a course of lectures devoted to the applications of group theory to quantum physics. The purpose is to give students a precise idea of general principles involving the concept of symmetry and to present practical methods used to calculate physical properties derived from symmetries. The first chapter is an introduction to the main results of group theory, 2 chapters highlight principles and methods concerning geometrical transformations in the space of states, state degeneracy and perturbation theory. The last 4 chapters investigate the applications of these methods to atom physics, nuclear structure and elementary particles. A chapter is devoted to the atom of hydrogen and another to the isospin. Numerous exercises and problems, some with their corrections, are proposed. (A.C.)
Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbe R. Kopra
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes. The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.
Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking
Grinstein, Benjamin
2011-01-01
Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...
Symmetry rules. How science and nature are founded on symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosen, J.
2008-07-01
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences. (orig.)
Symmetry rules How science and nature are founded on symmetry
Rosen, Joe
2008-01-01
When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences.
A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buschmann, J.E.
1988-01-01
The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance
Symmetry and quantum mechanics
Corry, Scott
2016-01-01
This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics for professionals, students, and others in the field of mathematics who have a minimal background in physics with an understanding of linear algebra and group theory. It covers such topics as Lie groups, algebras and their representations, and analysis (Hilbert space, distributions, the spectral Theorem, and the Stone-Von Neumann Theorem). The book emphasizes the role of symmetry and is useful to physicists as it provides a mathematical introduction to the topic.
Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates
Jorgensen, Jamie
2001-04-01
This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V.E.; Ivanov, I.B.
1999-01-01
Connections between the symmetries of Hamiltonian systems in classical and quantum mechanics, on one hand, and their regularity or chaoticity, on the other hand, are considered. The quantum-chaoticity criterion that was proposed previously and which was borrowed from the theory of compound-nucleus resonances is used to analyze the quantum diamagnetic Kepler problem - that is, the motion of a spinless charged particle in a Coulomb and a uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, J.B.
1974-01-01
The concepts of statistical behavior and symmetry are presented from the point of view of many body spectroscopy. Remarks are made on methods for the evaluation of moments, particularly widths, for the purpose of giving a feeling for the types of mathematical structures encountered. Applications involving ground state energies, spectra, and level densities are discussed. The extent to which Hamiltonian eigenstates belong to irreducible representations is mentioned. (4 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)
2010-06-01
Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.
Lie symmetries and superintegrability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucci, M C; Post, S
2012-01-01
We show that a known superintegrable system in two-dimensional real Euclidean space (Post and Winternitz 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 162001) can be transformed into a linear third-order equation: consequently we construct many autonomous integrals—polynomials up to order 18—for the same system. The reduction method and the connection between Lie symmetries and Jacobi last multiplier are used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, O F
2010-01-01
Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.
Finite-time Lyapunov dimension and hidden attractor of the Rabinovich system
Kuznetsov, N. V.; Leonov, G. A.; Mokaev, T. N.; Prasad, A.; Shrimali, M. D.
2015-01-01
The Rabinovich system, describing the process of interaction between waves in plasma, is considered. It is shown that the Rabinovich system can exhibit a hidden attractor in the case of multistability as well as a classical self-excited attractor. The hidden attractor in this system can be localized by analytical/numerical methods based on the continuation and perpetual points. The concept of finite-time Lyapunov dimension is developed for numerical study of the dimension of attractors. A con...
Prediction of super-heavy N⁎ and Λ⁎ resonances with hidden beauty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Jiajun; Zhao Lu; Zou, B.S.
2012-01-01
The meson-baryon coupled channel unitary approach with the local hidden gauge formalism is extended to the hidden beauty sector. A few narrow N ⁎ and Λ ⁎ resonances around 11 GeV are predicted as dynamically generated states from the interactions of heavy beauty mesons and baryons. Production cross sections of these predicted resonances in pp and ep collisions are estimated as a guide for the possible experimental search at relevant facilities.
Symmetry methods for option pricing
Davison, A. H.; Mamba, S.
2017-06-01
We obtain a solution of the Black-Scholes equation with a non-smooth boundary condition using symmetry methods. The Black-Scholes equation along with its boundary condition are first transformed into the one dimensional heat equation and an initial condition respectively. We then find an appropriate general symmetry generator of the heat equation using symmetries and the fundamental solution of the heat equation. The symmetry generator is chosen such that the boundary condition is left invariant; the symmetry can be used to solve the heat equation and hence the Black-Scholes equation.
Hidden particle production at the ILC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Itoh, Hideo; Okada, Nobuchika; Hano, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tamaki
2008-01-01
In a class of new physics models, the new physics sector is completely or partly hidden, namely, a singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group. Hidden fields included in such new physics models communicate with the standard model sector through higher-dimensional operators. If a cutoff lies in the TeV range, such hidden fields can be produced at future colliders. We consider a scalar field as an example of the hidden fields. Collider phenomenology on this hidden scalar is similar to that of the SM Higgs boson, but there are several features quite different from those of the Higgs boson. We investigate productions of the hidden scalar at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and study the feasibility of its measurements, in particular, how well the ILC distinguishes the scalar from the Higgs boson, through realistic Monte Carlo simulations.
Symmetries and groups in particle physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherer, Stefan
2016-01-01
The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to
Hidden measurements, hidden variables and the volume representation of transition probabilities
Oliynyk, Todd A.
2005-01-01
We construct, for any finite dimension $n$, a new hidden measurement model for quantum mechanics based on representing quantum transition probabilities by the volume of regions in projective Hilbert space. For $n=2$ our model is equivalent to the Aerts sphere model and serves as a generalization of it for dimensions $n \\geq 3$. We also show how to construct a hidden variables scheme based on hidden measurements and we discuss how joint distributions arise in our hidden variables scheme and th...
Dual realizations of dynamical symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe
2006-01-01
We show the infrared equivalence between a recently proposed model containing a six dimensional scalar field with a four-dimensional localized Higgs type potential and the four-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. In the dual NJL description, the fermions are localized at the origin of a large two-dimensional compact space. Due to a classical running effect above the compactification scale, the four-fermion coupling of the NJL model increases from the cutoff scale down to the compactification scale, providing the large Fermi coupling needed for the dynamical symmetry breaking. We also present a string theory embedding of our field-theory construction. On more general grounds, our results suggest that 4d models with dynamical symmetry breaking can be given a higher dimensional description in terms of field theories with nontrivial boundary conditions in the internal space
String constraints on discrete symmetries in MSSM type II quivers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anastasopoulos, Pascal [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fur Theor. Phys.; Cvetic, Mirjam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia). Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Richter, Robert [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-11-15
We study the presence of discrete gauge symmetries in D-brane semirealistic compactifications. After establishing the constraints on the transformation behaviour of the chiral matter for the presence of a discrete gauge symmetry we perform a systematic search for discrete gauge symmetries within semi-realistic D-brane realizations, based on four D-brane stacks, of the MSSM and the MSSM with three right-handed neutrinos. The systematic search reveals that Proton hexality, a discrete symmetry which ensures the absence of R-parity violating terms as well as the absence of dangerous dimension 5 proton decay operators, is only rarely realized. Moreover, none of the semi-realistic local D-brane configurations exhibit any family dependent discrete gauge symmetry.
Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others
1997-04-01
Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.
Searching for hidden-charm baryonium signals in QCD sum rules
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hua-Xing; Zhou, Dan [Beihang University, School of Physics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)
2016-11-15
We give an explicit QCD sum rule investigation for hidden-charm baryonium states with the quark content u anti ud anti dc anti c, spin J = 0/1/2/3, and of both positive and negative parities. We systematically construct the relevant local hidden-charm baryonium interpolating currents, which can actually couple to various structures, including hidden-charm baryonium states, charmonium states plus two pions, and hidden-charm tetraquark states plus one pion, etc. We do not know which structure these currents couple to at the beginning, but after sum rule analyses we can obtain some information. We find some of them can couple to hidden-charm baryonium states, using which we evaluate the masses of the lowest-lying hidden-charm baryonium states with quantum numbers J{sup P} = 2{sup -}/3{sup -}/0{sup +}/1{sup +}/2{sup +} to be around 5.0 GeV. We suggest to search for hidden-charm baryonium states, especially the one of J = 3{sup -}, in the D-wave J/ψππ and P-wave J/ψρ and J/ψω channels in this energy region. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foot, Robert; Kobakhidze, Archil; Volkas, Raymond R.; McDonald, Kristian L.
2008-01-01
If scale invariance is a classical symmetry then both the Planck scale and the weak scale should emerge as quantum effects. We show that this can be realized in simple scale invariant theories with a hidden sector. The weak/Planck scale hierarchy emerges in the (technically natural) limit in which the hidden sector decouples from the ordinary sector. In this limit, finite corrections to the weak scale are consequently small, while quadratic divergences are absent by virtue of classical scale invariance, so there is no hierarchy problem
Fermion zero modes in the vortex background of a Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with a hidden sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lozano, Gustavo [Departamento de Física, FCEYN Universidad de Buenos Aires & IFIBA CONICET,Pabellón 1 Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mohammadi, Azadeh [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba,58.059-970, Caixa Postal 5.008, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Schaposnik, Fidel A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de La Plata/IFLP/CICBA,CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2015-11-06
In this paper we study a 2+1 dimensional system in which fermions are coupled to the self-dual topological vortex in U(1)×U(1) Chern-Simons theory, where both U(1) gauge symmetries are spontaneously broken. We consider two Abelian Higgs scalars with visible and hidden sectors coupled to a fermionic field through three interaction Lagrangians, where one of them violates the fermion number. Using a fine tuning procedure, we could obtain the number of the fermionic zero modes which is equal to the absolute value of the sum of the vortex numbers in the visible and hidden sectors.
Field-theoretical investigations in nonlinear realizations of gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Chenhan.
1989-01-01
A review of both linear realization and non-linear realization of gauge symmetries is given and the connection between the two recipes is carefully examined. The author then constructs both linear and non-linear realizations for of supersymmetric theories. The supermultiplets of the Goldstone modes contain Goldstone bosons, quasi-Goldstone bosons and quasi-Goldstone fermions. He makes an attempt to construct a specific model of a supersymmetric non-linear realization for the Nambu-Goldstone superfields and the quasi-Goldstone fermions are identified with the quarks and leptons. Further, he discusses a mechanism by which the components of the Nambu-Goldstone supermultiplets are given non-zero mass splittings by the coupling to a hidden sector. Next, he turns to anti-symmetric tensor gauge theories, which are shown to be classically equivalent to the non-linear models describing the complete symmetry breakdown. To study the quantum mechanical equivalence of these two models, he carries out the tensor gauge fixing and the quantization procedures for the anti-symmetric tensor theories and establish the global symmetry currents which connect the two models. He then builds the supersymmetric extensions of the anti-symmetric tensor gauge theories in both abelian and non-abelian versions. Such super-tensor gauge theories are shown, by using the superfield equations of motion, to be equivalent to the fully doubled supersymmetric non-linear models of complete symmetry breakdown
2-surface twistors, embeddings and symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeffryes, B.P.
1987-01-01
2-Surface twistor space was introduced in connection with a proposal for a quasi-local definition of mass and angular momentum within general relativity. Properties of the 2-surface twistor space are related to the possibilities for embedding the 2-surface in real and complex conformally flat spaces. The additional properties of the twistor space resulting from symmetries of the 2-surface are discussed, with particular detail on axisymmetric 2-surfaces. (author)
Translational Symmetry Breaking and Gapping of Heavy-Quasiparticle Pocket in URu2Si2
Yoshida, Rikiya; Tsubota, Koji; Ishiga, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Masanori; Sonoyama, Jyunki; Aoki, Dai; Flouquet, Jacques; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi
2013-01-01
URu2Si2 is a uranium compound that exhibits a so-called ‘hidden-order’ transition at ~17.5 K. However, the order parameter of this second-order transition as well as many of its microscopic properties remain unclarified despite considerable research. One of the key questions in this regard concerns the type of spontaneous symmetry breaking occurring at the transition; although rotational symmetry breaking has been detected, it is not clear whether another type of symmetry breaking also occurs. Another key question concerns the property of Fermi-surface gapping in the momentum space. Here we address these key questions by a momentum-dependent observation of electronic states at the transition employing ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results provide compelling evidence of the spontaneous breaking of the lattice's translational symmetry and particle-hole asymmetric gapping of a heavy quasiparticle pocket at the transition. PMID:24084937
Greene, Brian R
1997-01-01
Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hill, Christopher T.
2018-03-19
We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.
Leadership, power and symmetry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Spaten, Ole Michael
2016-01-01
Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... regarding managers coaching their employees and it is asked; what contributes to coaching of high quality when one reflects on the power aspect as being immanent? Fourteen middle managers coached five of their employees, and all members of each party wrote down cues and experiences immediately after each...
Yale, Paul B
2012-01-01
This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi
Hidden inventory and safety considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.
1976-01-01
Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
England, R.W.
1979-01-01
Mr. England contends that these hidden costs add up to a figure much higher than those that appear in the electric utilities' profit and loss account - costs that are borne by Federal taxpayers, by nuclear industry workers, and by all those people who must share their environment with nuclear facilities. Costs he details are additional deaths and illnesses resulting from exposure to radiation, and the use of tax dollars to clean up the lethal garbage produced by those activities. He asserts that careless handling of uranium ore and mill tailings in past years has apparently resulted in serious public health problems in those mining communities. In another example, Mr. England states that the failure to isolate uranium tailings physically from their environment has probably contributed to an acute leukemia rate in Mesa County, Colorado. He mentions much of the technology development for power reactors being done by the Federal government, not by private reactor manufacturers - thus, again, hidden costs that do not show up in electric bills of customers. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a place for Federally subsidized research and development is discussed briefly. 1 figure, 2 tables
Applications of chiral symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pisarski, R.D.
1995-03-01
The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates
Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Shu Hou
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700 GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angel Garrido
2011-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.
Wilczek, Frank
2004-01-01
Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world (8 pages) Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).
Symmetry of crystals and molecules
Ladd, Mark
2014-01-01
This book successfully combines a thorough treatment of molecular and crystalline symmetry with a simple and informal writing style. By means of familiar examples the author helps to provide the reader with those conceptual tools necessary for the development of a clear understanding of what are often regarded as 'difficult' topics. Christopher Hammond, University of Leeds This book should tell you everything you need to know about crystal and molecular symmetry. Ladd adopts an integrated approach so that the relationships between crystal symmetry, molecular symmetry and features of chemical interest are maintained and reinforced. The theoretical aspects of bonding and symmetry are also well represented, as are symmetry-dependent physical properties and the applications of group theory. The comprehensive coverage will make this book a valuable resource for a broad range of readers.
The Hidden Reason Behind Children's Misbehavior.
Nystul, Michael S.
1986-01-01
Discusses hidden reason theory based on the assumptions that: (1) the nature of people is positive; (2) a child's most basic psychological need is involvement; and (3) a child has four possible choices in life (good somebody, good nobody, bad somebody, or severely mentally ill.) A three step approach for implementing hidden reason theory is…
Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis, Søren Kamaric
1998-01-01
We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...
Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tricia Shi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.
Hidden supersymmetry and Fermion number fractionalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhoury, R.
1985-01-01
This paper discusses how a hidden supersymmetry of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionalization in different dimensions. This is made possible by relating it to a corresponding Witten index of the hidden supersymmetry. The closely related anomalies in odd dimensions are also discussed
The Friedberg-Lee symmetry and minimal seesaw model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xiaogang; Liao Wei
2009-01-01
The Friedberg-Lee (FL) symmetry is generated by a transformation of a fermionic field q to q+ξz. This symmetry puts very restrictive constraints on allowed terms in a Lagrangian. Applying this symmetry to N fermionic fields, we find that the number of independent fields is reduced to N-1 if the fields have gauge interaction or the transformation is a local one. Using this property, we find that a seesaw model originally with three generations of left- and right-handed neutrinos, with the left-handed neutrinos unaffected but the right-handed neutrinos transformed under the local FL translation, is reduced to an effective theory of minimal seesaw which has only two right-handed neutrinos. The symmetry predicts that one of the light neutrino masses must be zero.
Higgs Bosons, Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, and the Physics of the Large Hadron Collider
Quigg, Chris
2007-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider, a 7 + 7 TeV proton-proton collider under construction at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva), will take experiments squarely into a new energy domain where mysteries of the electroweak interaction will be unveiled. What marks the 1-TeV scale as an important target? Why is understanding how the electroweak symmetry is hidden important to our conception of the world around us? What expectations do we have for the agent that hides the electroweak symmetry? Why do particle physicists anticipate a great harvest of discoveries within reach of the LHC?
Nonlocal symmetries and nonlocal conservation laws of Maxwell's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.
1997-01-01
Nonlocal symmetries are obtained for Maxwell's equations in three space-time dimensions through the use of two potential systems involving scalar and vector potentials for the electromagnetic field. Corresponding nonlocal conservation laws are derived from these symmetries. The conservation laws yield nine functionally independent constants of motion which cannot be expressed in terms of the constants of motion arising from local conservation laws for space-time symmetries. These nine constants of motion represent additional conserved quantities for the electromagnetic field in three space endash time dimensions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Stability of marginally outer trapped surfaces and symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carrasco, Alberto; Mars, Marc, E-mail: acf@usal.e, E-mail: marc@usal.e [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)
2009-09-07
We study the properties of stable, strictly stable and locally outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces in spacelike hypersurfaces of spacetimes possessing certain symmetries such as isometries, homotheties and conformal Killings. We first obtain results for general diffeomorphisms in terms of the so-called metric deformation tensor and then particularize to different types of symmetries. In particular, we find restrictions at the surfaces on the vector field generating the symmetry. Some consequences are discussed. As an application, we present a result on non-existence of stable marginally outer trapped surfaces in slices of FLRW.
Nonlocal thermoelectric symmetry relations in ferromagnet-superconductor proximity structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, EGHAM, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients in quantum coherent structures are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. We generalize Onsager's symmetry relation to nonlocal thermoelectric currents in a three terminal ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and direct electron transfer processes. We proof this general symmetry by applying spin-dependent boundary conditions for quasi-classical Green's functions in both the clean and the dirty limit. We predict an anomalously large local thermopower and a nonlocal Seebeck effect, which can be explained by the spin-dependent spectral properties.
Trieste lectures on mirror symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hori, K [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)
2003-08-15
These are pedagogical lectures on mirror symmetry given at the Spring School in ICTP, Trieste, March 2002. The focus is placed on worldsheet descriptions of the physics related to mirror symmetry. We start with the introduction to general aspects of (2,2) supersymmetric field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions. We next move on to the study and applications of linear sigma model. Finally, we provide a proof of mirror symmetry in a class of models. (author)
Neutrino masses and family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.
1985-01-01
Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)
Anti-pairing in learning of a neural network with redundant hidden units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Chulan; Kim, Hyong Kyun
2005-01-01
We study the statistical mechanics of learning from examples between the two-layered committee machines with different numbers of hidden units using the replica theory. The number M of hidden units of the student network is larger than the number M T of those of the target network called the teacher. We choose the networks to have binary synaptic weights, ±1, which makes it possible to compare the calculation with the Monte Carlo simulation. We propose an effective teacher as a virtual target network which has the same M hidden units as the student and gives identical outputs with those of the original teacher. This is a way of making a conjecture for a ground state of a thermodynamic system, given by the weights of the effective teacher in our study. We suppose that the weights on M T hidden units of the effective teacher are the same as those of the original teacher while those on M - M T redundant hidden units are composed of anti-pairs, {1, - 1}, with probability 1 - p in the limit p → 0. For p = 0 exact, there are no terms related to the effective teacher in the calculation, for the contributions of anti-pairs to outputs are exactly cancelled. In the limit p → 0, however, we find that the learnt weights of the student are actually equivalent to those of the suggested effective teacher, which is not possible from the calculation for p = 0. p plays the role of a symmetry breaking parameter for anti-pairing ordering, which is analogous to the magnetic field for the Ising model. A first-order phase transition is found to be signalled by breaking of symmetry in permuting hidden units. Above a critical number of examples, the student is shown to learn perfectly the effective teacher. Anti-pairing can be measured by a set of order parameters; zero in the permutation-symmetric phase and nonzero in the permutation symmetry breaking phase. Results from the Monte Carlo simulation are shown to be in good agreement with those from the replica calculation
Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, J.
2008-01-01
The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)
An introduction to Yangian symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, D.
1992-01-01
Some aspects of the quantum Yangians as symmetry algebras of two-dimensional quantum field theories are reviewed. They include two main issues: the first is the classical Heisenberg model, covering non-Abelian symmetries, generators of the symmetries and the semi-classical Yangians, an alternative presentation of the semi-classical Yangians, digression on Poisson-Lie groups. The second is the quantum Heisenberg chain, covering non-Abelian symmetries and the quantum Yangians, the transfer matrix and an alternative presentation of the Yangians, digression on the double Yangians. (K.A.) 15 refs
Killing symmetries in neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Racz, A.
1992-10-01
Although inside the reactor zone there is no exact continuous spatial symmetry, in certain configurations neutron flux distribution is close to a symmetrical one. In such cases the symmetrical solution could provide a good starting point to determine the non-symmetrical power distribution. All possible symmetries are determined in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and the form of the transport equation is discussed in such a coordinate system which is adapted to the particular symmetry. Possible spontaneous symmetry breakings are pointed out. (author) 6 refs
The conservation of orbital symmetry
Woodward, R B
2013-01-01
The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope
Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.
2016-01-01
We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.
Orbital symmetry fingerprints for magnetic adatoms in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchoa, Bruno; Yang, Ling; Tsai, S-W; Peres, N M R; Neto, A H Castro
2014-01-01
In this paper, we describe the formation of local resonances in graphene in the presence of magnetic adatoms containing localized orbitals of arbitrary symmetry, corresponding to any given angular momentum state. We show that quantum interference effects which are naturally inbuilt in the honeycomb lattice in combination with the specific orbital symmetry of the localized state lead to the formation of fingerprints in differential conductance curves. In the presence of Jahn–Teller distortion effects, which lift the orbital degeneracy of the adatoms, the orbital symmetries can lead to distinctive signatures in the local density of states. We show that those effects allow scanning tunneling probes to characterize adatoms and defects in graphene. (paper)
Reformulation of the symmetries of first-order general relativity
Montesinos, Merced; González, Diego; Celada, Mariano; Díaz, Bogar
2017-10-01
We report a new internal gauge symmetry of the n-dimensional Palatini action with cosmological term (n>3 ) that is the generalization of three-dimensional local translations. This symmetry is obtained through the direct application of the converse of Noether’s second theorem on the theory under consideration. We show that diffeomorphisms can be expressed as linear combinations of it and local Lorentz transformations with field-dependent parameters up to terms involving the variational derivatives of the action. As a result, the new internal symmetry together with local Lorentz transformations can be adopted as the fundamental gauge symmetries of general relativity. Although their gauge algebra is open in general, it allows us to recover, without resorting to the equations of motion, the very well-known Lie algebra satisfied by translations and Lorentz transformations in three dimensions. We also report the analog of the new gauge symmetry for the Holst action with cosmological term, finding that it explicitly depends on the Immirzi parameter. The same result concerning its relation to diffeomorphisms and the open character of the gauge algebra also hold in this case. Finally, we consider the non-minimal coupling of a scalar field to gravity in n dimensions and establish that the new gauge symmetry is affected by this matter field. Our results indicate that general relativity in dimension greater than three can be thought of as a gauge theory.
Greiner, Walter
1989-01-01
"Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...
Symmetries of cluster configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, P.
1975-01-01
A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed
Holography without translational symmetry
Vegh, David
2013-01-01
We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.
Hidden scale invariance of metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2015-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...
Verducci, M
2011-01-01
A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.
Infinite additional symmetries in two-dimensional conformal quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamolodchikov, A.B.
1986-01-01
This paper investigates additional symmetries in two-dimensional conformal field theory generated by spin s = 1/2, 1,...,3 currents. For spins s = 5/2 and s = 3, the generators of the symmetry form associative algebras with quadratic determining relations. ''Minimal models'' of conforma field theory with such additional symmetries are considered. The space of local fields occurring in a conformal field theory with additional symmetry corresponds to a certain (in general, reducible) representation of the corresponding algebra of the symmetry
The role of Weyl symmetry in hydrodynamics
Diles, Saulo
2018-04-01
This article is dedicated to the analysis of Weyl symmetry in the context of relativistic hydrodynamics. Here is discussed how this symmetry is properly implemented using the prescription of minimal coupling: ∂ → ∂ + ωA. It is shown that this prescription has no problem to deal with curvature since it gives the correct expressions for the commutator of covariant derivatives. In hydrodynamics, Weyl gauge connection emerges from the degrees of freedom of the fluid: it is a combination of the expansion and entropy gradient. The remaining degrees of freedom, shear, vorticity and the metric tensor, are see in this context as charged fields under the Weyl gauge connection. The gauge nature of the connection provides natural dynamics to it via equations of motion analogous to the Maxwell equations for electromagnetism. As a consequence, a charge for the Weyl connection is defined and the notion of local charge is analyzed generating the conservation law for the Weyl charge.
Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.
1985-01-01
Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains
Collective states and crossing symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiss, W.D.
1977-01-01
Collective states are usually described in simple terms but with the use of effective interactions which are supposed to contain more or less complicated contributions. The significance of crossing symmetry is discussed in this connection. Formal problems encountered in the attempts to implement crossing symmetry are pointed out
''Natural'' left-right symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.
1975-01-01
It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed
Symmetry guide to ferroaxial transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hlinka, Jiří; Přívratská, J.; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Janovec, Václav
2016-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 17 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 177602. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : symmetry * symmetry breaking * ferroaxial Transitions * property tensors * Aizu species Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Makarewicz, Emilia; Gordon, Agnieszka J; Mierzwicki, Krzysztof; Latajka, Zdzislaw; Berski, Slawomir
2014-06-05
Quantum chemistry methods have been applied to study the influence of the Xe atom inserted into the hydrogen-bromine bond (HBr → HXeBr), particularly on the nature of atomic interactions in the HBr···CO2 and HXeBr···CO2 complexes. Detailed analysis of the nature of chemical bonds has been carried out using topological analysis of the electron localization function, while topological analysis of electron density was used to gain insight into the nature of weak nonbonding interactions. Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory within the orbital approach was applied for greater understanding of the physical contributions to the total interaction energy.
Fifty years of symmetry operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wigner, E.P.
1978-01-01
The author begins by discussing the application of symmetry principles in classical physics, which began 150 years ago. He then offers a few remarks on the essence of these principles and their role in the structure of physics; events, laws of nature, and invariance principles - kinematic and then dynamic - are treated. After this general discussion of the various types of symmetries, he considers the fundamental differences in their application in classical and quantum physics; the symmetry principles have greater effectiveness in quantum theory. After a few critical remarks of a general nature on the invariance principles, the author reviews the application of symmetry principles in various areas of quantum mechanics: atomic spectra, molecular physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. He notes that the role of the different symmetries recognized to be approximate provide the most interesting conclusions
Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivica Smolić
2015-01-01
Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair. (paper)
Shape analysis with subspace symmetries
Berner, Alexander
2011-04-01
We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more recently, intrinsic isometries. Our approach generalizes the notion of partial symmetries to more general deformations. We introduce subspace symmetries whereby we characterize similarity by requiring the set of symmetric parts to form a low dimensional shape space. We present an algorithm to discover subspace symmetries based on detecting linearly correlated correspondences among graphs of invariant features. We evaluate our technique on various data sets. We show that for models with pronounced surface features, subspace symmetries can be found fully automatically. For complicated cases, a small amount of user input is used to resolve ambiguities. Our technique computes dense correspondences that can subsequently be used in various applications, such as model repair and denoising. © 2010 The Author(s).
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schieren, Roland
2010-12-02
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Spontaneous emergence of gauge symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.
1987-05-01
Within the framework of the random dynamics project we have demonstrated several mechanisms for breakdown of a preexisting exact gauge symmetry. This note concerns and reviews a mechanism which works essentially in the opposite direction, leading from am accidental approximate symmetry to an exact formal gauge symmetry. It was shown that although this symmetry is a priori only strictly formal, it can under certain circumstances lead to a physical consequence: the corresponding gauge boson becomes massless. In the chaotic models typical for our random dynamics project there is, of course, a strong competition between this mechanism and mechanisms which temd to destroy the symmetry and give mass(es) to the gauge boson(s). (orig.)
Discrete symmetries in the MSSM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schieren, Roland
2010-01-01
The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)
Axions from chiral family symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.
1985-01-01
We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)
Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.
Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo
2017-10-17
Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.
Higher spins and Yangian symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gopakumar, Rajesh [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences-TIFR, Survey No. 151, Shivakote, Hesaraghatta Hobli, Bengaluru North 560 089 (India); Li, Wei [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,100190 Beijing (China); Peng, Cheng [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2017-04-26
The relation between the bosonic higher spin W{sub ∞}[λ] algebra, the affine Yangian of gl{sub 1}, and the SH{sup c} algebra is established in detail. For generic λ we find explicit expressions for the low-lying W{sub ∞}[λ] modes in terms of the affine Yangian generators, and deduce from this the precise identification between λ and the parameters of the affine Yangian. Furthermore, for the free field cases corresponding to λ=0 and λ=1 we give closed-form expressions for the affine Yangian generators in terms of the free fields. Interestingly, the relation between the W{sub ∞} modes and those of the affine Yangian is a non-local one, in general. We also establish the explicit dictionary between the affine Yangian and the SH{sup c} generators. Given that Yangian algebras are the hallmark of integrability, these identifications should pave the way towards uncovering the relation between the integrable and the higher spin symmetries.
A survey of hidden-variables theories
Belinfante, F J
1973-01-01
A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat
A classification of hidden-variable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenburger, Adam; Yanofsky, Noson
2008-01-01
Hidden variables are extra components added to try to banish counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. We start with a quantum-mechanical model and describe various properties that can be asked of a hidden-variable model. We present six such properties and a Venn diagram of how they are related. With two existence theorems and three no-go theorems (EPR, Bell and Kochen-Specker), we show which properties of empirically equivalent hidden-variable models are possible and which are not. Formally, our treatment relies only on classical probability models, and physical phenomena are used only to motivate which models to choose
Accurate powder patterns and new spectral shape in orthorrombic symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Tovany, L.
1991-01-01
The shape of the powder pattern of the center resonance line (M= 1/2 ↔ -1/2) for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in orthorhombic symmetry, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with quadrupole interaction, is determined for all values of the crystal field symmetry parameter N by means of a general analytical method developed by Beltran-Lopez and Castro-Tello. Analytical functions in terms of elliptical integrals are obtained which are good approximations to the true powder pattern except in a narrow region around the field value corresponding to E=-2n 2 /3. numerical gaussian quadrature of the powder pattern from the single-variable integral arising in the analytical method is shown to be a very efficient semianalytical method of calculation for computer work, being much smoother and requiring only a few seconds of CPU time versus the several minutes needed with the grid of the Monte Carlo methods. The semianalytical powder patterns reveal the existence of a previous unknown EPR spectral feature in orthorhombic symmetry resembling a divergence. This feature which should appear at E=-2n 2 /3 for asymmetry parameter values near N=√ of 2/3, is hidden in the experimental spectra by the broadening effect of the linewidth of the individual crystallites. Comparison of experimental and simulated spectra obtained by convoluting powder patterns with first-derivate lorentzian lineshapes of convenient width are also shown. Semianalytical spectra are much smoother than Monte Carlo simulated spectra, revealing finer spectral features. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1994-01-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics
Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals
Schellekens, A. N.
2018-03-01
We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.
Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries
Stewart, J
2002-01-01
The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1994-12-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.
Symmetries in nuclear structure
Allaart, K; Dieperink, A
1983-01-01
The 1982 summer school on nuclear physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Netherlands' Physical Society, was the fifth in a series that started in 1963. The number of students attending has always been about one hundred, coming from about thirty countries. The theme of this year's school was symmetry in nuclear physics. This book covers the material presented by the enthusi astic speakers, who were invited to lecture on this subject. We think they have succeeded in presenting us with clear and thorough introductory talks at graduate or higher level. The time schedule of the school and the location allowed the participants to make many informal contacts during many social activities, ranging from billiards to surf board sailing. We hope and expect that the combination of a relaxed atmosphere during part of the time and hard work during most of the time, has furthered the interest in, and understanding of, nuclear physics. The organization of the summer school was made possible by substantia...
Quark diquark symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souza, M.M. de
1980-01-01
Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt
'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Van den Heuvel
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading
Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2006-03-15
A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)
UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage
... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...
Coding with partially hidden Markov models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.
1995-01-01
Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...
Hidden costs, value lost: uninsurance in America
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance
2003-01-01
Hidden Cost, Value Lost , the fifth of a series of six books on the consequences of uninsurance in the United States, illustrates some of the economic and social losses to the country of maintaining...
The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T
.... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...
Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.
Resnik, David B
2009-09-01
In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.
"Dark energy" in the Local Void
Villata, M.
2012-05-01
The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.
Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer
2017-01-01
Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....
Astroparticle tests of Lorentz symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, Jorge [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Lorentz symmetry is a cornerstone of modern physics. As the spacetime symmetry of special relativity, Lorentz invariance is a basic component of the standard model of particle physics and general relativity, which to date constitute our most successful descriptions of nature. Deviations from exact symmetry would radically change our view of the universe and current experiments allow us to test the validity of this assumption. In this talk, I describe effects of Lorentz violation in cosmic rays and gamma rays that can be studied in current observatories.
Symmetry of quantum molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenin, A.V.
2002-01-01
The paper reviews the current state-of-art in describing quantum molecular dynamics based on symmetry principles alone. This qualitative approach is of particular interest as the only method currently available for a broad and topical class of problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Besides, a molecule is a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, and its perturbation theory description requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed [ru
Symmetry of quantum intramolecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burenin, Alexander V
2002-01-01
The paper reviews the current progress in describing quantum intramolecular dynamics using merely symmetry principles as a basis. This closed qualitative approach is of particular interest because it is the only method currently available for a broad class of topical problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Moreover, a molecule makes a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, so that its description by perturbation methods requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed. In particular, the point group of a molecule is of this type. (methodological notes)
Geometrical spin symmetry and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, I. B.
2011-01-01
Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.
Scale symmetry and virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westenholz, C. von
1978-01-01
Scale symmetry (or dilatation invariance) is discussed in terms of Noether's Theorem expressed in terms of a symmetry group action on phase space endowed with a symplectic structure. The conventional conceptual approach expressing invariance of some Hamiltonian under scale transformations is re-expressed in alternate form by infinitesimal automorphisms of the given symplectic structure. That is, the vector field representing scale transformations leaves the symplectic structure invariant. In this model, the conserved quantity or constant of motion related to scale symmetry is the virial. It is shown that the conventional virial theorem can be derived within this framework
Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.
Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.
Hidden slow pulsars in binaries
Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh
1993-01-01
The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.
Accidental symmetries and the conformal bootstrap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chester, Shai M.; Giombi, Simone; Iliesiu, Luca V.; Klebanov, Igor R.; Pufu, Silviu S.; Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2016-01-19
We study an N=2 supersymmetric generalization of the three-dimensional critical O(N) vector model that is described by N+1 chiral superfields with superpotential W=g{sub 1}X∑{sub i}Z{sub i}{sup 2}+g{sub 2}X{sup 3}. By combining the tools of the conformal bootstrap with results obtained through supersymmetric localization, we argue that this model exhibits a symmetry enhancement at the infrared superconformal fixed point due to g{sub 2} flowing to zero. This example is special in that the existence of an infrared fixed point with g{sub 1},g{sub 2}≠0, which does not exhibit symmetry enhancement, does not generally lead to any obvious unitarity violations or other inconsistencies. We do show, however, that the F-theorem excludes the models with g{sub 1},g{sub 2}≠0 for N>5. The conformal bootstrap provides a stronger constraint and excludes such models for N>2. We provide evidence that the g{sub 2}=0 models, which have the enhanced O(N)×U(1) symmetry, come close to saturating the bootstrap bounds. We extend our analysis to fractional dimensions where we can motivate the nonexistence of the g{sub 1},g{sub 2}≠0 models by studying them perturbatively in the 4−ϵ expansion.
Searching for possible hidden chambers in the Pyramid of the Sun
Alfaro, R.; Belmont, E.; Grabski, V.; Manzanilla, L.; Martinez-Davalos, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Moreno, M.; Sandoval, A.
The Pyramid of the Sun, at Teotihuacan, Mexico, is being searched for possible hidden chambers, using a muon tracking technique inspired in the experiment carried out by Luis Alvarez over 30 years ago at the Chephren Pyramid, in Giza. A fortunate similarity between this monument and the Pyramid of the Sun is a tunnel, running 8 m below the base and ending close to the symmetry axis, which permits the use muon attenuation measurements. A brief account of the project, including planning, detector design, construction and simulations, as well as the current status of the project is presented
A model for metastable magnetism in the hidden-order phase of URu2Si2
Boyer, Lance; Yakovenko, Victor M.
2018-01-01
We propose an explanation for the experiment by Schemm et al. (2015) where the polar Kerr effect (PKE), indicating time-reversal symmetry (TRS) breaking, was observed in the hidden-order (HO) phase of URu2Si2. The PKE signal on warmup was seen only if a training magnetic field was present on cool-down. Using a Ginzburg-Landau model for a complex order parameter, we show that the system can have a metastable ferromagnetic state producing the PKE, even if the HO ground state respects TRS. We predict that a strong reversed magnetic field should reset the PKE to zero.
Strings, Branes and Symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westerberg, A.
1997-01-01
Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs
Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baseyan, H.Z.
1983-01-01
A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory
Shape analysis with subspace symmetries
Berner, Alexander; Wand, Michael D.; Mitra, Niloy J.; Mewes, Daniel; Seidel, Hans Peter
2011-01-01
We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more
Symmetries in the Lagrangean formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigore, D.R.
1987-09-01
We generalize the analysis of Levy-Leblond for lagrangean systems with symmetry. We prove that this analysis goes through practically unchanged and after that we analyse in detail some examples.(author)
Magnetic Quantum Tunneling and Symmetry in Single Molecule Magnets
Kent, Andrew D.
2003-03-01
We have studied the symmetry of magnetic quantum tunneling (MQT) in single molecule magnets (SMMs) using a micro-Hall effect magnetometer and high field vector superconducting magnet system. In the most widely studied SMM, Mn12-acetate, an average crystal 4-fold symmetry in the magnetic response is shown to be due to local molecular environments of 2-fold symmetry that are rotated by 90 degrees with respect to one another. We attribute this to ligand disorder that leads to local rhombic distortions, a model first proposed by Cornia et al. based on x-ray diffraction data [1]. We have magnetically distilled a Mn12-acetate crystal to study a subset of these lower (2-fold) site symmetry molecules and present evidence for a spin-parity effect consistent with a local 2-fold symmetry [2]. These results highlight the importance of subtle changes in molecule environment in modulating magnetic anisotropy and MQT. [1] Cornia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 257201 (2002) [2] E. del Barco, A. D. Kent, E. Rumberger, D. H. Hendrickson, G. Christou, submitted for publication (2002) and Europhys. Lett. 60, 768 (2002)
Renormgroup symmetry for solution functionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.
2004-01-01
The paper contains generalization of the renormgroup algorithm for boundary value problems of mathematical physics and related concept of the renormgroup symmetry, formulated earlier by the authors with reference to models based on differential equations. These algorithm and symmetry are formulated now for models with nonlocal (integral) equations. We discuss in detail and illustrate by examples the applications of the generalized algorithm to models with nonlocal terms which appear as linear functionals of the solution. (author)
Conformal symmetry in quantum finance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Juan M; Lavana, Ulises; Miranda, Elio Martínez
2014-01-01
The quantum finance symmetries are studied. In order to do this, the one dimensional free non-relativistic particle and its symmetries are revisited and the particle mass is identified as the inverse of square of the volatility. Furthermore, using financial variables, a Schrödinger algebra representation is constructed. In addition, it is shown that the operators of this last representation are not hermitian and not conserved.
Exploiting hidden symmetry in natural products: total syntheses of amphidinolides C and F.
Mahapatra, Subham; Carter, Rich G
2013-07-24
The total synthesis of amphidinolide C and a second-generation synthesis of amphidinolide F have been accomplished through the use of a common intermediate to access both the C1-C8 and the C18-C25 sections. The development of a Ag-catalyzed cyclization of a propargyl benzoate diol is described to access both trans-tetrahydrofuran rings. The evolution of a Felkin-controlled, 2-lithio-1,3-dienyl addition strategy to incorporate C9-C11 diene as well as C8 stereocenter is detailed. Key controlling aspects in the sulfone alkylation/oxidative desulfurization to join the major subunits, including the exploration of the optimum masking group for the C18 carbonyl motif, are discussed. A Trost asymmetric alkynylation and a stereoselective cuprate addition to an alkynoate have been developed for the rapid construction of the C26-C34 subunit. A Tamura/Vedejs olefination to introduce the C26 side arm of amphidnolides C and F is employed. The late-stage incorporation of the C15, C18 diketone motif proved critical to the successful competition of the total syntheses.
The hidden symmetries and their algebraic structure of the static axially symmetric SDYM fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Sanru
1993-01-01
A new explicit transformation about the static axially symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills (SDYM) fields is presented. The theory has proved that the new transformation is a symmetric one. For the two kinds of the Lie algebraic generators of the Lie group SL (N. R) /SO (N), the corresponding transformations are given. By making use of the Yang-Baxter equality and their square brackets, the loop and conformal algebraic structures of the symmetric transformations for the basic fields have been obtained. All the results obtained can be directly generalized to the other models
PREFACE: Symmetries in Science XIV
Schuch, Dieter; Ramek, Michael
2010-04-01
also included in these Proceedings. It was especially rewarding and greatly appreciated that symposium-founder Bruno Gruber attended all the sessions and that Dr. Hubert Regner, a distinguished official of the provincial administration and ardent supporter of the symposia for over twenty years, honoured us with a visit and an encouraging address to the participants. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to the local community, particularly the Schenk Family and the staff of Collegium Mehrerau for the selfless friendship, generosity and kind hospitality they offered our gathering. It made a lasting impression on participants and guests alike and provided an excellent basis for fruitful scientific discussions and personal interactions. This and the positive resonance from participants have encouraged us to take the experiment a step further to "Symmetries in Science 2011"! Thanks also to Yvette for continuous and reliable support. The conference and proceedings would probably not have materialized without her. Frankfurt am Main and Graz, June 2010 Dieter Schuch Michael Ramek Conference photograph
Symmetry and group theory in chemistry
Ladd, M
1998-01-01
A comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetry, this book covers both point-group and space-group symmetries.Provides a comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetryCovers both point-group and space-group symmetriesIncludes tutorial solutions
Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ingmar Visser
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.
Time symmetry and the Einstein paradox
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa de Beauregard, O.
1977-01-01
The characteristic difference between the paleoquantal calculation (addition of partial probabilities) and the neoquantal one (addition of partial amplitudes) for the correlation of photon polarizations in cascade transitions is derived in terms of elementary trigonometry. This deliberate use of simple formulae aims at a transparent rendering of the change in paradigm required by the so-called EPR paradox (which is truly the 1927 Einstein paradox), namely that 1) the two photons do not possess polarizations of their own when leaving the source C, but borrow one later, when interacting with the analysers L and N; 2) the die is thus not cast at C, but later, at L and N; 3) the correlation between the measurements at L and N is tied through C, in their common past. The tight connection between this ''Einstein nonseparability'' and the nonlocality in Feynman's ''theory of positrons'' is demonstrated through an analysis of the e + e - annihilation into two photons. Thus the Einstein paradox corresponds, in the ''new wavelike probability calculus'', to the Loschmid and Zermelo sort of paradox in the old probability calculus. That is, it contrasts the intrinsic time symmetry existing at the elementary level to the factlike macroscopic time asymmetry. The discussion deliberately by-passes the hidden-variable problem, the model in this being Einstein's by-passing of the mechanical aether when proposing special relativity. It is believed today, like in 1905, the problem is tayloring the wording after the (operationally good) mathematics. Moreover, that the change in paradigm, which is needed, comes through a victory of formalism over modelism. (author)
Has Bell's inequality a general meaning for hidden-variable theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lochak, G.
1976-01-01
The proof given by J. S. Bell of an inequality between mean values of measurement results which, according to him, would be characteristic of any local hidden-parameter theory, is analyzed. It is shown that Bell's proof is based upon a hypothesis already contained in von Neumann's famous theorem: It consists in the admission that hidden values of parameters must obey the same statistical laws as observed values. This hypothesis contradicts in advance well known and certainly correct statistical relations in measurement results: one must therefore reject the type of theory considered by Bell, and his inequality has no general meaning
Charged tensor matter fields and Lorentz symmetry violation via spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colatto, L.P.; Penna, A.L.A.; Santos, W.C.
2003-10-01
We consider a model with a charged vector field along with a Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond (CSKR) matter field coupled to a U(1) gauge potential. We obtain a natural Lorentz symmetry violation due to the local U(1) spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism triggered by the imaginary part of the vector matter. The choice of the unitary gauge leads to the decoupling of the gauge-Kr sector from the Higgs-Kr sector. The excitation spectrum is carefully analyzed and the physical modes are identified. We propose an identification of the neutral massive spin-1 Higgs-like field with the massive Z' boson of the so-called mirror matter models. (author)
The hidden fermions in Z(2) theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srednicki, M.
1983-01-01
Low dimensional Z(2) gauge theories have been rewritten in terms of locally coupled fermionic degrees of freedom by means of the Jordan-Wigner transformation. In this paper it is shown that higher dimensional Z(2) gauge theories are also fermionic theories in disguise. The SML solution to the 1+1 dimension Ising model is reviewed. Psi operators are represented pictorially as arrows, psi 1 points to the left, psi 2 to the right, each site of H a multiple of two operators. The 2+1 dimension Ising model is then considered. A fermion plaquette operator is introduced as the generator of a gauge symmetry for the fermionic H. Findings in 1+1 and 2+1 are then applied to 3+1 dimensional Z(2) gauge theory. A construction of this lattice is undertaken. Psi formalism replaces sigma formalism, as it permits extremely simple duality transformations to be made on any Z(2) Hamiltonian. It is shown that the fermionic formalism will lead to new ideas in Z(2) theories
Quantum symmetry, the cosmological constant and Planck-scale phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Smolin, Lee; Starodubtsev, Artem
2004-01-01
We present a simple algebraic mechanism for the emergence of deformations of Poincare symmetries in the low-energy limit of quantum theories of gravity. The deformations, called κ-Poincare algebras, are parametrized by a dimensional parameter proportional to the Planck mass, and imply modified energy-momentum relations of a type that may be observable in near future experiments. Our analysis assumes that the low energy limit of a quantum theory of gravity must also involve a limit in which the cosmological constant is taken very small with respect to the Planck scale, and makes use of the fact that in some quantum theories of gravity the cosmological constant results in the (anti)de Sitter symmetry algebra being quantum deformed. We show that deformed Poincare symmetries inevitably emerge in the small-cosmological-constant limit of quantum gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions, where geometry does not have local degrees of freedom. In 3 + 1 dimensions we observe that, besides the quantum deformation of the (anti)de Sitter symmetry algebra, one must also take into account that there are local degrees of freedom leading to a renormalization of the generators for energy and momentum of the excitations. At the present level of development of quantum gravity in 3 + 1 dimensions, it is not yet possible to derive this renormalization from first principles, but we establish the conditions needed for the emergence of a deformed low energy limit symmetry algebra also in the case of 3 + 1 dimensions
Homothetic and conformal symmetries of solutions to Einstein's equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eardley, D.; Isenberg, J.; Marsden, J.; Moncrief, V.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT
1986-01-01
We present several results about the nonexistence of solutions of Einstein's equations with homoethetic or conformal symmetry. We show that the only spatially compact, globally hyperbolic spacetimes admitting a hypersurface of constant mean extrinsic curvature, and also admitting an infinitesimal proper homothetic symmetry, are everywhere locally flat; this assumes that the matter fields either obey certain energy conditions, or are the Yang-Mills or massless Klein-Gordon fields. We find that the only vacuum solutions admitting an infinitesimal proper conformal symmetry are everywhere locally flat spacetimes and certain plane wave solutions. We show that if the dominant energy condition is assumed, then Minkowski spacetime is the only asymptotically flat solution which has an infinitesimal conformal symmetry that is asymptotic to a dilation. In other words, with the exceptions cited, homothetic or conformal Killing fields are in fact Killing in spatially compact or asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the conformal procedure for solving the initial value problem, we show that data with infinitesimal conformal symmetry evolves to a spacetime with full isometry. (orig.)
Miller, G A
2003-01-01
Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...
Gauging the graded conformal group with unitary internal symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrara, S.; Townsend, P.K.; Kaku, M.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.
1977-06-01
Gauge theories for extended SU(N) conformal supergravity are constructed which are invariant under local scale, chiral, proper conformal, supersymmetry and internal SU(N) transformations. The relation between intrinsic parity and symmetry properties of their generators of the internal vector mesons is established. These theories contain no cosmological constants, but technical problems inherent to higher derivative actions are pointed out
Curvature-induced symmetry breaking in nonlinear Schrodinger models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Mingaleev, S. F.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2000-01-01
We consider a curved chain of nonlinear oscillators and show that the interplay of curvature and nonlinearity leads to a symmetry breaking when an asymmetric stationary state becomes energetically more favorable than a symmetric stationary state. We show that the energy of localized states...
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, Javier; Postma, Marieke
2008-11-01
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, Marieke [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-11-15
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Religious Tolerance in the Hidden Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin Nobel Kurniawan
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Religious intolerance is spreading within the Indonesian institution of education. Previous studies have shown that the growth of intolerance is due to the state’s regulation and pedagogical apparatus. In contrast to the previous studies, I argue that the intolerance is related to hidden curriculum applied by the institution of education. Normatively, the hidden curriculum contains the value of religious tolerance. However, factually, the author found that there are practices of intolerance, through the formal and informal spheres in the school’s structure, within the hidden curriculum. This article applies a qualitative approach with a mixed method research strategy to analyze data collected from students, teachers, and alumnis through field observation, in-depth interview, and survey.
Instantons, monopoles and chiral symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feurstein, M.; Markum, H.; Thurner, S.
1996-01-01
We analyze the interplay of topological objects in four dimensional QCD. The distributions of color magnetic monopoles obtained in the maximum abelian gauge are computed around instantons in both pure and full QCD. We find an enhanced probability of encountering monopoles inside the core of an instanton. We show this by means of local correlation functions of the topological variables. For specific gauge field configurations we visualize the situation graphically. Motivated by the fact that a fermion in the field of a static monopole has an energy zero mode we investigate how monopole loops and instantons are locally correlated with the chiral condensate. The observed correlations suggest that monopoles are involved in the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry. (orig.)