WorldWideScience

Sample records for hidden hot dark

  1. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  2. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  3. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-06-15

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  4. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas; Goodsell, Mark D.

    2013-06-01

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  5. Update on hidden sectors with dark forces and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-11-15

    Recently there has been much interest in hidden sectors, especially in the context of dark matter and ''dark forces'', since they are a common feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and additionally exhibit interesting phenomenological aspects. Various laboratory experiments place limits on the so-called hidden photon and continuously further probe and constrain the parameter space; an updated overview is presented here. Furthermore, for several hidden sector models with light dark matter we study the viability with respect to the relic abundance and direct detection experiments.

  6. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Paola; Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago

    2012-02-01

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  7. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica

    2012-02-15

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  8. Dark matter, a hidden universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trodden, M.; Feng, J.

    2011-01-01

    The main candidates to dark matter are particles called WIMPs for weakly interacting massive particles. 4 experiments (CDMS in Minnesota (Usa), DAMA at Gran Sasso (Italy), CoGeNT in Minnesota (Usa) and PAMELA onboard a Russian satellite) have claimed to have detected them. New clues suggest that it could exist new particles interacting via new forces. The observation that dwarf galaxies are systematically more spherical than massive galaxies might be a sign of the existence of new forces between dark matter components. Dark matter could not be as inert as previously thought. (A.C.)

  9. Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Javier; Postma, Marieke

    2008-11-01

    We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)

  10. Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, Marieke [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)

  11. Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.

  12. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Dark matter and dark forces from a supersymmetric hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, S.; Goodsell, M.D.; Ringwald, A.

    2011-09-15

    We show that supersymmetric ''Dark Force'' models with gravity mediation are viable. To this end, we analyse a simple supersymmetric hidden sector model that interacts with the visible sector via kinetic mixing of a light Abelian gauge boson with the hypercharge. We include all induced interactions with the visible sector such as neutralino mass mixing and the Higgs portal term. We perform a detailed parameter space scan comparing the produced dark matter relic abundance and direct detection cross-sections to current experiments. (orig.)

  14. WIMPless dark matter from non-Abelian hidden sectors with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Shadmi, Yael

    2011-01-01

    In anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, superpartner masses are proportional to couplings squared. Their hidden sectors therefore naturally contain WIMPless dark matter, particles whose thermal relic abundance is guaranteed to be of the correct size, even though they are not weakly interacting massive particles. We study viable dark matter candidates in WIMPless anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with non-Abelian hidden sectors and highlight unusual possibilities that emerge in even the simplest models. In one example with a pure SU(N) hidden sector, stable hidden gluinos freeze out with the correct relic density, but have an extremely low, but natural, confinement scale, providing a framework for self-interacting dark matter. In another simple scenario, hidden gluinos freeze out and decay to visible Winos with the correct relic density, and hidden glueballs may either be stable, providing a natural framework for mixed cold-hot dark matter, or may decay, yielding astrophysical signals. Last, we present a model with light hidden pions that may be tested with improved constraints on the number of nonrelativistic degrees of freedom. All of these scenarios are defined by a small number of parameters, are consistent with gauge coupling unification, preserve the beautiful connection between the weak scale and the observed dark matter relic density, and are natural, with relatively light visible superpartners. We conclude with comments on interesting future directions.

  15. Hidden photon dark matter search with large metallic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebrich, Babette; Lindner, Axel; Daumiller, Kai; Engel, Ralph; Roth, Markus; Kowalski, Marek

    2014-10-01

    If Dark Matter is composed of hidden-sector photons that kinetically mix with photons of the visible sector, then Dark Matter has a tiny oscillating electric field component. Its presence would lead to a small amount of visible radiation being emitted from a conducting surface, with the photon frequency given approximately by the mass of the hidden photon. Here, we report on experimental efforts that have started recently to search for such hidden photon Dark Matter in the (sub-)eV regime with a prototype mirror for the Auger fluorescence detector at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology.

  16. Sterile neutrino, hidden dark matter and their cosmological signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subinoy

    2012-01-01

    Though thermal dark matter has been the central idea behind the dark matter candidates, it is highly possible that dark matter of the universe is non-thermal in origin or it might be in thermal contact with some hidden or dark sector but not with standard model. Here we explore the cosmological bounds as well as the signatures on two types of non-thermal dark matter candidates. First we discuss a hidden dark matter with almost no interaction (or very feeble) with standard model particles so that it is not in thermal contact with visible sector but we assume it is thermalized with in a hidden sector due to some interaction. While encompassing the standard cold WIMP scenario, we do not require the freeze-out process to be non-relativistic. Rather, freeze-out may also occur when dark matter particles are semi-relativistic or relativistic. Especially we focus on the warm dark matter scenario in this set up and find the constraints on the warm dark matter mass, cross-section and hidden to visible sector temperature ratio which accounts for the observed dark-matter density, satisfies the Tremaine-Gunn bound on dark-matter phase space density and has a free-streaming length consistent with cosmological constraints on the matter power spectrum. Our method can also be applied to keV sterile neutrino dark matter which is not thermalized with standard model but is thermalized with in a dark sector. The second part of this proceeding focuses on an exotic dark matter candidate which arises from the existence of eV mass sterile neutrino through a late phase transition. Due to existence of a strong scalar force the light sterile states get trapped into stable degenerate micro nuggets. We find that its signature in matter power spectra is close to a warm dark matter candidate.

  17. Exploring a hidden fermionic dark sector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... background radiation (CMBR) by Planck [1] satellite experiment suggests ... (SM) of particle physics also cannot explain the physics of dark matter. ... the dark sector also achieve mass from the spontaneous breaking of this ...

  18. Recent Developments in Supersymmetric and Hidden Sector Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Daniel; Liu Zuowei; Nath, Pran

    2008-01-01

    New results which correlate SUSY dark matter with LHC signals are presented, and a brief review of recent developments in supersymmetric and hidden sector dark matter is given. It is shown that the direct detection of dark matter is very sensitive to the hierarchical SUSY sparticle spectrum and the spectrum is very useful in distinguishing models. It is shown that the prospects of the discovery of neutralino dark matter are very bright on the 'Chargino Wall' due to a copious number of model points on the Wall, where the NLSP is the Chargino, and the spin independent neutralino-proton cross section is maintained at high values in the 10 -44 cm 2 range for neutralino masses up to ∼850 GeV. It is also shown that the direct detection of dark matter along with lepton plus jet signatures and missing energy provide dual, and often complementary, probes of supersymmetry. Finally, we discuss an out of the box possibility for dark matter, which includes dark matter from the hidden sector, which could either consist of extra weakly interacting dark matter (a Stino XWIMP), or milli-charged dark matter arising from the Stueckelberg extensions of the MSSM or the SM.

  19. Seeded hot dark matter models with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratsias, John; Scherrer, Robert J.; Steigman, Gary; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We examine massive neutrino (hot dark matter) models for large-scale structure in which the density perturbations are produced by randomly distributed relic seeds and by inflation. Power spectra, streaming velocities, and the Sachs-Wolfe quadrupole fluctuation are derived for this model. We find that the pure seeded hot dark matter model without inflation produces Sachs-Wolfe fluctuations far smaller than those seen by COBE. With the addition of inflationary perturbations, fluctuations consistent with COBE can be produced. The COBE results set the normalization of the inflationary component, which determines the large-scale (about 50/h Mpc) streaming velocities. The normalization of the seed power spectrum is a free parameter, which can be adjusted to obtain the desired fluctuations on small scales. The power spectra produced are very similar to those seen in mixed hot and cold dark matter models.

  20. Asymmetric dark matter and the hadronic spectra of hidden QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Schroor, Martine; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2017-09-01

    The idea that dark matter may be a composite state of a hidden non-Abelian gauge sector has received great attention in recent years. Frameworks such as asymmetric dark matter motivate the idea that dark matter may have similar mass to the proton, while mirror matter and G ×G grand unified theories provide rationales for additional gauge sectors which may have minimal interactions with standard model particles. In this work we explore the hadronic spectra that these dark QCD models can allow. The effects of the number of light colored particles and the value of the confinement scale on the lightest stable state, the dark matter candidate, are examined in the hyperspherical constituent quark model for baryonic and mesonic states.

  1. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa

    2013-10-01

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3σ by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f a 10 ) GeV, if they are produced by the saxion decay and the domain wall annihilation. We also investigate the cases of thermal QCD axions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons coupled to the standard model sector through the Higgs portal, and axions produced by modulus decay.

  2. Hidden past of dark energy cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Jambrina, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter we analyse the possibility of having homogeneous isotropic cosmological models with observers reaching t=∞ in finite proper time. It is shown that just observationally-suggested dark energy models with w element of (-5/3,-1) show this feature and that they are endowed with an exotic curvature singularity. Furthermore, it is shown that non-accelerated observers in these models may experience a duration of the universe as short as desired by increasing their linear momentum. A subdivision of phantom models in two families according to this behavior is suggested

  3. Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Foot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken U(1′ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ϵ∼10−9. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large (≳10% for a wide range of parameters.

  4. Dark matter, hot and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Qaisar

    1993-01-01

    Cosmologists responded enthusiastically to the announcement at the Washington meeting of the American Physical Society in April 1992 that the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) had succeeded in detecting primordial anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB - June 1992, page 1). The COBE satellite was launched in November 1989 into an orbit approximately 900 km above the Earth, carrying instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the CMB. Data from the Far-lnfra Red Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) beautifully shows the CMB spectrum to be that of a black body at a temperature of 2.73±0.06K. An even more important result, at least from the viewpoint of theories of large scale structure formation (LSS), comes from the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) which provided the first evidence for CMB anisotropy. Some anisotropy on the angular slice probed by COBE is expected in any reasonable model of LSS. COBE's measurement of the quadrupole anisotropy at six parts per million provides an important clue for developing a 'standard model' of LSS. The COBE numbers are in remarkably good agreement with the predictions of a particularly simple class of LSS models proposed almost a decade ago, with far reaching implications for dark matter searches

  5. Axions as hot and cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kawasaki, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS; Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-10-15

    The presence of a hot dark matter component has been hinted at 3{sigma} by a combination of the results from different cosmological observations. We examine a possibility that pseudo Nambu- Goldstone bosons account for both hot and cold dark matter components. We show that the QCD axions can do the job for the axion decay constant f{sub a}

  6. Hidden from view: coupled dark sector physics and small scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Pascal J.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Power, Chris; Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    We study cluster mass dark matter (DM) haloes, their progenitors and surroundings in a coupled dark matter-dark energy (DE) model and compare it to quintessence and Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models with adiabatic zoom simulations. When comparing cosmologies with different expansions histories, growth functions and power spectra, care must be taken to identify unambiguous signatures of alternative cosmologies. Shared cosmological parameters, such as σ8, need not be the same for optimal fits to observational data. We choose to set our parameters to ΛCDM z = 0 values. We find that in coupled models, where DM decays into DE, haloes appear remarkably similar to ΛCDM haloes despite DM experiencing an additional frictional force. Density profiles are not systematically different and the subhalo populations have similar mass, spin, and spatial distributions, although (sub)haloes are less concentrated on average in coupled cosmologies. However, given the scatter in related observables (V_max,R_{V_max}), this difference is unlikely to distinguish between coupled and uncoupled DM. Observations of satellites of Milky Way and M31 indicate a significant subpopulation reside in a plane. Coupled models do produce planar arrangements of satellites of higher statistical significance than ΛCDM models; however, in all models these planes are dynamically unstable. In general, the non-linear dynamics within and near large haloes masks the effects of a coupled dark sector. The sole environmental signature we find is that small haloes residing in the outskirts are more deficient in baryons than their ΛCDM counterparts. The lack of a pronounced signal for a coupled dark sector strongly suggests that such a phenomena would be effectively hidden from view.

  7. Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-12-15

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.

  8. Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-12-01

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.

  9. Extracting hidden-photon dark matter from an LC-circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Paola; Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando; Doebrich, Babette

    2015-01-01

    We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space. (orig.)

  10. Extracting hidden-photon dark matter from an LC-circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, Paola; Arza, Ariel; Gamboa, Jorge; Mendez, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden-photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space.

  11. Extracting Hidden-Photon Dark Matter From an LC-Circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Döbrich, Babette; Gamboa, Jorge; Méndez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We point out that a cold dark matter condensate made of gauge bosons from an extra hidden U(1) sector - dubbed hidden- photons - can create a small, oscillating electric density current. Thus, they could also be searched for in the recently proposed LC-circuit setup conceived for axion cold dark matter search by Sikivie, Sullivan and Tanner. We estimate the sensitivity of this setup for hidden-photon cold dark matter and we find it could cover a sizable, so far unexplored parameter space.

  12. Dark energy and dark matter from hidden symmetry of gravity model with a non-Riemannian volume form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guendelman, Eduardo [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-15

    We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by √(-g) (square root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric) and another non-Riemannian volume form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless ''dust'' fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decoupled from the dark energy. The form of both the dark energy and dark matter that results from the above class of models is insensitive to the specific form of the scalar field Lagrangian. By adding an appropriate perturbation, which breaks the above hidden symmetry and along with this couples dark matter and dark energy, we also suggest a way to obtain growing dark energy in the present universe's epoch without evolution pathologies. (orig.)

  13. Search for dark matter in the hidden-photon sector with a large spherical mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Veberic, Darko; Doebrich, Babette; Engel, Ralph; Jaeckel, Joerg; Kowalski, Marek; Lindner, Axel; Mathes, Hermann-Josef; Redondo, Javier; Roth, Markus; Schaefer, Christoph; Ulrich, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    If dark matter consists of hidden-sector photons which kinetically mix with regular photons, a tiny oscillating electric-field component is present wherever we have dark matter. In the surface of conducting materials this induces a small probability to emit single photons almost perpendicular to the surface, with the corresponding photon frequency matching the mass of the hidden photons. We report on a construction of an experimental setup with a large ~14 m2 spherical metallic mirror that will allow for searches of hidden-photon dark matter in the eV and sub-eV range by application of different electromagnetic radiation detectors. We discuss sensitivity and accessible regions in the dark matter parameter space.

  14. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Freese, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10 11 GeV–10 16 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  15. Hot spots and dark current in advanced plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Manahan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dark current can spoil witness bunch beam quality and acceleration efficiency in particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators. In advanced schemes, hot spots generated by the drive beam or the wakefield can release electrons from higher ionization threshold levels in the plasma media. These electrons may be trapped inside the plasma wake and will then accumulate dark current, which is generally detrimental for a clear and unspoiled plasma acceleration process. Strategies for generating clean and robust, dark current free plasma wake cavities are devised and analyzed, and crucial aspects for experimental realization of such optimized scenarios are discussed.

  16. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Service de Physique Theorique; Ibarra, Alejandro [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Weniger, Christoph [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)

  17. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities. (orig.)

  18. Intense gamma-ray lines from hidden vector dark matter decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Hambye, Thomas; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Scenarios with hidden, spontaneously broken, non-abelian gauge groups contain a natural dark matter candidate, the hidden vector, whose longevity is due to an accidental custodial symmetry in the renormalizable Lagrangian. Nevertheless, non-renormalizable dimension six operators break the custodial symmetry and induce the decay of the dark matter particle at cosmological times. We discuss in this paper the cosmic ray signatures of this scenario and we show that the decay of hidden vector dark matter particles generically produce an intense gamma ray line which could be observed by the Fermi-LAT experiment, if the scale of custodial symmetry breaking is close to the Grand Unification scale. This gamma line proceeds directly from a tree level dark matter 2-body decay in association with a Higgs boson. Within this model we also perform a determination of the relic density constraints taking into account the dark matter annihilation processes with one dark matter particle in the final state. The corresponding direct detection rates can be easily of order the current experimental sensitivities

  19. Diurnal modulation due to self-interacting mirror and hidden sector dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2012-01-01

    Mirror and more generic hidden sector dark matter models can simultaneously explain the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II dark matter signals consistently with the null results of the other experiments. This type of dark matter can be captured by the Earth and shield detectors because it is self-interacting. This effect will lead to a diurnal modulation in dark matter detectors. We estimate the size of this effect for dark matter detectors in various locations. For a detector located in the northern hemisphere, this effect is expected to peak in April and can be detected for optimistic parameter choices. The diurnal variation is expected to be much larger for detectors located in the southern hemisphere. In particular, if the CoGeNT detector were moved to e.g. Sierra Grande, Argentina then a 5σ dark matter discovery would be possible in around 30 days of operation

  20. Cosmological N-body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N-body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses...

  1. WISPers from the dark side. Radio probes of axions and hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lobanov, Andrei [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2013-09-15

    Measurements in the radio regime embrace a number of effective approaches for WISP searches, often covering unique or highly complementary ranges of the parameter space compared to those explored in other research domains. These measurements can be used to search for electromagnetic tracers of the hidden photon and axion oscillations, extending down to {proportional_to} 10{sup -19} eV the range of the hidden photon mass probed, and closing the last gaps in the strongly favoured 1-5 {mu}eV range for axion dark matter. This provides a strong impetus for several new initiatives in the field, including the WISP Dark Matter eXperiment (WISPDMX) and novel conceptual approaches for broad-band WISP searches in the 0.1-1000 {mu}eV range.

  2. Hidden U (1 ) gauge symmetry realizing a neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model with dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    We propose a neutrinophilic two-Higgs-doublet model with hidden local U (1 ) symmetry, where active neutrinos are Dirac type, and a fermionic dark matter (DM) candidate is naturally induced as a result of remnant symmetry even after the spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, a physical Goldstone boson arises as a consequence of two types of gauge singlet bosons and contributes to the DM phenomenologies as well as an additional neutral gauge boson. Then, we analyze the relic density of DM within the safe range of direct detection searches and show the allowed region of dark matter mass.

  3. Hidden sector dark matter and the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess: a closer look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Miguel; Witte, Samuel J.; Hooper, Dan

    2017-11-01

    Stringent constraints from direct detection experiments and the Large Hadron Collider motivate us to consider models in which the dark matter does not directly couple to the Standard Model, but that instead annihilates into hidden sector particles which ultimately decay through small couplings to the Standard Model. We calculate the gamma-ray emission generated within the context of several such hidden sector models, including those in which the hidden sector couples to the Standard Model through the vector portal (kinetic mixing with Standard Model hypercharge), through the Higgs portal (mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson), or both. In each case, we identify broad regions of parameter space in which the observed spectrum and intensity of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess can easily be accommodated, while providing an acceptable thermal relic abundance and remaining consistent with all current constraints. We also point out that cosmic-ray antiproton measurements could potentially discriminate some hidden sector models from more conventional dark matter scenarios.

  4. Hidden Sector Dark Matter and the Galactic Center Gamma-Ray Excess: A Closer Look

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, Miguel; Witte, Samuel J.; Hooper, Dan

    2017-09-20

    Stringent constraints from direct detection experiments and the Large Hadron Collider motivate us to consider models in which the dark matter does not directly couple to the Standard Model, but that instead annihilates into hidden sector particles which ultimately decay through small couplings to the Standard Model. We calculate the gamma-ray emission generated within the context of several such hidden sector models, including those in which the hidden sector couples to the Standard Model through the vector portal (kinetic mixing with Standard Model hypercharge), through the Higgs portal (mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson), or both. In each case, we identify broad regions of parameter space in which the observed spectrum and intensity of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess can easily be accommodated, while providing an acceptable thermal relic abundance and remaining consistent with all current constraints. We also point out that cosmic-ray antiproton measurements could potentially discriminate some hidden sector models from more conventional dark matter scenarios.

  5. A hydrodynamic approach to cosmology - Texture-seeded cold dark matter and hot dark matter cosmogonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, R. Y.; Ostriker, J. P.; Spergel, D. N.; Turok, N.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation in a texture-seeded cosmology are presented, with attention given to Omega = 1 galaxies dominated by both hot dark matter (HDM) and cold dark matter (CDM). The simulations include both gravitational and hydrodynamical physics with a detailed treatment of collisional and radiative thermal processes, and use a cooling criterion to estimate galaxy formation. Background radiation fields and Zel'dovich-Sunyaev fluctuations are explicitly computed. The derived galaxy mass function is well fitted by the observed Schechter luminosity function for a baryonic M/L of 3 and total M/L of 60 in galaxies. In both HDM and CDM texture scenarios, the 'galaxies' and 'clusters' are significantly more strongly correlated than the dark matter due to physical bias processes. The slope of the correlation function in both cases is consistent with observations. In contrast to Gaussian models, peaks in the dark matter density distributrion are less correlated than average.

  6. Testing string vacua in the lab. From a hidden CMB to dark forces in flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele; Goodsell, Mark; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenolgy

    2011-03-15

    We perform a detailed analysis of the phenomenological properties of hidden Abelian gauge bosons with a kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon within type IIB flux compactifications. We study the interplay between moduli stabilisation and the Green-Schwarz mechanism that gives mass to the hidden photon paying particular attention to the role of D-terms. We present two generic classes of explicit Calabi-Yau examples with an isotropic and an anisotropic shape of the extra dimensions showing how the last case turns out to be very promising to make contact with current experiments. In fact, anisotropic compactifications lead naturally to a GeV-scale hidden photon (''dark forces'' that can be searched for in beam dump experiments) for an intermediate string scale; or even to an meV-scale hidden photon (which could lead to a ''hidden CMB'' and can be tested by light-shining-through-a-wall experiments) in the case of TeV-scale strings. (orig.)

  7. Cosmological N -body simulations with generic hot dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandbyge, Jacob; Hannestad, Steen, E-mail: jacobb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK–8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-10-01

    We have calculated the non-linear effects of generic fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter components in cosmological N -body simulations. For sub-eV masses, the non-linear power spectrum suppression caused by thermal free-streaming resembles the one seen for massive neutrinos, whereas for masses larger than 1 eV, the non-linear relative suppression of power is smaller than in linear theory. We furthermore find that in the non-linear regime, one can map fermionic to bosonic models by performing a simple transformation.

  8. First Direct-Detection Constraints on eV-Scale Hidden-Photon Dark Matter with DAMIC at SNOLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Amidei, D; Bertou, X; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Castañeda Vázquez, A; Cervantes Vergara, B A; Chavarria, A E; Chavez, C R; de Mello Neto, J R T; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Fernandez Moroni, G; Gaïor, R; Guardincerri, Y; Hernández Torres, K P; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Letessier-Selvon, A; Liao, J; Matalon, A; Mello, V B B; Molina, J; Privitera, P; Ramanathan, K; Sarkis, Y; Schwarz, T; Settimo, M; Sofo Haro, M; Thomas, R; Tiffenberg, J; Tiouchichine, E; Torres Machado, D; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2017-04-07

    We present direct detection constraints on the absorption of hidden-photon dark matter with particle masses in the range 1.2-30  eV c^{-2} with the DAMIC experiment at SNOLAB. Under the assumption that the local dark matter is entirely constituted of hidden photons, the sensitivity to the kinetic mixing parameter κ is competitive with constraints from solar emission, reaching a minimum value of 2.2×10^{-14} at 17  eV c^{-2}. These results are the most stringent direct detection constraints on hidden-photon dark matter in the galactic halo with masses 3-12  eV c^{-2} and the first demonstration of direct experimental sensitivity to ionization signals dark matter interactions.

  9. First Direct-Detection Constraints on eV-Scale Hidden-Photon Dark Matter with DAMIC at SNOLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Amidei, D.; Bertou, X.; Butner, M.; Cancelo, G.; Castañeda Vázquez, A.; Cervantes Vergara, B. A.; Chavarria, A. E.; Chavez, C. R.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Estrada, J.; Fernandez Moroni, G.; Gaïor, R.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hernández Torres, K. P.; Izraelevitch, F.; Kavner, A.; Kilminster, B.; Lawson, I.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Liao, J.; Matalon, A.; Mello, V. B. B.; Molina, J.; Privitera, P.; Ramanathan, K.; Sarkis, Y.; Schwarz, T.; Settimo, M.; Sofo Haro, M.; Thomas, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Tiouchichine, E.; Torres Machado, D.; Trillaud, F.; You, X.; Zhou, J.

    2017-04-05

    We present direct detection constraints on the absorption of hidden-photon dark matter with particle masses in the range 1.2-30 eV$c^{-2}$ with the DAMIC experiment at SNOLAB. Under the assumption that the local dark matter is entirely constituted of hidden photons, the sensitivity to the kinetic mixing parameter $\\kappa$ is competitive with constraints from solar emission, reaching a minimum value of 2.2$\\times$$10^{-14}$ at 17 eV$c^{-2}$. These results are the most stringent direct detection constraints on hidden-photon dark matter with masses 3-12 eV$c^{-2}$ and the first demonstration of direct experimental sensitivity to ionization signals $<$12 eV from dark matter interactions.

  10. Future cosmological sensitivity for hot dark matter axions

    CERN Document Server

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2015-01-01

    We study the potential of a future, large-volume photometric survey to constrain the axion mass $m_a$ in the hot dark matter limit. Future surveys such as Euclid will have significantly more constraining power than current observations for hot dark matter. Nonetheless, the lowest accessible axion masses are limited by the fact that axions lighter than $\\sim 0.15$ eV decouple before the QCD epoch, assumed here to occur at a temperature $T_{\\rm QCD} \\sim 170$ MeV; this leaves an axion population of such low density that its late-time cosmological impact is negligible. For larger axion masses, $m_a \\gtrsim 0.15$ eV, where axions remain in equilibrium until after the QCD phase transition, we find that a Euclid-like survey combined with Planck CMB data can detect $m_a$ at very high significance. Our conclusions are robust against assumptions about prior knowledge of the neutrino mass. Given that the proposed IAXO solar axion search is sensitive to $m_a\\lesssim 0.2$ eV, the axion mass range probed by cosmology is n...

  11. Tight connection between direct and indirect detection of dark matter through Higgs portal couplings to a hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arina, Chiara; Josse-Michaux, Francois-Xavier; Sahu, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    We present a hidden Abelian extension of the standard model including a complex scalar as a dark matter candidate and a light scalar acting as a long range force carrier between dark matter particles. The Sommerfeld enhanced annihilation cross section of the dark matter explains the observed cosmic ray excesses. The light scalar field also gives rise to potentially large cross sections of dark matter on the nucleon, therefore providing an interesting way to probe this model simultaneously at direct and indirect dark matter search experiments. We constrain the parameter space of the model by taking into account the CDMS-II exclusion limit as well as PAMELA and Fermi LAT data.

  12. Is it possible to tell the difference between fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannestad, S.; Tu, H. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ringwald, A.; Wong, Y.Y.Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    We study the difference between thermally produced fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter in detail. In the linear regime of structure formation, their distinct free-streaming behaviours can lead to pronounced differences in the matter power spectrum. While not detectable with current cosmological data, such differences will be clearly observable with upcoming large scale weak lensing surveys for particles as light as m{sub HDM} {proportional_to} 0.2 eV. In the nonlinear regime, bosonic hot dark matter is not subject to the same phase space constraints that severely limit the amount of fermionic hot dark matter infall into cold dark matter halos. Consequently, the overdensities in fermionic and bosonic hot dark matter of equal particle mass can differ by more than a factor of five in the central part of a halo. However, this unique manifestation of quantum statistics may prove very difficult to detect unless the mass of the hot dark matter particle and its decoupling temperature fall within a very narrow window, 1hot dark matter infall may have some observable consequences for the nonlinear power spectrum and hence the weak lensing convergence power spectrum at l {proportional_to} 10{sup 3} {yields} 10{sup 4} at the percent level. (orig.)

  13. Fractional statistics, exceptional preons, scalar dark matter, lepton number violation, neutrino masses, and hidden gauge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1985-09-01

    A brief review is given of the basics of fractional statistics, which is based on the Dirac-Bohm-Aharanov effect. Some group theoretic aspects of exceptional preons are breifly described, and a theory is proposed containing hypercolor and hyperflavor with G/sub HC/ x G/sub HF/ = E(6) x E(6) and preons in (27,27). It is also suggested that the dark matter in the universe is due to a scalar field which transforms as a singlet under SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and interacts only via the Higgs boson. Some speculation is made on the existence and physical consequences of a SU(2) singet charged scalar field which couples to two lepton doublet, necessarily violating electron, muon, and tauon numbers. The Majorana masses of neutrinos are discussed as the result of breaking the total lepton number. Abelian gauge field hidden inside non-abelian gauge theory is briefly described in analogy to the electromagnetic potential term. 20 refs

  14. Matter, dark matter, and anti-matter in search of the hidden universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mazure, Alain

    2012-01-01

    For over ten years, the dark side of the universe has been headline news. Detailed studies of the rotation of spiral galaxies, and 'mirages' created by clusters of galaxies bending the light from very remote objects, have convinced astronomers of the presence of large quantities of dark (unseen) matter in the cosmos. Moreover, in the 1990s, it was discovered that some four to five billion years ago the expansion of the universe entered a phase of acceleration. This implies the existence of dark energy. The nature of these 'dark; ingredients remains a mystery, but they seem to comprise about 95 percent of the matter/energy content of the universe. As for ordinary matter, although we are immersed in a sea of dark particles, including primordial neutrinos and photons from 'fossil' cosmological radiation, both we and our environment are made of ordinary, baryonic matter. Strangely, even if 15-20 percent of matter is baryonic matter, this represents only 4-5 percent of the total matter/energy content of the cosmos...

  15. Strong phase transition, dark matter and vacuum stability from simple hidden sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Tommi, E-mail: tommi.alanne@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Vaskonen, Ville, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@jyu.fi [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-12-15

    Motivated by the possibility to explain dark matter abundance and strong electroweak phase transition, we consider simple extensions of the Standard Model containing singlet fields coupled with the Standard Model via a scalar portal. Concretely, we consider a basic portal model consisting of a singlet scalar with Z{sub 2} symmetry and a model containing a singlet fermion connected with the Standard Model fields via a singlet scalar portal. We perform a Monte Carlo analysis of the parameter space of each model, and we find that in both cases the dark matter abundance can be produced either via freeze-out or freeze-in mechanisms, but only in the latter model one can obtain also a strong electroweak phase transition required by the successful electroweak baryogenesis. We impose the direct search limits and consider systematically the possibility that the model produces only a subdominant portion of the dark matter abundance. We also study the renormalization group evolution of the couplings of the model to determine if the scalar sector of the model remains stable and perturbative up to high scales. With explicit examples of benchmark values of the couplings at weak scale, we show that this is possible. Models of this type are further motivated by the possibility that the excursions of the Higgs field at the end of inflation are large and could directly probe the instability region of the Standard Model.

  16. Matter power spectrum in hidden neutrino interacting dark matter models: a closer look at the collision term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Tobias; Covi, Laura [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Georg-August University Göttingen,Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, Göttingen, D-37077 (Germany); Kamada, Ayuki [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Takahashi, Tomo [Department of Physics, Saga University,Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Yoshida, Naoki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo,Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency,4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan)

    2016-11-21

    Dark Matter (DM) models providing possible alternative solutions to the small-scale crisis of the standard cosmology are nowadays of growing interest. We consider DM interacting with light hidden fermions via well-motivated fundamental operators showing the resultant matter power spectrum is suppressed on subgalactic scales within a plausible parameter region. Our basic description of the evolution of cosmological perturbations relies on a fully consistent first principles derivation of a perturbed Fokker-Planck type equation, generalizing existing literature. The cosmological perturbation of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented for the first time in two different gauges, where the results transform into each other according to the rules of gauge transformation. Furthermore, our focus lies on a derivation of a broadly applicable and easily computable collision term showing important phenomenological differences to other existing approximations. As one of the main results and concerning the small-scale crisis, we show the equal importance of vector and scalar boson mediated interactions between the DM and the light fermions.

  17. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic treatment of the hot dark matter cosmological scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1992-01-01

    The study computes the evolution of the hot dark matter (HDM) model containing both baryonic matter and dark matter for a post recombination Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. A locally valid Newtonian approximation is used to model a representative piece of the universe with size much less than the horizon. For the HDM model with the present chosen normalization, the hard X-ray (1-10 keV) radiation intensity is less than that in the observations (Wu et al., 1991) by a factor of 30. In agreement with other work, it is found that baryonic matter is slightly antibiased over dark matter on the cell scale, 0.5/h Mpc = 667 kpc. The HDM model with the present chosen parameters does not overproduce X-ray-luminous clusters, and there is a negative evolution in the late epochs in the sense that the number density of X-ray clusters was higher at 0.5 redshift than at 0 redshift at the brightest end.

  18. Search for cold and hot dark matter with the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment, HDMS, GENIUS and GENIUS-TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Dietz, A.; Krivosheina, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The recent result from the Heidelberg-Moscow double beta experiment allows neutrinos still to play an important role as hot dark matter in the Universe. HDMS has started in 2001 its search for cold dark matter (WIMPS), with a HPGe crystal of enriched 73 Ge. Concerning hot dark matter, GENIUS will improve the present accuracy for the (effective) neutrino mass. At the same time GENIUS will extend the range of sensitivity in an unprecedented way to cover a wide range of the parameter space of SUSY parameters for neutralinos as cold dark matter. A GENIUS Test Facility in the Gran Sasso has been approved in 2001 and will come into operation by end of 2002. Finally some comments are given to some criticism of the result presented elsewhere

  19. Topology of large-scale structure in seeded hot dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1992-01-01

    The topology of the isodensity surfaces in seeded hot dark matter models, in which static seed masses provide the density perturbations in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos is examined. When smoothed with a Gaussian window, the linear initial conditions in these models show no trace of non-Gaussian behavior for r0 equal to or greater than 5 Mpc (h = 1/2), except for very low seed densities, which show a shift toward isolated peaks. An approximate analytic expression is given for the genus curve expected in linear density fields from randomly distributed seed masses. The evolved models have a Gaussian topology for r0 = 10 Mpc, but show a shift toward a cellular topology with r0 = 5 Mpc; Gaussian models with an identical power spectrum show the same behavior.

  20. Unmasking the hidden NGTS-3Ab: a hot Jupiter in an unresolved binary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Maximilian N.; Queloz, Didier; Gillen, Edward; Delrez, Laetitia; Bouchy, François; McCormac, James; Smalley, Barry; Almleaky, Yaseen; Armstrong, David J.; Bayliss, Daniel; Burdanov, Artem; Burleigh, Matthew; Cabrera, Juan; Casewell, Sarah L.; Cooke, Benjamin F.; Csizmadia, Szilárd; Ducrot, Elsa; Eigmüller, Philipp; Erikson, Anders; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Gibson, Neale P.; Gillon, Michaël; Goad, Michael R.; Jehin, Emmanuël; Jenkins, James S.; Louden, Tom; Moyano, Maximiliano; Murray, Catriona; Pollacco, Don; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Rauer, Heike; Raynard, Liam; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Sohy, Sandrine; Thompson, Samantha J.; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Wheatley, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    We present the discovery of NGTS-3Ab, a hot Jupiter found transiting the primary star of an unresolved binary system. We develop a joint analysis of multi-colour photometry, centroids, radial velocity (RV) cross-correlation function (CCF) profiles and their bisector inverse slopes (BIS) to disentangle this three-body system. Data from the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS), SPECULOOS and HARPS are analysed and modelled with our new BLENDFITTER software. We find that the binary consists of NGTS-3A (G6V-dwarf) and NGTS-3B (K1V-dwarf) at 5") and are prone to contamination by blended objects. With TESS on the horizon, it is pivotal for the candidate vetting to incorporate all available follow-up information from multi-colour photometry and RV CCF profiles.

  1. The evolution of X-ray clusters in a cold plus hot dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Klypin, Anatoly; Loken, Chris; Norman, Michael L.; Burns, Jack O.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first self-consistently computed results on the evolution of X-ray properties of galaxy clusters in a cold + hot dark matter (CHDM) model. We have performed a hydrodynamic plus N-body simulation for the COBE-compatible CHDM model with standard mass components: Omega(sub hot) = 0.3, Omega (sub cold) = 0.6 and Omega(sub baryon) = 0.1 (h = 0.5). In contrast with the CDM model, which fails to reproduce the observed temperature distribution function dN/dT (Bryan et al. 1994b), the CHDM model fits the observational dN/dT quite well. Our results on X-ray luminosity are less firm but even more intriguing. We find that the resulting X-ray luminosity functions at redshifts z = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7 are well fit by observations, where they overlap. The fact that both temperatures and luminosities provide a reasonable fit to the available observational data indicates that, unless we are missing some essential physics, there is neither room nor need for a large fraction of gas in rich clusters: 10% (or less) in baryons is sufficient to explain their X-ray properties. We also see a tight correlation between X-ray luminosity and gas temperature.

  2. The peculiar velocities of rich clusters in the hot and cold dark matter scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, George F.; West, Michael J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the peculiar velocities of rich clusters of galaxies. The peculiar motion of rich clusters in various cosmological scenarios is of interest for a number of reasons. Observationally, one can measure the peculiar motion of clusters to greater distances than galaxies because cluster peculiar motions can be determined to greater accuracy. One can also test the slope of distance indicator relations using clusters to see if galaxy properties vary with environment. We have used N-body simulations to measure the amplitude and rms cluster peculiar velocity as a function of bias parameter in the hot and cold dark matter scenarios. In addition to measuring the mean and rms peculiar velocity of clusters in the two models, we determined whether the peculiar velocity vector of a given cluster is well aligned with the gravity vector due to all the particles in the simulation and the gravity vector due to the particles present only in the clusters. We have investigated the peculiar velocities of rich clusters of galaxies in the cold dark matter and hot dark matter galaxy formation scenarios. We have derived peculiar velocities and associated errors for the scenarios using four values of the bias parameter ranging from b = 1 to b = 2.5. The growth of the mean peculiar velocity with scale factor has been determined and compared to that predicted by linear theory. In addition, we have compared the orientation of force and velocity in these simulations to see if a program such as that proposed by Bertschinger and Dekel (1989) for elliptical galaxy peculiar motions can be applied to clusters. The method they describe enables one to recover the density field from large scale redshift distance samples. The method makes it possible to do this when only radial velocities are known by assuming that the velocity field is curl free. Our analysis suggests that this program if applied to clusters is only realizable for models with a low value of the bias

  3. Too hot to handle? Analytic solutions for massive neutrino or warm dark matter cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Portillo, Stephen K. N.

    2018-05-01

    We obtain novel closed-form solutions to the Friedmann equation for cosmological models containing a component whose equation of state is that of radiation (w = 1/3) at early times and that of cold pressureless matter (w = 0) at late times. The equation of state smoothly transitions from the early to late-time behavior and exactly describes the evolution of a species with a Dirac Delta function distribution in momentum magnitudes |p_0| (i.e. all particles have the same |p_0|). Such a component, here termed "hot matter", is an approximate model for both neutrinos and warm dark matter. We consider it alone and in combination with cold matter and with radiation, also obtaining closed-form solutions for the growth of super-horizon perturbations in each case. The idealized model recovers t(a) to better than 1.5% accuracy for all a relative to a Fermi-Dirac distribution (as describes neutrinos). We conclude by adding the second moment of the distribution to our exact solution and then generalizing to include all moments of an arbitrary momentum distribution in a closed-form solution.

  4. Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.

  5. A Hot Downflowing Model Atmosphere for Umbral Flashes and the Physical Properties of Their Dark Fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, V. M. J.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Socas-Navarro, H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Avda vía Láctea S/N, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Rodríguez, J. de la Cruz, E-mail: v.henriques@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-08-20

    We perform non-LTE inversions in a large set of umbral flashes, including the dark fibrils visible within them, and in the quiescent umbra by using the inversion code NICOLE on a set of full Stokes high-resolution Ca ii λ 8542 observations of a sunspot at disk center. We find that the dark structures have Stokes profiles that are distinct from those of the quiescent and flashed regions. They are best reproduced by atmospheres that are more similar to the flashed atmosphere in terms of velocities, even if with reduced amplitudes. We also find two sets of solutions that finely fit the flashed profiles: a set that is upflowing, featuring a transition region that is deeper than in the quiescent case and preceded by a slight dip in temperature, and a second solution with a hotter atmosphere in the chromosphere but featuring downflows close to the speed of sound at such heights. Such downflows may be related, or even dependent, on the presence of coronal loops, rooted in the umbra of sunspots, as is the case in the region analyzed. Similar loops have been recently observed to have supersonic downflows in the transition region and are consistent with the earlier “sunspot plumes,” which were invariably found to display strong downflows in sunspots. Finally, we find, on average, a magnetic field reduction in the flashed areas, suggesting that the shock pressure is moving field lines in the upper layers.

  6. Leptogenesis as an origin of hot dark matter and baryon asymmetry in the E6 inspired SUSY models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevzorov, R.

    2018-04-01

    We explore leptogenesis within the E6 inspired U (1) extension of the MSSM in which exact custodial symmetry forbids tree-level flavour-changing transitions and the most dangerous baryon and lepton number violating operators. This supersymmetric (SUSY) model involves extra exotic matter beyond the MSSM. In the simplest phenomenologically viable scenarios the lightest exotic fermions are neutral and stable. These states should be substantially lighter than 1eV forming hot dark matter in the Universe. The low-energy effective Lagrangian of the SUSY model under consideration possesses an approximate global U(1)E symmetry associated with the exotic states. The U(1)E symmetry is explicitly broken because of the interactions between the right-handed neutrino superfields and exotic matter supermultiplets. As a consequence the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino/sneutrino give rise to both U(1)E and U(1) B - L asymmetries. When all right-handed neutrino/sneutrino are relatively light ∼106-107GeV the appropriate amount of the baryon asymmetry can be induced via these decays if the Yukawa couplings of the lightest right-handed neutrino superfields to the exotic matter supermultiplets vary between ∼10-4-10-3.

  7. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  8. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Solovev, V

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  9. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H2S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H2 32S, H2 34S, and H2 33S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H2S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T rot = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H2S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E up >~ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N tot(H2 32S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 1017 cm-2, gas kinetic temperature, T kin = 120+/- ^{13}_{10} K, and constrain the H2 volume density, n_H_2 >~ 9 × 10 7 cm-3, for the H2S emitting gas. These results point to an H2S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H2S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H2S of <4.9 × 10 -3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  11. Cross-correlation of the cosmic microwave background with the 2MASS galaxy survey: Signatures of dark energy, hot gas, and point sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Strauss, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    We cross-correlate the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies observed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) with the projected distribution of extended sources in the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). By modeling the theoretical expectation for this signal, we extract the signatures of dark energy [integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW)], hot gas [thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect], and microwave point sources in the cross-correlation. Our strongest signal is the thermal SZ, at the 3.1-3.7σ level, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on observations of x-ray clusters. We also see the ISW signal at the 2.5σ level, which is consistent with the expected value for the concordance ΛCDM cosmology, and is an independent signature of the presence of dark energy in the Universe. Finally, we see the signature of microwave point sources at the 2.7σ level

  12. Hot gas in the cold dark matter scenario: X-ray clusters from a high-resolution numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyesung; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ryu, Dongsu

    1994-01-01

    A new, three-dimensional, shock-capturing hydrodynamic code is utilized to determine the distribution of hot gas in a standard cold dark matter (CDM) model of the universe. Periodic boundary conditions are assumed: a box with size 85 h(exp -1) Mpc having cell size 0.31 h(exp -1) Mpc is followed in a simulation with 270(exp 3) = 10(exp 7.3) cells. Adopting standard parameters determined from COBE and light-element nucleosynthesis, sigma(sub 8) = 1.05, omega(sub b) = 0.06, and assuming h = 0.5, we find the X-ray-emitting clusters and compute the luminosity function at several wavelengths, the temperature distribution, and estimated sizes, as well as the evolution of these quantities with redshift. We find that most of the total X-ray emissivity in our box originates in a relatively small number of identifiable clusters which occupy approximately 10(exp -3) of the box volume. This standard CDM model, normalized to COBE, produces approximately 5 times too much emission from clusters having L(sub x) is greater than 10(exp 43) ergs/s, a not-unexpected result. If all other parameters were unchanged, we would expect adequate agreement for sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. This provides a new and independent argument for lower small-scale power than standard CDM at the 8 h(exp -1) Mpc scale. The background radiation field at 1 keV due to clusters in this model is approximately one-third of the observed background, which, after correction for numerical effects, again indicates approximately 5 times too much emission and the appropriateness of sigma(sub 8) = 0.6. If we have used the observed ratio of gas to total mass in clusters, rather than basing the mean density on light-element nucleosynthesis, then the computed luminosity of each cluster would have increased still further, by a factor of approximately 10. The number density of clusters increases to z approximately 1, but the luminosity per typical cluster decreases, with the result that evolution in the number density of bright

  13. Phases of cannibal dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marco [New High Energy Theory Center, Department of Physics, Rutgers University,136 Frelinghuisen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2016-12-13

    A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  14. Search for solar axions by the CERN axion solar telescope with 3He buffer gas: closing the hot dark matter gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Borghi, S; Bräuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Friedrich, P; Galán, J; García, J A; Gardikiotis, A; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Gómez, H; Gómez Marzoa, M; Gruber, E; Guthörl, T; Hartmann, R; Hauf, S; Haug, F; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovčić, K; Karuza, M; Königsmann, K; Kotthaus, R; Krčmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakić, B; Lang, P M; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubičić, A; Luzón, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; Rodríguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Silva, P S; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomás, A; Tsagri, M; van Bibber, K; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2014-03-07

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with (3)He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV ≲ ma ≲ 1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ ≲ 3.3 × 10(-10)  GeV(-1) at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  15. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with 3 He Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Arik, M.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J.M.; Cetin, S.A.; Collar, J.I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J.G.; Gazis, E.N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P.M.; Laurent, J.M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Lozza, V.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P.S.; Solanki, S.K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J.K.; Yildiz, S.C.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  16. Search for Solar Axions by the CERN Axion Solar Telescope with He3 Buffer Gas: Closing the Hot Dark Matter Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, M.; Aune, S.; Barth, K.; Belov, A.; Borghi, S.; Bräuninger, H.; Cantatore, G.; Carmona, J. M.; Cetin, S. A.; Collar, J. I.; Da Riva, E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Elias, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Friedrich, P.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J. G.; Gazis, E. N.; Geralis, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gninenko, S.; Gómez, H.; Gómez Marzoa, M.; Gruber, E.; Guthörl, T.; Hartmann, R.; Hauf, S.; Haug, F.; Hasinoff, M. D.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jacoby, J.; Jakovčić, K.; Karuza, M.; Königsmann, K.; Kotthaus, R.; Krčmar, M.; Kuster, M.; Lakić, B.; Lang, P. M.; Laurent, J. M.; Liolios, A.; Ljubičić, A.; Luzón, G.; Neff, S.; Niinikoski, T.; Nordt, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Raffelt, G.; Riege, H.; Rodríguez, A.; Rosu, M.; Ruz, J.; Savvidis, I.; Shilon, I.; Silva, P. S.; Solanki, S. K.; Stewart, L.; Tomás, A.; Tsagri, M.; van Bibber, K.; Vafeiadis, T.; Villar, J.; Vogel, J. K.; Yildiz, S. C.; Zioutas, K.; CAST Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope has finished its search for solar axions with He3 buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV≲ma≲1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of gaγ≲3.3×10-10 GeV-1 at 95% C.L., with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of gaγ, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope International AXion Observatory.

  17. Cold dark matter plus not-so-clumpy dark relics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamanti, R.; Ando, S.; Gariazzo, S.; Mena, O.; Weniger, C.

    Various particle physics models suggest that, besides the (nearly) cold dark matter that accounts for current observations, additional but sub-dominant dark relics might exist. These could be warm, hot, or even contribute as dark radiation. We present here a comprehensive study of two-component dark

  18. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  19. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  20. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  1. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookfield, Anthony W.; Bruck, Carsten van de; Hall, Lisa M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example, two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles

  2. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail

  3. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-27

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter “smog” inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  4. Supernova cooling in a dark matter smog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue, E-mail: yuezhang@theory.caltech.edu [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A light hidden gauge boson with kinetic mixing with the usual photon is a popular setup in theories of dark matter. The supernova cooling via radiating the hidden boson is known to put an important constraint on the mixing. I consider the possible role dark matter, which under reasonable assumptions naturally exists inside supernova, can play in the cooling picture. Because the interaction between the hidden gauge boson and DM is likely unsuppressed, even a small number of dark matter compared to protons inside the supernova could dramatically shorten the free streaming length of the hidden boson. A picture of a dark matter ''smog'' inside the supernova, which substantially relaxes the cooling constraint, is discussed in detail.

  5. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  6. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  7. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  8. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  9. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  10. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  11. A two particle hidden sector and the oscillations with photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Fisica, Antofagasta (Chile); Arias, Paola; Maldonado, Carlos [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departmento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

    2018-01-15

    We present a detailed study of the oscillations and optical properties for vacuum, in a model for the dark sector that contains axion-like particles and hidden photons. We provide bounds for the couplings versus the mass, using current results from ALPS-I and PVLAS. We also discuss the challenges for the detection of models with more than one hidden particle in light shining trough wall-like experiments. (orig.)

  12. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  13. Abelian hidden sectors at a GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1) x gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  14. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  15. Unified Origin for Baryonic Visible Matter and Antibaryonic Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Morrissey, David E.; Tulin, Sean; Sigurdson, Kris

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel mechanism for generating both the baryon and dark matter densities of the Universe. A new Dirac fermion X carrying a conserved baryon number charge couples to the standard model quarks as well as a GeV-scale hidden sector. CP-violating decays of X, produced nonthermally in low-temperature reheating, sequester antibaryon number in the hidden sector, thereby leaving a baryon excess in the visible sector. The antibaryonic hidden states are stable dark matter. A spectacular signature of this mechanism is the baryon-destroying inelastic scattering of dark matter that can annihilate baryons at appreciable rates relevant for nucleon decay searches.

  16. Unified origin for baryonic visible matter and antibaryonic dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Morrissey, David E; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean

    2010-11-19

    We present a novel mechanism for generating both the baryon and dark matter densities of the Universe. A new Dirac fermion X carrying a conserved baryon number charge couples to the standard model quarks as well as a GeV-scale hidden sector. CP-violating decays of X, produced nonthermally in low-temperature reheating, sequester antibaryon number in the hidden sector, thereby leaving a baryon excess in the visible sector. The antibaryonic hidden states are stable dark matter. A spectacular signature of this mechanism is the baryon-destroying inelastic scattering of dark matter that can annihilate baryons at appreciable rates relevant for nucleon decay searches.

  17. Dark group: dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macorra, A. de la

    2004-01-01

    We study the possibility that a dark group, a gauge group with particles interacting with the standard model particles only via gravity, is responsible for containing the dark energy and dark matter required by present day observations. We show that it is indeed possible and we determine the constrains for the dark group. The non-perturbative effects generated by a strong gauge coupling constant can de determined and a inverse power law scalar potential IPL for the dark meson fields is generated parameterizing the dark energy. On the other hand it is the massive particles, e.g., dark baryons, of the dark gauge group that give the corresponding dark matter. The mass of the dark particles is of the order of the condensation scale Λ c and the temperature is smaller then the photon's temperature. The dark matter is of the warm matter type. The only parameters of the model are the number of particles of the dark group. The allowed values of the different parameters are severely restricted. The dark group energy density at Λ c must be Ω DGc ≤0.17 and the evolution and acceptable values of dark matter and dark energy leads to a constrain of Λ c and the IPL parameter n giving Λ c =O(1-10 3 ) eV and 0.28≤n≤1.04

  18. POVMs and hidden variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stairs, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Recent results by Paul Busch and Adan Cabello claim to show that by appealing to POVMs, non-contextual hidden variables can be ruled out in two dimensions. While the results of Busch and Cabello are mathematically correct, interpretive problems render them problematic as no hidden variable proofs

  19. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  20. Hidden gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1979-01-01

    This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)

  1. Discovering hidden sectors with monophoton Z' searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, Yuri; Petriello, Frank; Quackenbush, Seth; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    In many theories of physics beyond the standard model, from extra dimensions to Hidden Valleys and models of dark matter, Z ' bosons mediate between standard model particles and hidden sector states. We study the feasibility of observing such hidden states through an invisibly decaying Z ' at the LHC. We focus on the process pp→γZ ' →γXX † , where X is any neutral, (quasi-) stable particle, whether a standard model neutrino or a new state. This complements a previous study using pp→ZZ ' →l + l - XX † . Only the Z ' mass and two effective charges are needed to describe this process. If the Z ' decays invisibly only to standard model neutrinos, then these charges are predicted by observation of the Z ' through the Drell-Yan process, allowing discrimination between Z ' decays to standard model ν's and invisible decays to new states. We carefully discuss all backgrounds and systematic errors that affect this search. We find that hidden sector decays of a 1 TeV Z ' can be observed at 5σ significance with 50 fb -1 at the LHC. Observation of a 1.5 TeV state requires super-LHC statistics of 1 ab -1 . Control of the systematic errors, in particular, the parton distribution function uncertainty of the dominant Zγ background, is crucial to maximize the LHC search reach.

  2. The hidden universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.

    1985-01-01

    Astronomer Disney has followed a somewhat different tack than that of most popular books on cosmology by concentrating on the notion of hidden (as in not directly observable by its own radiation) matter in the universe

  3. Locating Hidden Servers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oeverlier, Lasse; Syverson, Paul F

    2006-01-01

    .... Announced properties include server resistance to distributed DoS. Both the EFF and Reporters Without Borders have issued guides that describe using hidden services via Tor to protect the safety of dissidents as well as to resist censorship...

  4. Correlation between dark matter and dark radiation in string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver

    2014-01-01

    Reheating in string compactifications is generically driven by the decay of the lightest modulus which produces Standard Model particles, dark matter and light hidden sector degrees of freedom that behave as dark radiation. This common origin allows us to find an interesting correlation between dark matter and dark radiation. By combining present upper bounds on the effective number of neutrino species N eff with lower bounds on the reheating temperature as a function of the dark matter mass m DM from Fermi data, we obtain strong constraints on the (N eff , m DM )-plane. Most of the allowed region in this plane corresponds to non-thermal scenarios with Higgsino-like dark matter. Thermal dark matter can be allowed only if N eff tends to its Standard Model value. We show that the above situation is realised in models with perturbative moduli stabilisation where the production of dark radiation is unavoidable since bulk closed string axions remain light and do not get eaten up by anomalous U(1)s

  5. Dark Energy Found Stifling Growth in Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    development to slow down." Vikhlinin and his colleagues used Chandra to observe the hot gas in dozens of galaxy clusters, which are the largest collapsed objects in the universe. Some of these clusters are relatively close and others are more than halfway across the universe. The results show the increase in mass of the galaxy clusters over time aligns with a universe dominated by dark energy. It is more difficult for objects like galaxy clusters to grow when space is stretched, as caused by dark energy. Vikhlinin and his team see this effect clearly in their data. The results are remarkably consistent with those from the distance measurements, revealing general relativity applies, as expected, on large scales. "For years, scientists have wanted to start testing how gravity works on large scales and now, we finally have," said William Forman, a co-author of the study from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. "This is a test that general relativity could have failed." When combined with other clues -- supernovas, the study of the cosmic microwave background, and the distribution of galaxies -- this new X-ray result gives scientists the best insight to date on the properties of dark energy. The study strengthens the evidence that dark energy is the cosmological constant. Although it is the leading candidate to explain dark energy, theoretical work suggests it should be about 10 raised to the power of 120 times larger than observed. Therefore, alternatives to general relativity, such as theories involving hidden dimensions, are being explored. "Putting all of this data together gives us the strongest evidence yet that dark energy is the cosmological constant, or in other words, that 'nothing weighs something'," said Vikhlinin. "A lot more testing is needed, but so far Einstein's theory is looking as good as ever." These results have consequences for predicting the ultimate fate of the universe. If dark energy is explained by the cosmological constant, the expansion of the

  6. The Dark Matter of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer L

    2016-09-06

    The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.D.; Foot, R., E-mail: j.clarke5@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia)

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless 'dark photon' (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  8. Dark matter versus Mach's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.

    1998-02-01

    Empirical and theoretical evidence show that the astrophysical problem of dark matter might be solved by a theory of Einstein-Mayer type. In this theory up to global Lorentz rotations the reference system is determined by the motion of cosmic matter. Thus one is led to a "Riemannian space with teleparallelism" realizing a geometric version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine. The field equations of this gravitational theory contain hidden matter terms where the existence of hidden matter is inferred safely from its gravitational effects. It is argued that in the nonrelativistic mechanical approximation they provide an inertia-free mechanics where the inertial mass of a body is induced by the gravitational action of the comic masses. Interpreted form the Newtonian point of view this mechanics shows that the effective gravitational mass of astrophysical objects depends on r such that one expects the existence of dark matter.

  9. Dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comelli, D.; Pietroni, M.; Riotto, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is a puzzle why the densities of dark matter and dark energy are nearly equal today when they scale so differently during the expansion of the universe. This conundrum may be solved if there is a coupling between the two dark sectors. In this Letter we assume that dark matter is made of cold relics with masses depending exponentially on the scalar field associated to dark energy. Since the dynamics of the system is dominated by an attractor solution, the dark matter particle mass is forced to change with time as to ensure that the ratio between the energy densities of dark matter and dark energy become a constant at late times and one readily realizes that the present-day dark matter abundance is not very sensitive to its value when dark matter particles decouple from the thermal bath. We show that the dependence of the present abundance of cold dark matter on the parameters of the model differs drastically from the familiar results where no connection between dark energy and dark matter is present. In particular, we analyze the case in which the cold dark matter particle is the lightest supersymmetric particle

  10. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  11. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  12. Constraining dark photon model with dark matter from CMB spectral distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Choi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many extensions of Standard Model (SM include a dark sector which can interact with the SM sector via a light mediator. We explore the possibilities to probe such a dark sector by studying the distortion of the CMB spectrum from the blackbody shape due to the elastic scatterings between the dark matter and baryons through a hidden light mediator. We in particular focus on the model where the dark sector gauge boson kinetically mixes with the SM and present the future experimental prospect for a PIXIE-like experiment along with its comparison to the existing bounds from complementary terrestrial experiments.

  13. Cold dark matter plus not-so-clumpy dark relics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamanti, Roberta; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Weniger, Christoph; Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Various particle physics models suggest that, besides the (nearly) cold dark matter that accounts for current observations, additional but sub-dominant dark relics might exist. These could be warm, hot, or even contribute as dark radiation. We present here a comprehensive study of two-component dark matter scenarios, where the first component is assumed to be cold, and the second is a non-cold thermal relic. Considering the cases where the non-cold dark matter species could be either a fermion or a boson, we derive consistent upper limits on the non-cold dark relic energy density for a very large range of velocity dispersions, covering the entire range from dark radiation to cold dark matter. To this end, we employ the latest Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, the recent BOSS DR11 and other Baryon Acoustic Oscillation measurements, and also constraints on the number of Milky Way satellites, the latter of which provides a measure of the suppression of the matter power spectrum at the smallest scales due to the free-streaming of the non-cold dark matter component. We present the results on the fraction f ncdm of non-cold dark matter with respect to the total dark matter for different ranges of the non-cold dark matter masses. We find that the 2σ limits for non-cold dark matter particles with masses in the range 1–10 keV are f ncdm ≤0.29 (0.23) for fermions (bosons), and for masses in the 10–100 keV range they are f ncdm ≤0.43 (0.45), respectively.

  14. Cold dark matter plus not-so-clumpy dark relics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamanti, Roberta; Ando, Shin' ichiro; Weniger, Christoph [GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga, E-mail: r.diamanti@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl, E-mail: gariazzo@to.infn.it, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: c.weniger@uva.nl [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    Various particle physics models suggest that, besides the (nearly) cold dark matter that accounts for current observations, additional but sub-dominant dark relics might exist. These could be warm, hot, or even contribute as dark radiation. We present here a comprehensive study of two-component dark matter scenarios, where the first component is assumed to be cold, and the second is a non-cold thermal relic. Considering the cases where the non-cold dark matter species could be either a fermion or a boson, we derive consistent upper limits on the non-cold dark relic energy density for a very large range of velocity dispersions, covering the entire range from dark radiation to cold dark matter. To this end, we employ the latest Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, the recent BOSS DR11 and other Baryon Acoustic Oscillation measurements, and also constraints on the number of Milky Way satellites, the latter of which provides a measure of the suppression of the matter power spectrum at the smallest scales due to the free-streaming of the non-cold dark matter component. We present the results on the fraction f {sub ncdm} of non-cold dark matter with respect to the total dark matter for different ranges of the non-cold dark matter masses. We find that the 2σ limits for non-cold dark matter particles with masses in the range 1–10 keV are f {sub ncdm}≤0.29 (0.23) for fermions (bosons), and for masses in the 10–100 keV range they are f {sub ncdm}≤0.43 (0.45), respectively.

  15. Dark stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2017-01-01

    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark......Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  16. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  17. Prospects for indirect detection of frozen-in dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2018-03-01

    We study observational consequences arising from dark matter (DM) of nonthermal origin, produced by dark freeze-out from a hidden sector heat bath. We assume this heat bath was populated by feebly coupled mediator particles, produced via a Higgs portal interaction with the Standard Model (SM). The dark sector then attained internal equilibrium with a characteristic temperature different from the SM photon temperature. We find that even if the coupling between the DM and the SM sectors is very weak, the scenario allows for indirect observational signals. We show how the expected strength of these signals depends on the temperature of the hidden sector at DM freeze-out.

  18. Dark matter at the SHiP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timiryasov, Inar

    2016-01-01

    We study prospects of dark matter searches in the SHiP experiment. SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) is the recently proposed fixed target experiment which will exploit the high-intensity beam of 400 GeV protons from the CERN SPS. In addition to the hidden sector detector, SHiP will be equipped with the ν_τ detector, which presumably would be sensitive to dark matter particles. We describe appropriate production and detection channels and estimate SHiP’s sensitivity for a scalar dark matter coupled to the Standard model through the vector mediator

  19. Evading direct dark matter detection in Higgs portal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcadi, Giorgio [Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gross, Christian, E-mail: christian.gross@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Lebedev, Oleg [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Toma, Takashi [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Many models of Higgs portal Dark Matter (DM) find themselves under pressure from increasingly tight direct detection constraints. In the framework of gauge field DM, we study how such bounds can be relaxed while retaining the thermal WIMP paradigm. When the hidden sector gauge symmetry is broken via the Higgs mechanism, the hidden sector generally contains unstable states which are lighter than dark matter. These states provide DM with an efficient annihilation channel. As a result, the DM relic abundance and the direct detection limits are controlled by different parameters, and the two can easily be reconciled. This simple setup realizes the idea of “secluded” dark matter naturally.

  20. The hidden values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgitte; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    “The Hidden Values - Transparency in Decision-Making Processes Dealing with Hazardous Activities”. The report seeks to shed light on what is needed to create a transparent framework for political and administrative decisions on the use of GMOs and chemical products. It is our hope that the report...

  1. Hidden sector behind the CKM matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Shohei; Omura, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    The small quark mixing, described by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix in the standard model, may be a clue to reveal new physics around the TeV scale. We consider a simple scenario that extra particles in a hidden sector radiatively mediate the flavor violation to the quark sector around the TeV scale and effectively realize the observed CKM matrix. The lightest particle in the hidden sector, whose contribution to the CKM matrix is expected to be dominant, is a good dark matter (DM) candidate. There are many possible setups to describe this scenario, so that we investigate some universal predictions of this kind of model, focusing on the contribution of DM to the quark mixing and flavor physics. In this scenario, there is an explicit relation between the CKM matrix and flavor violating couplings, such as four-quark couplings, because both are radiatively induced by the particles in the hidden sector. Then, we can explicitly find the DM mass region and the size of Yukawa couplings between the DM and quarks, based on the study of flavor physics and DM physics. In conclusion, we show that DM mass in our scenario is around the TeV scale, and the Yukawa couplings are between O (0.01 ) and O (1 ). The spin-independent DM scattering cross section is estimated as O (10-9) [pb]. An extra colored particle is also predicted at the O (10 ) TeV scale.

  2. Hot Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot flashes Overview Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth, which are usually most intense over the face, neck and chest. Your skin might redden, as if you're blushing. Hot flashes can also cause sweating, and if you ...

  3. HOT 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    2016-01-01

    HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud.......HOT samler og formidler 21 literacykyndiges bud på, hvad der er hot, og hvad der bør være hot inden for literacy – og deres begrundelser for disse bud....

  4. String theory and the dark glueball problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, James; Nelson, Brent D. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ruehle, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and ΔN{sub eff} bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.

  5. String theory and the dark glueball problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, James; Nelson, Brent D.

    2016-09-01

    We study cosmological constraints on dark pure Yang-Mills sectors. Dark glueballs are overproduced for large regions of ultraviolet parameter space. The problem may be alleviated in two ways: via a large preferential reheating into the visible sector, motivating certain inflation or modulus decay models, or via decays into axions or moduli, which are strongly constrained by nucleosynthesis and ΔN_e_f_f bounds. String models frequently have multiple hidden Yang-Mills sectors, which are subject to even stronger constraints due to the existence of multiple dark glueballs.

  6. Dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Dark energy research aims to illuminate the mystery of the observed cosmic acceleration, one of the fundamental problems in physics and astronomy today. This book presents a systematic and detailed review of the current state of dark energy research, with the focus on the examination of the major observational techniques for probing dark energy. It can be used as a textbook to train students and others who wish to enter this extremely active field in cosmology.

  7. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  8. Dark matter and dark radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant α-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on α-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies α-circumflex -3 for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.

  9. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  10. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  11. Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Masato; Kawai, Shinsuke; Okada, Nobuchika

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5 minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.

  12. Gauge mediation scenario with hidden sector renormalization in MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Kawai, Shinsuke; Okada, Nobuchika

    2010-02-01

    We study the hidden sector effects on the mass renormalization of a simplest gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. We point out that possible hidden sector contributions render the soft scalar masses smaller, resulting in drastically different sparticle mass spectrum at low energy. In particular, in the 5+5¯ minimal gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with high messenger scale (that is favored by the gravitino cold dark matter scenario), we show that a stau can be the next lightest superparticle for moderate values of hidden sector self-coupling. This provides a very simple theoretical model of long-lived charged next lightest superparticles, which imply distinctive signals in ongoing and upcoming collider experiments.

  13. A hidden history

    OpenAIRE

    Peppers, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The Cultural Collections Audit project began at the University of Edinburgh in 2004, searching for hidden treasures in its 'distributed heritage collections' across the university. The objects and collections recorded in the Audit ranged widely from fine art and furniture to historical scientific and teaching equipment and personalia relating to key figures in the university's long tradition of academic excellence. This information was gathered in order to create a central database of informa...

  14. Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...

  15. Coupling of Hidden Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Królikowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A hypothetic Hidden Sector of the Universe, consisting of sterile fer\\-mions (``sterinos'') and sterile mediating bosons (``sterons'') of mass dimension 1 (not 2!) --- the last described by an antisymmetric tensor field --- requires to exist also a scalar isovector and scalar isoscalar in order to be able to construct electroweak invariant coupling (before spontaneously breaking its symmetry). The introduced scalar isoscalar might be a resonant source for the diphoton excess of 750 GeV, sugge...

  16. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.

  17. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  18. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  19. Hidden-sector Spectroscopy with Gravitational Waves from Binary Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croon, Djuna; Nelson, Ann E.; Sun, Chen; Walker, Devin G. E.; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2018-05-01

    We show that neutron star (NS) binaries can be ideal laboratories to probe hidden sectors with a long-range force. In particular, it is possible for gravitational wave (GW) detectors such as LIGO and Virgo to resolve the correction of waveforms from ultralight dark gauge bosons coupled to NSs. We observe that the interaction of the hidden sector affects both the GW frequency and amplitude in a way that cannot be fitted by pure gravity.

  20. Dark catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub, E-mail: prateekagrawal@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: randall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: jscholtz@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Recently it was shown that dark matter with mass of order the weak scale can be charged under a new long-range force, decoupled from the Standard Model, with only weak constraints from early Universe cosmology. Here we consider the implications of an additional charged particle C that is light enough to lead to significant dissipative dynamics on galactic times scales. We highlight several novel features of this model, which can be relevant even when the C particle constitutes only a small fraction of the number density (and energy density). We assume a small asymmetric abundance of the C particle whose charge is compensated by a heavy X particle so that the relic abundance of dark matter consists mostly of symmetric X and X-bar , with a small asymmetric component made up of X and C . As the universe cools, it undergoes asymmetric recombination binding the free C s into ( XC ) dark atoms efficiently. Even with a tiny asymmetric component, the presence of C particles catalyzes tight coupling between the heavy dark matter X and the dark photon plasma that can lead to a significant suppression of the matter power spectrum on small scales and lead to some of the strongest bounds on such dark matter theories. We find a viable parameter space where structure formation constraints are satisfied and significant dissipative dynamics can occur in galactic haloes but show a large region is excluded. Our model shows that subdominant components in the dark sector can dramatically affect structure formation.

  1. Localization of hidden Chua's attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, G.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Vagaitsev, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    The classical attractors of Lorenz, Rossler, Chua, Chen, and other widely-known attractors are those excited from unstable equilibria. From computational point of view this allows one to use numerical method, in which after transient process a trajectory, started from a point of unstable manifold in the neighborhood of equilibrium, reaches an attractor and identifies it. However there are attractors of another type: hidden attractors, a basin of attraction of which does not contain neighborhoods of equilibria. In the present Letter for localization of hidden attractors of Chua's circuit it is suggested to use a special analytical-numerical algorithm. -- Highlights: → There are hidden attractors: basin doesn't contain neighborhoods of equilibria. → Hidden attractors cannot be reached by trajectory from neighborhoods of equilibria. → We suggested special procedure for localization of hidden attractors. → We discovered hidden attractor in Chua's system, L. Chua in his work didn't expect this.

  2. Hidden Liquidity: Determinants and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Gökhan Cebiroglu; Ulrich Horst

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, ...

  3. Dark coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed

  4. Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  5. Baryonic and Non-Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Bernard

    2000-01-01

    Cosmological nucleosynthesis calculations imply that there should be both non-baryonic and baryonic dark matter. Recent data suggest that some of the non-baryonic dark matter must be "hot" (i.e. massive neutrinos) and there may also be evidence for "cold" dark matter (i.e. WIMPs). If the baryonic dark matter resides in galactic halos, it is likely to be in the form of compact objects (i.e. MACHOs) and these would probably be the remnants of a first generation of pregalactic or protogalactic P...

  6. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  7. Dark Matter remains obscure

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Capello

    2011-01-01

    It is one of the hidden secrets that literally surround the Universe. Experiments have shown no result so far because trying to capture particles that do not seem to interact with ordinary matter is no trivial exercise. The OSQAR experiment at CERN is dedicated to the search for axions, one of the candidates for Dark Matter. For its difficult challenge, OSQAR counts on one of the world’s most powerful magnets borrowed from the LHC. In a recent publication, the OSQAR collaboration was able to confirm that no axion signal appears out of the background. In other words: the quest is still on.   The OSQAR experiment installed in the SM18 hall. (Photo by F. Capello) The OSQAR “Light Shining Through a Wall” experiment was officially launched in 2007 with the aim of detecting axions, that is, particles that might be the main components of Dark Matter. OSQAR uses the powerful LHC dipole magnet to intensify the predicted photon-axion conversions in the presence of strong m...

  8. Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Simone, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we pro- pose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally ther- mal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza,Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  10. Atlas of solar hidden photon emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza, España (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    Hidden photons, gauge bosons of a U(1) symmetry of a hidden sector, can constitute the dark matter of the universe and a smoking gun for large volume compactifications of string theory. In the sub-eV mass range, a possible discovery experiment consists on searching the copious flux of these particles emitted from the Sun in a helioscope setup à la Sikivie. In this paper, we compute in great detail the flux of HPs from the Sun, a necessary ingredient for interpreting such experiments. We provide a detailed exposition of transverse photon-HP oscillations in inhomogenous media, with special focus on resonance oscillations, which play a leading role in many cases. The region of the Sun emitting HPs resonantly is a thin spherical shell for which we justify an averaged-emission formula and which implies a distinctive morphology of the angular distribution of HPs on Earth in many cases. Low mass HPs with energies in the visible and IR have resonances very close to the photosphere where the solar plasma is not fully ionised and requires building a detailed model of solar refraction and absorption. We present results for a broad range of HP masses (from 0–1 keV) and energies (from the IR to the X-ray range), the most complete atlas of solar HP emission to date.

  11. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors ... 2012) This year, more than 100,000 U.S. women under 65 will have a stroke. Stroke is ...

  12. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  13. More on the hypercharge portal into the dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Florian; Lebedev, Oleg; Ringwald, Andreas; Mambrini, Yann; Quevillon, Jeremie

    2013-05-01

    If the hidden sector contains more than one U(1) groups, additional dim-4 couplings (beyond the kinetic mixing) between the massive U(1) fields and the hypercharge generally appear. These are of the form similar to the Chern-Simons interactions. We study the phenomenology of such couplings including constraints from laboratory experiments and implications for dark matter. The hidden vector fields can play the role of dark matter whose characteristic signature would be monochromatic gamma ray emission from the galactic center. We show that this possibility is consistent with the LHC and other laboratory constraints, as well as astrophysical bounds.

  14. More on the hypercharge portal into the dark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, Florian; Lebedev, Oleg; Ringwald, Andreas [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Mambrini, Yann; Quevillon, Jeremie [Paris-Sud Univ., Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique

    2013-05-15

    If the hidden sector contains more than one U(1) groups, additional dim-4 couplings (beyond the kinetic mixing) between the massive U(1) fields and the hypercharge generally appear. These are of the form similar to the Chern-Simons interactions. We study the phenomenology of such couplings including constraints from laboratory experiments and implications for dark matter. The hidden vector fields can play the role of dark matter whose characteristic signature would be monochromatic gamma ray emission from the galactic center. We show that this possibility is consistent with the LHC and other laboratory constraints, as well as astrophysical bounds.

  15. Search for dark photons from supersymmetric hidden valleys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 8 (2009), 081802/1-081802/7 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC527; GA MŠk LA08047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : D0 * photon Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009 http://arxiv.org/abs/0905.1478

  16. The dark universe dark matter and dark energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    According to the standard cosmological model, 95% of the present mass density of the universe is dark: roughly 70% of the total in the form of dark energy and 25% in the form of dark matter. In a series of four lectures, I will begin by presenting a brief review of cosmology, and then I will review the observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy. I will discuss some of the proposals for dark matter and dark energy, and connect them to high-energy physics. I will also present an overview of an observational program to quantify the properties of dark energy.

  17. Hidden attractors in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Jafari, Sajad; Kapitaniak, Tomasz; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Leonov, Gennady A.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2016-06-01

    Complex dynamical systems, ranging from the climate, ecosystems to financial markets and engineering applications typically have many coexisting attractors. This property of the system is called multistability. The final state, i.e., the attractor on which the multistable system evolves strongly depends on the initial conditions. Additionally, such systems are very sensitive towards noise and system parameters so a sudden shift to a contrasting regime may occur. To understand the dynamics of these systems one has to identify all possible attractors and their basins of attraction. Recently, it has been shown that multistability is connected with the occurrence of unpredictable attractors which have been called hidden attractors. The basins of attraction of the hidden attractors do not touch unstable fixed points (if exists) and are located far away from such points. Numerical localization of the hidden attractors is not straightforward since there are no transient processes leading to them from the neighborhoods of unstable fixed points and one has to use the special analytical-numerical procedures. From the viewpoint of applications, the identification of hidden attractors is the major issue. The knowledge about the emergence and properties of hidden attractors can increase the likelihood that the system will remain on the most desirable attractor and reduce the risk of the sudden jump to undesired behavior. We review the most representative examples of hidden attractors, discuss their theoretical properties and experimental observations. We also describe numerical methods which allow identification of the hidden attractors.

  18. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  20. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen......Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  1. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  2. HOT 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  3. Searching for WISPy cold dark matter with a dish antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horns, Dieter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Jaeckel, Joerg [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lobanov, Andrei [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The cold dark matter of the Universe may be comprised of very light and very weakly interacting particles, so-called WISPs. Two prominent examples are hidden photons and axion-like particles. In this note we propose a new technique to sensitively search for this type of dark matter with dish antennas. The technique is broadband and allows to explore a whole range of masses in a single measurement.

  4. HOT 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager 21 læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet....

  5. Mirror dark matter and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Volkas, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter is a dark matter candidate. In this paper, we reexamine the linear regime of density perturbation growth in a universe containing mirror dark matter. Taking adiabatic scale-invariant perturbations as the input, we confirm that the resulting processed power spectrum is richer than for the more familiar cases of cold, warm and hot dark matter. The new features include a maximum at a certain scale λ max , collisional damping below a smaller characteristic scale λ S ' , with oscillatory perturbations between the two. These scales are functions of the fundamental parameters of the theory. In particular, they decrease for decreasing x, the ratio of the mirror plasma temperature to that of the ordinary. For x∼0.2, the scale λ max becomes galactic. Mirror dark matter therefore leads to bottom-up large scale structure formation, similar to conventional cold dark matter, for x(less-or-similar sign)0.2. Indeed, the smaller the value of x, the closer mirror dark matter resembles standard cold dark matter during the linear regime. The differences pertain to scales smaller than λ S ' in the linear regime, and generally in the nonlinear regime because mirror dark matter is chemically complex and to some extent dissipative. Lyman-α forest data and the early reionization epoch established by WMAP may hold the key to distinguishing mirror dark matter from WIMP-style cold dark matter

  6. Weak lensing: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this non-specialist review I look at how weak lensing can provide information on the dark sector of the Universe. The review concentrates on what can be learned about Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity, and why. On Dark Matter, results on the confrontation of theoretical profiles with observation are reviewed, and measurements of neutrino masses discussed. On Dark Energy, the interest is whether this could be Einstein's cosmological constant, and prospects for high-precision studies of the equation of state are considered. On Dark Gravity, we consider the exciting prospects for future weak lensing surveys to distinguish General Relativity from extra-dimensional or other gravity theories.

  7. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  8. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs....... In this regard, we argue that a major response to the hidden costs of offshoring is the identification and utilisation of strategic mechanisms in the organisational design to eventually achieving system integration in a globally dispersed and disaggregated organisation. This is heavily moderated by a learning......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  9. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...... experience moderate the relationship between complexity and hidden costs negatively i.e. reduces the cost generating impact of complexity. We develop three hypotheses and test them on comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network (ORN). In general, we find support for our hypotheses. A key result...

  10. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  11. Contempt: a hot feeling hidden under a cold jacket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.; Trnka, R.; Balcar, K.; Kuška, M.

    2011-01-01

    Contempt is the feeling when one judges another person as an inferior human being, and is typically expressed through social exclusion. Feeling contempt thus implies rejecting others, considering others as unworthy of one’s attention. Contempt is often mixed with other emotions, such as anger,

  12. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  13. Hidden Curriculum: An Analytical Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Andarvazh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of hidden curriculum was first used by Philip Jackson in 1968, and Hafferty brought this concept to the medical education. Many of the subjects that medical students learn are attributed to this curriculum. So far several definitions have been presented for the hidden curriculum, which on the one hand made this concept richer, and on the other hand, led to confusion and ambiguity.This paper tries to provide a clear and comprehensive definition of it.Methods: In this study, concept analysis of McKenna method was used. Using keywords and searching in the databases, 561 English and 26 Persian references related to the concept was found, then by limitingthe research scope, 125 abstracts and by finding more relevant references, 55 articles were fully studied.Results: After analyzing the definitions by McKenna method, the hidden curriculum is defined as follows: The hidden curriculum is a hidden, powerful, intrinsic in organizational structure and culture and sometimes contradictory message, conveyed implicitly and tacitly in the learning environment by structural and human factors and its contents includes cultural habits and customs, norms, values, belief systems, attitudes, skills, desires and behavioral and social expectations can have a positive or negative effect, unplanned, neither planners nor teachers, nor learners are aware of it. The ultimate consequence of the hidden curriculum includes reproducing the existing class structure, socialization, and familiarizing learners for transmission and joining the professional world.Conclusion: Based on the concept analysis, we arrived at an analytical definition of the hidden curriculum that could be useful for further studies in this area.Keywords: CONCEPT ANALYSIS, HIDDEN CURRICULUM, MCKENNA’S METHOD

  14. A radiative neutrino mass model in light of DAMPE excess with hidden gauged U(1) symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi; Wu, Peiwen

    2018-05-01

    We propose a one-loop induced neutrino mass model with hidden U(1) gauge symmetry, in which we successfully involve a bosonic dark matter (DM) candidate propagating inside a loop diagram in neutrino mass generation to explain the e+e‑ excess recently reported by the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) experiment. In our scenario dark matter annihilates into four leptons through Z' boson as DM DM → Z' Z' (Z' → l+ l‑) and Z' decays into leptons via one-loop effect. We then investigate branching ratios of Z' taking into account lepton flavor violations and neutrino oscillation data.

  15. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A 0 to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A 0 is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive several

  16. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-15

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A{sup 0} to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A{sup 0} is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive

  17. Interacting agegraphic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2009-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named ''agegraphic dark energy'', has been proposed recently, based on the so-called Karolyhazy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Hidden ion population: Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.; Chappell, C.R.; Gallagher, D.L.; Green, J.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Satellite potentials in the outer plasmasphere range from near zero to +5 to +10 V. Under such conditions ion measurements may not include the low energy core of the plasma population. In eclipse, the photoelectron current drops to zero, and the spacecraft potential can drop to near zero volts. In regions where the ambient plasma density is below 100 cm -3 , previously unobserved portions of the ambient plasma distribution function can become visible in eclipse. A survey of the data obtained from the retarding ion mass spectrometer (RIMS) on Dynamics Explorer 1 shows that the RIMS detector generally measured the isotropic background in both sunlight and eclipse in the plasma-sphere. Absolute density measurements for the ''hidden'' ion population are obtained for the first time using the plasma wave instrument observations of the upper hybrid resonance. Agreement in total density is found in sunlight and eclipse measurements at densities above 80 cm -3 . In eclipse, agreement is found at densities as low as 20 cm -3 . The isotropic plasma composition is primarily H + , with approx.10% He + , and 0.1 to 1.0% O + . A low energy field-aligned ion population appears in eclipse measurements outside the plasmasphere, which is obscured in sunlight. These field-aligned ions can be interpreted as field-aligned flows with densities of a few particles per cubic centimeter, flowing at 5-20 km/s. The problem in measuring these field-aligned flows in sunlight is the masking of the high energy tail of the field-aligned distribution by the isotropic background. Effective measurement of the core of the magnetospheric plasma distribution awaits satellites with active means of controlling the satellite potential

  19. Dark Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bali-Hudáková, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the variability of the demand and the development of new trends in the fields of the tourism industry. Special attention is devoted to a new arising trend of the Dark Tourism. This trend has appeared in the end of the 20th century and it has gained the attraction of media, tourists, tourism specialists and other stakeholders. First part of the thesis is concerned with the variety of the tourism industry and the ethic question of the tourism development. The other par...

  20. HOT 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  1. HOT 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010.......En undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og burde være hot på læseområdet. I undersøgelsen deltager en række læsekyndige fra praksisfeltet, professionshøjskolerne og forskningsområdet. Undersøgelsen er gentaget hvert år siden 2010....

  2. High Energy Colliders and Hidden Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Asaf Jeff

    This thesis explores two dominant frontiers of theoretical physics, high energy colliders and hidden sectors. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is just starting to reach its maximum operational capabilities. However, already with the current data, large classes of models are being put under significant pressure. It is crucial to understand whether the (thus far) null results are a consequence of a lack of solution to the hierarchy problem around the weak scale or requires expanding the search strategy employed at the LHC. It is the duty of the current generation of physicists to design new searches to ensure that no stone is left unturned. To this end, we study the sensitivity of the LHC to the couplings in the Standard Model top sector. We find it can significantly improve the measurements on ZtRtR coupling by a novel search strategy, making use of an implied unitarity violation in such models. Analogously, we show that other couplings in the top sector can also be measured with the same technique. Furthermore, we critically analyze a set of anomalies in the LHC data and how they may appear from consistent UV completions. We also propose a technique to measure lifetimes of new colored particles with non-trivial spin. While the high energy frontier will continue to take data, it is likely the only collider of its kind for the next couple decades. On the other hand, low-energy experiments have a promising future with many new proposed experiments to probe the existence of particles well below the weak scale but with small couplings to the Standard Model. In this work we survey the different possibilities, focusingon the constraints as well as possible new hidden sector dynamics. In particular, we show that vector portals which couple to an anomalous current, e.g., baryon number, are significantly constrained from flavor changing meson decays and rare Z decays. Furthermore, we present a new mechanism for dark matter freezeout which depletes the dark sector through an

  3. Interaction between bosonic dark matter and stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Okawa, Hirotada; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of how bosonic dark matter "condensates" interact with compact stars, extending significantly the results of a recent Letter [1]. We focus on bosonic fields with mass mB , such as axions, axion-like candidates and hidden photons. Self-gravitating bosonic fields generically form "breathing" configurations, where both the spacetime geometry and the field oscillate, and can interact and cluster at the center of stars. We construct stellar configurations formed by a perfect fluid and a bosonic condensate, and which may describe the late stages of dark matter accretion onto stars, in dark-matter-rich environments. These composite stars oscillate at a frequency which is a multiple of f =2.5 ×1014(mBc2/eV ) Hz . Using perturbative analysis and numerical relativity techniques, we show that these stars are generically stable, and we provide criteria for instability. Our results also indicate that the growth of the dark matter core is halted close to the Chandrasekhar limit. We thus dispel a myth concerning dark matter accretion by stars: dark matter accretion does not necessarily lead to the destruction of the star, nor to collapse to a black hole. Finally, we argue that stars with long-lived bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories.

  4. "Dark energy" in the Local Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, M.

    2012-05-01

    The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ⊙) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion" and dark energy. Moreover, the discrete distribution of these dark repulsors, in contrast to the uniformly permeating dark energy, can also explain dark flows and other recently observed excessive inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the Universe.

  5. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  6. Tarifa e Ocupação em Hotéis: provocando o modelo de apreçamento convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Paschoal Pinto

    2010-07-01

    ="Light List"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium List 2"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 2"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Grid 3"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Dark List"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Shading"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful List"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Colorful Grid"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Shading Accent 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light List Accent 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Light Grid Accent 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 1 Accent 1"/> Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" Name="Medium Shading 2 Accent 1"/> Hidden="false" Unhide

  7. Astronomical Signatures of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gorenstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several independent astronomical observations in different wavelength bands reveal the existence of much larger quantities of matter than what we would deduce from assuming a solar mass to light ratio. They are very high velocities of individual galaxies within clusters of galaxies, higher than expected rotation rates of stars in the outer regions of galaxies, 21 cm line studies indicative of increasing mass to light ratios with radius in the halos of spiral galaxies, hot gaseous X-ray emitting halos around many elliptical galaxies, and clusters of galaxies requiring a much larger component of unseen mass for the hot gas to be bound. The level of gravitational attraction needed for the spatial distribution of galaxies to evolve from the small perturbations implied by the very slightly anisotropic cosmic microwave background radiation to its current web-like configuration requires much more mass than is observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Distorted shapes of galaxies and other features created by gravitational lensing in the images of many astronomical objects require an amount of dark matter consistent with other estimates. The unambiguous detection of dark matter and more recently evidence for dark energy has positioned astronomy at the frontier of fundamental physics as it was in the 17th century.

  8. Decaying dark matter from dark instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We construct an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. The dominant dark matter decay channels are to standard model leptons. Annihilation of the dark matter to standard model states occurs primarily through the Higgs portal. We show that the mass and lifetime of the dark matter candidate in this model can be chosen to be consistent with the values favored by fits to data from the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments.

  9. Detecting hidden particles with MATHUSLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jared A.

    2018-03-01

    A hidden sector containing light long-lived particles provides a well-motivated place to find new physics. The recently proposed MATHUSLA experiment has the potential to be extremely sensitive to light particles originating from rare meson decays in the very long lifetime region. In this work, we illustrate this strength with the specific example of a light scalar mixed with the standard model-like Higgs boson, a model where MATHUSLA can further probe unexplored parameter space from exotic Higgs decays. Design augmentations should be considered in order to maximize the ability of MATHUSLA to discover very light hidden sector particles.

  10. Hidden Crises and Communication: An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  11. Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  12. Dark matter for excess of AMS-02 positrons and antiprotons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hung Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a dark matter explanation to simultaneously account for the excess of antiproton-to-proton and positron power spectra observed in the AMS-02 experiment while having the right dark matter relic abundance and satisfying the current direct search bounds. We extend the Higgs triplet model with a hidden gauge symmetry of SU(2X that is broken to Z3 by a quadruplet scalar field, rendering the associated gauge bosons stable weakly-interacting massive particle dark matter candidates. By coupling the complex Higgs triplet and the SU(2X quadruplet, the dark matter candidates can annihilate into triplet Higgs bosons each of which in turn decays into lepton or gauge boson final states. Such a mechanism gives rise to correct excess of positrons and antiprotons with an appropriate choice of the triplet vacuum expectation value. Besides, the model provides a link between neutrino mass and dark matter phenomenology.

  13. Everyday calculus discovering the hidden math all around us

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Oscar E

    2014-01-01

    Calculus. For some of us, the word conjures up memories of ten-pound textbooks and visions of tedious abstract equations. And yet, in reality, calculus is fun, accessible, and surrounds us everywhere we go. In Everyday Calculus, Oscar Fernandez shows us how to see the math in our coffee, on the highway, and even in the night sky. Fernandez uses our everyday experiences to skillfully reveal the hidden calculus behind a typical day's events. He guides us through how math naturally emerges from simple observations-how hot coffee cools down, for example-and in discussions of over fifty familia

  14. Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2007-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegrap...

  15. Hot-pressing steatite bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio Arroyo, E.

    1967-01-01

    Requirements for some special nuclear engineering ceramic shapes are: big size, impervious, dimensional accuracy and good mechanical and dielectric properties. Limitations of te conventional methods and advantages of te hot pressing techniques for the manufacturing of these shapes are discussed. Hot pressing characteristics of a certain steatite powder are studied. Occurrence of an optimum densification temperature just above the tale decomposition range is found. Experimental data show that the height/diameter ratio of the specimen has no effect on the sintering conditions. Increasing darkness from the graphite mould is detected above the optimum temperature. The hot-pressed steatite is compared with a fired dry-pressed sample of the same composition. (Author) 13 refs

  16. Entry deterrence and hidden competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavrutich, Maria; Huisman, Kuno; Kort, Peter

    This paper studies strategic investment behavior of firms facing an uncertain demand in a duopoly setting. Firms choose both investment timing and the capacity level while facing additional uncertainty about market participants, which is introduced via the concept of hidden competition. We focus on

  17. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  18. The Hidden Dimensions of Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacso, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses methods of evaluating commercial online databases and provides examples that illustrate their hidden dimensions. Topics addressed include size, including the number of records or the number of titles; the number of years covered; and the frequency of updates. Comparisons of Readers' Guide Abstracts and Magazine Article Summaries are…

  19. Mass spectra of hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Smruti; Vinodkumar, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, the LHCb Collaboration has reported two hidden-charmed resonances P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) consistent with pentaquark states in the Λ_b"0 → K"-J/Ψp process with masses (widths) (4380 ±8 ± 29) MeV ((205 ±18 ± 86) MeV) and (4449.8 ±1.7 ± 2.5) MeV ((39 ±5 ±19) MeV), respectively. The observation of the P_c states has aroused the theorist's strong interest in the hidden-charm pentaquark states. They have been studied in various frameworks, such as the molecule-like pentaquark states, the diquark-diquark-antiquark type pentaquark states, the diquark-triquark type pentaquark states, re-scattering effects, etc. An identification of pentaquark states as exotic hadron has been one of the long standing problems in the physics of strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A decade ago lots of discussion were made about pentaquarks states but due to lack of further experimental evidences the study of pentaquarks have been almost gone in the darkness. But, recent remarkable observation of two resonances i.e. P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) with hidden charm and the minimal quark content cc-baruud provided new impact for studies of pentaquark states and opens a new window to study the exotic hadronic matter

  20. Unification of dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which dark energy and dark matter are described in a unified manner. The ultralight pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson, A, naturally explains the observed magnitude of dark energy, while the bosonic supersymmetry partner of the pNG boson, B, can be a dominant component of dark matter. The decay of B into a pair of electron and positron may explain the 511 keV γ ray from the Galactic Center

  1. Fundamental Particle Structure in the Cosmological Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2013-11-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro-world and mechanisms of its symmetry breaking. Particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter particles may represent ideal gas of noninteracting particles. Self-interacting dark matter weakly or superweakly coupled to ordinary matter is also possible, reflecting nontrivial pattern of particle symmetry in the hidden sector of particle theory. In the early universe the structure of particle symmetry breaking gives rise to cosmological phase transitions, from which macroscopic cosmological defects or primordial nonlinear structures can be originated. Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be not only a candidate for dark matter, but also represent a universal probe for superhigh energy physics in the early universe. Evaporating PBHs turn to be a source of even superweakly interacting particles, while clouds of massive PBHs can serve as nonlinear seeds for galaxy formation. The observed broken symmetry of the three known families may provide a simultaneous solution for the problems of the mass of neutrino and strong CP-violation in the unique framework of models of horizontal unification. Dark matter candidates can also appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, hidden in elusive "dark atoms." Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms," maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, studying

  2. The dark side of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    2003-01-01

    The number of baryons (protons and neutrons) of the universe can be deduced from the relative abundances of light elements (deuterium, helium and lithium) that were generated during the very first minutes of the cosmic history. This calculation has shown that the baryonic matter represents only 5% of the total mass of the universe. As for neutrinos (hot dark matter), their very low mass restraints their contribution to only 0,3%. The spinning movement of galaxies requires the existence of huge quantity of matter that seems invisible (black matter). Astrophysicists have recently discovered that the universal expansion is accelerating and that the space geometry is euclidean, from these 2 facts they have deduced a value of the mass-energy density that implies the existence of something different from dark matter called dark energy and that is expected to represent about 70% of the mass of the universe. Physicists face the challenge of detecting black matter and black energy. The first attempt for detecting black matter began in 1997 when the UKDMC detector entered into service. Now more than half a dozen of detectors are searching for dark matter but till now in vain. A new generation of detectors (CDMS-2, ZEPLIN-2, CRESST-2 and Edelweiss-2) combining detection, new methods of particle discrimination and the study of the evolution of the signal over very long periods of time are progressively entering into operation. (A.C.)

  3. Dark matter that can form dark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Hyung Do; Scopel, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The first stars to form in the Universe may be powered by the annihilation of weakly interacting dark matter particles. These so-called dark stars, if observed, may give us a clue about the nature of dark matter. Here we examine which models for particle dark matter satisfy the conditions for the formation of dark stars. We find that in general models with thermal dark matter lead to the formation of dark stars, with few notable exceptions: heavy neutralinos in the presence of coannihilations, annihilations that are resonant at dark matter freeze-out but not in dark stars, some models of neutrinophilic dark matter annihilating into neutrinos only and lighter than about 50 GeV. In particular, we find that a thermal DM candidate in standard Cosmology always forms a dark star as long as its mass is heavier than ≅ 50 GeV and the thermal average of its annihilation cross section is the same at the decoupling temperature and during the dark star formation, as for instance in the case of an annihilation cross section with a non-vanishing s-wave contribution

  4. Hidden Structural Codes in Protein Intrinsic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Camporeale, Gabriela; Chemes, Lucía B; Risso, Marikena; Noval, María Gabriela; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Alonso, Leonardo G; de Prat Gay, Gonzalo

    2017-10-17

    Intrinsic disorder is a major structural category in biology, accounting for more than 30% of coding regions across the domains of life, yet consists of conformational ensembles in equilibrium, a major challenge in protein chemistry. Anciently evolved papillomavirus genomes constitute an unparalleled case for sequence to structure-function correlation in cases in which there are no folded structures. E7, the major transforming oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses, is a paradigmatic example among the intrinsically disordered proteins. Analysis of a large number of sequences of the same viral protein allowed for the identification of a handful of residues with absolute conservation, scattered along the sequence of its N-terminal intrinsically disordered domain, which intriguingly are mostly leucine residues. Mutation of these led to a pronounced increase in both α-helix and β-sheet structural content, reflected by drastic effects on equilibrium propensities and oligomerization kinetics, and uncovers the existence of local structural elements that oppose canonical folding. These folding relays suggest the existence of yet undefined hidden structural codes behind intrinsic disorder in this model protein. Thus, evolution pinpoints conformational hot spots that could have not been identified by direct experimental methods for analyzing or perturbing the equilibrium of an intrinsically disordered protein ensemble.

  5. Dissipative dark matter and the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foot, R., E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-07-01

    There is ample evidence from rotation curves that dark matter halos around disk galaxies have nontrivial dynamics. Of particular significance are: a) the cored dark matter profile of disk galaxies, b) correlations of the shape of rotation curves with baryonic properties, and c) Tully-Fisher relations. Dark matter halos around disk galaxies may have nontrivial dynamics if dark matter is strongly self interacting and dissipative. Multicomponent hidden sector dark matter featuring a massless 'dark photon' (from an unbroken dark U(1) gauge interaction) which kinetically mixes with the ordinary photon provides a concrete example of such dark matter. The kinetic mixing interaction facilitates halo heating by enabling ordinary supernovae to be a source of these 'dark photons'. Dark matter halos can expand and contract in response to the heating and cooling processes, but for a sufficiently isolated halo could have evolved to a steady state or 'equilibrium' configuration where heating and cooling rates locally balance. This dynamics allows the dark matter density profile to be related to the distribution of ordinary supernovae in the disk of a given galaxy. In a previous paper a simple and predictive formula was derived encoding this relation. Here we improve on previous work by modelling the supernovae distribution via the measured UV and H α fluxes, and compare the resulting dark matter halo profiles with the rotation curve data for each dwarf galaxy in the LITTLE THINGS sample. The dissipative dark matter concept is further developed and some conclusions drawn.

  6. Dissipative dark matter and the rotation curves of dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.

    2016-01-01

    There is ample evidence from rotation curves that dark matter halos around disk galaxies have nontrivial dynamics. Of particular significance are: a) the cored dark matter profile of disk galaxies, b) correlations of the shape of rotation curves with baryonic properties, and c) Tully-Fisher relations. Dark matter halos around disk galaxies may have nontrivial dynamics if dark matter is strongly self interacting and dissipative. Multicomponent hidden sector dark matter featuring a massless 'dark photon' (from an unbroken dark U(1) gauge interaction) which kinetically mixes with the ordinary photon provides a concrete example of such dark matter. The kinetic mixing interaction facilitates halo heating by enabling ordinary supernovae to be a source of these 'dark photons'. Dark matter halos can expand and contract in response to the heating and cooling processes, but for a sufficiently isolated halo could have evolved to a steady state or 'equilibrium' configuration where heating and cooling rates locally balance. This dynamics allows the dark matter density profile to be related to the distribution of ordinary supernovae in the disk of a given galaxy. In a previous paper a simple and predictive formula was derived encoding this relation. Here we improve on previous work by modelling the supernovae distribution via the measured UV and H α fluxes, and compare the resulting dark matter halo profiles with the rotation curve data for each dwarf galaxy in the LITTLE THINGS sample. The dissipative dark matter concept is further developed and some conclusions drawn.

  7. HOT 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Sara Stefansen

    HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis.......HOT er en kvalitativ undersøgelse, der hvert år diskuterer og undersøger en lille udvalgt skare af danskkyndige fagpersoners bud på, hvad de er optagede af på literacyområdet her og nu – altså hvilke emner, de vil vurdere som aktuelle at forholde sig til i deres nuværende praksis....

  8. Hidden supersymmetry and large N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method to deal with the leading order in the large-N expansion of a quantum field theory. The method uses explicitly the hidden supersymmetry that is present in the path-integral formulation of a stochastic process. In addition to this we derive a new relation that is valid in the leading order of the large-N expansion of the hermitian-matrix model for any spacetime dimension. (orig.)

  9. Dark Tourism in Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Cen; Li, Jin

    2011-01-01

    A new trend is developing in the tourism market nowadays – dark tourism. The main purpose of the study was to explore the marketing strategies of dark tourism sites in Budapest based on the theoretical overview of dark tourism and data gathering of quantitative research. The study started with a theoretical overview of dark tourism in Budapest. Then, the authors focused on the case study of House of Terror, one of the most important dark tourism sites in Budapest. Last, the research has ...

  10. Hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are required to assess the dose to skin from a hot particle contamination event at a depth of skin of7mg/cm 2 over an area of 1 cm 2 and compare the value to the current dose limit for the skin. Although the resulting number is interesting from a comparative standpoint and can be used to predict local skin reactions, comparison of the number to existing limits based on uniform exposures is inappropriate. Most incidents that can be classified as overexposures based on this interpretation of dose actually have no effect on the health of the worker. As a result, resources are expended to reduce the likelihood that an overexposure event will occur when they could be directed toward eliminating the cause of the problem or enhancing existing programs such as contamination control. Furthermore, from a risk standpoint, this practice is not ALARA because some workers receive whole body doses in order to minimize the occurrence of hot particle skin contaminations. In this paper the authors suggest an alternative approach to controlling hot particle exposures

  11. Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Nesbet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.

  12. Strategies for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of alternative forms of dark matter, both baryonic and nonbaryonic, is reviewed. Alternative arguments are presented for the predominance of either cold dark matter (CDM) or of baryonic dark matter (BDM). Strategies are described for dark matter detection, both for dark matter that consists of weakly interacting relic particles and for dark matter that consists of dark stellar remnants

  13. Hidden particle production at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Itoh, Hideo; Okada, Nobuchika; Hano, Hitoshi; Yoshioka, Tamaki

    2008-01-01

    In a class of new physics models, the new physics sector is completely or partly hidden, namely, a singlet under the standard model (SM) gauge group. Hidden fields included in such new physics models communicate with the standard model sector through higher-dimensional operators. If a cutoff lies in the TeV range, such hidden fields can be produced at future colliders. We consider a scalar field as an example of the hidden fields. Collider phenomenology on this hidden scalar is similar to that of the SM Higgs boson, but there are several features quite different from those of the Higgs boson. We investigate productions of the hidden scalar at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and study the feasibility of its measurements, in particular, how well the ILC distinguishes the scalar from the Higgs boson, through realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Multiple dark matter scenarios from ubiquitous stringy throats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chialva, D.; Dev, P.S.B.; Mazumdar, A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of having multiple Kaluza-Klein dark matter candidates which arise naturally in generic type-IIB string theory compactification scenarios. These dark matter candidates reside in various throats of the Calabi-Yau manifold. In principle, they can come with a varied range......, we find that the mass scales allowed for the Kaluza-Klein dark matter particles in various throats can vary between 0.1 eV and 10 TeV, depending upon the throat geometry. Thus, there could be simultaneously more than one kind of cold (and possibly warm and hot) dark matter components residing...... in the Universe. This multiple dark matter scenario could weaken the bound on a conventional supersymmetric dark matter candidate and could also account for extra relativistic degrees of freedom in our Universe....

  15. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  16. Electroweak-charged bound states as LHC probes of hidden forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingfeng; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin; Zheng, Rui

    2018-01-01

    We explore the LHC reach on beyond-the-standard model (BSM) particles X associated with a new strong force in a hidden sector. We focus on the motivated scenario where the SM and hidden sectors are connected by fermionic mediators ψ+,0 that carry SM electroweak charges. The most promising signal is the Drell-Yan production of a ψ±ψ¯ 0 pair, which forms an electrically charged vector bound state ϒ± due to the hidden force and later undergoes resonant annihilation into W±X . We analyze this final state in detail in the cases where X is a real scalar ϕ that decays to b b ¯, or a dark photon γd that decays to dileptons. For prompt X decays, we show that the corresponding signatures can be efficiently probed by extending the existing ATLAS and CMS diboson searches to include heavy resonance decays into BSM particles. For long-lived X , we propose new searches where the requirement of a prompt hard lepton originating from the W boson ensures triggering and essentially removes any SM backgrounds. To illustrate the potential of our results, we interpret them within two explicit models that contain strong hidden forces and electroweak-charged mediators, namely λ -supersymmetry (SUSY) and non-SUSY ultraviolet extensions of the twin Higgs model. The resonant nature of the signals allows for the reconstruction of the mass of both ϒ± and X , thus providing a wealth of information about the hidden sector.

  17. Hidden measurements, hidden variables and the volume representation of transition probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Oliynyk, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    We construct, for any finite dimension $n$, a new hidden measurement model for quantum mechanics based on representing quantum transition probabilities by the volume of regions in projective Hilbert space. For $n=2$ our model is equivalent to the Aerts sphere model and serves as a generalization of it for dimensions $n \\geq 3$. We also show how to construct a hidden variables scheme based on hidden measurements and we discuss how joint distributions arise in our hidden variables scheme and th...

  18. Building a better minimal supergravity: WIMP dark matter without flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Nathaniel J.; Green, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of a natural dark matter candidate, the neutralino, is among the principal successes of minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) and its descendents. In lieu of a suitable ultraviolet completion, however, theories of gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking such as mSUGRA suffer from arbitrary degrees of flavor violation. Though theories of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking are free from such prohibitive flavor violation, they typically lack natural neutralino dark matter candidates. Yet this conventional dichotomy breaks down when the hidden sector is strongly coupled; in models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, the neutralino may be the lightest supersymmetric particle if the fields of the hidden sector possess large anomalous dimensions. In fact, general models of so-called 'sequestered' gauge mediation possess the full richness of neutralino dark matter found in mSUGRA without corresponding flavor problems. Here we explore generalized models of sequestered gauge mediation and the rich variety of neutralino dark matter they exhibit.

  19. DarkSide search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D' Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Vincenzi, M. De; Haas, E. De; Derbin, A.; Pietro, G. Di; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-11-22

    The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.

  20. Dark forces in the sky: signals from Z{sup ′} and the dark Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics,The University of Melbourne,Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2016-08-01

    We consider the indirect detection signals for a self-consistent hidden U(1) model containing a Majorana dark matter candidate, χ, a dark gauge boson, Z{sup ′}, and a dark Higgs, s. Compared with a model containing only a dark matter candidate and Z{sup ′} mediator, the addition of the scalar provides a mass generation mechanism for the dark sector particles and is required in order to avoid unitarity violation at high energies. We find that the inclusion of the two mediators opens up a new two-body s-wave annihilation channel, χχ→sZ{sup ′}. This new process, which is missed in the usual single-mediator simplified model approach, can be the dominant annihilation channel. This provides rich phenomenology for indirect detection searches, allows indirect searches to explore regions of parameter space not accessible with other commonly considered s-wave annihilation processes, and enables both the Z{sup ′} and scalar couplings to be probed. We examine the phenomenology of the sector with a focus on this new process, and determine the limits on the model parameter space from Fermi data on dwarf spheriodal galaxies and other relevant experiments.

  1. Very heavy dark Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    A dark sector with a solitonic component provides a means to circumvent the problem of generically low annihilation cross sections of very heavy dark matter particles. At the same time, enhanced annihilation cross sections are necessary for indirect detection of very heavy dark matter components beyond 100 TeV. Non-thermally produced dark matter in this mass range could therefore contribute to the cosmic γ-ray and neutrino flux above 100 TeV, and massive Skyrmions provide an interesting framework for the discussion of these scenarios. Therefore a Higgs portal and a neutrino portal for very heavy Skyrmion dark matter are discussed. The Higgs portal model demonstrates a dark mediator bottleneck, where limitations on particle annihilation cross sections will prevent a signal from the potentially large soliton annihilation cross sections. This problem can be avoided in models where the dark mediator decays. This is illustrated by the neutrino portal for Skyrmion dark matter. (orig.)

  2. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  3. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  4. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  5. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  6. Dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question of astrophysics and cosmology is the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations show clearly the existence of some kind of dark matter, though they cannot yet reveal its nature. Dark matter can consist of baryonic particles, or of other (known or unknown) elementary particles. Baryonic dark matter probably exists in the form of dust, gas, or small stars. Other elementary particles constituting the dark matter can possibly be measured in terrestrial experiments. Possibilities for dark matter particles are neutrinos, axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While a direct detection of relic neutrinos seems at the moment impossible, there are experiments looking for baryonic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, and for particle dark matter in the form of axions and WIMPS. (orig.)

  7. Very heavy dark Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Rainer [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    A dark sector with a solitonic component provides a means to circumvent the problem of generically low annihilation cross sections of very heavy dark matter particles. At the same time, enhanced annihilation cross sections are necessary for indirect detection of very heavy dark matter components beyond 100 TeV. Non-thermally produced dark matter in this mass range could therefore contribute to the cosmic γ-ray and neutrino flux above 100 TeV, and massive Skyrmions provide an interesting framework for the discussion of these scenarios. Therefore a Higgs portal and a neutrino portal for very heavy Skyrmion dark matter are discussed. The Higgs portal model demonstrates a dark mediator bottleneck, where limitations on particle annihilation cross sections will prevent a signal from the potentially large soliton annihilation cross sections. This problem can be avoided in models where the dark mediator decays. This is illustrated by the neutrino portal for Skyrmion dark matter. (orig.)

  8. The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David N

    2015-03-06

    A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Dark Sky Education | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendar Activities NOAO-S EPO Programs CADIAS Astro Chile Hugo E. Schwarz Telescope Dark Sky Education ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education Dark Sky Education Dark Sky Education (in progress) Is an EPO Program. It runs Globe at Night, an annual program to

  10. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  11. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  12. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  13. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  14. Hidden inventory and safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; James, R.H.; Morgan, F.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results are described of the evaluation of residual plutonium in a process line used for the production of experimental fast reactor fuel. Initial attention has been focussed on a selection of work boxes used for processing powders and solutions. Amounts of material measured as ''hidden inventory'' are generally less than 0.1 percent of throughput but in one box containing very complex equipment the amount was exceptionally about 0.5 percent. The total surface area of the box and the installed equipment appears to be the most significant factor in determining the amount of plutonium held-up as ''hidden inventory,'' representing an average of about 4 x 10 -4 g cm -2 . Present results are based on gamma spectrometer measurements but neutron techniques are being developed to overcome some of the inherent uncertainties in the gamma method. It is suggested that the routine use of sample plates of known surface area would be valuable in monitoring the deposition of plutonium in work boxes

  15. Hidden costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mr. England contends that these hidden costs add up to a figure much higher than those that appear in the electric utilities' profit and loss account - costs that are borne by Federal taxpayers, by nuclear industry workers, and by all those people who must share their environment with nuclear facilities. Costs he details are additional deaths and illnesses resulting from exposure to radiation, and the use of tax dollars to clean up the lethal garbage produced by those activities. He asserts that careless handling of uranium ore and mill tailings in past years has apparently resulted in serious public health problems in those mining communities. In another example, Mr. England states that the failure to isolate uranium tailings physically from their environment has probably contributed to an acute leukemia rate in Mesa County, Colorado. He mentions much of the technology development for power reactors being done by the Federal government, not by private reactor manufacturers - thus, again, hidden costs that do not show up in electric bills of customers. The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle as a place for Federally subsidized research and development is discussed briefly. 1 figure, 2 tables

  16. Dark Mass Creation During EWPT Via Dark Energy Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.; Casper, Steven

    2013-01-01

    We add Dark Matter Dark Energy terms with a quintessence field interacting with a Dark Matter field to a MSSM EW Lagrangian previously used to calculate the magnetic field created during the EWPT. From the expectation value of the quintessence field we estimate the Dark Matter mass for parameters used in previous work on Dark Matter-Dark Energy interactions.

  17. LHCb - Search for hidden-sector bosons at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A search is presented for a hidden-sector boson, $\\chi$, produced in the decay $B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi$, with $K^* (892)^0 \\rightarrow K^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ . The search is performed using a $pp$-collision data sample collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 1 and 2 fb$^{-1}$ respectively. No significant signal is observed in the mass range $214 \\le m_\\chi \\le 4350$ MeV, and upper limits are placed on the branching fraction product $\\mathcal{B}(B^0 \\rightarrow K^* (892)^0 \\chi) \\times \\mathcal{B}(\\chi \\rightarrow \\mu^+ \\mu^- )$ as a function of the mass and lifetime of the $\\chi$ boson. These limits place the most stringent constraints to date on many theories that predict the existence of additional low-mass dark bosons.

  18. Dark Matter Reality Check: Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory challenges an alternative theory of gravity that eliminates the need for dark matter. The observation also narrows the field for competing forms of dark matter, the elusive material thought to be the dominant form of matter in the universe. An observation of the galaxy NGC 720 shows it is enveloped in a slightly flattened, or ellipsoidal cloud of hot gas that has an orientation different from that of the optical image of the galaxy. The flattening is too large to be explained by theories in which stars and gas are assumed to contain most of the mass in the galaxy. "The shape and orientation of the hot gas cloud require it to be confined by an egg-shaped dark matter halo," said David Buote of the University of California, Irvine, and lead author of a report on this research in the 2002 September 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "This means that dark matter is not just an illusion due to a shortcoming of the standard theory of gravity - it is real." According to the generally accepted standard theory of gravity, the hot X-ray cloud would need an additional source of gravity - a halo of dark matter - to keep the hot gas from expanding away. The mass of dark matter required would be about five to ten times the mass of the stars in the galaxy. If the dark matter tracked the optical light from the stars in the galaxy, the hot X-ray cloud would be more round than it is. The flattened shape of the hot gas cloud requires a flattened dark matter halo. An alternative theory of gravity called MOND, for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, was proposed in 1983 by Mordecai Milgrom of the Weizmann Institute in Israel, and has remained viable over the years. MOND does away with the need for dark matter by modifying the theory where the acceleration produced by gravity is very small, such as the outskirts of galaxies. However, MOND cannot explain the Chandra observation of NGC 720. This is apparently the first dynamical evidence that

  19. Search for dark matter by GENIUS-TF and GENIUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    2002-01-01

    The new project GENIUS will cover a wide range of the parameter space of predictions of SUSY for neutralinos as cold dark matter. Together with DAMA it will be the only experiment which can probe the seasonal modulation signal. Concerning hot dark matter GENIUS will be able to fix the (effective) neutrino mass with high accuracy. A GENIUS Test Facility has just been funded and will come into operation by end of 2002

  20. Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter; Redondo, Javier

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m 2 at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  1. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  2. Results from the Solar Hidden Photon Search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Günter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier, E-mail: mschwarz@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: ernst-axel.knabbe@desy.de, E-mail: Axel-lindner@desy.de, E-mail: jredondo@unizar.es, E-mail: Andreas.Ringwald@desy.de, E-mail: mschneide@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: jsusol@hs.uni-hamburg.de, E-mail: gwiedemann@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∼ 3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon ↔ HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95% C.L . Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  3. Results from the solar hidden photon search (SHIPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Matthias; Schneide, Magnus; Susol, Jaroslaw; Wiedemann, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Sternwarte; Knabbe, Ernst-Axel; Lindner, Axel; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    We present the results of a search for transversely polarised hidden photons (HPs) with ∝3 eV energies emitted from the Sun. These hypothetical particles, known also as paraphotons or dark sector photons, are theoretically well motivated for example by string theory inspired extensions of the Standard Model. Solar HPs of sub-eV mass can convert into photons of the same energy (photon<->HP oscillations are similar to neutrino flavour oscillations). At SHIPS this would take place inside a long light-tight high-vacuum tube, which tracks the Sun. The generated photons would then be focused into a low-noise photomultiplier at the far end of the tube. Our analysis of 330 h of data (and 330 h of background characterisation) reveals no signal of photons from solar hidden photon conversion. We estimate the rate of newly generated photons due to this conversion to be smaller than 25 mHz/m{sup 2} at the 95%C.L. Using this and a recent model of solar HP emission, we set stringent constraints on χ, the coupling constant between HPs and photons, as a function of the HP mass.

  4. The Hidden Reason Behind Children's Misbehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystul, Michael S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses hidden reason theory based on the assumptions that: (1) the nature of people is positive; (2) a child's most basic psychological need is involvement; and (3) a child has four possible choices in life (good somebody, good nobody, bad somebody, or severely mentally ill.) A three step approach for implementing hidden reason theory is…

  5. Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...

  6. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  7. Hidden variables and locality in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva, Vandana.

    1978-12-01

    The status of hidden variables in quantum theory has been debated since the 1920s. The author examines the no-hidden-variable theories of von Neumann, Kochen, Specker and Bell, and finds that they all share one basic assumption: averaging over the hidden variables should reproduce the quantum mechanical probabilities. Von Neumann also makes a linearity assumption, Kochen and Specker require the preservation of certain functional relations between magnitudes, and Bell proposes a locality condition. It has been assumed that the extrastatistical requirements are needed to serve as criteria of success for the introduction of hidden variables because the statistical condition is trivially satisfied, and that Bell's result is based on a locality condition that is physically motivated. The author shows that the requirement of weak locality, which is not physically motivated, is enough to give Bell's result. The proof of Bell's inequality works equally well for any pair of commuting magnitudes satisfying a condition called the degeneracy principle. None of the no-hidden-variable proofs apply to a class of hidden variable theories that are not phase-space reconstructions of quantum mechanics. The author discusses one of these theories, the Bohm-Bub theory, and finds that hidden variable theories that re all the quantum statistics, for single and sequential measurements, must introduce a randomization process for the hidden variables after each measurement. The philosophical significance of this theory lies in the role it can play in solving the conceptual puzzles posed by quantum theory

  8. Hidden supersymmetry and Fermion number fractionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhoury, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how a hidden supersymmetry of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionalization in different dimensions. This is made possible by relating it to a corresponding Witten index of the hidden supersymmetry. The closely related anomalies in odd dimensions are also discussed

  9. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-03-20

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with {lambda}{sub CDM}. Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the {lambda}{sub CDM} model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter

  10. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with Λ CDM . Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the Λ CDM model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter space of such scenarios

  11. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  12. Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent cosmological as well as historical observations of rotational curves of galaxies strongly suggest the existence of dark matter. It is also widely believed that dark matter consists of unknown elementary particles. However, astrophysical observations based on gravitational effects alone do not provide sufficient information on the properties of dark matter. In this study, the status of dark matter searches is investigated by observing high-energy neutrinos from the sun and the earth and by observing nuclear recoils in laboratory targets. The successful detection of dark matter by these methods facilitates systematic studies of its properties. Finally, the XMASS experiment, which is due to start at the Kamioka Observatory, is introduced

  13. Cosmic selection rule for the glueball dark matter relic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Amarjit; Xiao, Huangyu; Zhang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    We point out a unique mechanism to produce the relic abundance for the glueball dark matter from a gauged SU (N )d hidden sector which is bridged to the standard model sector through heavy vectorlike quarks colored under gauge interactions from both sides. A necessary ingredient of our assumption is that the vectorlike quarks, produced either thermally or nonthermally, are abundant enough to dominate the universe for some time in the early universe. They later undergo dark color confinement and form unstable vectorlike-quarkonium states which annihilate decay and reheat the visible and dark sectors. The ratio of entropy dumped into two sectors and the final energy budget in the dark glueballs is only determined by low energy parameters, including the intrinsic scale of the dark SU (N )d , Λd, and number of dark colors, Nd, but depend weakly on parameters in the ultraviolet such as the vectorlike quark mass or the initial condition. We call this a cosmic selection rule for the glueball dark matter relic density.

  14. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, J.

    2008-01-01

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to χ -14 , depending on the hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter χ at low masses (m γ' <1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  15. Hunting the dark Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Penning, Bjoern [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.

    2017-05-15

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  16. Hunting the dark Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian; Penning, Bjoern

    2017-05-01

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  17. Extended ΛCDM: generalized non-minimal coupling for dark matter fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettoni, Dario; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a class of models that address the issue of explaining the gravitational dynamics at the galactic scale starting from a geometric point of view. Instead of claiming the existence of some hidden coupling between dark matter and baryons, or abandoning the existence of dark matter itself, we consider the possibility that dark matter and gravity have some non trivial interaction able to modify the dynamics at astrophysical scales. This interaction is implemented assuming that dark matter gets non-minimally coupled with gravity at suitably small scales and late times. After showing the predictions of the model in the Newtonian limit we also discuss the possible origin of it non-minimal coupling. This investigation seems to suggest that phenomenological mechanisms envisaged for the dark matter dynamics, such as the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter halos, could be connected to this class of models

  18. Hidden scale invariance of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummel, Felix; Kresse, Georg; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 58 liquid elements at their triple point show that most metals exhibit near proportionality between the thermal fluctuations of the virial and the potential energy in the isochoric ensemble. This demonstrates a general “hidden” scale invariance...... of metals making the condensed part of the thermodynamic phase diagram effectively one dimensional with respect to structure and dynamics. DFT computed density scaling exponents, related to the Grüneisen parameter, are in good agreement with experimental values for the 16 elements where reliable data were...... available. Hidden scale invariance is demonstrated in detail for magnesium by showing invariance of structure and dynamics. Computed melting curves of period three metals follow curves with invariance (isomorphs). The experimental structure factor of magnesium is predicted by assuming scale invariant...

  19. Hidden Valley Search at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Verducci, M

    2011-01-01

    A number of extensions of the Standard Model result in neutral and weakly-coupled particles that decay to multi hadrons or multi leptons with macroscopic decay lengths. These particles with decay paths that can be comparable with ATLAS detector dimensions represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS detector. We will present a set of signature driven triggers for the ATLAS detector that target such displaced decays and evaluate their performances for some benchmark models and describe analysis strategies and limits on the production of such long-lived particles. A first estimation of the Hidden Valley trigger rates has been evaluated with 6 pb-1 of data collected at ATLAS during the data taking of 2010.

  20. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  1. A survey of hidden-variables theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belinfante, F J

    1973-01-01

    A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat

  2. A classification of hidden-variable properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburger, Adam; Yanofsky, Noson

    2008-01-01

    Hidden variables are extra components added to try to banish counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics. We start with a quantum-mechanical model and describe various properties that can be asked of a hidden-variable model. We present six such properties and a Venn diagram of how they are related. With two existence theorems and three no-go theorems (EPR, Bell and Kochen-Specker), we show which properties of empirically equivalent hidden-variable models are possible and which are not. Formally, our treatment relies only on classical probability models, and physical phenomena are used only to motivate which models to choose

  3. Cosmological models with Gurzadyan-Xue dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchagin, G V; Yegorian, G

    2006-01-01

    The formula for dark energy density derived by Gurzadyan and Xue is the only formula which provides (without a free parameter) a value for dark energy density in remarkable agreement with current cosmological datasets, unlike numerous phenomenological scenarios where the corresponding value is postulated. This formula suggests the possibility of variation of physical constants such as the speed of light and the gravitational constant. Considering several cosmological models based on that formula and deriving the cosmological equations for each case, we show that in all models source terms appear in the continuity equation. So, on one hand, GX models make up a rich set covering a lot of currently proposed models of dark energy; on the other hand, they reveal hidden symmetries, with a particular role of the separatrix Ω m = 2/3, and link with the issue of the content of physical constants

  4. Higgs seesaw mechanism as a source for dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence M; Dent, James B

    2013-08-09

    Motivated by the seesaw mechanism for neutrinos which naturally generates small neutrino masses, we explore how a small grand-unified-theory-scale mixing between the standard model Higgs boson and an otherwise massless hidden sector scalar can naturally generate a small mass and vacuum expectation value for the new scalar which produces a false vacuum energy density contribution comparable to that of the observed dark energy dominating the current expansion of the Universe. This provides a simple and natural mechanism for producing the correct scale for dark energy, even if it does not address the long-standing question of why much larger dark energy contributions are not produced from the visible sector. The new scalar produces no discernible signatures in existing terrestrial experiments so that one may have to rely on other cosmological tests of this idea.

  5. Collider detection of dark matter electromagnetic anapole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Alexandre; Santos, A. C. O.; Sinha, Kuver

    2018-03-01

    Dark matter that interacts with the Standard Model by exchanging photons through higher multipole interactions occurs in a wide range of both strongly and weakly coupled hidden sector models. We study the collider detection prospects of these candidates, with a focus on Majorana dark matter that couples through the anapole moment. The study is conducted at the effective field theory level with the mono-Z signature incorporating varying levels of systematic uncertainties at the high-luminosity LHC. The projected collider reach on the anapole moment is then compared to the reach coming from direct detection experiments like LZ. Finally, the analysis is applied to a weakly coupled completion with leptophilic dark matter.

  6. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  7. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  8. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  9. Charming dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Thomas; Kirk, Matthew; Lenz, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    We have considered a model of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation (DMFV), in which a triplet of dark matter particles couple to right-handed up-type quarks via a heavy colour-charged scalar mediator. By studying a large spectrum of possible constraints, and assessing the entire parameter space using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), we can place strong restrictions on the allowed parameter space for dark matter models of this type.

  10. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  11. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  12. Metastable dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo G. Landim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We build a model of metastable dark energy, in which the observed vacuum energy is the value of the scalar potential at the false vacuum. The scalar potential is given by a sum of even self-interactions up to order six. The deviation from the Minkowski vacuum is due to a term suppressed by the Planck scale. The decay time of the metastable vacuum can easily accommodate a mean life time compatible with the age of the universe. The metastable dark energy is also embedded into a model with SU(2R symmetry. The dark energy doublet and the dark matter doublet naturally interact with each other. A three-body decay of the dark energy particle into (cold and warm dark matter can be as long as large fraction of the age of the universe, if the mediator is massive enough, the lower bound being at intermediate energy level some orders below the grand unification scale. Such a decay shows a different form of interaction between dark matter and dark energy, and the model opens a new window to investigate the dark sector from the point-of-view of particle physics.

  13. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  14. Dark U (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Feng; Ma, Ernest; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we will explore the possibility of adding a local U(1) dark sector to the standard model with the Higgs boson as a portal connecting the visible standard model sector and the dark one. We will discuss existing experimental constraint on the model parameters from the invisible width of Higgs decay. Implications of such a dark U(1) sector on phenomenology at the Large Hardon Collider will be addressed. In particular, detailed results for the non-standard signals of multi-lepton-jets that arise from this simple dark sector will be presented. (paper)

  15. Searching for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  16. Chaplygin dark star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed

  17. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum

  18. The Sun as a sub-GeV dark matter accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2018-01-01

    Sub-GeV halo dark matter that enters the Sun can potentially scatter off hot solar nuclei and be ejected much faster than its incoming velocity. We derive an expression for the rate and velocity distribution of these reflected particles, taking into account the Sun's temperature and opacity. We...... further demonstrate that future direct-detection experiments could use these energetic reflected particles to probe light dark matter in parameter space that cannot be accessed via ordinary halo dark matter....

  19. The Sun as a sub-GeV dark matter accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Emken, Timon; Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2018-01-01

    Sub-GeV halo dark matter that enters the Sun can potentially scatter off hot solar nuclei and be ejected much faster than its incoming velocity. We derive an expression for the rate and velocity distribution of these reflected particles, taking into account the Sun’s temperature and opacity. We further demonstrate that future direct-detection experiments could use these energetic reflected particles to probe light dark matter in parameter space that cannot be accessed via ordinary halo dark m...

  20. Hot spots and heavily dislocated regions in multicrystalling silicon cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.; Martinuzzi, S.

    1990-01-01

    The formation mechanism and the electrical consequences of hot spots have been investigated in multicrystalline solar cells. The hot spots were revealed by means of an infrared camera when the cells are reverse biassed in the dark. The minority carrier diffusion length (L n ), the photovoltage (V oc ) and the photocurrent (J sc ) were measured in the hot spot area and far from this zone thanks to mesa diodes. Dark forward I-V curves lead to values of ideality factor (M) and reverse saturation current (J o ). It is found that J o and M are higher in the hot spot area, while J sc , V oc and at a less extent L n are smaller. Large densities of dislocations and lineages structures are revealed in the abnormally heated regions

  1. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  2. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

  3. Hidden costs, value lost: uninsurance in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance

    2003-01-01

    Hidden Cost, Value Lost , the fifth of a series of six books on the consequences of uninsurance in the United States, illustrates some of the economic and social losses to the country of maintaining...

  4. The hidden epidemic: confronting sexually transmitted diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eng, Thomas R; Butler, William T

    .... In addition, STDs increase the risk of HIV transmission. The Hidden Epidemic examines the scope of sexually transmitted infections in the United States and provides a critical assessment of the nation's response to this public health crisis...

  5. Perspective: Disclosing hidden sources of funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2009-09-01

    In this article, the author discusses ethical and policy issues related to the disclosure of hidden sources of funding in research. The author argues that authors have an ethical obligation to disclose hidden sources of funding and that journals should adopt policies to enforce this obligation. Journal policies should require disclosure of hidden sources of funding that authors know about and that have a direct relation to their research. To stimulate this discussion, the author describes a recent case: investigators who conducted a lung cancer screening study had received funding from a private foundation that was supported by a tobacco company, but they did not disclose this relationship to the journal. Investigators and journal editors must be prepared to deal with these issues in a manner that promotes honesty, transparency, fairness, and accountability in research. The development of well-defined, reasonable policies pertaining to hidden sources of funding can be a step in this direction.

  6. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  7. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, pre...

  8. Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....

  9. Hidden charm molecules in a finite volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaladejo, M.; Hidalgo-Duque, C.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we address the interaction of charmed mesons in hidden charm channels in a finite box. We use the interaction from a recent model based on heavy quark spin symmetry that predicts molecules of hidden charm in the infinite volume. The energy levels in the box are generated within this model, and several methods for the analysis of these levels ("inverse problem") are investigated. (author)

  10. Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.

  11. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  12. Looking for a hidden sector in exotic Higgs boson decays with the ATLAS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Coccaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of dark matter (DM is one of the most intriguing questions in particle physics. DM can be postulated to be part of a hidden sector whose interactions with the visible matter are not completely decoupled. The discovery of a fundamental scalar particle compatible with the Higgs boson predicted by the Standard Model paves the way for looking for DM with novel methods. An overview of the searches looking for a hidden sector in exotic Higgs decays and for invisible decays of the Higgs boson within the ATLAS experiment is presented. Prospects for searches with Large Hadron Collider data at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV are summarized.

  13. Dark Energy vs. Dark Matter: Towards a Unifying Scalar Field?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbey, A.

    2008-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology suggests the existence of two components, "dark matter" and "dark energy", which determine the fate of the Universe. Their nature is still under investigation, and no direct proof of their existences has emerged yet. There exist alternative models which reinterpret the cosmological observations, for example by replacing the dark energy/dark matter hypothesis by the existence of a unique dark component, the dark fluid, which is able to mimic the behaviour of bot...

  14. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  15. Solar hot spots are still hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22. 14 refs

  16. Superball dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric models predict a natural dark-matter candidate, stable baryonic Q-balls. They could be copiously produced in the early Universe as a by-product of the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. I review the cosmological and astrophysical implications, methods of detection, and the present limits on this form of dark matter.

  17. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Paolis, F.; Jetzer, Ph.; Ingrosso, G.; Roncadelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reasons supporting the idea that most of the dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies is baryonic are discussed. Moreover, it is argued that most of the dark matter in galactic halos should be in the form of MACHOs and cold molecular clouds.

  18. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  19. The Dark Matter Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters

  20. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  1. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1D. After the U(1D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3→2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  2. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  3. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  4. A hypothesis concerning the nature of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paduroiu, Sinziana; Rusu, Mircea

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review the main observational facts that lead to the hypothesis of the so called 'dark matter' as a considerable part of the matter in the Universe that is not visible. The expansion rate of the universe, the birth of the galaxies and their rotation curves are some of the phenomena that can be explained by the existence of dark matter. Generally, there are two models for dark matter: the hot dark matter (HDM) model and the cold dark matter one (CDM). In this paper we will refer mainly to the cold dark matter model. Two different opinions regarding the nature of dark matter and its contribution to the total mass of the matter in the Universe due to a cosmological constant will be discussed. In the first part some particles candidates for dark matter like neutralino and axions will be considered and their prediction made by supersymmetry theory. In the second part different alternative models will be presented that imply singularities of the gravitational theory; inflationary models; and in particular one model that introduces a new expression in the gravitational potential as an attempt to explain the phenomena that made us believe in the existence of this kind of matter. (authors)

  5. Dark matter: the astrophysical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of dark matter is one of the most urgent problems in cosmology. I describe the astrophysical case for dark matter, from both an observational and a theoretical perspective. This overview will therefore focus on the observational motivations rather than the particle physics aspects of dark matter constraints on specific dark matter candidates. First, however, I summarize the astronomical evidence for dark matter, then I highlight the weaknesses of the standard cold dark matter model (LCDM) to provide a robust explanation of some observations. The greatest weakness in the dark matter saga is that we have not yet identified the nature of dark matter itself

  6. Dark matter, neutrinos, and our solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Nirmala

    2013-01-01

    Dark Matter, Neutrinos, and Our Solar System is a unique enterprise that should be viewed as an important contribution to our understanding of dark matter, neutrinos and the solar system. It describes these issues in terms of links, between cosmology, particle and nuclear physics, as well as between cosmology, atmospheric and terrestrial physics. It studies the constituents of dark matter (classified as hot warm and cold) first in terms of their individual structures (baryonic and non-baryonic, massive and non-massive, interacting and non-interacting) and second, in terms of facilities available to detect these structures (large and small). Neutrinos (an important component of dark matter) are treated as a separate entity. A detailed study of these elusive (sub-atomic) particles is done, from the year 1913 when they were found as byproducts of beta decay -- until the discovery in 2007 which confirmed that neutrino flavors were not more than three (as speculated by some). The last chapter of the book details t...

  7. Phase transitions and dark matter problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1984-10-01

    The possible relationships between phase transitions in the early universe and dark matter problems are discussed. It is shown that there are at least 3 distinct cosmological dark matter problems: (1) halos; (2) galaxy formation and clustering; and (3) Ω = 1, each emphasizing different attributes for the dark matter. At least some of the dark matter must be baryonic but if problems 2 and 3 are real they seem to also require non-baryonic material. However, if seeds are generated at the quark-hardon-chiral symmetry transition then alternatives to the standard scenarios may occur. At present no simple simultaneous solution (neither hot, warm, nor cold) exists for all 3 problems, but non-standard solutions with strings, decaying particles or light not tracing to mass may work. An alternative interpretation of the relationship of the cluster-cluster and galaxy-galaxy correlation functions using renormalized scaling is mentioned. In this interpretation galaxies are more strongly correlated and the cluster-cluster function is not expected to go negative until greater than or equal to 200 Mpc. Possible phase transition origins for the cluster-cluster renormalized scale are presented as ways to obtain a dimension 1.2 fractal. 64 references

  8. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  9. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.

  10. Exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass ∼few GeV and splittings ∼5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.

  11. Accounting for Dark Current Accumulated during Readout of Hubble's ACS/WFC Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, Jenna E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Coe, Dan A.; ACS Team

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the properties of excess dark current accumulated during the 100-second full-frame readout of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detectors. This excess dark current, called "readout dark", gives rise to ambient background gradients and hot columns in each ACS/WFC image. While readout dark signal is removed from science images during the bias correction step in CALACS, the additional noise from the readout dark is currently not taken into account. We develop a method to estimate the readout dark noise properties in ACS/WFC observations. We update the error (ERR) extensions of superbias images to include the appropriate noise from the ambient readout dark gradient and stable hot columns. In recent data, this amounts to about 5 e-/pixel added variance in the rows farthest from the WFC serial registers, and about 7 to 30 e-/pixel added variance along the stable hot columns. We also flag unstable hot columns in the superbias data quality (DQ) extensions. The new reference file pipeline for ACS/WFC implements these updates to our superbias creation process.

  12. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    intergalactic gas," said Jesper Rasmussen of the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom and a coauthor of the report. "What we found is in good agreement with computer simulations in which galaxies are built up gradually from the merger of smaller clouds of hot gas and dark matter." The computer simulations were done by Jesper Sommer-Larsen (also a coauthor of the report) and collaborators at the University of Copenhagen. The paper describing these results will be published in the April issue of the journal New Astronomy. Other researchers on this project were Sune Toft, Yale University; Andrew Benson, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; and Richard Bower, University of Durham, United Kingdom. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  13. Review on Dark Photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available e+e− collider experiments at the intensity frontier are naturally suited to probe the existence of a force beyond the Standard Model between WIMPs, the most viable dark matter candidates. The mediator of this new force, known as dark photon, should be a new vector gauge boson very weakly coupled to the Standard Model photon. No significant signal has been observed so far. I will report on current limits set on the coupling factor ε2 between the photon and the dark photon by e+e− collider experiments.

  14. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    A few days after the terror attacks of 9/11, then Vice President Dick Cheney appeared on television with a call for “working the dark side.” While still unclear what this expression entailed at the time, Cheney's comment appears in retrospect to almost have been prophetic for the years to come....... By analyzing official reports and testimonies from soldiers partaking in the War On Terror, the dissertation's second part—dark arts—focuses on the transformation of the dark side into a productive space in which “information” and the hunt for said information overshadowed all legal, ethical, or political...

  15. Films and dark room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  16. Auschwitz dark tourism -kohteena

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusimäki, Karita

    2015-01-01

    Dark tourism eli synkkä matkailu on matkustamista kohteisiin, jotka liittyvät jollain tavalla kuolemaan, kauhuun, kärsimykseen tai katastrofeihin. Dark tourism on ilmiönä suhteellisen tuore, mutta sen historia juontaa juurensa jo antiikin ajan gladiaattoritaisteluihin. Ilmiötä on tutkittu jonkin verran ja siitä on tehty muutamia opinnäytetöitä. Yksi tunnetuimmista ja eniten vierailluista dark tourism -kohteista on Auschwitzin keskitysleiri. Auschwitz aloitti toimintansa vuonna 1940 ja le...

  17. The high albedo of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demory, B.-O.; Seager, S.; Madhusudhan, N.

    2011-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are expected to be dark from both observations (albedo upper limits) and theory (alkali metals and/or TiO and VO absorption). However, only a handful of hot Jupiters have been observed with high enough photometric precision at visible wavelengths to investigate these expectations....... The NASA Kepler mission provides a means to widen the sample and to assess the extent to which hot Jupiter albedos are low. We present a global analysis of Kepler-7 b based on Q0-Q4 data, published radial velocities, and asteroseismology constraints. We measure an occultation depth in the Kepler bandpass...

  18. Fitting Hidden Markov Models to Psychological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Visser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov models have been used extensively in psychology of learning. Applications of hidden Markov models are rare however. This is partially due to the fact that comprehensive statistics for model selection and model assessment are lacking in the psychological literature. We present model selection and model assessment statistics that are particularly useful in applying hidden Markov models in psychology. These statistics are presented and evaluated by simulation studies for a toy example. We compare AIC, BIC and related criteria and introduce a prediction error measure for assessing goodness-of-fit. In a simulation study, two methods of fitting equality constraints are compared. In two illustrative examples with experimental data we apply selection criteria, fit models with constraints and assess goodness-of-fit. First, data from a concept identification task is analyzed. Hidden Markov models provide a flexible approach to analyzing such data when compared to other modeling methods. Second, a novel application of hidden Markov models in implicit learning is presented. Hidden Markov models are used in this context to quantify knowledge that subjects express in an implicit learning task. This method of analyzing implicit learning data provides a comprehensive approach for addressing important theoretical issues in the field.

  19. Geometric phases and hidden local gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of geometric phases associated with level crossing is reduced to the familiar diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the second quantized formulation. A hidden local gauge symmetry, which is associated with the arbitrariness of the phase choice of a complete orthonormal basis set, becomes explicit in this formulation (in particular, in the adiabatic approximation) and specifies physical observables. The choice of a basis set which specifies the coordinate in the functional space is arbitrary in the second quantization, and a subclass of coordinate transformations, which keeps the form of the action invariant, is recognized as the gauge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this hidden local gauge symmetry in detail by analyzing geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. It is shown that the hidden local symmetry provides a basic concept alternative to the notion of holonomy to analyze geometric phases and that the analysis based on the hidden local gauge symmetry leads to results consistent with the general prescription of Pancharatnam. We however note an important difference between the geometric phases for cyclic and noncyclic evolutions. We also explain a basic difference between our hidden local gauge symmetry and a gauge symmetry (or equivalence class) used by Aharonov and Anandan in their definition of generalized geometric phases

  20. Inflation, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy in the String Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Andrew R; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2006-01-01

    We consider the conditions needed to unify the description of dark matter, dark energy and inflation in the context of the string landscape. We find that incomplete decay of the inflaton field gives the possibility that a single field is responsible for all three phenomena. By contrast, unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single field, separate from the inflaton, appears rather difficult.

  1. Hot tub folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survives in hot tubs, especially tubs made of wood. Symptoms The first symptom of hot tub folliculitis ... may help prevent the problem. Images Hair follicle anatomy References D'Agata E. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other ...

  2. Dark matter and leptogenesis linked by classical scale invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoze, Valentin V.; Plascencia, Alexis D. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-07

    In this work we study a classically scale invariant extension of the Standard Model that can explain simultaneously dark matter and the baryon asymmetry in the universe. In our set-up we introduce a dark sector, namely a non-Abelian SU(2) hidden sector coupled to the SM via the Higgs portal, and a singlet sector responsible for generating Majorana masses for three right-handed sterile neutrinos. The gauge bosons of the dark sector are mass-degenerate and stable, and this makes them suitable as dark matter candidates. Our model also accounts for the matter-anti-matter asymmetry. The lepton flavour asymmetry is produced during CP-violating oscillations of the GeV-scale right-handed neutrinos, and converted to the baryon asymmetry by the electroweak sphalerons. All the characteristic scales in the model: the electro-weak, dark matter and the leptogenesis/neutrino mass scales, are generated radiatively, have a common origin and related to each other via scalar field couplings in perturbation theory.

  3. Evolution of hot galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, M.; Mathews, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    The time-dependent equations describing galactic flows, including detailed models for the evolving source terms, are integrated over a Hubble time for two elliptical galaxies with total masses of 3.1 x 10 to the 12th and 8.3 x 10 to the 12th solar masses, 90 percent of which resides in extended, nonluminous halos. The standard supernova rate of Tammann and a rate 4 times smaller are considered for each galaxy model. The combination of the extended gravitational potential of the dark halo and the time-dependent source terms generally lead to the development of massive, quasi-hydrostatic, nearly isothermal distributions of gas at about 10 to the 7th K with cooling inflows inside their galactic cores. For the less massive galaxy with the higher supernova rate, however, a low-luminosity supersonic galactic wind develops. The effects of a lowered metal abundance, thermal conduction, and the absence of a massive halo are explored separately for one of the present models. The X-ray luminosities of the hot gas in the models with dark halos and the lower supernova rate are in good agreement with Einstein observations of early-type galaxies. 42 references

  4. Little composite dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T -parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T -parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling [Formula: see text], thus evading direct detection.

  5. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  6. Dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.

    2003-01-01

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  7. Baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    Many searches for baryonic dark matter have been conducted but, so far, all have been unsuccessful. Indeed, no more than 1% of the dark matter can be in the form of hydrogen burning stars. It has recently been suggested that most of the baryons in the universe are still in the form of ionized gas so that it is possible that there is no baryonic dark matter. Although it is likely that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way is in a halo of non-baryonic matter, the data do not exclude the possibility that a considerable amount, perhaps most of it, could be in a tenuous halo of diffuse ionized gas

  8. Lectures on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, U.

    2001-01-01

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  9. Lectures on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljak, U [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  10. Dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R [Dipto. di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' and INFN, sez. Roma2, Rome (Italy)

    2003-08-15

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  11. NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Dark matter and normal matter have been wrenched apart by the tremendous collision of two large clusters of galaxies. The discovery, using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes, gives direct evidence for the existence of dark matter. "This is the most energetic cosmic event, besides the Big Bang, which we know about," said team member Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. Lensing Illustration Gravitational Lensing Explanation These observations provide the strongest evidence yet that most of the matter in the universe is dark. Despite considerable evidence for dark matter, some scientists have proposed alternative theories for gravity where it is stronger on intergalactic scales than predicted by Newton and Einstein, removing the need for dark matter. However, such theories cannot explain the observed effects of this collision. "A universe that's dominated by dark stuff seems preposterous, so we wanted to test whether there were any basic flaws in our thinking," said Doug Clowe of the University of Arizona at Tucson, and leader of the study. "These results are direct proof that dark matter exists." Animation of Cluster Collision Animation of Cluster Collision In galaxy clusters, the normal matter, like the atoms that make up the stars, planets, and everything on Earth, is primarily in the form of hot gas and stars. The mass of the hot gas between the galaxies is far greater than the mass of the stars in all of the galaxies. This normal matter is bound in the cluster by the gravity of an even greater mass of dark matter. Without dark matter, which is invisible and can only be detected through its gravity, the fast-moving galaxies and the hot gas would quickly fly apart. The team was granted more than 100 hours on the Chandra telescope to observe the galaxy cluster 1E0657-56. The cluster is also known as the bullet cluster, because it contains a spectacular bullet-shaped cloud of hundred

  12. Religious Tolerance in the Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Nobel Kurniawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Religious intolerance is spreading within the Indonesian institution of education. Previous studies have shown that the growth of intolerance is due to the state’s regulation and pedagogical apparatus. In contrast to the previous studies, I argue that the intolerance is related to hidden curriculum applied by the institution of education.  Normatively, the hidden curriculum contains the value of religious tolerance. However, factually, the author found that there are practices of intolerance, through the formal and informal spheres in the school’s structure, within the hidden curriculum. This article applies a qualitative approach with a mixed method research strategy to analyze data collected from students, teachers, and alumnis through field observation, in-depth interview, and survey.

  13. Gravity's dark side: Doing without dark matte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of searching, the 'dark matter' thought to hold galaxies together is still nowhere to be found. Matthew Chalmers describes how some physicists think it makes more sense to change our theory of gravity instead. Einstein's general theory of relativity is part of the bedrock of modern physics. It describes in elegant mathematical terms how matter causes space-time to curve, and therefore how objects move in a gravitational field. Since it was published in 1916, general relativity has passed every test asked of it with flying colours, and to many physicists the notion that it is wrong is sacrilege. But the motivation for developing an alternative theory of gravity is compelling. Over the last few years cosmologists have arrived at a simple yet extraordinarily successful model of universe. The trouble is that it requires most of the cosmos to be filled with mysterious stuff that we cannot see. In particular, general relativity - or rather its non-relativistic limit otherwise known as Newtonian gravity - can only correctly describe the dynamics of galaxies if we invoke huge quantities of 'dark matter'. Furthermore, an exotic entity called dark energy is necessary to account for the recent discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Indeed, in the standard model of cosmology, visible matter such as stars, planets and physics textbooks accounts for just 4% of the total universe. (U.K.)

  14. Modelling Hot Air Balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimicombe, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)

  15. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  16. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  17. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  18. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for open-quotes new physics.close quotes The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10 -6 --10 -4 eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs

  19. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ''new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10 -6 eV--10 -4 eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos

  20. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  1. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  2. The origin of the hidden supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubsky, Vit; Nieto, Luis-Miguel; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

    2010-01-01

    The hidden supersymmetry and related tri-supersymmetric structure of the free particle system, the Dirac delta potential problem and the Aharonov-Bohm effect (planar, bound state, and tubule models) are explained by a special nonlocal unitary transformation, which for the usual N=2 supercharges has a nature of Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We show that in general case, the bosonized supersymmetry of nonlocal, parity even systems emerges in the same construction, and explain the origin of the unusual N=2 supersymmetry of electron in three-dimensional parity even magnetic field. The observation extends to include the hidden superconformal symmetry.

  3. Signatures of a hidden cosmic microwave background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2008-09-26

    If there is a light Abelian gauge boson gamma' in the hidden sector its kinetic mixing with the photon can produce a hidden cosmic microwave background (HCMB). For meV masses, resonant oscillations gammagamma' happen after big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) but before CMB decoupling, increasing the effective number of neutrinos Nnu(eff) and the baryon to photon ratio, and distorting the CMB blackbody spectrum. The agreement between BBN and CMB data provides new constraints. However, including Lyman-alpha data, Nnu(eff) > 3 is preferred. It is tempting to attribute this effect to the HCMB. The interesting parameter range will be tested in upcoming laboratory experiments.

  4. Hidden simplicity of gauge theory amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J M, E-mail: drummond@lapp.in2p3.f [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux, Cedex (France)

    2010-11-07

    These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.

  5. The hot big bang and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Departments of Physics and of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)]|[NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The hot big-bang cosmology provides a reliable accounting of the Universe from about 10{sup {minus}2} sec after the bang until the present, as well as a robust framework for speculating back to times as early as 10{sup {minus}43} sec. Cosmology faces a number of important challenges; foremost among them are determining the quantity and composition of matter in the Universe and developing a detailed and coherent picture of how structure (galaxies, clusters of galaxies, superclusters, voids, great walls, and so on) developed. At present there is a working hypothesis{emdash}cold dark matter{emdash}which is based upon inflation and which, if correct, would extend the big bang model back to 10{sup {minus}32} sec and cast important light on the unification of the forces. Many experiments and observations, from CBR anisotropy experiments to Hubble Space Telescope observations to experiments at Fermilab and CERN, are now putting the cold dark matter theory to the test. At present it appears that the theory is viable only if the Hubble constant is smaller than current measurements indicate (around 30 km s{sup {minus}1} Mpc{sup {minus}1}), or if the theory is modified slightly, e.g., by the addition of a cosmological constant, a small admixture of hot dark matter (5 eV {open_quote}{open_quote}worth of neutrinos{close_quote}{close_quote}), more relativistic particle or a tilted spectrum of density perturbations.

  6. Dark Tourism and Destination Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the dark tourism and destination marketing. The aim of the thesis is to display how these two terms can be combined. The term dark tourism is a relatively new research area; therefore the thesis will provide an outlook of the current situation of dark tourism. It starts with the beginning of dark tourism and continuous to the managerial aspects of dark tourism sites. The second part of the theoretical background is about destination marketing. It provides an overvie...

  7. Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  8. Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Montina, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of a single realization is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with the quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria ...

  9. Extra U(1), effective operators, anomalies and dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Mambrini, Yann; Zaldivar, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A general analysis is performed on the dimension-six operators mixing an almost hidden Z' to the Standard Model (SM), when the Z' communicates with the SM via heavy mediators. These are fermions charged under both Z' and the SM, while all SM fermions are neutral under Z'. We classify the operators as a function of the gauge anomalies behaviour of mediators and explicitly compute the dimension-six operators coupling Z' to gluons, generated at one-loop by chiral but anomaly-free, sets of fermion mediators. We prove that only one operator contribute to the couplings between Z' charged matter and on-shell gluons. We then make a complete phenomenological analysis of the scenario where the lightest fermion charged under Z' is the dark matter candidate. Combining results from WMAP/PLANCK data, mono-jet searches at LHC, and direct/indirect dark matter detections restrict considerably the allowed parameter space.

  10. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover com...

  11. The Hidden Cost of Buying a Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    1983-01-01

    In order to process data in a computer, application software must be either developed or purchased. Costs for modifications of the software package and maintenance are often hidden. The decision to buy or develop software packages should be based upon factors of time and maintenance. (MLF)

  12. Hidden symmetries in five-dimensional supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poessel, M.

    2003-05-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of hidden symmetries in supergravity, which play an important role in the present picture of supergravity and string theory. Concretely, the appearance of a hidden G 2(+2) /SO(4) symmetry is studied in the dimensional reduction of d=5, N=2 supergravity to three dimensions - a parallel model to the more famous E 8(+8) /SO(16) case in eleven-dimensional supergravity. Extending previous partial results for the bosonic part, I give a derivation that includes fermionic terms. This sheds new light on the appearance of the local hidden symmetry SO(4) in the reduction, and shows up an unusual feature which follows from an analysis of the R-symmetry associated with N=4 supergravity and of the supersymmetry variations, and which has no parallel in the eleven-dimensional case: The emergence of an additional SO(3) as part of the enhanced local symmetry, invisible in the dimensional reduction of the gravitino, and corresponding to the fact that, of the SO(4) used in the coset model, only the diagonal SO(3) is visible immediately upon dimensional reduction. The uncovering of the hidden symmetries proceeds via the construction of the proper coset gravity in three dimensions, and matching it with the Lagrangian obtained from the reduction. (orig.)

  13. Hidden Markov models for labeled sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1994-01-01

    A hidden Markov model for labeled observations, called a class HMM, is introduced and a maximum likelihood method is developed for estimating the parameters of the model. Instead of training it to model the statistics of the training sequences it is trained to optimize recognition. It resembles MMI...

  14. Unified dark energy and dust dark matter dual to quadratic purely kinetic K-essence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo; Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    We consider a modified gravity plus single scalar-field model, where the scalar Lagrangian couples symmetrically both to the standard Riemannian volume-form (spacetime integration measure density) given by the square root of the determinant of the Riemannian metric, as well as to another non-Riemannian volume-form in terms of an auxiliary maximal-rank antisymmetric tensor gauge field. As shown in a previous paper, the pertinent scalar-field dynamics provides an exact unified description of both dark energy via dynamical generation of a cosmological constant, and dark matter as a ''dust'' fluid with geodesic flow as a result of a hidden Noether symmetry. Here we extend the discussion by considering a non-trivial modification of the purely gravitational action in the form of f(R) = R -αR 2 generalized gravity. Upon deriving the corresponding ''Einstein-frame'' effective action of the latter modified gravity-scalar-field theory we find explicit duality (in the sense of weak versus strong coupling) between the original model of unified dynamical dark energy and dust fluid dark matter, on one hand, and a specific quadratic purely kinetic ''k-essence'' gravity-matter model with special dependence of its coupling constants on only two independent parameters, on the other hand. The canonical Hamiltonian treatment and Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of the dual purely kinetic ''k-essence'' gravity-matter model is also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  15. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  16. Stable dark energy stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2006-01-01

    The gravastar picture is an alternative model to the concept of a black hole, where there is an effective phase transition at or near where the event horizon is expected to form, and the interior is replaced by a de Sitter condensate. In this work a generalization of the gravastar picture is explored by considering matching of an interior solution governed by the dark energy equation of state, ω ≡ p/ρ < -1/3, to an exterior Schwarzschild vacuum solution at a junction interface. The motivation for implementing this generalization arises from the fact that recent observations have confirmed an accelerated cosmic expansion, for which dark energy is a possible candidate. Several relativistic dark energy stellar configurations are analysed by imposing specific choices for the mass function. The first case considered is that of a constant energy density, and the second choice that of a monotonic decreasing energy density in the star's interior. The dynamical stability of the transition layer of these dark energy stars to linearized spherically symmetric radial perturbations about static equilibrium solutions is also explored. It is found that large stability regions exist that are sufficiently close to where the event horizon is expected to form, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of the dark energy stars, analysed in this work, from an astrophysical black hole

  17. Levitating dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloper, Nemanja [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Padilla, Antonio, E-mail: kaloper@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: antonio.padilla@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra 'antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < −1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger 'Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  18. Levitating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < -1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger `Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  19. Dark matter detection - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  20. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  1. Revival of the unified dark energy-dark matter model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Sen, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and show that it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantomlike dark energy is excluded. Within this framework, we study structure formation and show that difficulties associated to unphysical oscillations or blowup in the matter power spectrum can be circumvented. Furthermore, we show that the dominance of dark energy is related to the time when energy density fluctuations start deviating from the linear δ∼a behavior

  2. Dark matter as a weakly coupled dark baryon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitridate, Andrea; Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri; Strumia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Dark Matter might be an accidentally stable baryon of a new confining gauge interaction. We extend previous studies exploring the possibility that the DM is made of dark quarks heavier than the dark confinement scale. The resulting phenomenology contains new unusual elements: a two-stage DM cosmology (freeze-out followed by dark condensation), a large DM annihilation cross section through recombination of dark quarks (allowing to fit the positron excess). Light dark glue-balls are relatively long lived and give extra cosmological effects; DM itself can remain radioactive.

  3. Hidden gauginos of an unbroken U(1): Cosmological constraints and phenomenological prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ringwald, A.; Weniger, C. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    We study supersymmetric scenarios where the dark matter is the gaugino of an unbroken hidden U(1) which interacts with the visible world only via a small kinetic mixing with the hypercharge. Strong constraints on the parameter space can be derived from avoiding overclosure of the Universe and from requiring successful Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and structure formation. We find that for typical values of the mixing parameter, scenarios with neutralino NLSP are excluded, while scenarios with slepton NLSP are allowed when the mixing parameter lies in the range {chi} {proportional_to}O(10{sup -13}-10{sup -10}). We also show that if the gravitino is the LSP and the hidden U(1) gaugino the NLSP, the bounds on the reheating temperature from long lived charged MSSM relics can be considerably relaxed and we comment on the signatures of these scenarios at future colliders. Finally, we discuss the case of an anomalously small mixing, {chi} <<10{sup -16}, where the neutralino becomes a decaying dark matter candidate, and derive constraints from gamma ray experiments. (orig.)

  4. THE MAGIC OF DARK TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dark tourism is a form of tourism that is not unanimously accepted by the whole society, but in spite of this fact, the practitioners of dark tourism is a viable segment. Indeed the concept that defines dark tourism is none other than death, and perhaps this is why it will always be a segment that will not be attracted by this form of tourism. Many questions about dark tourism arise. Among them: (1 is dark tourism an area of science attractive for researches? (2 which is the typology of dark tourism? (3 what are the motivating factors that determine practicing dark tourism? This paper provides a detailed analysis of publication behaviour in the field of dark tourism. The article also includes the main results obtained by achieving a quantitative marketing research among students of Sfantu Gheorghe University Extension in order to know their opinion, attitude towards dark tourism.

  5. Condensate cosmology: Dark energy from dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Ungarelli, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Imagine a scenario in which the dark energy forms via the condensation of dark matter at some low redshift. The Compton wavelength therefore changes from small to very large at the transition, unlike quintessence or metamorphosis. We study cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure, supernova and radio galaxy constraints on condensation by performing a four parameter likelihood analysis over the Hubble constant and the three parameters associated with Q, the condensate field: Ω Q , w f and z t (energy density and equation of state today, and redshift of transition). Condensation roughly interpolates between ΛCDM (for large z t ) and SCDM (low z t ) and provides a slightly better fit to the data than ΛCDM. We confirm that there is no degeneracy in the CMB between H and z t and discuss the implications of late-time transitions for the Lyman-α forest. Finally we discuss the nonlinear phase of both condensation and metamorphosis, which is much more interesting than in standard quintessence models

  6. Asymmetric Higgsino dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Efrati, Aielet; Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Riotto, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In the supersymmetric framework, prior to the electroweak phase transition, the existence of a baryon asymmetry implies the existence of a Higgsino asymmetry. We investigate whether the Higgsino could be a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Thus, supersymmetry can provide the observed dark matter abundance and, furthermore, relate it with the baryon asymmetry, in which case the puzzle of why the baryonic and dark matter mass densities are similar would be explained. To accomplish this task, two conditions are required. First, the gauginos, squarks, and sleptons must all be very heavy, such that the only electroweak-scale superpartners are the Higgsinos. With this spectrum, supersymmetry does not solve the fine-tuning problem. Second, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition must be low, in the (1-10) GeV range. This condition requires an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  7. Nearly Supersymmetric Dark Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Jankowiak, Martin; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Rube, Tomas; /Stanford U., ITP; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-12

    Theories of dark matter that support bound states are an intriguing possibility for the identity of the missing mass of the Universe. This article proposes a class of models of supersymmetric composite dark matter where the interactions with the Standard Model communicate supersymmetry breaking to the dark sector. In these models supersymmetry breaking can be treated as a perturbation on the spectrum of bound states. Using a general formalism, the spectrum with leading supersymmetry effects is computed without specifying the details of the binding dynamics. The interactions of the composite states with the Standard Model are computed and several benchmark models are described. General features of non-relativistic supersymmetric bound states are emphasized.

  8. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  9. Dark Energy. What the ...?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, Risa

    2007-10-30

    What is the Universe made of? This question has been asked as long as humans have been questioning, and astronomers and physicists are finally converging on an answer. The picture which has emerged from numerous complementary observations over the past decade is a surprising one: most of the matter in the Universe isn't visible, and most of the Universe isn't even made of matter. In this talk, I will explain what the rest of this stuff, known as 'Dark Energy' is, how it is related to the so-called 'Dark Matter', how it impacts the evolution of the Universe, and how we can study the dark universe using observations of light from current and future telescopes.

  10. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Dark-Skies Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  12. Black hole genesis of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Olivier; March-Russell, John; Petrossian-Byrne, Rudin; Tillim, Hannah

    2018-04-01

    We present a purely gravitational infra-red-calculable production mechanism for dark matter (DM) . The source of both the DM relic abundance and the hot Standard Model (SM) plasma is a primordial density of micro black holes (BHs), which evaporate via Hawking emission into both the dark and SM sectors. The mechanism has four qualitatively different regimes depending upon whether the BH evaporation is 'fast' or 'slow' relative to the initial Hubble rate, and whether the mass of the DM particle is 'light' or 'heavy' compared to the initial BH temperature. For each of these regimes we calculate the DM yield, Y, as a function of the initial state and DM mass and spin. In the 'slow' regime Y depends on only the initial BH mass over a wide range of initial conditions, including scenarios where the BHs are a small fraction of the initial energy density. The DM is produced with a highly non-thermal energy spectrum, leading in the 'light' DM mass regime (~260 eV and above depending on DM spin) to a strong constraint from free-streaming, but also possible observational signatures in structure formation in the spin 3/2 and 2 cases. The 'heavy' regime (~1.2 × 108 GeV to MPl depending on spin) is free of these constraints and provides new possibilities for DM detection. In all cases there is a dark radiation component predicted.

  13. Braneworlds and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Rui; Vaz, Cenalo

    2006-01-01

    In the Randall-Sundrum scenario, we analyse the dynamics of an AdS 5 braneworld when conformal matter fields propagate in five dimensions. We show that conformal fields of weight -4 are associated with stable geometries which describe the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust, generalized dark radiation and homogeneous polytropic dark energy on a spherically symmetric 3-brane embedded in the compact AdS 5 orbifold. We discuss aspects of the radion stability conditions and of the localization of gravity in the vicinity of the brane

  14. Cosmology and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This lecture course covers cosmology from the particle physicist perspective. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the evidence for the new physics in cosmological and astrophysical data together with minimal theoretical frameworks needed to understand and appreciate the evidence. I review the case for non-baryonic dark matter and describe popular models which incorporate it. In parallel, the story of dark energy will be developed, which includes accelerated expansion of the Universe today, the Universe origin in the Big Bang, and support for the Inflationary theory in CMBR data.

  15. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  16. Dark matter and its detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xiaojun; Qin Bo

    2011-01-01

    We first explain the concept of dark matter,then review the history of its discovery and the evidence of its existence. We describe our understanding of the nature of dark matter particles, the popular dark matter models,and why the weakly interacting massive particles (called WIMPs) are the most attractive candidates for dark matter. Then we introduce the three methods of dark matter detection: colliders, direct detection and indirect detection. Finally, we review the recent development of dark matter detection, including the new results from DAMA, CoGent, PAMELA, ATIC and Fermi. (authors)

  17. Dark Gauge U(1) symmetry for an alternative left-right model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownacki, Corey; Ma, Ernest; Pollard, Nicholas; Popov, Oleg; Zakeri, Mohammadreza

    2018-02-01

    An alternative left-right model of quarks and leptons, where the SU(2)_R lepton doublet (ν ,l)_R is replaced with (n,l)_R so that n_R is not the Dirac mass partner of ν _L, has been known since 1987. Previous versions assumed a global U(1)_S symmetry to allow n to be identified as a dark-matter fermion. We propose here a gauge extension by the addition of extra fermions to render the model free of gauge anomalies, and just one singlet scalar to break U(1)_S. This results in two layers of dark matter, one hidden behind the other.

  18. Hot Surface Ignition

    OpenAIRE

    Tursyn, Yerbatyr; Goyal, Vikrant; Benhidjeb-Carayon, Alicia; Simmons, Richard; Meyer, Scott; Gore, Jay P.

    2015-01-01

    Undesirable hot surface ignition of flammable liquids is one of the hazards in ground and air transportation vehicles, which primarily occurs in the engine compartment. In order to evaluate the safety and sustainability of candidate replacement fuels with respect to hot surface ignition, a baseline low lead fuel (Avgas 100 LL) and four experimental unleaded aviation fuels recommended for reciprocating aviation engines were considered. In addition, hot surface ignition properties of the gas tu...

  19. Dark matter and dark energy: The critical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael S. Turner

    2002-01-01

    Stars account for only about 0.5% of the content of the Universe; the bulk of the Universe is optically dark. The dark side of the Universe is comprised of: at least 0.1% light neutrinos; 3.5% ± 1% baryons; 29% ± 4% cold dark matter; and 66% ± 6% dark energy. Now that we have characterized the dark side of the Universe, the challenge is to understand it. The critical questions are: (1) What form do the dark baryons take? (2) What is (are) the constituent(s) of the cold dark matter? (3) What is the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is causing the Universe to speed up

  20. Dark energy and dark matter in galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the dark matter is coupled through its mass to a scalar field associated with the dark energy of the Universe. In order for such a field to play a role at the present cosmological distances, it must be effectively massless at galactic length scales. We discuss the effect of the field on the distribution of dark matter in galaxy halos. We show that the profile of the distribution outside the galaxy core remains largely unaffected and the approximately flat rotation curves persist. The dispersion of the dark matter velocity is enhanced by a potentially large factor relative to the case of zero coupling between dark energy and dark matter. The counting rates in terrestrial dark matter detectors are similarly enhanced. Existing bounds on the properties of dark matter candidates can be extended to the coupled case, by taking into account the enhancement factor

  1. Spin precession experiments for light axionic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter W.; Kaplan, David E.; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Terrano, William A.; Trahms, Lutz; Wilkason, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Axionlike particles are promising candidates to make up the dark matter of the Universe, but it is challenging to design experiments that can detect them over their entire allowed mass range. Dark matter in general, and, in particular, axionlike particles and hidden photons, can be as light as roughly 10-22 eV (˜10-8 Hz ), with astrophysical anomalies providing motivation for the lightest masses ("fuzzy dark matter"). We propose experimental techniques for direct detection of axionlike dark matter in the mass range from roughly 10-13 eV (˜102 Hz ) down to the lowest possible masses. In this range, these axionlike particles act as a time-oscillating magnetic field coupling only to spin, inducing effects such as a time-oscillating torque and periodic variations in the spin-precession frequency with the frequency and direction of these effects set by the axion field. We describe how these signals can be measured using existing experimental technology, including torsion pendulums, atomic magnetometers, and atom interferometry. These experiments demonstrate a strong discovery capability, with future iterations of these experiments capable of pushing several orders of magnitude past current astrophysical bounds.

  2. Unified Description of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Dark energy in the universe is assumed to be vacuum energy. The energy-momentum of vacuum is described by a scale-dependent cosmological constant. The equations of motion imply for the density of matter (dust) the sum of the usual matter density (luminous matter) and an additional matter density (dark matter) similar to the dark energy. The scale-dependent cosmological constant is given up to an exponent which is approximated by the experimentally decided density parameters of dark matter and...

  3. Supplying Dark Energy from Scalar Field Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that dark matter and dark energy consists of ultra-light self-interacting scalar particles. It is found that the Klein-Gordon equation with only two free parameters (mass and self-coupling) on a Schwarzschild background, at the galactic length-scales has the solution which corresponds to Bose-Einstein condensate, behaving as dark matter, while the constant solution at supra-galactic scales can explain dark energy.

  4. Dark energy and dark matter from primordial QGP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Vaishali, E-mail: vaidvavaishali24@gmail.com; Upadhyaya, G. K., E-mail: gopalujiain@yahoo.co.in [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University Ujjain (India)

    2015-07-31

    Coloured relics servived after hadronization might have given birth to dark matter and dark energy. Theoretical ideas to solve mystery of cosmic acceleration, its origin and its status with reference to recent past are of much interest and are being proposed by many workers. In the present paper, we present a critical review of work done to understand the earliest appearance of dark matter and dark energy in the scenario of primordial quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase after Big Bang.

  5. Hidden benefits of electric vehicles for addressing climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Canbing; Cao, Yijia; Zhang, Mi; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Jianguo; Shi, Haiqing; Geng, Yinghui

    2015-03-19

    There is an increasingly hot debate on whether the replacement of conventional vehicles (CVs) by electric vehicles (EVs) should be delayed or accelerated since EVs require higher cost and cause more pollution than CVs in the manufacturing process. Here we reveal two hidden benefits of EVs for addressing climate change to support the imperative acceleration of replacing CVs with EVs. As EVs emit much less heat than CVs within the same mileage, the replacement can mitigate urban heat island effect (UHIE) to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioners, benefitting local and global climates. To demonstrate these effects brought by the replacement of CVs by EVs, we take Beijing, China, as an example. EVs emit only 19.8% of the total heat emitted by CVs per mile. The replacement of CVs by EVs in 2012 could have mitigated the summer heat island intensity (HII) by about 0.94°C, reduced the amount of electricity consumed daily by air conditioners in buildings by 14.44 million kilowatt-hours (kWh), and reduced daily CO2 emissions by 10,686 tonnes.

  6. Testing the Bose-Einstein Condensate dark matter model at galactic cluster scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Pengxiang; Liang, Shi-Dong; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The possibility that dark matter may be in the form of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) has been extensively explored at galactic scale. In particular, good fits for the galactic rotations curves have been obtained, and upper limits for the dark matter particle mass and scattering length have been estimated. In the present paper we extend the investigation of the properties of the BEC dark matter to the galactic cluster scale, involving dark matter dominated astrophysical systems formed of thousands of galaxies each. By considering that one of the major components of a galactic cluster, the intra-cluster hot gas, is described by King's β-model, and that both intra-cluster gas and dark matter are in hydrostatic equilibrium, bound by the same total mass profile, we derive the mass and density profiles of the BEC dark matter. In our analysis we consider several theoretical models, corresponding to isothermal hot gas and zero temperature BEC dark matter, non-isothermal gas and zero temperature dark matter, and isothermal gas and finite temperature BEC, respectively. The properties of the finite temperature BEC dark matter cluster are investigated in detail numerically. We compare our theoretical results with the observational data of 106 galactic clusters. Using a least-squares fitting, as well as the observational results for the dark matter self-interaction cross section, we obtain some upper bounds for the mass and scattering length of the dark matter particle. Our results suggest that the mass of the dark matter particle is of the order of μ eV, while the scattering length has values in the range of 10 −7 fm

  7. Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+): [CII] Detection of Warm "Dark Gas" in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J.; Goldsmith, P.; Li, D.; Yorke, H. W.

    2011-11-01

    The Herschel HIFI Key Program, Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+) is a survey of [CII] 1.9 THz emission throughout the Galaxy. Comparison of the first results of this survey with HI and CO isotopomer emission reveals excess [CII] emission beyond that expected from HI and CO layers alone, and is best explained as coming from a hidden layer of H2 gas, the so-called ISM "dark gas".

  8. Where Light Meets Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 (close-up) This panoramic camera image of the soil target whimsically called 'Neopolitan' from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's 'Eagle Crater' soil survey highlights the border between two different soil types - a lighter, finer-grained unit to the left and a darker, coarser-grained to the right. Scientists are pondering the unusually distinct border between these different soil types. To the lower left and partially hidden by the shadow of the mast is an airbag bounce mark.

  9. Dark influences: imprints of dark satellites on dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkenburg, T. K.; Helmi, A.

    Context. In the context of the current Λ cold dark matter cosmological model small dark matter halos are abundant and satellites of dwarf galaxies are expected to be predominantly dark. Since low mass galaxies have smaller baryon fractions, interactions with these satellites may leave particularly

  10. Vector Higgs-portal dark matter and the invisible Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann

    2011-11-01

    The Higgs sector of the Standard Model offers a unique probe of the hidden sector. In this work, we explore the possibility of renormalizable Higgs couplings to the hidden sector vector fields which can constitute dark matter (DM). Abelian gauge sectors with minimal field content, necessary to render the gauge fields massive, have a natural Z 2 parity. This symmetry ensures stability of the vector fields making them viable dark matter candidates, while evading the usual electroweak constraints. We illustrate this idea with the Stueckelberg and Higgs mechanisms. Vector DM is consistent with the WMAP, XENON100, and LHC constraints, while it can affect significantly the invisible Higgs decay. Due to the enhanced branching ratio for the Higgs decay into the longitudinal components of the vector field, the vector Higgs portal provides an efficient way to hide the Higgs at the LHC. This could be the reason why the latest combined ATLAS/CMS data did not bring evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson. (orig.)

  11. "Dark matter" worlds of unstable RNA and protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboo, Sabyasachi; Cook, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Astrophysicists use the term "dark matter" to describe the majority of the matter and/or energy in the universe that is hidden from view, and biologists now apply it to the new families of RNA they are uncovering. We review evidence for an analogous hidden world containing peptides. The critical experiments involved pulse-labeling human cells with tagged amino acids for periods as short as five seconds. Results are extraordinary in two respects: both nucleus and cytoplasm become labeled, and most signals disappear with a half-life of less than one minute. Just as the synthesis of each mature mRNA is regulated by the abortive production of hundreds of shorter transcripts that are quickly degraded, it seems that the synthesis of each full-length protein in the stable proteome is regulated by an apparently wasteful production and degradation of shorter peptides. Some of the nuclear synthesis is probably a byproduct of nuclear ribosomes proofreading newly-made RNA for inappropriately-placed termination codons (a process that triggers "nonsense-mediated decay"). We speculate that some "dark-matter" peptides will play other important roles in the cell.

  12. Dark matter” worlds of unstable RNA and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baboo, Sabyasachi; Cook, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Astrophysicists use the term “dark matter” to describe the majority of the matter and/or energy in the universe that is hidden from view, and biologists now apply it to the new families of RNA they are uncovering. We review evidence for an analogous hidden world containing peptides. The critical experiments involved pulse-labeling human cells with tagged amino acids for periods as short as five seconds. Results are extraordinary in two respects: both nucleus and cytoplasm become labeled, and most signals disappear with a half-life of less than one minute. Just as the synthesis of each mature mRNA is regulated by the abortive production of hundreds of shorter transcripts that are quickly degraded, it seems that the synthesis of each full-length protein in the stable proteome is regulated by an apparently wasteful production and degradation of shorter peptides. Some of the nuclear synthesis is probably a byproduct of nuclear ribosomes proofreading newly-made RNA for inappropriately-placed termination codons (a process that triggers “nonsense-mediated decay”). We speculate that some “dark-matter” peptides will play other important roles in the cell. PMID:25482115

  13. Vector Higgs-portal dark matter and the invisible Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Oleg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Lee, Hyun Min [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Mambrini, Yann [Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique

    2011-11-15

    The Higgs sector of the Standard Model offers a unique probe of the hidden sector. In this work, we explore the possibility of renormalizable Higgs couplings to the hidden sector vector fields which can constitute dark matter (DM). Abelian gauge sectors with minimal field content, necessary to render the gauge fields massive, have a natural Z{sub 2} parity. This symmetry ensures stability of the vector fields making them viable dark matter candidates, while evading the usual electroweak constraints. We illustrate this idea with the Stueckelberg and Higgs mechanisms. Vector DM is consistent with the WMAP, XENON100, and LHC constraints, while it can affect significantly the invisible Higgs decay. Due to the enhanced branching ratio for the Higgs decay into the longitudinal components of the vector field, the vector Higgs portal provides an efficient way to hide the Higgs at the LHC. This could be the reason why the latest combined ATLAS/CMS data did not bring evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson. (orig.)

  14. Vector Higgs portal dark matter and the invisible Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann

    2012-01-01

    The Higgs sector of the Standard Model offers a unique probe of the hidden sector. In this work, we explore the possibility of renormalizable Higgs couplings to the hidden sector vector fields which can constitute dark matter (DM). Abelian gauge sectors with minimal field content, necessary to render the gauge fields massive, have a natural Z 2 parity. This symmetry ensures stability of the vector fields making them viable dark matter candidates, while evading the usual electroweak constraints. We illustrate this idea with the Stückelberg and Higgs mechanisms. Vector DM is consistent with the WMAP, XENON100, and LHC constraints, while it can affect significantly the invisible Higgs decay. Due to the enhanced branching ratio for the Higgs decay into the longitudinal components of the vector field, the vector Higgs portal provides an efficient way to hide the Higgs at the LHC. This could be the reason why the latest combined ATLAS/CMS data did not bring evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson.

  15. Dark clouds in particle physics and cosmology: the issues of dark matter and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinmin

    2011-01-01

    Unveiling the nature of dark matter and dark energy is one of the main tasks of particle physics and cosmology in the 21st century. We first present an overview of the history and current status of research in cosmology, at the same time emphasizing the new challenges in particle physics. Then we focus on the scientific issues of dark energy, dark matter and anti-matter, and review the recent progress made in these fields. Finally, we discuss the prospects for future research on the experimental probing of dark matter and dark energy in China. (authors)

  16. Little composite dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ _{ {DM}}˜ O(1%), thus evading direct detection.

  17. with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-16

    Nov 16, 2012 ... November 2012 physics pp. 1271–1274. Radiative see-saw formula in ... on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings. ... as such, high-energy accelerators cannot directly test the underlying origin of ...

  18. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  19. Simplified Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Morgante, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    I review the construction of Simplified Models for Dark Matter searches. After discussing the philosophy and some simple examples, I turn the attention to the aspect of the theoretical consistency and to the implications of the necessary extensions of these models.

  20. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  1. Little composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Reuven; Weiler, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, First Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Perez, Gilad [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ{sub DM} ∝ O(1%), thus evading direct detection. (orig.)

  2. Dark matter axions '96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses why axions have been postulated to exist, what cosmology implies about their presence as cold dark matter in the galactic halo, how axions might be detected in cavities wherein strong magnetic fields stimulate their conversion into photons, and relations between axions' energy spectra and galactic halos' properties

  3. Composite Dark Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H is contained in G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g D and the scale f D of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2) x U(1)] and [SU(2) 2 x U(1)]/[SU(2) x U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  4. Neutrinos and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-01

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  5. Neutrinos and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-15

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  6. Non-baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkes, I.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the nature of the dark matter and the possibility of the detection of non-baryonic dark matter in an underground experiment. Among the useful detectors the low temperature bolometers are considered in some detail. (author)

  7. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  8. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.

    2007-11-01

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses -7 times the electron electric charge. This is the best laboratory bound and comparable to bounds inferred from the energy spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. (orig.)

  9. Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).

  10. Hidden Costs and the Role of Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2013-01-01

    that the inability to effectively estimate the costs of implementing an activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred as operations are likely to be disrupted by opportunity costs and managerial responses. However, this relationship......This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued...... is mitigated by the degree of modularity in the activity as it reduces the need for costly coordination in offshoring. This paper contributes to research on offshoring and strategic decision-making by emphasizing the importance of organizational design and of estimating the costs of internal organizational...

  11. Welcome to the dark side

    CERN Multimedia

    Hogan, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists says that 96% of the Universe is unseen, and appeal tot he ideas of "dark matter" and "dark energy" to make up the difference. In the first of two articles, jeanny hogan reports that attempts to identify the mysterious dark matter are on the verge of success. In the second, Geoff Brumfiel asks why dark energy, hailed as a breakthrough when discovered a decade ago, is proving more frustrating than ever tot he scientists who study it." (4,5 pages)

  12. Particle Dark Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter in the Universe is likely to be made up of some new, hypothetical particle which would be a part of an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. In this overview, I will first briefly review well motivated particle candidates for dark matter. Next I will focus my attention on the neutralino of supersymmetry which is the by far most popular dark matter candidate. I will discuss some recent progress and comment on prospects for dark matter detection.

  13. The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…

  14. Hidden neuronal correlations in cultured networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, Ronen; Baruchi, Itay; Hulata, Eyal; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of a clustering algorithm on neuronal spatiotemporal correlation matrices recorded during a spontaneous activity of in vitro networks revealed the existence of hidden correlations: the sequence of synchronized bursting events (SBEs) is composed of statistically distinguishable subgroups each with its own distinct pattern of interneuron spatiotemporal correlations. These findings hint that each of the SBE subgroups can serve as a template for coding, storage, and retrieval of a specific information

  15. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  16. Completing Quantum Mechanics with Quantized Hidden Variables

    OpenAIRE

    van Enk, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    I explore the possibility that a quantum system S may be described completely by the combination of its standard quantum state $|\\psi\\rangle$ and a (hidden) quantum state $|\\phi\\rangle$ (that lives in the same Hilbert space), such that the outcome of any standard projective measurement on the system S is determined once the two quantum states are specified. I construct an algorithm that retrieves the standard quantum-mechanical probabilities, which depend only on $|\\psi\\rangle$, by assuming t...

  17. Hidden histories: challenges for pedagogy and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Morrice, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Higher Education has become and an increasingly diverse and globalised system in which the binaries between ‘traditional’ and ‘non-traditional’ students, exclusion and inclusion have less resonance and analytical purchase. Drawing on research with refugees Linda will suggest that higher education can be marked simultaneously by belonging and recognition, deficit and exclusion. Complex differences and inequalities remain hidden and unspoken, raising new questions and challenges for pedagogy an...

  18. How dark chocolate is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  19. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  20. Dark Matter Searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terashi, Koji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present dark matter searches at the LHC in the PIC2017 conference. The main emphasis is placed on the direct dark matter searches while the interpretation of searches for SUSY and invisible Higgs signals for the dark matter is also presented.

  1. Interacting dark matter disguised as warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Riazuelo, Alain; Hansen, Steen H.; Schaeffer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We explore some of the consequences of dark-matter-photon interactions on structure formation, focusing on the evolution of cosmological perturbations and performing both an analytical and a numerical study. We compute the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and matter power spectrum in this class of models. We find, as the main result, that when dark matter and photons are coupled, dark matter perturbations can experience a new damping regime in addition to the usual collisional Silk damping effect. Such dark matter particles (having quite large photon interactions) behave like cold dark matter or warm dark matter as far as the cosmic microwave background anisotropies or matter power spectrum are concerned, respectively. These dark-matter-photon interactions leave specific imprints at sufficiently small scales on both of these two spectra, which may allow us to put new constraints on the acceptable photon-dark-matter interactions. Under the conservative assumption that the abundance of 10 12 M · galaxies is correctly given by the cold dark matter, and without any knowledge of the abundance of smaller objects, we obtain the limit on the ratio of the dark-matter-photon cross section to the dark matter mass σ γ-DM /m DM -6 σ Th /(100 GeV)≅6x10 -33 cm 2 GeV -1

  2. Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2016-11-28

    We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.

  3. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a)≠-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c s ≠1), and early presence of dark energy [Ω de (a<<1)≠0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  4. Low temperatures - hot topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-09-15

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field.

  5. Low temperatures - hot topic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Neutrino mass measurements, next-generation double beta experiments, solar neutrino detection, searches for magnetic monopoles and the challenge of discovering what most of the Universe is made of (dark matter), not to mention axions (cosmic and solar), supersymmetric neutral particles and cosmic neutrinos. All this physics could use cryogenic techniques. Thus the second European Workshop on Low Temperature Devices for the Detection of Low Energy Neutrinos and Dark Matter, held at LAPP (Annecy) in May, covered an active and promising field

  6. A filament of dark matter between two clusters of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg P; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2012-07-12

    It is a firm prediction of the concordance cold-dark-matter cosmological model that galaxy clusters occur at the intersection of large-scale structure filaments. The thread-like structure of this 'cosmic web' has been traced by galaxy redshift surveys for decades. More recently, the warm–hot intergalactic medium (a sparse plasma with temperatures of 10(5) kelvin to 10(7) kelvin) residing in low-redshift filaments has been observed in emission and absorption. However, a reliable direct detection of the underlying dark-matter skeleton, which should contain more than half of all matter, has remained elusive, because earlier candidates for such detections were either falsified or suffered from low signal-to-noise ratios and unphysical misalignments of dark and luminous matter. Here we report the detection of a dark-matter filament connecting the two main components of the Abell 222/223 supercluster system from its weak gravitational lensing signal, both in a non-parametric mass reconstruction and in parametric model fits. This filament is coincident with an overdensity of galaxies and diffuse, soft-X-ray emission, and contributes a mass comparable to that of an additional galaxy cluster to the total mass of the supercluster. By combining this result with X-ray observations, we can place an upper limit of 0.09 on the hot gas fraction (the mass of X-ray-emitting gas divided by the total mass) in the filament.

  7. THE MAGIC OF DARK TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Erika KULCSÁR; PhD Rozalina Zsófia SIMON

    2015-01-01

    The dark tourism is a form of tourism that is not unanimously accepted by the whole society, but in spite of this fact, the practitioners of dark tourism is a viable segment. Indeed the concept that defines dark tourism is none other than death, and perhaps this is why it will always be a segment that will not be attracted by this form of tourism. Many questions about dark tourism arise. Among them: (1) is dark tourism an area of science attractive for researches? (2) which is the typology of...

  8. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, J.; Knapp, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently little more was known than that dark matter appears to exist; there was little systematic information about its properties. Only in the past several years was progress made to the point where dark matter density distributions can be measured. For example, with accurate rotation curves extending over large ranges in radius, decomposing the effects of visible and dark matter to measure dark matter density profiles can be tried. Some regularities in dark matter behaviour have already turned up. This volume includes review and invited papers, poster papers, and the two general discussions. (Auth.)

  9. Dark Matter Detection: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Overwhelming observational evidence indicates that most of the matter in the Universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter. One possibility is that the dark matter is Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that were produced in the early Universe. These relics could comprise the Milky Way's dark halo and provide evidence for new particle physics, such as Supersymmetry. This talk focuses on the status of current efforts to detect dark matter by testing the hypothesis that WIMPs exist in the galactic halo. WIMP searches have begun to explore the region of parameter space where SUSY particles could provide dark matter candidates.

  10. Exposing Dark Sector with Future Z-Factories arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    We investigate the prospects of searching dark sector models via exotic Z-boson decay at future $e^+ e^-$ colliders with Giga Z and Tera Z options. Four general categories of dark sector models: Higgs portal dark matter, vector portal dark matter, inelastic dark matter and axion-like particles, are considered. Focusing on channels motivated by the dark sector models, we carry out a model independent study of the sensitivities of Z-factories in probing exotic decays. The limits on branching ratios of the exotic Z decay are typically $\\mathcal{O} (10^{-6} - 10^{-8.5}) $ for the Giga Z and $\\mathcal{O} (10^{-7.5} - 10^{-11})$ for the Tera Z, and they are compared with the projection for the high luminosity LHC. We demonstrate that future Z-factories can provide its unique and leading sensitivity, and highlight the complementarity with other experiments, including the indirect and direct dark matter search limits, and the existing collider limits. Future Z factories will play a leading role to uncover the hidden ...

  11. Dark hydrogen fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The production of hydrogen is a ubiquitous, natural phenomenon under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. A wide variety of bacteria, in swamps, sewage, hot springs, the rumen of cattle etc. is able to convert organic matter to hydrogen, CO2 and metabolites like acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and alanine.

  12. Flipped dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Hagelin, J.S.; Kelley, S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

    1988-08-04

    We study candidates for dark matter in a minimal flipped SU(5) x U(1) supersymmetric GUT. Since the model has no R-parity, spin-1/2 supersymmetric partners of conventional particles mix with other neutral fermions including neutrinos, and can decay into them. The lighest particle which is predominantly a gaugino/higgsino mixture decays with a lifetime tau/sub chi/ approx. = 1-10/sup 9/ s. The model contains a scalar 'flaton' field whose coherent oscillations decay before cosmological nucleosynthesis, and whose pseudoscalar partner contributes negligibly to ..cap omega.. if it is light enough to survive to the present epoch. The fermionic 'flatino' partner of the flaton has a lifetime tau/sub PHI/ approx. = 10/sup 28/-10/sup 34/ yr and is a viable candiate for metastable dark matter with ..cap omega.. < or approx. 1.

  13. CN in dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.; Bieging, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have detected CN (N = 1--0) emission toward six locations in the Taurus dark cloud complex, but not toward L183 or B227. The two hyperfine components, F = 3/2--1/2 and F = 5/2--3/2 (of J = 3/2--1/2), have intensity ratios near unity toward four locations in Taurus, consistent with large line optical depths. CN column densities are found to be > or approx. =6 x 10 13 cm -2 in those directions where the hyperfine ratios are near unity. By comparing CN with NH 3 and C 18 O column densities, we find that the relative abundance of CN in the Taurus cloudlets is at least a factor of 10 greater than in L183. In this respect, CN fits the pattern of enhanced abundances of carbon-bearing molecules (in partricular the cyanopolyynes) in the Taurus cloudlets relative to similar dark clouds outside Taurus

  14. Dust of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Eugene A.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Vikman, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a novel class of field theories where energy always flows along timelike geodesics, mimicking in that respect dust, yet which possess non-zero pressure. This theory comprises two scalar fields, one of which is a Lagrange multiplier enforcing a constraint between the other's field value and derivative. We show that this system possesses no wave-like modes but retains a single dynamical degree of freedom. Thus, the sound speed is always identically zero on all backgrounds. In particular, cosmological perturbations reproduce the standard behaviour for hydrodynamics in the limit of vanishing sound speed. Using all these properties we propose a model unifying Dark Matter and Dark Energy in a single degree of freedom. In a certain limit this model exactly reproduces the evolution history of ΛCDM, while deviations away from the standard expansion history produce a potentially measurable difference in the evolution of structure

  15. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  16. On dark energy isocurvature perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe

    2011-01-01

    Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data

  17. Dark matter wants Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Asano, M.; Fujii, K.; Takubo, Y.; Honda, T.; Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Humdi, R.S.; Ito, H.; Kanemura, S; Nabeshima, T.; Okada, N.; Suehara, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main purposes of physics at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is to study the property of dark matter such as its mass, spin, quantum numbers, and interactions with particles of the standard model. We discuss how the property can or cannot be investigated at the ILC using two typical cases of dark matter scenario: 1) most of new particles predicted in physics beyond the standard model are heavy and only dark matter is accessible at the ILC, and 2) not only dark matter but also other new particles are accessible at the ILC. We find that, as can be easily imagined, dark matter can be detected without any difficulties in the latter case. In the former case, it is still possible to detect dark matter when the mass of dark matter is less than a half mass of the Higgs boson.

  18. A dark energy multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Perez, Salvador; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F

    2007-01-01

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe. (fast track communication)

  19. Baryonic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Both canonical primordial nucleosynthesis constraints and large-scale structure measurements, as well as observations of the fundamental cosmological parameters, appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that the universe predominantly consists of baryonic dark matter (BDM). The arguments for BDM to consist of compact objects that are either stellar relics or substellar objects are reviewed. Several techniques for searching for halo BDM are described.

  20. A dark energy multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Perez, Salvador; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-21

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe. (fast track communication)

  1. DARK MATTER: Optical shears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter continues to build up. Last year (December 1993, page 4) excitement rose when the French EROS (Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) and the US/Australia MACHO collaborations reported hints that small inert 'brown dwarf stars could provide some of the Universe's missing matter. In the 1930s, astronomers first began to suspect that there is a lot more to the Universe than meets the eye

  2. Dark Energy in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Sapone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review a part of the approaches that have been considered to explain the extraordinary discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe. We discuss the arguments that have led physicists and astronomers to accept dark energy as the current preferable candidate to explain the acceleration. We highlight the problems and the attempts to overcome the difficulties related to such a component. We also consider alternative theories capable of explaining the acceleration of the Universe, such as modification of gravity. We compare the two approaches and point out the observational consequences, reaching the sad but foresightful conclusion that we will not be able to distinguish between a Universe filled by dark energy or a Universe where gravity is different from General Relativity. We review the present observations and discuss the future experiments that will help us to learn more about our Universe. This is not intended to be a complete list of all the dark energy models but this paper shou...

  3. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-05-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical constraints. Importantly, it incorporates a deep reason for why the dark matter mass scale is related to the proton mass, a key consideration in ADM models. Our starting point is the idea of mirror matter, which offers an explanation for dark matter by duplicating the standard model with a dark sector related by a Z2 parity symmetry. However, the dark sector need not manifest as a symmetric copy of the standard model in the present day. By utilizing the mechanism of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" with two Higgs doublets in each sector, we develop a model of ADM where the mirror symmetry is spontaneously broken, leading to an electroweak scale in the dark sector that is significantly larger than that of the visible sector. The weak sensitivity of the ordinary and dark QCD confinement scales to their respective electroweak scales leads to the necessary connection between the dark matter and proton masses. The dark matter is composed of either dark neutrons or a mixture of dark neutrons and metastable dark hydrogen atoms. Lepton asymmetries are generated by the C P -violating decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos in both sectors. These are then converted by sphaleron processes to produce the observed ratio of visible to dark matter in the universe. The dynamics responsible for the kinetic decoupling of the two sectors emerges as an important issue that we only partially solve.

  4. Signatures of dark radiation in neutrino and dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanou; Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2018-05-01

    We consider the generic possibility that the Universe's energy budget includes some form of relativistic or semi-relativistic dark radiation (DR) with nongravitational interactions with standard model (SM) particles. Such dark radiation may consist of SM singlets or a nonthermal, energetic component of neutrinos. If such DR is created at a relatively recent epoch, it can carry sufficient energy to leave a detectable imprint in experiments designed to search for very weakly interacting particles: dark matter and underground neutrino experiments. We analyze this possibility in some generality, assuming that the interactive dark radiation is sourced by late decays of an unstable particle, potentially a component of dark matter, and considering a variety of possible interactions between the dark radiation and SM particles. Concentrating on the sub-GeV energy region, we derive constraints on different forms of DR using the results of the most sensitive neutrino and dark matter direct detection experiments. In particular, for interacting dark radiation carrying a typical momentum of ˜30 MeV /c , both types of experiments provide competitive constraints. This study also demonstrates that non-standard sources of neutrino emission (e.g., via dark matter decay) are capable of creating a "neutrino floor" for dark matter direct detection that is closer to current bounds than is expected from standard neutrino sources.

  5. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro; Redondo, Javier; Sigl, Guenter

    2008-12-01

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle χ 0 -7 - 10 -5 for hidden photon masses between 10 -14 eV and 10 -7 eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  6. Microwave background constraints on mixing of photons with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirizzi, Alessandro [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-12-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of hidden photons kinetically mixing with the ordinary photon. This mixing leads to oscillations between photons and hidden photons, analogous to the observed oscillations between different neutrino flavors. In this context, we derive new bounds on the photon-hidden photon mixing parameters using the high precision cosmic microwave background spectral data collected by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer instrument on board of the Cosmic Background Explorer. Requiring the distortions of the CMB induced by the photon-hidden photon mixing to be smaller than experimental upper limits, this leads to a bound on the mixing angle {chi}{sub 0} hidden photon masses between 10{sup -14} eV and 10{sup -7} eV. This low-mass and low-mixing region of the hidden photon parameter space was previously unconstrained. (orig.)

  7. Dark Matter Mystery Deepens in Cosmic "Train Wreck"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Astronomers have discovered a chaotic scene unlike any witnessed before in a cosmic "train wreck" between giant galaxy clusters. NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical telescopes revealed a dark matter core that was mostly devoid of galaxies, which may pose problems for current theories of dark matter behavior. "These results challenge our understanding of the way clusters merge," said Dr. Andisheh Mahdavi of the University of Victoria, British Columbia. "Or, they possibly make us even reexamine the nature of dark matter itself." There are three main components to galaxy clusters: individual galaxies composed of billions of stars, hot gas in between the galaxies, and dark matter, a mysterious substance that dominates the cluster mass and can be detected only through its gravitational effects. Illustration of Abell 520 System Illustration of Abell 520 System Optical telescopes can observe the starlight from the individual galaxies, and can infer the location of dark matter by its subtle light-bending effects on distant galaxies. X-ray telescopes like Chandra detect the multimillion-degree gas. A popular theory of dark matter predicts that dark matter and galaxies should stay together, even during a violent collision, as observed in the case of the so-called Bullet Cluster. However, when the Chandra data of the galaxy cluster system known as Abell 520 was mapped along with the optical data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and Subaru Telescope atop Mauna Kea, HI, a puzzling picture emerged. A dark matter core was found, which also contained hot gas but no bright galaxies. "It blew us away that it looks like the galaxies are removed from the densest core of dark matter," said Dr. Hendrik Hoekstra, also of University of Victoria. "This would be the first time we've seen such a thing and could be a huge test of our knowledge of how dark matter behaves." Animation of Galaxy Cluster Animation of Galaxy Cluster In addition to the dark matter core, a

  8. Imaging Plasmon Hybridization of Fano Resonances via Hot-Electron-Mediated Absorption Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncelli, Sabrina; Li, Yi; Cortés, Emiliano; Maier, Stefan A

    2018-05-04

    The inhibition of radiative losses in dark plasmon modes allows storing electromagnetic energy more efficiently than in far-field excitable bright-plasmon modes. As such, processes benefiting from the enhanced absorption of light in plasmonic materials could also take profit of dark plasmon modes to boost and control nanoscale energy collection, storage, and transfer. We experimentally probe this process by imaging with nanoscale precision the hot-electron driven desorption of thiolated molecules from the surface of gold Fano nanostructures, investigating the effect of wavelength and polarization of the incident light. Spatially resolved absorption maps allow us to show the contribution of each element of the nanoantenna in the hot-electron driven process and their interplay in exciting a dark plasmon mode. Plasmon-mode engineering allows control of nanoscale reactivity and offers a route to further enhance and manipulate hot-electron driven chemical reactions and energy-conversion and transfer at the nanoscale.

  9. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  10. A Short History of the Missing Mass and Dark Energy Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Sidney van den

    2000-01-01

    In 1900 it was believed that almost 100% of the mass of the Universe resided in stars. Now, in the year 2000, such stars (and cold gas) are known to account for only ~1% its mass. The remaining mass of the Universe is thought to reside in hot baryons (~3%), cold dark matter (~30%) and dark energy (~66%). The present paper traces the evolution of our thinking about the density of the Universe during the Twentieth Century, with special emphasis on the of the discovery of cold dark matter.

  11. Recent progress in the development of MCT hot detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollrab, R.; Schirmacher, W.; Schallenberg, T.; Lutz, H.; Wendler, J.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2017-11-01

    To push HOT-performance, AIMs existing n-on-p technology has been improved by introducing Gold as an acceptor and reducing its concentration to the lower 1015/cm3 range as well as by optimizing the passivation process. This results in a substantial reduction in dark current density, a prerequisite for HOT operation. Recent dark current data are compared to ones previously obtained as well as to Tennant`s Rule07 [1], a generally accepted bench mark in this context. Furthermore, we present electro-optical parameters obtained in the temperature range from 120 K to 170 K on resulting FPAs with 640x512 pixels, a pitch of 15 μm and a typical (80 K) cutoff wavelength of 5.1 μm.

  12. Compressing the hidden variable space of a qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montina, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In previously exhibited hidden variable models of quantum state preparation and measurement, the number of continuous hidden variables describing the actual state of single realizations is never smaller than the quantum state manifold dimension. We introduce a simple model for a qubit whose hidden variable space is one-dimensional, i.e., smaller than the two-dimensional Bloch sphere. The hidden variable probability distributions associated with quantum states satisfy reasonable criteria of regularity. Possible generalizations of this shrinking to an N-dimensional Hilbert space are discussed.

  13. Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkarev, V. V.; Lerner, E. Yu

    2014-03-01

    This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different.

  14. Zipf exponent of trajectory distribution in the hidden Markov model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, V V; Lerner, E Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first step of generalization of the previously obtained full classification of the asymptotic behavior of the probability for Markov chain trajectories for the case of hidden Markov models. The main goal is to study the power (Zipf) and nonpower asymptotics of the frequency list of trajectories of hidden Markov frequencys and to obtain explicit formulae for the exponent of the power asymptotics. We consider several simple classes of hidden Markov models. We prove that the asymptotics for a hidden Markov model and for the corresponding Markov chain can be essentially different

  15. Hot Weather Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person plenty of water and fruit or vegetable juice even if they say they’re not thirsty. No alcohol, coffee or tea. Seek medical help if you suspect dehydration. Light meals: Avoid hot, heavy meals and don’ ...

  16. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  17. Illuminating dark photons with high-energy colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, David [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Essig, Rouven [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Gori, Stefania [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Shelton, Jessie [Dept. of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-02-24

    High-energy colliders offer a unique sensitivity to dark photons, the mediators of a broken dark U(1) gauge theory that kinetically mixes with the Standard Model (SM) hypercharge. Dark photons can be detected in the exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs boson, h→ZZ{sub D}→4ℓ, and in Drell-Yan events, pp→Z{sub D}→ℓℓ. If the dark U(1) is broken by a hidden-sector Higgs mechanism, then mixing between the dark and SM Higgs bosons also allows the exotic decay h→Z{sub D}Z{sub D}→4ℓ. We show that the 14 TeV LHC and a 100 TeV proton-proton collider provide powerful probes of both exotic Higgs decay channels. In the case of kinetic mixing alone, direct Drell-Yan production offers the best sensitivity to Z{sub D}, and can probe ϵ≳9×10{sup −4} (4×10{sup −4}) at the HL-LHC (100 TeV pp collider). The exotic Higgs decay h→ZZ{sub D} offers slightly weaker sensitivity, but both measurements are necessary to distinguish the kinetically mixed dark photon from other scenarios. If Higgs mixing is also present, then the decay h→Z{sub D}Z{sub D} can allow sensitivity to the Z{sub D} for ϵ≳10{sup −9}−10{sup −6} (10{sup −10}−10{sup −7}) for the mass range 2m{sub μ}dark photon decays. We also compare the Z{sub D} sensitivity at pp colliders to the indirect, but model-independent, sensitivity of global fits to electroweak precision observables. We perform a global electroweak fit of the dark photon model, substantially updating previous work in the literature. Electroweak precision measurements at LEP, Tevatron, and the LHC exclude ϵ as low as 3×10{sup −2}. Sensitivity can be improved by up to a factor of ∼2 with HL-LHC data, and an additional factor of ∼4 with ILC/GigaZ data.

  18. Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoldi, Stefano [ICRA — International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, INFN — Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università degli Studi di Udine, via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (UD) (Italy); Guendelman, Eduardo I., E-mail: ansoldi@fulbrightmail.org, E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negeev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-05-01

    We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future.

  19. Coupling q-Deformed Dark Energy to Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Dil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel coupled dark energy model which is assumed to occur as a q-deformed scalar field and investigate whether it will provide an expanding universe phase. We consider the q-deformed dark energy as coupled to dark matter inhomogeneities. We perform the phase-space analysis of the model by numerical methods and find the late-time accelerated attractor solutions. The attractor solutions imply that the coupled q-deformed dark energy model is consistent with the conventional dark energy models satisfying an acceleration phase of universe. At the end, we compare the cosmological parameters of deformed and standard dark energy models and interpret the implications.

  20. Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.

  1. Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Guendelman, Eduardo I.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future

  2. Dark matter and dark energy a challenge for modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2011-01-01

    This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift su...

  3. Late forming dark matter in theories of neutrino dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subinoy; Weiner, Neal

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility of late forming dark matter, where a scalar field, previously trapped in a metastable state by thermal or finite density effects, goes through a phase transition near the era matter-radiation equality and begins to oscillate about its true minimum. Such a theory is motivated generally if the dark energy is of a similar form, but has not yet made the transition to dark matter, and, in particular, arises automatically in recently considered theories of neutrino dark energy. If such a field comprises the present dark matter, the matter power spectrum typically shows a sharp break at small, presently nonlinear scales, below which power is highly suppressed and previously contained acoustic oscillations. If, instead, such a field forms a subdominant component of the total dark matter, such acoustic oscillations may imprint themselves in the linear regime.

  4. Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2017-01-01

    Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity

  5. Dark Energy and Structure Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational dynamics of dark energy configurations. We report on the time evolution of the dark energy field configurations as well as the time evolution of the energy density to demonstrate the gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations. We live in a Universe which is dominated by Dark Energy. According to current estimates about 75% of the Energy Density is in the form of Dark Energy. Thus when we consider gravitational dynamics and Structure Formation we expect Dark Energy to play an important role. The most promising candidate for dark energy is the energy density of fields in curved space-time. It therefore become a pressing need to understand the gravitational dynamics of dark energy field configurations. We develop and describe the formalism to study the gravitational collapse of fields given any general potential for the fields. We apply this formalism to models of dark energy motivated by particle physics considerations. We solve the resulting evolution equations which determine the time evolution of field configurations as well as the dynamics of space-time. Our results show that gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations occurs and must be considered in any complete picture of our universe.

  6. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  7. The 7 keV axion dark matter and the X-ray line signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). Theory Center; Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2014-03-15

    We propose a scenario where the saxion dominates the energy density of the Universe and reheats the standard model sector via the dilatonic coupling, while its axionic partner contributes to dark matter decaying into photons via the same operator in supersymmetry. Interestingly, for the axion mass m{sub a} ≅ 7 keV and the decay constant f{sub a} ≅10{sup 14-15} GeV, the recently discovered X-ray line at 3.5 keV in the XMM Newton X-ray observatory data can be explained. We discuss various cosmological aspects of the 7 keV axion dark matter such as the production of axion dark matter, the saxion decay process, hot dark matter and isocurvature constraints on the axion dark matter, and the possible baryogenesis scenarios.

  8. The 7 keV axion dark matter and the X-ray line signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa

    2014-03-01

    We propose a scenario where the saxion dominates the energy density of the Universe and reheats the standard model sector via the dilatonic coupling, while its axionic partner contributes to dark matter decaying into photons via the same operator in supersymmetry. Interestingly, for the axion mass m a ≅ 7 keV and the decay constant f a ≅10 14-15 GeV, the recently discovered X-ray line at 3.5 keV in the XMM Newton X-ray observatory data can be explained. We discuss various cosmological aspects of the 7 keV axion dark matter such as the production of axion dark matter, the saxion decay process, hot dark matter and isocurvature constraints on the axion dark matter, and the possible baryogenesis scenarios.

  9. Probes for dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    The existence of cosmological dark matter is in the bedrock of the modern cosmology. The dark matter is assumed to be nonbaryonic and consists of new stable particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) miracle appeals to search for neutral stable weakly interacting particles in underground experiments by their nuclear recoil and at colliders by missing energy and momentum, which they carry out. However, the lack of WIMP effects in their direct underground searches and at colliders can appeal to other forms of dark matter candidates. These candidates may be weakly interacting slim particles, superweakly interacting particles, or composite dark matter, in which new particles are bound. Their existence should lead to cosmological effects that can find probes in the astrophysical data. However, if composite dark matter contains stable electrically charged leptons and quarks bound by ordinary Coulomb interaction in elusive dark atoms, these charged constituents of dark atoms can be the subject of direct experimental test at the colliders. The models, predicting stable particles with charge ‑ 2 without stable particles with charges + 1 and ‑ 1 can avoid severe constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements and provide solution for the puzzles of dark matter searches. In such models, the excessive ‑ 2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium atoms, maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter. The successful development of composite dark matter scenarios appeals for experimental search for doubly charged constituents of dark atoms, making experimental search for exotic stable double charged particles experimentum crucis for dark atoms of composite dark matter.

  10. Galaxies and gas in a cold dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Neal; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.

    1992-01-01

    We use a combined gravity/hydrodynamics code to simulate the formation of structure in a random 22 Mpc cube of a cold dark matter universe. Adiabatic compression and shocks heat much of the gas to temperatures of 10 exp 6 - 10 exp 7 K, but a fraction of the gas cools radiatively to about 10 exp 4 K and condenses into discrete, highly overdense lumps. We identify these lumps with galaxies. The high-mass end of their baryonic mass function fits the form of the observed galaxy luminosity function. They retain independent identities after their dark halos merge, so gravitational clustering produces groups of galaxies embedded in relatively smooth envelopes of hot gas and dark matter. The galaxy correlation function is approximately an r exp -2.1 power law from separations of 35 kpc to 7 Mpc. Galaxy fluctuations are biased relative to dark matter fluctuations by a factor b about 1.5. We find no significant 'velocity bias' between galaxies and dark matter particles. However, virial analysis of the simulation's richest group leads to an estimated Omega of about 0.3, even though the simulation adopts Omega = 1.

  11. Recovering a hidden polarization by ghost polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janassek, Patrick; Blumenstein, Sébastien; Elsäßer, Wolfgang

    2018-02-15

    By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram.

  12. Pruning Boltzmann networks and hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Stork, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present sensitivity-based pruning algorithms for general Boltzmann networks. Central to our methods is the efficient calculation of a second-order approximation to the true weight saliencies in a cross-entropy error. Building upon previous work which shows a formal correspondence between linear...... Boltzmann chains and hidden Markov models (HMMs), we argue that our method can be applied to HMMs as well. We illustrate pruning on Boltzmann zippers, which are equivalent to two HMMs with cross-connection links. We verify that our second-order approximation preserves the rank ordering of weight saliencies...

  13. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  14. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  15. The hidden face of the petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, E.

    2006-02-01

    For the first time, a book reveals what that was hidden to the public opinions: why the petroleum crisis of 1973 what only a manipulation, an arrangement between the OPEC and the petroleum companies, why the data concerning the petroleum reserves are wrong and increased by the producers countries, how Washington used the Saudi petroleum weapon to create the Soviet Union fall, and why from march 2001 maps of the Iraq (where were drawn the future petroleum explorations) were working documents for the vice President Cheney and petroleum managers for the ''secret society''. (A.L.B.)

  16. Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...... and transition probabilities using the classic Baum-Welch algorithm. The system is tested on the problem of finding the promoter and coding region of C. jejuni. The resulting HMM has a superior discrimination ability to a handcrafted model that has been published in the literature....

  17. The hidden costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keough, C.

    1981-01-01

    The two basic hidden costs of nuclear power are public money and public health. Nuclear power appears to be economical because many of the costs of producins electricity in these plants are paid by the federal government. So, like it or not, the citizens are footing the bill with their taxes. Design and development of plants have been paid for with public money, and disposal and cleanup costs will also be paid in this manner. The economic and health costs associated with nuclear accidents are staggering

  18. Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
    out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.

  19. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  20. Dark information of black hole radiation raised by dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Han; Chen, Jin-Fu; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2018-06-01

    The "lost" information of black hole through the Hawking radiation was discovered being stored in the correlation among the non-thermally radiated particles (Parikh and Wilczek, 2000 [31], Zhang et al., 2009 [16]). This correlation information, which has not yet been proved locally observable in principle, is named by dark information. In this paper, we systematically study the influences of dark energy on black hole radiation, especially on the dark information. Calculating the radiation spectrum in the existence of dark energy by the approach of canonical typicality, which is reconfirmed by the quantum tunneling method, we find that the dark energy will effectively lower the Hawking temperature, and thus makes the black hole has longer life time. It is also discovered that the non-thermal effect of the black hole radiation is enhanced by dark energy so that the dark information of the radiation is increased. Our observation shows that, besides the mechanical effect (e.g., gravitational lensing effect), the dark energy rises the stored dark information, which could be probed by a non-local coincidence measurement similar to the coincidence counting of the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss experiment in quantum optics.

  1. Is Self-Interacting Dark Matter Undergoing Dark Fusion?

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Samuel D.

    2018-01-01

    We suggest that two-to-two dark matter fusion may be the relaxation process that resolves the small-scale structure problems of the cold collisionless dark matter paradigm. In order for the fusion cross section to scale correctly across many decades of astrophysical masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, we require the fractional binding energy released to be greater than vn∼(10−(2−3))n, where n=1, 2 depends on local dark sector chemistry. The size of the dark-sector interaction cross...

  2. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m 2 φ 2 , while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m 2 φ 2 potential in describing dark matter.

  3. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri, E-mail: swagat@iucaa.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m {sup 2}φ{sup 2}, while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m {sup 2}φ{sup 2} potential in describing dark matter.

  4. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631

  5. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Ruel-Bergeron

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.

  6. Hidden in plain sight: the formal, informal, and hidden curricula of a psychiatry clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Skillicorn, Jodie

    2009-04-01

    To examine perceptions of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula in psychiatry as they are observed and experienced by (1) attending physicians who have teaching responsibilities for residents and medical students, (2) residents who are taught by those same physicians and who have teaching responsibilities for medical students, and (3) medical students who are taught by attendings and residents during their psychiatry rotation. From June to November 2007, the authors conducted focus groups with attendings, residents, and students in one midwestern academic setting. The sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for themes surrounding the formal, informal, and hidden curricula. All three groups offered a similar belief that the knowledge, skills, and values of the formal curriculum focused on building relationships. Similarly, all three suggested that elements of the informal and hidden curricula were expressed primarily as the values arising from attendings' role modeling, as the nature and amount of time attendings spend with patients, and as attendings' advice arising from experience and intuition versus "textbook learning." Whereas students and residents offered negative values arising from the informal and hidden curricula, attendings did not, offering instead the more positive values they intended to encourage through the informal and hidden curricula. The process described here has great potential in local settings across all disciplines. Asking teachers and learners in any setting to think about how they experience the educational environment and what sense they make of all curricular efforts can provide a reality check for educators and a values check for learners as they critically reflect on the meanings of what they are learning.

  7. Radiative bound-state-formation cross-sections for dark matter interacting via a Yukawa potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petraki, Kalliopi [LPTHE, CNRS, UMR 7589,4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris (France); Nikhef,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Postma, Marieke; Vries, Jordy de [Nikhef,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-13

    We calculate the cross-sections for the radiative formation of bound states by dark matter whose interactions are described in the non-relativistic regime by a Yukawa potential. These cross-sections are important for cosmological and phenomenological studies of dark matter with long-range interactions, residing in a hidden sector, as well as for TeV-scale WIMP dark matter. We provide the leading-order contributions to the cross-sections for the dominant capture processes occurring via emission of a vector or a scalar boson. We offer a detailed inspection of their features, including their velocity dependence within and outside the Coulomb regime, and their resonance structure. For pairs of annihilating particles, we compare bound-state formation with annihilation.

  8. Review of dark photon searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denig, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Dark Photons are hypothetical extra-U(1) gauge bosons, which are motivated by a number of astrophysical anomalies as well as the presently seen deviation between the Standard Model prediction and the direct measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g − 2)μ. The Dark Photon does not serve as the Dark Matter particle itself, but acts as a messenger particle of a hypothetical Dark Sector with residual interaction to the Standard Model. We review recent Dark Photon searches, which were carried out in a global effort at various hadron and particle physics facilities. We also comment on the perspectives for future invisble searches, which directly probe the existence of Light Dark Matter particles.

  9. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opher, Reuven

    2001-01-01

    We treat here the problem of dark matter in galaxies. Recent articles seem to imply that we are entering into the precision era of cosmology, implying that all of the basic physics of cosmology is known. However, we show here that recent observations question the pillar of the standard model: the presence of nonbaryonic 'dark matter' in galaxies. Using Newton's law of gravitation, observations indicate that most of the matter in galaxies in invisible or dark. From the observed abundances of light elements, dark matter in galaxies must be primarily nonbaryonic. The standard model and its problems in explaining nonbaryonic dark matter will first be discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of a modification of Newton's law of gravitation to explain dark matter in galaxies. (author)

  10. Discrete dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z2 subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while reactor angle equal to zero gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  11. Viscous Ricci dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chaojun; Li Xinzhou

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the viscous Ricci dark energy (RDE) model by assuming that there is bulk viscosity in the linear barotropic fluid and the RDE. In the RDE model without bulk viscosity, the universe is younger than some old objects at certain redshifts. Since the age of the universe should be longer than any objects living in the universe, the RDE model suffers the age problem, especially when we consider the object APM 08279+5255 at z=3.91 with age t=2.1 Gyr. In this Letter, we find that once the viscosity is taken into account, this age problem is alleviated.

  12. Frontiers of Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmologists are just beginning to probe the properties of the cosmic vacuum and its role in reversing the attractive pull of gravity to cause an acceleration in the expansion of the cosmos. The cause of this acceleration is given the generic name of dark energy, whether it is due to a true vacuum, a false, temporary vacuum, or a new relation between the vacuum and the force of gravity. Despite the common name, the distinction between these origins is of utmost interest and physicists are act...

  13. Direct search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  14. Baryonic dark matter and Machos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, K.

    2000-01-01

    A brief description of the status of baryons in the Universe is given, along with recent results from the MACHO collaboration and their meaning. A dark matter halo consisting of baryons in the form of Machos is ruled out, leaving an elementary particle as the prime candidate for the dark matter. The observed microlensing events may make up around 20% of the dark matter in the Milky Way, or may indicate an otherwise undetected component of the Large Magellanic Cloud

  15. Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Calmet, Xavier; Latosh, Boris

    2018-01-01

    We show that quantum gravity, whatever its ultra-violet completion might be, could account for dark matter. Indeed, besides the massless gravitational field recently observed in the form of gravitational waves, the spectrum of quantum gravity contains two massive fields respectively of spin 2 and spin 0. If these fields are long-lived, they could easily account for dark matter. In that case, dark matter would be very light and only gravitationally coupled to the standard model particles.

  16. Dark energy: myths and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, V N; Rubakov, V A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the questions related to dark energy in the Universe. We note that in spite of the effect of dark energy, large-scale structure is still being generated in the Universe and this will continue for about ten billion years. We also comment on some statements in the paper 'Dark energy and universal antigravitation' by A D Chernin, Physics-Uspekhi 51 (3) (2008). (physics of our days)

  17. Bayesian structural inference for hidden processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelioff, Christopher C.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2014-04-01

    We introduce a Bayesian approach to discovering patterns in structurally complex processes. The proposed method of Bayesian structural inference (BSI) relies on a set of candidate unifilar hidden Markov model (uHMM) topologies for inference of process structure from a data series. We employ a recently developed exact enumeration of topological ɛ-machines. (A sequel then removes the topological restriction.) This subset of the uHMM topologies has the added benefit that inferred models are guaranteed to be ɛ-machines, irrespective of estimated transition probabilities. Properties of ɛ-machines and uHMMs allow for the derivation of analytic expressions for estimating transition probabilities, inferring start states, and comparing the posterior probability of candidate model topologies, despite process internal structure being only indirectly present in data. We demonstrate BSI's effectiveness in estimating a process's randomness, as reflected by the Shannon entropy rate, and its structure, as quantified by the statistical complexity. We also compare using the posterior distribution over candidate models and the single, maximum a posteriori model for point estimation and show that the former more accurately reflects uncertainty in estimated values. We apply BSI to in-class examples of finite- and infinite-order Markov processes, as well to an out-of-class, infinite-state hidden process.

  18. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  19. Hidden ion population of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Particle data from two geosynchronous satellites (Applied Technology Satellite 6 and SCATHA) show a normally hidden ion population appearing when the satellites are in the earth's shadow. Ion and electron data show the spacecraft potential dropping from +10 V in sunlight to +4 and +5 V in eclipse at local midnight, in low-energy (T/sub e/ -2 ), isotropic ion population appears which was invisible in sunlight because of the larger positive spacecraft potential. Higher-energy populations generally cover the tails of the hidden ion populations, so they cannot be inferred from daylight data. The isotropic populations appears only in a few percent of the spacecraft eclipse events, appearing only at times of low Kp (2 or less, preceded by a day with Σ Kp< or =20). A low-energy (T = 1--2 eV) field-aligned population often appears with and without the isotropic population, at slightly higher flux levels. These fluxes are visible in sunlight, but again the distribution functions obtained in eclipse differ from those that would be inferred from daylight data. Measurement of the thermal plasma population on a consistent basis, particularly in the plasma sheet, will require some method of controlling the detector potential with respect to the ambient plamsa

  20. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large