WorldWideScience

Sample records for hidden family violence

  1. Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence, particularly its effects on children. But there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Advances recommendations for further research.…

  2. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  3. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  4. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Scott,Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  5. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.

  6. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic; Ljubisa Milosavljevic; Radovan Karadzic; Aleksandra Antovic

    2006-01-01

    Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and d...

  7. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  8. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  9. FAMILY VIOLENCE – MARRIAGE VIOLENCE WITH A FATAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kostic-Banovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Family violence represents an especially dangerous social form of violence by means of which the rights of an individual – a member of a family – to live, to have psychic, physical and sexual integrity, freedom, security and human dignity, have been violated. The term marriage violence entails every form of physical, sexual, psychic and economic abuse of women by husbands or illegitimate partner. The family violence represents a widespread form of crime, and since it has become dramatic and dynamic during the recent years, the need for a direct forensic processing of the violence consequences within this specific and sensitive social group has arisen. In accordance with what has been outlined above, three cases of extreme, systematic and continuous marriage violence with fatal consequences of the abused women, whose bodies have been abducted at the Forensics Institute in Nis, have been presented in this paper.

  10. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating viol...

  11. Domestic Violence and Family Law: Criminological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Dragiewicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The battered women’s movement in the United States contributed to a sweeping change in the recognition of men’s violence against female intimate partners. Naming the problem and arguing in favor if its identification as a serious problem meriting a collective response were key aspects of this effort. Criminal and civil laws have been written and revised in an effort to answer calls to take such violence seriously. Scholars have devoted significant attention to the consequences of this reframing of violence, especially around the unintended outcomes of the incorporation of domestic violence into criminal justice regimes. Family law, however, has remained largely unexamined by criminologists. This paper calls for criminological attention to family law responses to domestic violence and provides directions for future research.

  12. Violence against children within the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACEK J. BŁESZYŃSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e article presents the problem of child abuse in the family. Shows the causes of violence in the family, but also treats children’s rights under the Convention on the Rights of the child, such as the right to an identity, right to expression, the right to live without violence, the right to social assistance, right to education. Th is article presents the family as the basic environment in which the child is born and brought up, because it has strong infl uence on the shaping of his personality. Refers to the fact that the home should be a place where the child feels safe. Pointed out that oft en but this is different, because victims of domestic violence are mostly women and children, as being weak and defenseless against their persecutors. Th e defi nition of domestic violence was quoted. Pointed to factors that protection children from violence, as well as the factors which contribute to harming. Defi ned physical violence against the child, and refers to the normative acts in this area, established as the sexual exploitation of children, studies showing the extent of the problem, and also refers to the legislation, to protect the child from sexual abuse. Th e article refers to the mental abuse and neglect in the family. Distinguished category of emotional abuse, as well as identifi ed other forms of child abuse in the family, such as alcoholism, drug abuse or other negative attitudes of parents, stigmatized by the law.

  13. Violence against children within the family

    OpenAIRE

    JACEK J. BŁESZYŃSKI; ANITA RODKIEWICZ-ROŻEK

    2017-01-01

    Th e article presents the problem of child abuse in the family. Shows the causes of violence in the family, but also treats children’s rights under the Convention on the Rights of the child, such as the right to an identity, right to expression, the right to live without violence, the right to social assistance, right to education. Th is article presents the family as the basic environment in which the child is born and brought up, because it has strong infl uence on the shaping of his person...

  14. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 1: Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the first of two companion papers describing concepts and techniques of a mentalization-based approach to understanding and managing family violence. We review evidence that attachment difficulties, sudden high levels of arousal, and poor affect control contribute to a loss of mentalizing capacity, which, in turn, undermines social learning and can favor the transgenerational transmission of violent interaction patterns. It is suggested that physically violent acts are only possible if mentalizing is temporarily inhibited or decoupled. However, being mentalized in the context of attachment relationships in the family generates epistemic trust within the family unit and reduces the likelihood of family violence. The implications of this framework for therapeutic work with families are discussed. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  16. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  17. Post-deployment family violence among UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jamie; Jones, Margaret; Somaini, Greta; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-12-19

    Research into violence among military personnel has not differentiated between stranger- and family-directed violence. While military factors (combat exposure and post-deployment mental health problems) are risk factors for general violence, there has been limited research on their impact on violence within the family environment. This study aims to compare the prevalence of family-directed and stranger-directed violence among a deployed sample of UK military personnel and to explore risk factors associated with both family- and stranger-directed violence. This study utilised data from a large cohort study which collected information by questionnaire from a representative sample of randomly selected deployed UK military personnel (n = 6711). The prevalence of family violence immediately following return from deployment was 3.6% and 7.8% for stranger violence. Family violence was significantly associated with having left service, while stranger violence was associated with younger age, male gender, being single, having a history of antisocial behaviour as well as having left service. Deployment in a combat role was significantly associated with both family and stranger violence after adjustment for confounders [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.92 (1.25-2.94), p = 0.003 and aOR = 1.77 (1.31-2.40), p violence both inside and outside the family environment and should be considered in violence reduction programmes for military personnel. Further research using a validated measurement tool for family violence would improve comparability with other research.

  18. Family trauma through generations: incest and domestic violence in rural Sweden in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drugge, Ulf

    2008-10-01

    Two generations of a family who lived in mid-nineteenth rural Sweden are described. Domestic violence was a common feature in the first generation family. The salient feature there was undoubtedly the incestuous father-daughter relationships. The way incest appeared in Sweden about 150 years ago, the role of local authorities, and the serious consequences to those victimized is analyzed with reference to both the cultural context of that time and to modern theories of incest. Seemingly puzzling violence committed by a second generation family member is related to the domestic violence in the previous generation. Due to the extraordinary character of the incest cases and the specific church council sessions in which the incest case was treated, aspects of family life normally hidden behind curtains of conventions were made public. Reaction patterns drawn from this case indicate a patriarchal system of oppression and badly-directed considerations.

  19. Family Violence and Institutional Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Lieber, Marylène; Escoda, Marta Roca i

    2016-01-01

    Si la famille est en général synonyme d’intimité et de relations de confiance, elle peut également être un lieu d’abus, de contrôle ou de violences. Les diverses formes de violences qui se déroulent dans la sphère privée ont été dénoncées dès les années 1970 par les mouvements féministes. Elles ont alors fait l’objet d’une variété de politiques et d’actions publiques ayant pour vocation de défendre et d’accompagner les victimes, de punir et soigner les agresseurs ou de rétablir des liens fami...

  20. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, Robert, Ed.

    These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of…

  1. [Violence against women and family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas Ochoa, Urbicio; Muñoz Pérez, Esteban; Navarro Solares, Alhondra; Nuño Gutiérrez, Bertha Lidia; Navarro Núñez, Carlos

    2007-07-01

    prevalence of violence against women in Mexico fluctuate within 30 to 60%, but health and court administration institutions' numbers are under real ones, they only include extreme violence or pressed charges against them aggressor. To asses the level of knowledge on the norms and procedures for the attention of domestic violence in family practitioners workers of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Colima, México. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the September-December 2005 period. The indicator was obtained of a self-administered questionnaire. The data collection instrument was design to asses the level of knowledge in five areas: definition, norms, classification, risk factors and domestic violence indicators. An knowledge index was constructed and analyzed using frequencies distribution and percentages. The age average was 41 years; medical practice 20 years. 72% men, 28% women; 91% had sentimental couple; 53% was family medicine specialist and 2% mastery; 53% worked in the morning shift and 47% in the evening one. The 91% didn't know the Mexican official norm; 91% without training on domestic violence, 74% ignored the types that exist; 76% ignored the cycles; 63% didn't register it as diagnostic in the clinical file; 52% know that the integral attention health registration leaf has a specific item for this problem. The average of guessed right answers was of 19 (range 15-24). The level of knowledge on the norms and procedures for the attention of domestic violence in family practitioners workers of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Colima, México; was low degree in 0%, moderate in 81% and highly in 19%.

  2. Hidden voices: prevalence and risk factors for violence against women with disabilities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Misra, Geetanjali; Hawkes, Sarah

    2015-03-18

    There is an increasing body of evidence on the extent and predictors of violence against women in Nepal. However, much of the published research does not yet take into account additional features of marginalization and vulnerability suffered by some women - for example, women socially excluded on account of their disability. Critical gaps exist in empirical data on the extent, risk factors, access to care, socio-economic and health consequences of violence among women with disabilities in Nepal. This paper addresses some these gaps and aims to promote evidence-informed policy and programme responses in Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 475 women with disability aged 16 years and above in three districts in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 12 women who reported violence in the survey were also carried out. Using multivariate statistical methods we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for violence experienced both over the past 12 months and lifetime. Over the lifetime, 57.7% of women reported they had ever experienced violence, including emotional violence (55.2%); physical violence (34%); and sexual violence (21.5%). Over the preceding 12 months, 42% of women reported that they had experienced violence. Multivariate analysis showed that women with disabilities who were young, working in paid employment, and those who required permission from husbands/family to go to health centres or participate in community organizations were at increased risk of violence. Women experienced a range of negative outcomes from violence - including physical and emotional trauma. However, a majority of women did not seek care or redress from the health, justice or other sectors. Women in Nepal are at high risk of violence, often from members of their immediate family or local community. Rates of violence are higher in women with disability than among women in the general population. Tackling violence requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of

  3. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  4. Heavy Alcohol Use and Dating Violence Perpetration During Adolescence: Family, Peer and Neighborhood Violence as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed. PMID:21494801

  5. Childhood experiences of female family-violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiski, Pia; Flinck, Aune; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija

    2018-04-01

    To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help. The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence. The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article. The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  7. FAMILY VIOLENCE – THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeta SLABU

    2014-01-01

    Romania’s integration into the European Union caused a growing preoccupation with the protection of fundamental human rights whereas the fight against family violence became a central topic of the national policy. In this context, both the legislation and strategies adopted in the field have been modified in order to prevent and fight against this serious phenomenon. At both national and local levels, efforts have been made to conceive a series of instruments considered as absolutely necessar...

  8. Social capital, family violence, and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Runyan, Desmond K

    2006-06-01

    Social capital includes collective efficacy, psychological sense of community, neighborhood cohesion, and parental investment in the child. It has been shown to be associated with a variety of health and welfare outcomes and may be useful in understanding and preventing parenting behaviors on the continuum of child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this research was to evaluate low social capital as a risk factor for harsh physical punishment, neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. This study is an analysis of cross-sectional telephone survey data of mothers in North and South Carolina (n = 1435). We constructed a 4-point social capital index reflecting survey responses to items ascertaining neighborhood characteristics, willingness to take personal action, the presence of 2 adults in the household, and regular religious service participation. We assessed the relationship of social capital to inventories of self-reported parenting behaviors and in-home violence. In adjusted analysis, we found that each 1 point increase in a 4-point social capital index was associated with a 30% reduction in the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence. There was no relationship between social capital and harsh physical punishment. This study demonstrates that increasing social capital decreases the odds of neglectful parenting, psychologically harsh parenting, and domestic violence but not harsh physical punishment. This supports further investigation into developing social capital as a resource for families.

  9. Protection against violence in home (domestic violenceFamily law, misdemeanor amd criminal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Radić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses three main legal aspects of protection from family violence in Croatia: the family law aspect, focused on protecting the child but, precisely because of that, extremely important; misdemeanour law, as the most common form of legal reaction to family violence; criminal law aspect, marked by significant legislative changes. Also, a brief review of important international documents relevant to this topic is given, as well as few interesting comparative solutions. Authors conclude that, regardless of positive changes, ten years after the adoption of the Family Violence Protection Act in Croatia, there are still a lot of possibilities and, more importantly, necessity for improving protection from family violence.

  10. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  11. Acceptability of Family Violence: Underlying Ties Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol

    2017-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.

  12. Finnish Health Care Professionals’ Views of Patients Who Experience Family Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Koistinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the beliefs health care personnel have about patients who experience family violence. This was done by analyzing the positions constructed for such patients using content analysis. The data comprise six focus groups conducted with physicians, nurses, social workers, and psychologists working in a maternity unit, a psychiatric ward, and an emergency department. The research team collected the data in 2006 in Finland. Three main positions were constructed for these patients: as a “victim,” with the classic characteristics of such; as a person damaged or disturbed in such a way that his or her victimization has become hidden behind secondary symptoms; and, as responsible for ending the violence and thus as an active contributor to and supporter of the violence. The results support the notion that health care personnel often have stereotypical beliefs about people experiencing family violence. It would be important to educate personnel about the dynamics of family violence.

  13. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Nastasić, Petar; Hrnčić, Jasna; Brkić, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics appro...

  14. Family violence in Addis Ababa: Challenges of reconciling culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family violence includes physical, psychological and sexual violations such as pinching, beating, hitting, scolding, yelling and coerced sex. Wife beating and child corporal punishment are major family/domestic violence in Ethiopia. This study focused on wife beating (battering). It has attempted to find out the main causes ...

  15. Family Violence against Women: How Does Ethiopian Law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. With the recognition of family violence by the United Nations as a human rights abuse in the 1990s, the issue of family violence has achieved a much greater profile in terms of law and policy development in many countries. However, unfortunately, in Ethiopia so far no serious steps have been taken in this direction.

  16. Coordinated Community Response to Family Violence: The Role of Domestic Violence Service Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neena M.; Ward, Kristin; Janczewski, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that domestic violence (DV) and child maltreatment often overlap and that there are significant negative consequences to women and children who are victims in the same families. The present study contains data from a participatory evaluation of a multisite national demonstration project on family violence (the…

  17. The role of psychiatry in family violence treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastasić Petar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is reassessment of the role of psychiatry in the treatment of family violence within the context of contemporary approaches and researches. There are prejudices in the general and professional public that perpetrators of family violence are usually persons with mental disorders and that psychiatry is primarily in charge of their treatment; it has been shown that severe mental disorders do not increase the risk of violence. Application of classical psychiatrics approach to family violence treatment is discussed, as well as the roles of psychiatry in current theoretical and therapeutic approaches to this issue, including systemic family therapy, social psychiatry primarily concerned with their treatment. Studies have shown that severe mental disorders do not increase ecology, unwillingness therapy and model of protection of family violence victims that is developed in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47021

  18. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  19. Trends in violence education in family medicine residency curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Singh, Vijay; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Violence is a significant public health issue with far-reaching implications for the health of individuals and their communities. Our objective was to describe trends in violence-related training in family medicine residency programs since the last national survey was conducted in 1997. Surveys were sent to 337 US family medicine residency programs with the program director having active Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) membership. Measures included residency setting and characteristics, violence-related curricular content, teaching techniques and personnel, timing of content, and impact of changes in Residency Review Committee (RRC) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses comparing measures across time were used. A total of 201 (60%) surveys were completed. The most common violence curricula was child (83%) and elder abuse (76%), and the most common teachers of violence-related content were family physicians, psychologists, and social workers. The most common teaching methods were clinical precepting (94%), lectures (90%), case vignettes (71%), and intimate partner violence (IPV) shelter experiences (67%). ACGME and RRC changes were not reflected in self-reported measures of curricular emphasis or time. Violence curricular content and number of hours has been constant in family medicine residencies over time. An increase in the reported use of active learning strategies was identified as a trend across surveys. Next steps for violence curricula involve assessment of residents' competency to identify and intervene in violence.

  20. Secondary Victimization: Domestic Violence Survivors Navigating the Family Law System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Lesley

    2016-08-23

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of 22 domestic violence survivors attempting to negotiate safe post-separation parenting arrangements through the Australian family law system. Their allegations of violence put them at odds with a system that values mediated settlements and shared parenting. Skeptical responses, accusations of parental alienation, and pressure to agree to unsafe arrangements exacerbated the effects of post-separation violence. Core themes in the women's narratives of engagement with the family law system-silencing, control, and undermining the mother-child relationship-mirrored domestic violence dynamics, suggesting the concept of secondary victimization as a useful lens for understanding their experiences. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Social networks and family violence in cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbin, J E

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter was twofold. First, the chapter put forward a brief cross-cultural perspective indicating that multiple types of intrafamilial violence occur cross-culturally. Second, the chapter placed social networks at the core of a complex etiology of intrafamilial violence. The purpose of giving centrality to social networks is not to suggest that social networks are the sole or primary agent contributing to family violence but to broaden the context in which family violence is viewed beyond that of the perpetrator, the victim/survivor, or the violent dyad.

  2. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  3. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  4. Family types and intimate-partner violence: A historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Tur-Prats

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the historical origins of violence against women, in contrast to earlier literature, which focused only on short-term determinants. It analyses the relationship between traditional family patterns (stem versus nuclear) and intimate-partner violence (IPV). Stem families are those in which one child stays in the parental household with spouse and children, so that at least two generations live together. I model the behavior of a traditional peasant family and show how coresi...

  5. Perpetual perpetration: How violence shapes the offender : The interplay between organized and family violence, appetitive aggression and mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis explored how violence shapes the violent offender by investigating the interplay between exposure to and perpetration of organized and family violence and its impact on mental health and aggression. Violence and cruelty seem to be omnipresent in men. Nell (2006) suggested that an affectively positive, dopamine mediated and, therefore, rewarding perception of violence fosters violence among humans. Findings concerning the impact of perpetrating violence on mental health are,...

  6. Familial Influences on Dating Violence Victimization Among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Klevens, Joanne; Tharp, Andra Teten; Chapman, Mimi V; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2016-01-01

    Despite theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that the family environment plays a central role in Latino youth development, relatively little is known about how family processes influence dating violence victimization among Latino adolescents. To address this gap in the literature, we used data from 210 Latino parents and their 13- to 15-year-old adolescents to examine associations between several different family processes, including both parenting practices (parent monitoring, parent-adolescent communication) and aspects of the family relational climate (family cohesion, family conflict, acculturation conflict) and psychological, physical, and sexual dating violence victimization. Consistent with expectations, lower levels of family cohesion and higher levels of family and acculturation conflict were associated with risk for dating violence victimization, although associations varied depending on victimization type. In contrast, neither parental monitoring nor parent-adolescent communication was significantly associated with any type of dating violence victimization. In addition, we found that parent, but not teen, Anglo-American acculturation was associated with higher dating violence victimization risk. Findings suggest that family-based dating abuse prevention programs for Latino youth should seek to increase family cohesion and decrease family conflict, including acculturation-based conflict.

  7. Can Evolutionary Principles Explain Patterns of Family Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated…

  8. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    76 articles. Family violence (FV) is a term used to describe any form of .... causes, among which adverse life events are prominent;21,22 .... work (71% of mothers v. 58% of .... The balance of these symptoms suggests depression, meaning.

  9. Family influences on the development of aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Madelyn H; Masten, Ann S

    2018-02-01

    Recent research confirms that many of the most salient risk and protective factors for the development of aggression and violence reside in the family system. Family-based risks begin before birth, encompassing genetic and epigenetic processes. Contextual stressors (e.g., poverty, conflict) may impact development directly or indirectly through disrupted parenting behavior, including high negativity, low warmth, harshness, and exposure to violence. The family can also serve as a powerful adaptive system counteracting the risk of aggression and violence. Parents can promote healthy behavioral development through warmth, structure, and prosocial values, as well as by fostering adaptive resources in the child and community. Successful interventions often reduce aggression and violence by supporting parents and families. Recent insights and future directions for research and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Profile of intimate partner violence in Family Health Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, Ricardo de Mattos Russo; Moura, Anna Tereza Miranda Soares de; Tavares, Jeane Marques Cunha; Ferreira, Renata Evelin Moreno; Camilo, Glauce Gomes da Silva; Neto, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro). A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.

  11. Profile of intimate partner violence in Family Health Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the profile of intimate partner violence involving women in a scenario of Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu (Rio de Janeiro. Method: A transversal study was conducted in four units with a sample of 640 women between the ages of 25 to 64. The phenomena of violence was determined using the tool Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, validated for Brazil. Statistical analysis took into consideration an estimation of prevalence in the calculation of the p values. Results: The situations of violence and the sociodemographic profiles demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with the variables of educational level and housing conditions. Age, ethnicity and economic class demonstrated an association with certain types of violence, varying in type and severity. Conclusion: The study investigated the profile of these situations of violence and enabled reflection regarding the approaches adopted by the Family Health Strategy teams.

  12. Ethical issues in family violence research in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Eija; Lepistö, Sari; Flinck, Aune

    2014-02-01

    Research ethics is always important. However, it is especially crucial with sensitive research topics such as family violence. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss some crucial issues regarding intimate partner violence and child maltreatment, based on the authors' own research experiences. We focus on and discuss examples concerning the definition of family violence, research design, ethical approval, participant recruitment and safety and data collection and processing. During the research process, the significance of teamwork is emphasized. Support provided by the participants to each other and support given by experienced researchers within the team is very important for high ethical standards.

  13. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  14. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman Am; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants' demographic and occupational data. A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers.

  15. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Turki N

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting.Objective: To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data.Results: A total 123 health care workers (45.6% experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5% and nonphysical violence (99.2%, including verbal violence (94.3% and intimidation (22.0%. Offenders were patients (71.5% in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%, or both (3.3%. Almost half (48.0% of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence.Conclusion: Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care

  16. Family Violence and Child Sexual Abuse Among South Asians in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Hillary A; Chaudhary Nagaraj, Nitasha; Vyas, Amita N

    2016-08-01

    Family violence, including child sexual abuse (CSA), is a significant public health problem in the United States. It is particularly difficult to assess family violence and CSA among South Asians because it is often hidden due to cultural and familial stigma. A web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample (n = 368) of South Asian adults in the US. One-fourth (25.2 %) of the sample reported CSA; 13.8 % reported abuse involving exposure; 21.5 % reported abuse involving touching; 4.5 % reported attempted sexual intercourse; and 3.5 % reported forced sexual intercourse. Adjusted odds ratios found that participants who reported any relationship violence were significantly more likely to have experienced CSA (OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.26-4.13); and suicide attempt was significantly associated with CSA (OR 3.96; 95 % CI 1.27-12.3). The findings presented in this formative study will assist in guiding future studies and interventions for South Asians in the United States.

  17. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. METHODS: Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = −0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= −2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. PMID:24936002

  18. The association of telomere length with family violence and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Patterns of Family and Intimate Partner Violence in Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Thomas, Shane; Abbott, Max; Bellringer, Maria; Battersby, Malcolm; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Lavis, Tiffany; Jackson, Alun C

    2018-03-26

    While the evidence about the statistical co-occurrence of family violence and problem gambling is growing, the mechanism by which the two behaviours are related is less clear. This study sought to clarify the dynamics of the problem behaviours, including the role of gender in victimisation and perpetration of violence in the family. Two-hundred-and-twelve treatment seeking problem gamblers (50.5% females) were recruited for interviews about past year FV and IPV experiences. The interviews included questions about the types of FV and IPV using the HITS tool (Sherin et al. in Fam Med Kans City 30:508-512, 1998). The questions addressed multiple family members, the temporal order of violence and gambling and the perceived associations between the two behaviours. The result show that well over half (60.8%; 95 CI = 54.1-67.2) of the participants reported some form of violence in the past 12 months, with no gender differences in relation to perpetration and victimisation. Bidirectional violence (43.9%; 95 CI = 37.4-50.6) was significantly more common than 'perpetration only' (11.3%; 95 CI = 7.7-16.3) or 'victimisation only' (5.7%; 95 CI = 3.3-9.6). Violence was mostly verbal, although considerable rates of physical violence also featured in the responses. 'Participants' own gambling preceded violence in a majority of the interviews but a small group of IPV victims reported that being a victim had led to their problematic gambling. These results can be used inform prevention, better treatment matching and capacity building in family violence and problem gambling services, where a significant focus should be on situational IPV.

  20. Factors associated with family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-10-30

    Family violence by persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) is a highly under-researched area. The primary objective of the present analysis was to identify perpetrator, victim, and interaction/relationship factors associated with this phenomenon. The secondary objective was to examine the extent to which the relationship between caregiving and family violence was mediated by limit-setting practices used towards relatives with PD. 573 adults across the U.S. with an adult relative with PD completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression was performed examining the association of factors with the occurrence of family violence. Mediation was assessed with Sobel testing. Family violence was significantly associated with the following factors: perpetrator-income, illegal drug use, psychiatric hospitalization, treatment attendance, and use of medications; victim-age, employment status, income, and mental health status; interaction/relationship-parental relationship, co-residence, use of limit-setting practices, representative payeeship, and unofficial money management. Mediation was statistically significant. Increasing access to mental health and/or substance abuse treatment may decrease the risk of family violence. Interventions may benefit from attempting to decrease/modify the use of limit-setting practices. Where family representative payeeship or unofficial money management exists, it is advisable for practitioners to assess and address financial coercion and promote greater collaboration in financial decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Women (VAW)

    OpenAIRE

    Javadi Alimohammad; Javadi Maryam

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against the women, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 100 women of married of city of Ilam in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of violence against the women , the CTS scaled has been used .violence against the women be measured in four dimension ( emotional violence, psycho violence, physical violence, neglect violenc...

  2. Domestic Violence and Family Law: Criminological Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Dragiewicz

    2014-01-01

    The battered women’s movement in the United States contributed to a sweeping change in the recognition of men’s violence against female intimate partners. Naming the problem and arguing in favor if its identification as a serious problem meriting a collective response were key aspects of this effort. Criminal and civil laws have been written and revised in an effort to answer calls to take such violence seriously. Scholars have devoted significant attention to the consequences of this reframi...

  3. Florida State University's Institute for Family Violence Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehme, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines the role of the Institute for Family Violence Studies (IFVS) within the Florida State University College of Social Work in navigating issues intersecting social work and the law ( http://familyvio.csw.fsu.edu/ ). By developing comprehensive state and national trainings for unique populations and conducting interdisciplinary research, the IFVS promotes public policy that benefits healthy families and decreases family and intimate partner violence. The crucial role of staff and students, the IFVS's collaborative alliances, and funding sources are highlighted. Projects such as the Clearinghouse on Supervised Visitation, the National Prevention Toolkit on Officer-Involved Domestic Violence, Successful Co-Parenting After Divorce, and the LGBTQ Family Life Project are described. Plans for future projects, as well as other new avenues for research, are summarized.

  4. Family stress dynamics, domestic violence and their combined ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized the classical ABCX family crisis model in identifying how families perceive, interpret and react to various sources of stress confronting them and their perceived impact on their health. The study is timely because of the recent upsurge in domestic violence cases in Ghana, which are mainly attributable to ...

  5. Alcohol use, intimate partner violence and family well being: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking-related domestic violence generalizes the negative consequences of drinking, engenders and aggravates household economic and health problems, and compromises the well-being of the family. The poor socioeconomic condition of the affected family constrains their capacity to provide treatment services for the ...

  6. Family Interventions on Protection of Children from Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Başoğul, Ceyda; Lök, Neslihan; Öncel, Selma

    2017-01-01

    Violence is the biggest obstacle for living as a respectable, dignity, equal and free individual and for self-actualization of a child. Children learn to show aggression when, how and against whom. Knowledge is transmitted from parents to children as well as children learn it from peer groups and the mass media. It has become a cycle of violence in this way. In studies on this issue, it was determined that interventions for families (counseling and therapy interventions, crisis and outreach...

  7. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2014-01-21

    Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including type of family violence, and determine the impact of violence profiles on FDR processes and outcomes, such as the type and durability of shared parenting arrangements and clients' satisfaction with mediated agreements. A mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal design is used. The sampling frame is clients presenting at nine family mediation centres across metropolitan, outer suburban, and regional/rural sites in Victoria, Australia. Data are collected at pre-test, completion of mediation, and six months later. Self-administered surveys are administered at the three time points, and a telephone interview at the final post-test. The key study variable is family violence. Key outcome measures are changes in the type and level of acrimony and violent behaviours, the relationship between violence and mediated agreements, the durability of agreements over six months, and client satisfaction with mediation. Family violence is a major risk to the physical and mental health of women and children. This study will inform debates about the role of family violence and how to manage it in the family mediation context. It will also inform decision-making about mediation practices by better understanding how mediation impacts on parenting agreements, and the implications for children, especially in the context of family violence.

  8. Efficacy of family mediation and the role of family violence: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Family law reforms in Australia require separated parents in dispute to attempt mandatory family dispute resolution (FDR) in community-based family services before court attendance. However, there are concerns about such services when clients present with a history of high conflict and family violence. This study protocol describes a longitudinal study of couples presenting for family mediation services. The study aims to describe the profile of family mediation clients, including type of family violence, and determine the impact of violence profiles on FDR processes and outcomes, such as the type and durability of shared parenting arrangements and clients’ satisfaction with mediated agreements. Methods A mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal design is used. The sampling frame is clients presenting at nine family mediation centres across metropolitan, outer suburban, and regional/rural sites in Victoria, Australia. Data are collected at pre-test, completion of mediation, and six months later. Self-administered surveys are administered at the three time points, and a telephone interview at the final post-test. The key study variable is family violence. Key outcome measures are changes in the type and level of acrimony and violent behaviours, the relationship between violence and mediated agreements, the durability of agreements over six months, and client satisfaction with mediation. Discussion Family violence is a major risk to the physical and mental health of women and children. This study will inform debates about the role of family violence and how to manage it in the family mediation context. It will also inform decision-making about mediation practices by better understanding how mediation impacts on parenting agreements, and the implications for children, especially in the context of family violence. PMID:24443936

  9. Hidden Child Labor: Determinants of Housework and Family Business Work of Children in 16 Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2012-01-01

    Two forms of “hidden” child labor – housework and family business work – are studied for 178,000 children in 16 African and Asian countries. About 30% of African children and 11% of Asian children work over 15 h a week in hidden child labor. Girls are more involved in housework and boys more in

  10. Family caregivers in rural Uganda: the hidden reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Walter; Tindyebwa, Denis; Rubaale, Tom; Karamagi, Ednah; Bajenja, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with family caregivers of AIDS patients in three rural districts in western Uganda. They were selected from a client visitation list of the home-based care program for AIDS patients, based on volunteer participation. Family caregivers reported huge problems associated with providing the necessary psychological, social, and economic care. They also said that the physical and emotional demands of caregiving are overwhelming daily challenges. Most support to AIDS patients provided by family, friends, and the churches. The study highlights the great burden of caregivers, in sub-Saharan Africa who most often are elderly women and young girls. This study examine, the burden and related health issues of family caregivers, primarily women, for AIDS patients in Uganda. It was part of a broad research project using qualitative methods on family caregiving in the home environment in sub-Saharan Africa. As the requirements for family care giving are often overwhelming for women under the conditions as they exist in Uganda and in other developing countries, it constitutes a gender issue of great importance that has not been appreciated fully in the international literature. Family caregiving is also of international relevance, as HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic of previously unknown proportions. In many poor countries, family caregiving is the most common and often the only care that AIDS patients receive, because clinic-based care often is not available close to home or is not affordable. Therefore, family caregiver support programs to alleviate this burden are essential for all those countries where HIV/AIDS is prevalent. Family caregiver burden encompasses medical, social, and economic issues at the household level, which requires an interdisciplinary approach in order to fully understand and appreciate the different dimensions of the family caregiver burden and its negative impact on the lives of so many women in so many countries.

  11. Prevention guardianship in family violence processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Narváez, Marianella

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the importance of protection orders issued in domestic violence processes, in relation to Law 30364. In addition, she points out its difference with interim orders, that protection orders offer preventive protection to the victims of domestic violence. She concludes that protection orders must been interpreted according to certain principles and its validity must continue through a non-contentious process.  En este artículo, la autora describe la impor...

  12. Domestic violence: a hidden barrier to contraceptive use among women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishwajit G

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghose Bishwajit, Sanni Yaya Faculty of Social Sciences, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: The nonuse of family planning methods remains a major public health concern in the low-and-middle-income countries, especially due to its impact on unwanted pregnancy, high rate of abortion, and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Various demographic and socioeconomic factors have been reported to be associated with the nonuse of family planning methods. In the present study, we aimed at assessing the influence of domestic violence (DV on contraceptive use among ever married women in Nigeria. Methods: Data on 22,275 women aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the most recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2013. The outcome variable was contraceptive utilization status, and the main exposure variable was DV, which was assessed by the self-reported experience of physical and psychological abuse. Complex survey method was employed to account for the multistage design of the survey. Data analyses were performed by using bivariate and multivariable techniques. Results: The mean age of the participants was 31.33±8.26. More than four fifths (84% of the participants reported that they were not using any contraceptive methods at all. Lifetime prevalence of psychological and physical abuse was, respectively, 19.0% (95% CI =18.0–20.1 and 14.1% (95% CI =13.3–14.9. Women who reported physical abuse were 28% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.275; 95% CI =1.030–1.578, and those reported both physical and psychological abuse had 52% (AOR =1.520; 95% CI =1.132–2.042 higher odds of not using any contraception. Conclusion: The rate of contraception nonuse was considerably high and was found to be significantly associated with DV. Thus, the high prevalence of DV may compromise the effectiveness of the family planning programs in the long run. Evidence

  13. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M.; McDonell, James R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents’ reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. PMID:27106255

  14. Differential Adjustment Among Rural Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianko, Natallia; Hedge, Jasmine M; McDonell, James R

    2016-04-22

    This study examines differences in psychological adjustment in a sample of rural adolescents who have been exposed to family violence. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 580 adolescents and their primary caregivers. The results revealed that over two thirds of the study participants (68.8%) had been exposed to violence in their families. As hypothesized, cluster analysis identified several profiles among adolescents, distinguished by their psychological and emotional functioning: well adjusted (46.2%), moderately adjusted (44.3%), and struggling (9.5%). Discriminant function analysis confirmed the groupings and revealed that family functioning was among the most influential factors explaining adjustment differences. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) further showed that adolescents from each of the three adjustment profiles reported significantly different levels of family social support, parental involvement, and perceived neighborhood safety. Overall, the results confirm heterogeneity of adolescent adaptation in the aftermath of family violence and provide insights into family and neighborhood factors that account for variability in adolescents' reactions to violence. Implications for future research and practical interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. [Family Health Strategies to tackle violence involving adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Netto, Moysés Francisco; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) has an acknowledged potential for the promotion of health and the prevention of violence. This is an integrative bibliographic review with the aim of evaluating the performance of FHS professionals in tackling and preventing violence involving adolescents. It is an integrative review of dissertations and theses on healthcare published from 1994 to 2014. The collection of 17 dissertations and 2 doctoral theses reveals that these studies are recent. The FHS professionals acknowledge the vulnerability of adolescents to inflicting and being subject to violence, however the FHS proves ineffective in tackling and preventing such violence. The predominance of the medical technical care model, the deficiencies in Public Health education in professional training and the lack of institutional support are seen as the main obstacles. Many of these professionals are unaware of the files for notification of violence. The existence of family violence and criminal groups were the aspects most mentioned in the territories. The social representation of adolescents as being "problematic" and the lack of ESF actions that promote an increase youth leadership and empowerment were clearly detected.

  16. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations.

  17. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Nouf Al-Turki,1 Ayman AM Afify,1 Mohammed AlAteeq2 1Family Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are lim...

  18. Students' Family and Violence in Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Feliciano

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between the adolescents orientation towards violence in schools and variables of the familiar context - parents (un)employment, divorce, socio-cultural status, aprent authority, brothers friendship and familiar self-concept, as well as the variations of that relation according to the variable "perceived parental support".

  19. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  20. Out of control: Identifying the role of self-control strength in family violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Baumeister, R. F.; Schoemaker, K.; Bartels, M.; Vohs, K. D.

    2015-01-01

    Family violence is common and brings tremendous costs to individuals, relationships, and society. Victims are vulnerable to negative outcomes across a host of dimensions, including cognitive performance, impulse control, emotion regulation, and physical health. Links between family violence and

  1. The Consequences of Witnessing Family Violence on Children and Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of children are directly abused, an even larger number may indirectly experience the effects of abuse as witnesses of family violence. However, the effects on children who witness such violence have long been unaddressed, although a growing body of research indicates that these children are affected in various domains,…

  2. [Violence in families and its prevention. Also a plea for abolishing the parental right to inflict physical punishment. A report of the "Violence Commission" of the federal government].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, H; Schmidt, M H; Strunk, P

    1990-01-01

    Violence in families is rather frequent. Different forms of violent acts can be distinguished: violence between partners, violence between parents and children, violence among siblings, and violence against elder family members. This report gives an overview--with the emphasis on violence in families--of the work of the "Violence Commission" of the Federal Government. This commission worked out proposals for intervention in the case of intrafamiliar violence as well as for prevention. Two proposals of the commission are explained in detail: (1) Rejection of violence and prohibition of corporal punishment in education and (2) punishability of conjugal violation.

  3. Epidemiological research of violence against children in families in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanak Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results of an epidemiological study conducted in 2010-2011 as a part of the regional project Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect (BECAN are presented. The goal of the research was to estimate the prevalence of physical, psychological and sexual violence against children in the family as well as prevalence of feeling of neglect in children. Gender and age differences in the prevalence of violence, as well as differences with respect to geographic region and urbanicity of place of the children’s’ residence were also examined. The stratified cluster sample consisted of 4027 children attending the fifth and seventh grades of the primary school and the second grade of the high school. Data was collected by an adapted version of the questionnaire ICAST-C (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Chidren Version - ICAST-C. At least one experience of psychological violence in the lifetime was reported by 68,4% of children, whereas at least one experience of physical violence was reported by 69,2% of children. Feeling of neglect was experienced by 28.8% of children at least once in their lifetime. At least one experience of sexual violence was reported by 8.5% children, whereas 3,7% of them reported the experience of contact sexual violence in the past year. The results indicate that girls are more exposed to psychological violence and report more feeling of neglect. Conversely, boys report more exposure to sexual violence. The rate of severe forms of physical, psychological and sexual violence is about 0.5 to 1%. [Projekat je realizovan kroz Sedmi okvirni program Evropske Komisije(FP7, pod oznakom HEALTH-F2-2009-223478

  4. Family Violence Pathways and Externalizing Behavior in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzay, Melanie L; Joy, Lendi N; Verona, Edelyn

    2017-08-01

    While studies suggest that youth who experience violence in the home are more likely to engage in externalizing behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance use, rule breaking), research is needed to understand factors that may explain how family violence is linked to externalizing, and whether there may be gender-specific trajectories to this outcome. The present study used a cross-sectional design and multigroup, path analytic modeling to test the degree to which personality traits (negative emotionality, constraint) in boys and girls (Model 1), as well as status offending primarily in girls (Model 2), may help explain relationships between exposure to familial adversity (witnessing family violence and child abuse) and adolescent externalizing behaviors in a mixed-gender, community sample with both caregiver and youth reports ( N = 237, 57% female, 10-17 years old). Results indicated that personality traits fully explained the relationship between witnessing family violence and externalizing and partially explained the relationship between child abuse and externalizing among youth. Despite theory suggesting a female-specific trajectory involving status offenses, both models were similarly relevant for boys and girls. These findings have implications for understanding processes by which adverse family circumstances may relate to externalizing behavior in youth. Preliminary suggestions are provided for future longitudinal research, policy changes, and clinical techniques that may be essential in preventing the progression to long-term adverse outcomes among youth.

  5. What can psychiatrists do to better support victims of family violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Manjula; Cox, Joanne; Castle, David J

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to draw psychiatrists' attention to the problem of family violence and offer pragmatic guidance to detect and manage family violence in the psychiatric context. Selective narrative review. Family violence involves complex interactions between societal, cultural, family and individual factors. Awareness and understanding of family violence is important for psychiatrists as engagement can result in enhanced opportunities for early intervention and harm reduction. There are barriers facing psychiatrists regarding successful family violence intervention outcomes. Concerted action is required to improve services and support to victims and perpetrators. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  6. Intimate violence, family, and femininity: women's narratives on their construction of violence and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Nishi

    2013-10-01

    In the context of a high threshold for violence in everyday living and the cultural value of the institution of family, this article looks at women's narratives from counseling settings in India to comment on the cultural processes of explaining and rationalizing domestic violence that silence women. Definitions of femininity, marriage, and motherhood in India that are hinged on women's responsibility toward holding a family together have obstructed an understanding of women's individual rights and of violations of these rights. There is need to address both the public and professionals on the specific nature of domestic violence, and its ideological and structural context for creating recognition of the issue as a major social problem.

  7. Community Violence, Family Conflict, and Preschoolers' Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan; Eppe, Stefanie; Fernandez, Alicia; Schwartz, David

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among family conflict, community violence, and young children's socioemotional functioning and explored how children's social cognition and mothers' psychological functioning may mediate the outcomes associated with this exposure. Mothers of 431 Head Start preschoolers completed questionnaires about their family…

  8. Family Conflicts and Violence against Women - An International Comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rendlová, Eliška

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2002), s. 6-8 ISSN 1213-9920 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : public opinion * family conflicts * violence against women Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  9. Factors that influence clinicians' assessment and management of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, V P; Schmidt, T A; Limandri, B J; Chiodo, G T; Garland, M J; Loveless, P A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. High rates of family violence and low rates of detection, report, and therapeutic intervention by health professionals are well documented. This study was undertaken to determine what factors influence clinicians' decision making about identifying abuse and intervening with victims. METHODS. Survey data about clinicians' experiences with and attitudes toward family violence were gathered by mailed questionnaire from a random sample of practicing clinicians in six disciplines (n = 1521). RESULTS. Data showed similarities within and wide differences among three groups of subjects: dentists/dental hygienists, nurses/physicians, and psychologists/social workers. Overall, a third of subjects reported having received no educational content on child, spouse, or elder abuse in their professional training programs. Subjects with education on the topic more commonly suspected abuse in their patients than those without; among all subjects, spouse abuse was suspected more often than child abuse while elder abuse was suspected infrequently. Significant numbers of subjects did not view themselves as responsible for dealing with problems of family violence. Subjects indicated low confidence in and low compliance with mandatory reporting laws. CONCLUSIONS. There is a need for educators to expand curricula on family violence and for legislators to reexamine mandatory reporting laws. PMID:8154568

  10. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  11. Revealing a Hidden Curriculum of Black Women's Erasure in Sexual Violence Prevention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Sara Carrigan

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…

  12. The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

  13. Violence and family bounds in Phaedra's theme

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    UID/HIS/04666/2013 In World Culture love is presented as one the major topics explored by its intervenients. Concerning our study, it presents love and sexuality in terms of its disruptiveness: they are characterized as a force that destabilizes the status quo of human communities, leading to situations of Love/ Violence and Love/ Death. From this point of view, the Theme of Phaedra (after Thompson‟s Motif-Index) can be analysed in this perspective. Its variations allow him to adapt to dif...

  14. Domestic violence: a hidden barrier to contraceptive use among women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Yaya, Sanni

    2018-01-01

    The nonuse of family planning methods remains a major public health concern in the low-and-middle-income countries, especially due to its impact on unwanted pregnancy, high rate of abortion, and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Various demographic and socioeconomic factors have been reported to be associated with the nonuse of family planning methods. In the present study, we aimed at assessing the influence of domestic violence (DV) on contraceptive use among ever married women in Nigeria. Data on 22,275 women aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the most recent Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2013. The outcome variable was contraceptive utilization status, and the main exposure variable was DV, which was assessed by the self-reported experience of physical and psychological abuse. Complex survey method was employed to account for the multistage design of the survey. Data analyses were performed by using bivariate and multivariable techniques. The mean age of the participants was 31.33±8.26. More than four fifths (84%) of the participants reported that they were not using any contraceptive methods at all. Lifetime prevalence of psychological and physical abuse was, respectively, 19.0% (95% CI =18.0-20.1) and 14.1% (95% CI =13.3-14.9). Women who reported physical abuse were 28% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.275; 95% CI =1.030-1.578), and those reported both physical and psychological abuse had 52% (AOR =1.520; 95% CI =1.132-2.042) higher odds of not using any contraception. The rate of contraception nonuse was considerably high and was found to be significantly associated with DV. Thus, the high prevalence of DV may compromise the effectiveness of the family planning programs in the long run. Evidence-based intervention strategies should be developed to protect the health and reproductive rights of the vulnerable women and to reduce DV by giving the issue a wider recognition in public policy making.

  15. The Hidden Work of Women in Small Family Firms in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rodríguez-Modroño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Women have historically played an important hidden role in family firms, and a great deal of research is now shedding light on this role. In spite of the more formal nature of female work at the present day, still a considerable volume of women’s contributions in family firms is unregistered and unpaid, even in developed regions. A questionnaire was administered to 396 women working in small and medium-sized family firms located in Andalucia, a southern European region, characterized by familialism and an important informal economy. Our results confirm the persistence of subordinate forms of unpaid family collaboration due to the neutrality assigned to female contributions under the traditional gendered division of work. But also this study shows how some of the women voluntarily embrace subordinate roles as a temporary way to gain professional experience, useful for their future work inside or outside the family firm.

  16. Rate of Family Violence Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nagata, Satoko; Kita, Sachiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Solomon, Phyllis

    2015-09-01

    Family violence is a serious concern in the era of deinstitutionalization in Japan. Consequently, we aimed to clarify the rate of family violence among patients with schizophrenia, and differences by sex and relationship to the patient. We asked households belonging to a family group association to complete a self-administered mail survey. Of 350 households that responded, data for 302 were analyzed. The rate of violence toward any family member was 60.9% over the lifetime and 27.2% in the past year. Order of lifetime rates for family members from highest to lowest was 51.0% for mothers, 47.0% for fathers, 30.7% for younger sisters, 23.8% for spouses, 19.5% for younger brothers, 18.2% for older sisters, 17.1% for older brothers, and none for children. Younger sisters were more likely to be victims compared to other siblings. Fathers and older brothers were likely to be victims when patients were male. © 2015 APJPH.

  17. The culture of pretence: a hidden barrier to recognising, disclosing and ending domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Lyn; Loxton, Deborah; James, Colin

    2017-08-01

    To explore in detail how women perceived their experience of domestic violence and leaving or ending the abuse. This research also examined how service providers identified their professional role in assisting women to end such relationships. Domestic violence against women continues to occur internationally. Reliable statistics are difficult to capture because of inconsistent definitions, contradictory methods of acquiring data and unreported incidents. A qualitative study, undertaken in two phases, was conducted in Australia. Twelve women who had experienced domestic violence and ended those relationships participated in one semistructured interview (Phase 1). Twenty-five professionals from health, social sciences and law, whose work included assisting women experiencing domestic violence, participated in three focus groups (Phase 2). Thematic analysis guided by a narrative inquiry approach forms the framework for information collection and interpretation of data in this project. The barriers that impede women from disclosing abuse and taking action to end domestic violence are complex and varied between participants. Women did not always acknowledge or realise their relationship was precarious and often denied or minimised the abuse to cope with the domestic violence. Professionals identified that women did not always identify or acknowledge abuse inherent in their relationship although this delayed the provision of appropriate services. Whether women disclose abuse or deny violence in their relationship, acceptance by service providers and the offer of support is crucial to assisting women in violent relationships. It is hoped that the findings may assist health practitioners, including nurses, to provide nonjudgemental support to women experiencing domestic violence whether women acknowledge the abusive relationship or not. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family violence...

  19. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family violence...

  20. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence during Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…

  1. The Impact of Family Violence on Children and Adolescents. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Javad H.; Allan, Wesley D.

    Violence in the family is being increasingly identified as a societal problem that has multiple short- and long-term effects on children. This book focuses on the relationship between different types of family violence and the resulting impact of violence on the child. Chapter One discusses the definition, history, and societal costs of family…

  2. Family Interventions on Protection of Children from Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence is the biggest obstacle for living as a respectable, dignity, equal and free individual and for self-actualization of a child. Children learn to show aggression when, how and against whom. Knowledge is transmitted from parents to children as well as children learn it from peer groups and the mass media. It has become a cycle of violence in this way. In studies on this issue, it was determined that interventions for families (counseling and therapy interventions, crisis and outreach interventions, parenting interventions, and multicomponent interventions provide developments in behavior problems in children, the level of information related security, anger and violence, self-esteem, conflict management, the psychological distress in families, empathy in parent-child interactions, parenting skills and psychological functioning. Nurses having the opportunity to meet with the group at risk for domestic violence in many environments have important responsibilities in this regard. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(2.000: 123-135

  3. Children’s Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men’s Severe Violence Toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children’s adjustment problems in families characterized by men’s severe violence toward women. Methods Participants were 258 children and their mothers recruited from domestic violence shelters. Mothers and children completed measures of men’s IPV, women’s IPV, partner-child aggression, and mother-child aggression. Mothers provided reports of children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems; children provided reports of their appraisals of threat in relation to interparent conflict. Results After controlling for sociodemographics and men’s IPV: 1) each of the additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s IPV) was associated with children’s externalizing problems; 2) partner-child aggression was associated with internalizing problems; and 3) partner-child aggression was associated with children’s threat appraisals. The relation of mother-child aggression to externalizing problems was stronger for boys than for girls; gender differences were not observed for internalizing problems or threat appraisals. Conclusions Men’s severe IPV seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence, and these other forms appear to contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Parent-child aggression, and partner-child aggression in particular, are especially important. Systematic efforts to identify shelter children who are victims of parental violence seem warranted. Practice implications Men’s severe intimate partner violence seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women’s intimate partner violence), and these different forms of family violence all contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Treatment programs for

  4. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 2: Techniques and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the second of two companion papers that provide an overview of mentalization-based concepts and techniques when working with the seeming "mindlessness" of intra-family violence. The focus of this paper is on general mentalization-oriented approaches and specific interventions that aim to (1) disrupt the non-mentalizing cycles that can generate intra-family violence and (2) encourage the emergence of patterns of family interactions that provide the foundation for non-violent alternatives. Various playful exercises and activities are described, including the taking of "mental state snapshots" and "selfies" in sessions and staging inverted role-plays, as well as using theatrical masks and creating body-mind maps and scans. These can make "chronic" relationship issues come alive in session and permit "here and now" experiences that generate a safe context for mentalizing to take place. At the core of the work is the continuous focus on integrating experience and reflection. Without acute awareness of the thoughts and feelings occurring in the sessions, mere reflection is not likely to enable change. By increasing mentalizing in the family system, family members' trusting attitudes grow, both within and outside the family. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  5. Family Functioning in Suicidal Inpatients With Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru, Alison M.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Recupero, Patricia Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly bidirectional with both partners perpetrating and being victims of aggressive behaviors. In these couples, family dysfunction is reported across a broad range of family functions: communication, intimacy, problem solving, expression or control of anger, and designation of relationship roles. This study reports on the perceived family functioning of suicidal inpatients. Method: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study of adult suicidal inpatients, participants completed assessments of recent IPV and family functioning. Recruited patients were between 18 and 65 years of age and English fluent, had suicidal ideation, and were living with an intimate partner for at least the past 6 months. Intimate partner violence was assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scale-Revised, and family functioning was measured using the McMaster Family Assessment Device. The study was conducted from August 2004 through February 2005. Results: In 110 inpatients with suicidal ideation and IPV, family functioning was perceived as poor across many domains, although patients did report family strengths. Gender differences were not found in the overall prevalence of IPV, but when the sample was divided into good and poor family functioning, women with poorer family functioning reported more psychological abuse by a partner. For both genders, physical and psychological victimization was associated with poorer family functioning. Conclusion: Among psychiatric inpatients with suicidal ideation, IPV occurred in relationships characterized by general dysfunction. Poorer general family functioning was associated with the perception of victimization for both genders. The high prevalence of bidirectional IPV highlights the need for the development of couples treatment for this population of suicidal psychiatric inpatients. PMID:18185819

  6. Violence Towards Family Caregivers by Their Relative with Schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Solomon, Phyllis; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Fujii, Chiyo

    2018-06-01

    There have been several violence-related deaths in Japan due to family violence by persons with severe mental illness against their caregivers. However, it is not often acknowledged that these violent acts are mainly directed at family members. This study aimed to clarify what acts of violence family caregivers experienced from their relative with schizophrenia, and how frequently these violent incidents occurred in their lifetime. We also examined caregivers' thoughts of death about themselves and their relatives, as well as their consultation efforts and escape from the violence perpetrated by their relative. Of the 277 caregivers, 87.7% had experienced psychological violence and 75.8% had experienced physical violence perpetrated by their relative. Of 210 caregivers who had experienced physical violence, 26.7% had thought of murder-suicide and 31.0% had wished for their relative's death. Family violence by persons with schizophrenia is not rare but a common occurrence in Japan and may have fatal consequences.

  7. Double Dose: High Family Conflict Enhances the Effect of Media Violence Exposure on Adolescents’ Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti M. Valkenburg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low conflict families. A total of 499 adolescents (aged 10 to 14, 48% girls participated in a two-wave longitudinal survey (4-month interval. Survey questions assessed their exposure to violence on television and in electronic games, family conflict, and aggressive behavior. Analyses revealed a significant interaction between media violence and family conflict. In families with higher conflict, higher media violence exposure was related to increased subsequent aggression. This study is the first to show a double dose effect of media violence and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression. These findings underscore the important role of the family in shaping the effects of adolescents’ media use on their social development.

  8. Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Students in Minnesota: Associations With Family Violence, Unsafe Schools, and Resources for Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Alicia A; Brady, Sonya S

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines whether being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, and feeling unsafe at school are associated with physical dating violence victimization. It also examines whether extracurricular activity involvement and perceived care by parents, teachers, and friends attenuate those relationships, consistent with a stress-buffering model. Participants were 75,590 ninth-and twelfth-grade students (51% female, 77% White, 24% receiving free/reduced price lunch) who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Overall, 8.5% of students reported being victims of dating violence. Significant differences were found by gender, grade, ethnicity, and free/reduced price lunch status. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, feeling unsafe at school, and low perceived care by parents were strongly associated with dating violence victimization. Associations of moderate strength were found for low perceived care by teachers and friends. Little to no extracurricular activity involvement was weakly associated with dating violence victimization. Attenuating effects of perceived care and extracurricular activity involvement on associations between risk factors (victimization by a family adult, witnessing intra-familial violence, feeling unsafe at school) and dating violence victimization were smaller in magnitude than main effects. Findings are thus more consistent with an additive model of risk and protective factors in relation to dating violence victimization than a stress-buffering model. Health promotion efforts should attempt to minimize family violence exposure, create safer school environments, and encourage parental involvement and support. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup

    2017-08-01

    The current systematic review summarizes the evidence from studies examining the risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families. Data included 15 peer-reviewed qualitative and quantitative studies. In order to gain an overview of the identified risk and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family acculturation stress. At the societal level low socioeconomic status was identified as a risk factor. Cultural level risk factors included patriarchal beliefs. Positive parental coping strategies were a protective factor. An ecological analysis of the results suggests that family related violence in refugee families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related violence should not only include the individual, but the family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  11. Perpetrators of Domestic Violence Abuse within Intellectual Disability Services: A Hidden Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Charlotte; Waites, Erin; Goodman, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Background: Domestic violence abuse (DVA) has been identified by the UK Government as a priority to address. Whilst there is a growing body of research into perpetrators of DVA from the mainstream population, there is scant research into perpetrators of DVA who have an intellectual disability. This lack of an evidence base suggests there may be a…

  12. Family Violence: An Insight Into Perspectives and Practices of Australian Health Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Han Jie; Grigg, Jasmin; Gurvich, Caroline; Gavrilidis, Emmy; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2018-03-01

    Family violence is threatening behavior carried out by a person to coerce or control another member of the family or causes the family member to be fearful. Health practitioners are well placed to play a pivotal role in identifying and responding to family violence; however, their perceived capacity to respond to patients experiencing family violence is not well understood. We aim to explore Australian health practitioners' current perspectives, practices, and perceived barriers in working with family violence, including perceived confidence in responding effectively to cases of family violence encountered during their work with patients. A total of 1,707 health practitioners primarily practicing in the wider Melbourne region were identified, and 114 health practitioners participated in the study between March 2016 and August 2016 by completing an investigator-developed questionnaire. Descriptive, qualitative, and thematic analyses were performed. The majority of participants recognized family violence to be a health issue and that family violence would impact the mental health of afflicted persons. Despite this, only a fifth of participants felt they were very confident in screening, supporting, and referring patients with family violence experiences. Perceived barriers to inquire about family violence included time constraints and greater importance placed on screening for other health issues. Health practitioners reported that additional training on screening, supporting, and referring patients would be beneficial. Australian health practitioners need to be upskilled. Recently, in Australia, state-relevant toolkits have been developed to provide succinct information about responding to initial patient presentations of family violence, how to inquire about family violence, and how to handle disclosures (and nondisclosures) by patients. Further resources could be developed to aid health practitioners in providing assistance to their patients as indicated. These

  13. Risk and Protective Factors for Family Violence among Low-Income Fathers: Implications for Violence Prevention and Fatherhood Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura; Hammock, Amy Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been an increased focus on improving father engagement to improve child and family outcomes. Recent research suggests that child and family outcomes improve with increased fatherhood engagement. This exploratory study examined risk and protective factors associated with approval of family violence among a sample of low-income fathers (N = 686) enrolled in a responsible fatherhood program. The program goals include increasing father involvement and economic stability and encouraging healthy relationships-with a focus on preventing intimate partner violence. Toward these aims, this study explored factors associated with fathers' self-reported approval of family violence. Understanding the prevalence of risk and protective factors in this population and factors associated with fathers' potential for family violence is important in developing programs to address responsible fatherhood and healthy relationships. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  14. Students' Personal Traits, Violence Exposure, Family Factors, School Dynamics and the Perpetration of Violence in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…

  15. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships Parceria na iniciativa contra a violência familiar no Canadá

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior) abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and developmen...

  16. Screening women for family violence in the maternal child healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszynski, M E

    2000-03-01

    In the United States, a woman is battered in her home every 9 seconds, and up to 4,000 women are beaten to death every year, making family violence one of the most common crimes in the United States today. Family violence has been identified as a national health concern; however, long-standing societal belief, myths regarding family violence, and the lack of training for healthcare professionals have created barriers to identifying and caring for these women. There is no single profile of the victim or perpetrator of family violence. All women should be asked about family violence in a safe, nonthreatening manner at all healthcare visits, including when bringing children for pediatric visits. Family violence begins slowly and increases with time. Goals for caring for the battered woman include decreasing her isolation, increasing her safety, accurate documentation, and appropriate referrals.

  17. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence-parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression-with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth's well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  18. Families and health-care professionals' perspectives and expectations of family-centred care: hidden expectations and unclear roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Imelda

    2015-10-01

    Family-centred care (FCC) is viewed as a pivotal concept in the provision of high-quality nursing care for children and their families, yet implementation continues to be problematic worldwide. This research investigated how FCC was enacted from families and nurses' perspectives. Descriptive qualitative approach using elements of analysis from grounded theory method. Data were collected though individual interviews with 18 children aged 7-16 years, their parents (n = 18) and 18 nurses from two children's hospital and one children's unit in a large general hospital in Ireland. Four key themes were identified: expectations; relying on parents' help; working out roles; and barriers to FCC. Nurses wholeheartedly endorsed FCC because of the benefits for families and their reliance on parents' contribution to the workload. There was minimal evidence of collaboration or negotiation of roles which resulted in parents feeling stressed or abandoned. Nurses cited busy workload, under-staffing and inappropriate documentation as key factors which resulted in over-reliance on parents and hindered their efforts to negotiate and work alongside parents. Families are willing to help in their child's care but they require clear guidance, information and support from nurses. Hidden expectations and unclear roles are stressful for families. Nurses need skills training, adequate resources and managerial support to meet families' needs appropriately, to establish true collaboration and to deliver optimal family-centred care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  20. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  1. Domestic/family violence death reviews: an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dawson, Myrna; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Walsh, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews (D/FVDRs) have been established in a number of high-income countries since 1990 as a mechanism to inform prevention-focused interventions to reduce domestic/family violence. D/FVDRs differ in their structure, governance, case identification processes and inclusion criteria, review measures, and outputs. Outside of the United States, the extent of heterogeneity across and within countries has not been explored. This study comprised an international comparison of D/FVDRs and their core elements to inform the establishment of D/FVDRs in other developed countries, and potentially low- and middle-income countries where violence is a leading cause of death. Such a review is also a necessary foundation for any future evaluation D/FVDRs. The review identified 71 jurisdictions where a D/FVDRs had been established in the past two decades, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. All D/FVDRs examined stated a reduction in deaths as a goal of the review process; however, none reported an actual reduction. The focus of the D/FVDRs examined was on intimate partner homicides; however, more recently established D/FVDRs include other familial relationships. Almost one third of the D/FVDRs examined reported changes to the domestic/family system that occurred as a result of recommendations made from the review process. While similar in many ways, D/FVDRs differ along a number of important dimensions that make it difficult to identify best practices for jurisdictions considering the establishment of such an initiative. To share knowledge, existing networks should be expanded nationally and internationally to include jurisdictions that may be considering this initiative. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Using Game Theory to Understand Screening for Domestic Violence Under the TANF Family Violence Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonok An

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Universal screening for domestic violence in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF program is required by most states, but its implementation is questionable. This paper employs game theory to conceptualize interactions between TANF applicants and frontline eligibility caseworkers. The intended outcomes of universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV – granting of a good cause waiver to IPV victims – are valid only by the assumption that caseworkers perform their roles. To grant a good cause waiver, TANF applicants and caseworkers should exchange two types of information: 1 disclosure of abuse by IPV victims and 2 notification of the availability of good cause waivers by caseworkers. This paper illuminates that intended outcomes of universal screening for IPV are difficult to achieve and discusses the applicability and limitations of game theory for policy evaluation.

  3. A multivariate analysis of youth violence and aggression: the influence of family, peers, depression, and media violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Hartley, Richard D

    2009-12-01

    To examine the multivariate nature of risk factors for youth violence including delinquent peer associations, exposure to domestic violence in the home, family conflict, neighborhood stress, antisocial personality traits, depression level, and exposure to television and video game violence. A population of 603 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 10-14 years) and their parents or guardians responded to multiple behavioral measures. Outcomes included aggression and rule-breaking behavior on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), as well as violent and nonviolent criminal activity and bullying behavior. Delinquent peer influences, antisocial personality traits, depression, and parents/guardians who use psychological abuse in intimate relationships were consistent risk factors for youth violence and aggression. Neighborhood quality, parental use of domestic violence in intimate relationships, and exposure to violent television or video games were not predictive of youth violence and aggression. Childhood depression, delinquent peer association, and parental use of psychological abuse may be particularly fruitful avenues for future prevention or intervention efforts.

  4. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  5. Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...

  6. The study on the analysis of the structure of domestic violence : the target of the violence by the females in her families

    OpenAIRE

    山西, 裕美; ヤマニシ, ヒロミ; Hiromi, YAMANISHI

    2007-01-01

    In the public mind it is husbands who use violence in the home, but in reality both husbands and wives use violence. In this study we attempt to identify the structure of domestic violence by analyzing data on family violence obtained in Miyazaki prefecture in 2003. We found that wives attacked by their husbands tend to attack someone else in their families. These women not only use violence toward their husbands but also use violence toward their children and elder family members (the less p...

  7. Perceived Mattering to the Family and Physical Violence within the Family by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Colangelo, Melissa; Gelles, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Mattering is the extent to which people believe they make a difference in the world around them. This study hypothesizes that adolescents who believe they matter less to their families will more likely threaten or engage in intrafamily physical violence. The data come from a national sample of 2,004 adolescents. Controlling for respondents' age,…

  8. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  9. Ethics in family violence research: cross-cultural issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, L A

    1998-01-01

    This article examines ethical issues in cross-cultural research on family violence. It suggests ways for researchers to increase understanding and avoid abuses of power. Special attention to informed consent, definition of the sample, composition of the research team, research methods, and potential harm and benefit are considered key to designing ethical cross-cultural research. The discussion is illustrated with examples from the literature and from the author's experiences conducting research on sexual abuse in a shanty town in Chile and with Puerto Ricans in the U.S.

  10. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  11. The Frequency of Peer Violence with Respect to Characteristics of Adolescents and Experienced Violence in the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nika Sušac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the first survey of peer violence conducted in Croatia on a nationally representative sample. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of peer violence and characteristics of children who are involved in such violence in various ways. Special attention was given to the experience of domestic violence and its relationship to their involvement in bullying. The study included 3.470 children aged 11, 13 and 16 (fifth and seventh grade of primary and second grade of secondary school. The results showed that 64.1% of children are not involved in peer violence, 14.8% of them are victims, 6.3% perpetrators, and 14.8% are both victims and perpetrators. Peer violence increases with age when it comes to the number of pupils involved as perpetrators and victims-perpetrators, while the proportion of victims decreases after the seventh grade. Girls are more often victims and victims-perpetrators and are more involved in relational violence, while boys are more often involved in physical and verbal violence. There is a greater proportion of those who have below-average financial status in all groups of children who experience violence, while the perpetrators are more often children from families with an above-average financial status. The percentage of children who have experienced violence in the family is the smallest among children not involved in bullying and largest among victims-perpetrators. These results are discussed in the context of the findings of earlier research studies and potential risk factors for the involvement of children in peer violence.

  12. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence—parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression—with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth’s well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence. PMID:27761057

  13. Adolescent peer relationships and mental health functioning in families with domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendosky, Alytia A; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Semel, Michael A

    2002-06-01

    Examined the impact of domestic violence, child abuse, and attachment style on adolescent mental health and relationship functioning. Data were collected on 111 adolescents, ages 14 to 16, and their mothers. Results indicate that both attachment and family violence experiences negatively impact mental health. In addition, family violence significantly predicted attachment style. Significant protective and vulnerability factors included maternal psychological functioning, maternal positive parenting, and perceived social support from friends. However, findings provided only limited support for the model of attachment as a mediator of the impact of family violence on adolescent relationships.

  14. FACTORS THAT INCREASE LIKELIHOOD OF VIOLENCE IN THE FAMILY ANDSEEKING FOR HELP AT FAMILY PRACTITIONER. PILOT STUDY ABOUTVIOLENCE IN THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Selič

    2008-08-01

    The study showed that investigation of medical files and evaluations of physicians aboutpossible factors, which increase the possibility of persons being exposed to violence are notso useful. Physicians are not equipped well enough to give needed help and support topersons exposed to violence in the family. Physicians do not feel that they are the right oneswho should in their practice help victims of violence

  15. Attending to the Role of Race/Ethnicity in Family Violence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential…

  16. A Predictive Model of Domestic Violence in Multicultural Families Focusing on Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Hyun, Hye Jin

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess predictor variables of husbands in multicultural families and examine the relationship among variables after setting up a hypothetical model including influencing factors, so as to provide a framework necessary for developing nursing interventions of domestic violence. The participants were 260 husbands in multicultural families in four cities in Korea. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 20.0. Self-control, social support, family of origin violence experience and stress on cultural adaptation directly affected to dysfunctional communication, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.7%. Family of origin violence experience in domestic stress on cultural adaptation, and dysfunctional communication were directly related to domestic violence in multicultural families, and the explanatory power of the variables was 64.6%. We found out that all variables in the model had mediation effects to domestic violence through dysfunctional communication. In other words, self-control and social support had complete mediation effects, and family of origin violence experience in domestic violence and stress on cultural adaptation had partial mediation effects. The variables explained in this study should be considered as predictive factors of domestic violence in multicultural families, and used to provide preventive nursing intervention. Our resutls can be taken into account for developing and implementing programs on alleviating dysfunctional communication in multicultural families in Korea. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE...

  18. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  19. Distance Education in Social Work: An Evaluation of an Undergraduate Course on Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christine Ann; Baynton, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Social work is a discipline that emphasizes personal contact and has traditionally been taught face-to-face. This paper examines whether online learning is appropriate for educating social workers about family violence. It describes a newly-developed online course in family violence and evaluates its effectiveness. Two surveys of the class and an…

  20. The Role of Family Conflict in the Relation between Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…

  1. Double dose: High family conflict enhances the effect of media violence exposure on adolescents’ aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how exposure to media violence and family conflict affects adolescents’ subsequent aggressive behavior. We expected a double dose effect, meaning that high media violence exposure would lead to higher levels of aggression for adolescents in high conflict families compared to low

  2. Developing a response to family violence in primary health care: the New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Claire; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Wilson, Denise; Clark, Faye

    2016-08-20

    Despite primary health care being recognised as an ideal setting to effectively respond to those experiencing family violence, responses are not widely integrated as part of routine health care. A lack of evidence testing models and approaches for health sector integration, alongside challenges of transferability and sustainability, means the best approach in responding to family violence is still unknown. The Primary Health Care Family Violence Responsiveness Evaluation Tool was developed as a guide to implement a formal systems-led response to family violence within New Zealand primary health care settings. Given the difficulties integrating effective, sustainable responses to family violence, we share the experience of primary health care sites that embarked on developing a response to family violence, presenting the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain family violence response development. In this qualitative descriptive study data were collected from two sources. Firstly semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted during 24-month follow-up evaluation visits of primary health care sites to capture the enablers, barriers and resources required to maintain, progress and sustain a response to family violence. Secondly the outcomes of a group activity to identify response development barriers and implementation strategies were recorded during a network meeting of primary health care professionals interested in family violence prevention and intervention; findings were triangulated across the two data sources. Four sites, representing three PHOs and four general practices participated in the focus group interviews; 35 delegates from across New Zealand attended the network meeting representing a wider perspective on family violence response development within primary health care. Enablers and barriers to developing a family violence response were identified across four themes: 'Getting started', 'Building effective

  3. Attending to the role of race/ethnicity in family violence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley-Morrison, Kathleen; Hines, Denise A

    2007-08-01

    Since the 1970s, researchers and public health and/or social policy communities have devoted increasing attention to family violence. Although officially reported crime figures for family violence appear to be declining, rates continue to be high in broadly defined racial and/or ethnic minority groups. More careful assessments of the potential role of race/ethnicity in family violence, and similarities and differences occurring across and within groups categorized based on race/ethnicity, are essential if adequate interventions are to be developed and utilized. This article provides suggestions on conducting better studies on family violence in the United States, particularly with respect to issues of race/ethnicity. The authors begin by considering conceptions and definitions of race/ethnicity and providing a broad definition of family violence. They then suggest issues for consideration at each stage of the research process, from reviewing previous research, to making methodological decisions, selecting samples, choosing measures, and analyzing and interpreting findings.

  4. Correlates of partner and family violence among older Canadians: a life-course approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszkurka, M; Steensma, C; Phillips, S P

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge about individual and interpersonal correlates of violence in Canadian seniors is limited. This study identifies correlates of current and past violence by intimate partner and family member(s) in community-dwelling Canadian seniors, while accounting for childhood adverse circumstances. We performed logistic regression analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 to 74 years and living in Kingston (Ontario) and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec). Domestic violence was assessed using the Hurt- Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) screening tool. Odds ratios (ORs) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Current violence of a psychological nature was reported by 18% of the sample. Women were at greater risk of current and lifetime violence perpetrated by a family member (current violence: adjusted OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.02-3.30) as well as experiencing violence from their intimate partner in their lifetime than were men (adjusted OR = 2.48; 95% CI: 1.40-4.37). Risk factors have accumulated over the life course that were found to be consistently associated with both current and lifetime violence included having witnessed violence at home in childhood (lifetime violence by family member: adjusted OR = 9.46; 95% CI: 5.11-17.52), as well as poor quality of relationships with intimate partners, family and friends. Our research documents the ongoing impact of early adversity on subsequent partner and family violence in Canada. Findings identify some preventable factors associated with current psychological violence and past violence among community dwelling Canadian seniors.

  5. Examining the Role of Supportive Family Connection in Violence Exposure Among Male Youth in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Ginsburg, Kenneth R; Fein, Joel A; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Miller, Elizabeth; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-04-24

    Family connection has demonstrated protective effects on violence perpetration, victimization, and witnessing in the general U.S. adolescent population. However, several studies examining the impact of family connection on violence exposure in adolescents living in low-resource urban environments have failed to demonstrate similar protective effects. We interviewed male youth in low-resource neighborhoods in Philadelphia recruited through household random sampling. Adjusted logistic regression was used to test whether a supportive relationship with an adult family member was inversely associated with violence involvement and violence witnessing. In 283 youth participants aged 10 to 24 years, 33% reported high violence involvement, 30% reported high violence witnessing, and 17% reported both. Youth who identified at least one supportive adult family member were significantly less likely to report violence involvement (odds ratio [OR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.18, 0.69]) and violence witnessing (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = [0.24, 0.88]). Youth with two supportive parents, and those with supportive mothers only, also demonstrated significant inverse associations with violence involvement. Supportive parental relationships were inversely but not significantly related to witnessing violence. The findings suggest that supportive parental relationships may not prevent youth in low-resource neighborhoods from witnessing violence but may help prevent direct violence involvement. Next studies should be designed such that the mechanisms that confer protection can be identified, and should identify opportunities to bolster family connection that may reduce adolescent violence involvement among youth in low-resource urban environments. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Therapeutic Change in Colombian Families Dealing with Violence: Therapists, Clients, and Referring Systems in Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll-Nunez, Karen; Villar-Guhl, Carlos Felipe; Villar-Concha, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap in the Marriage and Family Therapy literature regarding clients', therapists', and family judges' theories of change in relational therapy for family violence. We conducted in-depth interviews with eleven court-referred families, their therapists, and two family judges in Bogota, Colombia. Interviews focused on their expectations of…

  7. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  8. Physical family violence and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-01-01

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Improving care for victims: a study protocol of the evaluation of a centre for sexual and family violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, E.; LoFoWong, S.; Hutschemaekers, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems. Victims of sexual and family violence often do not seek formal help in the acute phase. When they do seek help, they encounter a system of scattered care. For this reason, a centre for sexual and family violence was

  10. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements for...

  11. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  12. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child protection...

  13. Witnessing the effects of political violence in families: mechanisms of intergenerational transmission and clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarten, Kaethe

    2004-01-01

    In this era of globalization, when news about political violence can haunt anyone, anywhere, those whose families have suffered political violence in the past are particularly vulnerable to current distress. Skilled in understanding transgenerational processes, family therapists need to be familiar with the mechanisms by which children are exposed to the effects of political violence suffered by their elders-that is, the ways in which they become their witnesses. This article presents a framework for understanding how the trauma of political violence experienced in one generation can "pass" to another that did not directly experience it, and proposes a model to guide clinical intervention.

  14. The impact of family and peer protective factors on girls' violence perpetration and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Sieving, Renee E; Gower, Amy L

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls' violence involvement and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls' risk for violence. Data were obtained from 253 13-17-year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months after enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls' violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of Family and Peer Protective Factors on Girls’ Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Sieving, Renee E.; Gower, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates whether family and peer connections and prosocial norms buffer adolescent girls’ violence involvement, and whether a youth development intervention augments the power of these protective factors in reducing girls’ risk for violence. Methods Data were obtained from 253 13–17 year-olds enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of Prime Time, a youth development intervention offered through urban clinic settings to girls at high risk for pregnancy. Participants completed an A-CASI survey at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following enrollment. Protective factors included scales assessing family and peer connections and prosocial norms. Outcome variables were violence victimization and perpetration scales measured at 18 months. Results Family connections and prosocial norms independently protected girls against violence involvement. Peer prosocial norms also served as a protective buffer against violence perpetration and victimization; however, girls with strong peer connections had higher levels of violence perpetration. Participation in Prime Time augmented the protective effects of family and peer connections on girls’ violence victimization but not perpetration. Prime Time participants who had high levels of family connections reported the lowest levels of violence victimization at 18 months. Prime Time participants with strong peer connections trended toward lower levels of violence victimization than other girls. Conclusions Results suggest that effects of the Prime Time intervention on violence victimization were optimized among high-risk adolescent girls with strong connections to family and peers. The intervention was most potent in preventing violence victimization among girls with strong prosocial connections to family and peers. PMID:23299002

  16. Problem gambling and family violence: prevalence and patterns in treatment-seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Jackson, A C; Suomi, A; Lavis, T; Thomas, S A; Patford, J; Harvey, P; Battersby, M; Koziol-McLain, J; Abbott, M; Bellringer, M E

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of family violence in treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Secondary aims were to identify the prevalence of problem gambling in a family violence victimisation treatment sample and to explore the relationship between problem gambling and family violence in other treatment-seeking samples. Clients from 15 Australian treatment services were systematically screened for problem gambling using the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and for family violence using single victimisation and perpetration items adapted from the Hurt-Insulted-Threatened-Screamed (HITS): gambling services (n=463), family violence services (n=95), alcohol and drug services (n=47), mental health services (n=51), and financial counselling services (n=48). The prevalence of family violence in the gambling sample was 33.9% (11.0% victimisation only, 6.9% perpetration only, and 16.0% both victimisation and perpetration). Female gamblers were significantly more likely to report victimisation only (16.5% cf. 7.8%) and both victimisation and perpetration (21.2% cf. 13.0%) than male gamblers. There were no other demographic differences in family violence prevalence estimates. Gamblers most commonly endorsed their parents as both the perpetrators and victims of family violence, followed by current and former partners. The prevalence of problem gambling in the family violence sample was 2.2%. The alcohol and drug (84.0%) and mental health (61.6%) samples reported significantly higher rates of any family violence than the gambling sample, while the financial counselling sample (10.6%) reported significantly higher rates of problem gambling than the family violence sample. The findings of this study support substantial comorbidity between problem gambling and family violence, although this may be accounted for by a high comorbidity with alcohol and drug use problems and other psychiatric disorders. They highlight the need for routine

  17. Voices from the margins Part 1: narrative accounts of indigenous family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kierrynn; Taylor, Bev

    2002-12-01

    The needs of informal supporters of rural women surviving domestic violence from the supporter's perspective were explored through the use of storytelling. Eleven women were interviewed. Of those eleven, three informal supporters spoke about supporting Indigenous women in family violence. These three stories have been grouped as a separate cohort and are discussed in two papers. Of the women who told stories of supporting Aboriginal women, two were Indigenous and one was non Aboriginal, although her partner was Indigenous. It was clear from the stories told by these women that Indigenous family violence is situated in a context of a history and experience of colonisation and human rights abuses. Therefore, this article explores the context of Indigenous family violence and the second explores the strategies for strengthening support for Aboriginal families experiencing violence.

  18. [Selected family socio-economic factors as predictors of peer violence among school children in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, Magdalena; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Analyses concerning peer violence among girls and boys aged 13-17 years, in the context of socio- -economic characteristics of the family: family structure, parental employment status and perceived family wealth. Preliminary data from the recent HBSC studies conducted in 12 voivodeships in Poland in 2013 was used. The analyzes concerned 2300 students aged 13-17 years (45% boys) and focused on the following types of violence: being a perpetrator and a victim of bullying, participation in fights and cyberbullying. Chi-square test analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Significantly more boys than girls experienced bullying (28% vs. 22%) and was perpetrators of violence in the school (39% vs. 25%). The youth from single-parent families significantly more often than students from two-parent families, participated in fights and was the perpetrators of violence in the school. Being a perpetrator and a victim of violence concerned mostly students from poor families and boys, whose father was unemployed. The following risk factors was identified- among boys: low economic status of the family (victims of bullying) and single-parent family (victims of cyberbullying), father's unemployment (the perpetrator of bullying) and age 13-14 years (victims and perpetrators of bullying, participation in fights) and among girls: low economic status of the family (cyberbullying), mother's unemployment and age 13-14 years (victims of violence). The family socio-economic factors, gender and age determine the type and the prevalence of peer violence. Low economic status of the family and single-parent family increases the risk of experiencing violence. For the prevention of bullying the educational role of the father and his commitment to family budget are important.

  19. 75 FR 14596 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...This announcement governs the proposed award of formula grants under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA) to Native American Tribes (including Alaska Native Villages) and Tribal organizations. The purpose of these grants is to assist Tribes in establishing, maintaining, and expanding programs and projects to prevent family violence and to provide immediate shelter and related assistance for victims of family violence and their dependents (42 U.S.C. 10401). This announcement sets forth the application requirements, the application process, and other administrative and fiscal requirements for grants in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Grantees are to be mindful that although the expenditure period for grants is a two-year period, an application is required every year to provide continuity in the provision of services. (See Section II. Award Information, Expenditure Periods.)

  20. Family violence in a sample of treatment-seeking gamblers: the effect of having dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellringer, Maria; Pearson, Janet; du Preez, Katie Palmer; Wilson, Denise; Koziol-McLain, Jane; Garrett, Nick; Abbott, Max

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of problem gambler gender on the relationship between the gambler having dependent children (younger than 18 years) living at home and the gambler perpetrating or being a victim of family violence. The sample comprised 164 help-seeking gamblers (43% female; 37% with dependent child/ren) recruited from three national gambling treatment services in New Zealand. Family violence was measured using a modified version of the HITS scale covering physical, psychological, verbal, emotional and sexual violence. Forty-nine percent of participants reported being a victim of violence and 43% had perpetrated violence. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was conducted, adjusting in sequence for significant socio-demographic, psychosocial and gambling factors. The relationship between having dependent children and being a victim of family violence was gender-related. Female gamblers living with dependent children reported more family violence perpetration and victimisation than male gamblers living with dependent children. Female gamblers with dependent children living at home had greater odds of being a victim of family violence than male gamblers without dependent children living at home. This relationship remained when adjusted for contextual factors of being a victim (ethnicity, income support status, and feelings of inadequacy) in this sample. A similar gender effect of having dependent children living at home on violence perpetration disappeared when known psychosocial contextual factors of violence perpetration (aggression, difficulties in emotion regulation, drug issue in the family, and interpersonal support) were taken into account. These findings suggest the value of coordinated approaches between gambling treatment services and programmes supporting vulnerable families in order to identify vulnerable families and put support mechanisms in place.

  1. Family violence in a sample of treatment-seeking gamblers: the effect of having dependent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bellringer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effect of problem gambler gender on the relationship between the gambler having dependent children (younger than 18 years living at home and the gambler perpetrating or being a victim of family violence. The sample comprised 164 help-seeking gamblers (43% female; 37% with dependent child/ren recruited from three national gambling treatment services in New Zealand. Family violence was measured using a modified version of the HITS scale covering physical, psychological, verbal, emotional and sexual violence. Forty-nine percent of participants reported being a victim of violence and 43% had perpetrated violence. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was conducted, adjusting in sequence for significant socio-demographic, psychosocial and gambling factors. The relationship between having dependent children and being a victim of family violence was gender-related. Female gamblers living with dependent children reported more family violence perpetration and victimisation than male gamblers living with dependent children. Female gamblers with dependent children living at home had greater odds of being a victim of family violence than male gamblers without dependent children living at home. This relationship remained when adjusted for contextual factors of being a victim (ethnicity, income support status, and feelings of inadequacy in this sample. A similar gender effect of having dependent children living at home on violence perpetration disappeared when known psychosocial contextual factors of violence perpetration (aggression, difficulties in emotion regulation, drug issue in the family, and interpersonal support were taken into account. These findings suggest the value of coordinated approaches between gambling treatment services and programmes supporting vulnerable families in order to identify vulnerable families and put support mechanisms in place.

  2. Lifetime Exposure to Family Violence: Implications for the Health Status of Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprauve-Holmes, Nancy E; Gaughan, John; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence among older women encompasses intimate partner violence (IPV) and elder maltreatment, both linked to poor health status. Little is known about the association between family violence and the health status of older innercity African American women. Methods One hundred fifty-eight African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in the ambulatory clinics of a large public hospital. Lifetime family violence exposure as an adult was measured by the Family Violence against Older Women (FVOW) scale; physical and mental health status were measured by the physical and mental component summary scores of the Short Form 8® scale. Results Mean participant age was 61.5 years (SD 7.1). Participants with FVOW scores in the top quartile were considered to have high lifetime family violence exposure. Participants with higher family violence exposure and those younger, unemployed, or disabled reported worse physical and mental health status. Lower income and not having Medicare were associated with worse physical and mental health status, respectively. Using stepwise linear regression techniques, only employment status and high family violence exposure were associated with worse physical (F = 7.16, p = 0.0011) and mental health (f = 7.09, p = 0.0012) status. Women with high FVOW scores reported physical and mental component summary scores that were 4.18 and 4.6 points lower, respectively, than those of women with lower FVOW scores. Conclusions Among older, innercity, African American women, lack of employment and high levels of family violence exposure as an adult are associated with worse physical and mental health status. Clinicians caring for older African American women need to be cognizant of the role both current and prior violence exposure may play in their patients' current health status. PMID:19183088

  3. The role of family, peers and school perceptions in predicting involvement in youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Avital; Harel, Yossi

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the relative importance of family, peers and school in predicting youth violence. The analysis was done on a nationally representative sample included 8,394 students from grade 6th-10th in Israel. Measures of youth violence included bullying, physical fights and weapon carrying. The findings suggested that all three social systems had significant relations with youth violence, respectively. Variables found to predict violence were: Family-lack of parental support regarding school; Peers-Lack of social integration or too many evenings out with friends; School-feeling of school alienation, low academic achievement and perceptions of frequent acts of violence in school. School perceptions had the strongest predicting power. Findings emphasized the importance of focusing on improving the daily school experience in reducing youth violence.

  4. Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.

  5. Students' personal traits, violence exposure, family factors, school dynamics and the perpetration of violence in Taiwanese elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-02-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.

  6. Maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between previous victimizations in the family and dating violence victimization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Fernández-Gonzalez, Liria; Orue, Izaskun; Borrajo, Erika

    2018-07-01

    This study examined whether exposure to family violence, both in the form of direct victimization and witnessing violence, predicted dating violence victimization in adolescents through maladaptive schemas. A sample of 933 adolescents (445 boys and 488 girls), aged between 13 and 18 (M = 15.10), participated in a three-year longitudinal study. They completed measures of exposure to family violence, maladaptive schemas of disconnection/rejection, and dating violence victimization. The findings indicate that witnessing family violence predicts the increase of dating violence victimization over time, through the mediation of maladaptive schemas in girls, but not in boys. Direct victimization in the family predicts dating violence victimization directly, without the mediation of schemas. In addition, maladaptive schemas contribute to the perpetuation of dating violence victimization over time. These findings provide new opportunities for preventive interventions, as maladaptive schemas can be modified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of family violence and child marriage on unmet need for family planning in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Spencer, Rachael A; Khalaf, Inaam A; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Risk for unmet need for contraception is associated with men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and may be influenced by violence perpetrated by other family members (family violence, FV). Women who married as minors may be most vulnerable to the potential compounding effect of IPV and FV on unmet need. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey we examined unmet need by exposure to IPV and FV by women's age at marriage (<18, 18+ years). Logistic regression was used to test whether IPV and FV were independently associated with unmet need, by age at marriage. Interaction terms (IPV×FV) were tested in both models. Stratification by FV was employed to clarify the interpretation of significant interactions. IPV increased the odds of unmet need by 87% [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-3.10] and 76% (AOR 1.76; 95% CI 1.30-2.38) among women who married prior to and after the age of 18 years, respectively. Women married as minors who experienced IPV and FV had a four-fold higher likelihood of having an unmet need (AOR 6.75; 95% CI 1.95-23.29) compared to those experiencing only IPV (AOR 1.49; 95% CI 0.84-2.38). No interaction between IPV and FV was detected for women married at or above majority. Laws that prohibit child marriage should be strengthened and health sector screening for violence experience could help identify women at risk of unmet need and improve women's reproductive agency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Severe Family Violence and Alzheimer's Disease: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paveza, Gregory J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined violence among 184 Alzheimer patients and their caregivers. Analysis of severe violence subscale of Conflict Tactics Scale indicated that 15.8 percent of patients had been violent in year since diagnosis; 5.4 percent of caregivers had been violent toward patient; and prevalence of violence was 17.4 percent. Variables most associated with…

  9. Longitudinal Mediators of Relations Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Aggression Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Fortson, Beverly L.; Valle, Linda A.; Breiding, Matthew J.; Merrick, Melissa T.

    2015-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the pathways through which family violence leads to dating aggression. In the current study the authors used 3 waves of data obtained from 8th- and 9th-grade adolescents (N = 1,965) to examine the hypotheses that the prospective relationship between witnessing family violence and directly experiencing violence and physical dating aggression perpetration is mediated by 3 constructs: (a) normative beliefs about dating aggression (norms), (b) anger dysregulation, and (c) depression. Results from cross-lagged regression models suggest that the relationship between having been hit by an adult and dating aggression is mediated by changes in norms and anger dysregulation, but not depression. No evidence of indirect effects from witnessing family violence to dating aggression was found through any of the proposed mediators. Taken together, the findings suggest that anger dysregulation and normative beliefs are potential targets for dating abuse prevention efforts aimed at youth who have directly experienced violence. PMID:26719602

  10. [The (in)visibility of psychological family violence in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abranches, Cecy Dunshee de; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2011-05-01

    Psychological family violence in childhood and adolescence is still poorly studied, due to difficulties in its definition and detection. This article aims to examine how psychological family violence reported by children and adolescents has been addressed in academic studies, using a literature review (LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed, CAPES Portal, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases). Among 51 epidemiological studies, 16 articles met the review's objectives; some of the articles reported a high prevalence of such violence. The study showed that the issue has been studied more in the international literature than in Brazil, which has significantly increased its visibility in the last decade but still faces difficulties involving definition, conceptualization, and operationalization. Eliminating the invisibility of psychological violence in the family could help promote prevention of such violence and protection of children and adolescents.

  11. Conceptions held by health professionals on violence against children and adolescents within the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cristina Brandt; Sarti, Cynthia Andersen; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva

    2008-01-01

    The present study sought to understand the conceptions held by health professionals with regards to violence within the family against children and adolescents. Qualitative case-study methodology and techniques of participant observation, interviewing, and search in documents were used. Participants were staffed in a government-run Family Health Basic Unit in Brazil. Health professionals were found to associate violence with the economic, social, and political juncture and with cultural aspects; for some, violent acts are part of the intergenerational cycle and family dynamics. Physical punishment, considered as violence by some, is advocated as an educational measure by others. Participants also base their definition of violence on an a priori construction of subjects as either victims or aggressors, thus missing the relational dimension of the phenomenon. Health professionals were found to have difficulty in understanding violence in the context that gives it a meaning and to recognize it as consequence of a complex relational dynamics.

  12. 77 FR 14378 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters and Supportive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...- being (Section 308(b)(1)(B)). Provision of individual and group counseling, peer support groups, and..., domestic violence, or dating violence, including age- appropriate counseling, supportive services, and... violence, and their dependents, for short-term, transitional, or long-term safety; and Provide counseling...

  13. Family Instability and Exposure to Violence in the Early Life Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Shannon E; Stritzel, Haley; Smith, Chelsea; Crosnoe, Robert

    2017-10-11

    Family instability has been linked with a host of outcomes across the early life course. This study extends this literature by connecting instability with violence in the community by examining the associations among family structure, family structure change, and secondary exposure to violence during adolescence across diverse segments of the population. Using longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study, we found that living with a single parent and experiencing family structure changes were associated with secondary exposure to violence. Multiple group models suggest that partner change translated into more exposure for boys than girls. Findings also suggest that family instability may lead to more secondary exposure to violence for African American youth. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  14. Keeping it in the family: intergenerational transmission of violence in Cebu, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    While witnessing violence between parents is one of the most consistent correlates of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in later life, little research exists in developing countries on the effects of witnessing interparental IPV on young adults' involvement with family violence. This study examines the relation between witnessing interparental IPV and young adults' subsequent use and experience with family intimidation and physical abuse (FIPA) in Cebu, Philippines. Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, recent use and experience of FIPA among 21-22 year old young adults was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and childhood witnessing of interparental IPV assessed from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effect of witnessing interparental IPV on young adults' use and experience of FIPA. Among all young adults, witnessing paternal perpetration of IPV predicted using FIPA, and witnessing maternal perpetration predicted experiencing FIPA. Among young adult females only, witnessing reciprocal IPV between parents predicted experiencing FIPA. Witnessing paternal perpetration of IPV among young adult males, maternal perpetration among young adult females, and reciprocal interparental IPV among all young adults predicted young adults both using and experiencing FIPA. Violence prevention efforts should reach all family members through family centered interventions. School based curricula, which largely focus on intimate partner and peer violence, should recognize adolescents' use and experience of violence with family members, and design modules accordingly. Further research on gender differences in family violence is recommended.

  15. Children's Moral Reasoning about Family and Peer Violence: The Role of Provocation and Retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astor, Ron A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined violent and nonviolent inner-city children's moral reasoning about violence in family and peer situations. All of the children condemned unprovoked violence. With provoked situations, the violent group focused more on the immorality of the provocation and perceived force akin to reciprocal justice, whereas the nonviolent group perceived…

  16. Family ambiguity and domestic violence in Asia: Reconceptualising law and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.

    2014-01-01

    The book Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia (2013; Brighton: Sussex University Press) raises pertinent questions as to why the incidence of domestic violence has remained as a continuing scourge. The Focus section in this issue of The Newsletter provides the abridged version of select

  17. Impacts of family and community violence exposure on child coping and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Esror Tamim; Shapiro, Ester R; Wainwright, Laurel D; Carter, Alice S

    2015-02-01

    An ecological stress process model was employed to explore relations between children's exposures to family and community violence and child mental health, and emotionally-regulated coping (ERC) as a protective factor among Latino, European-American, and African-American school-aged children (n = 91; girls, n = 50[54 %]) living in single-parent families who were either homeless and residing in emergency shelters or housed but living in poverty. Mothers reported domestic violence experiences and their child's history of physical/sexual abuse, community violence exposures, and mental health. Children reported on exposure to community violence, internalizing symptoms, and coping. The mental health impacts of multi-level violence exposures and ERC as a moderator of associations between violence exposures and child mental health was tested with structural equation modeling. Family abuse was uniquely associated with PTSD, and community violence with anxiety and aggression. Latent interaction tests revealed that ERC moderated relations between family abuse and anxiety, aggression and PTSD. Emotionally-regulated coping appears to play a protective role for children's mental health in contexts of violence exposure, offering opportunities for intervention and prevention.

  18. Familial Factors Predicting Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Williams, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    Teen dating violence is more prevalent among African Americans than any other racial group in the United States leading to serious health consequences for victims. However, limited data exists on how African American adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding dating violence are formed, and whether they are influenced by family members. The…

  19. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  20. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  1. Domestic Violence in India: Insights from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Djamba, Yanyi K.; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced…

  2. “An Effect That is Deeper Than Beating” Family Violence in Jordanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Diane S; Paldi, Yael; Egbarya, Samah Salaime; Clark, Cari Jo

    2012-01-01

    This study informs healthcare approaches to gender-based family violence through focus groups with Jordanian women. The authors conducted a thematic qualitative analysis of 12 focus groups among 70 married, divorced, or widowed women about their experiences and beliefs regarding family violence. Five themes relevant to healthcare providers were identified. Three of the themes addressed participant-perceived causes of gender-based family violence: 1) unmet gender role expectations, 2) stigma and social norms, and 3) extended family roles. The fourth theme reflects effects on victims. The fifth theme reflects protective qualities and help seeking behaviors. The themes identified in the analysis reveal multiple ways that gender-based family violence can contribute to health problems and that it can be kept secret by Jordanian women as patients. Potential clues are described for the violence which may not be typically explored in a medical encounter. Additional ways that Jordanian families may seek help from other family or clergy instead of police and family violence agencies are described. Implications of these results for healthcare providers who care both for Jordanians and Arab immigrants in Western cultures are discussed. PMID:22329396

  3. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  4. Exciting Discoveries on the Health Effects of Family Violence: Where We Are, Where We Need to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In the 20 years since the founding of the "Journal of Interpersonal Violence," there have been exciting new discoveries on the long-term physical health effects of family violence. As exciting as these discoveries have been, we still know little about why the experience of family violence makes people sick. Some of the most promising areas of…

  5. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

  7. Family violence against children: intervention of nurses from the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelianny Pinheiro Bezerra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study Aimed to analyze the performance of nurses of the Family Health Strategy by facing family violence against children and identifying actions to prevent the problem. It is a descriptive and exploratory research with qualitative feature, whose data were analyzed according to content analysis. 14 nurses from the Family Health Strategy of Mossoró-RN took part in the Study. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Health promotion actions are educational activities developed after detecting the problem. Fear of reprisals by the offending agent, work overload, lack of managerial support and the difficulty for the accomplishment of interdisciplinarity, intersectorality and comprehensive care were mentioned as barriers to the confrontation of the problem.

  8. Psychopathology Dimensions of Females Experiencing Family Violence and a Perspective to Their Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Violence is a widespread problem that occurs all over the word among all ages, genders, races, educational level and socio- economic groups.  The aim of this study was to investigate modeling of different processes that could account for the link between experiencing spouse abuse in women and psychology, psychopathology, social and demographic factors. Methods: Data were gathered through a family violence survey study. 230 married women participated in this study. Participants were selected by a multi-cluster sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. They completed 1 Conflict Tactic Scale-2, 2 Personal and Relationship Profile, 3 Symptoms Check List Inventory, 4 Marital Attitude Survey, 5 Social and Demographic Measure. Results: Based on participants’ scores in Conflict Tactics Scale-2, women who were experiencing violence (victims were recognized and in compare to non-experiencing women (non-victims a model of family violence victimization was draw. This model showed the paths from psychology, psychopathology, Social and Demographic factors to experiencing violence. Discussion: Based on the model with a series of paths which may act as effective determinants for experiencing violence (family violence victimization in women, habilitation services must consider the influence of each factor which may change or modify by some recognized mediating interventions .So, it may be concluded that based on present study, a reduction of psychopathology would have a beneficial impact over experiencing spousal violence.

  9. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  10. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences.

  11. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  12. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    OpenAIRE

    CRAFT, SHONDA M.; SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...

  13. Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

  14. Finding the Way out: A Non-Dichotomous Understanding of Violence and Depression Resilience of Adolescents Who Are Exposed to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Scambor, Christian; Scambor, Elli; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this cross-sectional study on family violence and resilience in a random sample of 5,149 middle school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) we examined the prevalence of exposure to family violence, and we worked from the premise that adolescent can be resilient to…

  15. Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to child physical abuse and parents’ domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children’s developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population. PMID:20107623

  16. Asking the difficult questions: Building the capacity of community paediatricians to routinely enquire and respond to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Claire L; Holmes, Hilary; Bragg, Judith; Neeman, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    To enhance the confidence and capacity of community paediatricians and paediatric trainees to identify and respond to family violence, through a series of education sessions and evidence-based recommendations. The action research methodology included a literature search to review the data on family violence education programmes and evidence-based family violence screening tools. Six education sessions were then developed and held for physicians at the Community Paediatric and Child Health Service (CPCHS). An audit was performed on the charts of all new referrals to the CPCHS for a period of 18 months prior to the education sessions and 5 months following the education sessions. A questionnaire was distributed at the first and final education sessions to gauge physician comfort with enquiry into family violence. The documented rate of enquiry into family violence at CPCHS was 24% in the retrospective chart audit. Following the series of education sessions, the documented rate of enquiry increased to 60% (P family violence also increased from 13% of all new patients in the retrospective chart audit to 24% in the prospective arm of the study (P family violence and were comfortable enquiring about family violence. This study demonstrates that clinician education about family violence supports routine enquiry about family violence in community paediatric consultations. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. [Impact of violence on the health of families at Fortaleza, Ceará State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Arcoverde, Márcia Liduína Vasconcelos; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá

    2009-01-01

    The study describes the impact of the violence on the quality of life of the families, which were attended at the Relatives and Friends Violence Victims Association (ARFVV) in Fortaleza, Ceará State. The case study was accomplished among five mothers that were involved in a NGO on the battle against the violence. The semi-structured interview, the participation at the institution's meetings and the documental research were the data collecting techniques, being these last ones, submitted to the thematic analysis and discussed according to the literature and Letters of Health Promotion. The impacts caused by the violence comprise the physical, emotional and social family's health, cause changes on behavior between the members, and lead to the increasing of smoking, drinking, social isolation and exacerbate revolt feelings, vengeance and pessimism. The NGO's work has been important to support the families on the conflicts overcoming, health familiar restoration, redeeming the self-expectation, the hope on the justice and social mobility. The health of families' victims from violence is affected on the biological, emotional and social aspects, favoring the process of sickness. These have appealed to the support from NGOs to transform the 'victim condition' - violence hostage to the 'responsible citizenship' - guardians of peace on the battle against the urban violence.

  18. [Intimate partner violence and family dysfunction among Mexican women seen a Primary Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz-Mora, M I; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for intimate-partner violence (IPV) in women who attended a Family Medicine Unit in Tijuana, Mexico. A total of 297 women were interviewed and evaluated using two validated scales: violence and severity index and family APGAR to assess family functioning and IPV respectively. The mean age (± SD) was 40.6±13.8 years, and 120 (40.4%) women had suffered IPV: 47 (15.8%) psychological violence; 31 (10.4%) sexual violence; 77 (25.9%) physical violence, and in 19 (6.4%) there were actions that threatened the lives of women. The most common causes of domestic violence were women who reported that their partner had been jealous, or suspicion from friends (37.4%). Twenty two (7.4%) of the women with domestic violence reported that they had sought help. The prevalence of IPV was high and associated with the education level of the couple and family functioning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Family Violence and Risk of Substance Use among Mexican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Miguel Angel; Ramos, Luciana; Gonzalez, Catalina; Saltijeral, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine the relationship between psychological and physical violence, exerted by fathers and/or mothers, and inter- or extra-familiar sexual violence with risk for consuming tobacco, alcohol and drugs among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with students in two secondary schools in Mexico City. A total of…

  20. Posttraumatic stress among young urban children exposed to family violence and other potentially traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A; Whitson, Melissa L; Walling, Sherry M; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children's posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents and caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health or developmental services. By parent and caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. Posttraumatic stress was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence and trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence and trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence and trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. Copyright © 2010 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  2. Survey of Wife Abuse and Influencing Social Factors Incidence of Domestic Violence in Tehranian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Latifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.

  3. Domestic violence in India: insights from the 2005-2006 national family health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimuna, Sitawa R; Djamba, Yanyi K; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-03-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced physical violence in the past 12 months before the survey; the corresponding figure for sexual violence was 8.3%. The multivariate logistic regression results show key determinants of physical and sexual violence. Some of the most salient findings are that urban residence, household wealth, affiliation with Christian religious denominations, wife's age at marriage and education are associated with lower risk of physical and sexual violence. In contrast, being employed and being the wife of a man who drank alcohol increased the odds of experiencing both physical and sexual violence. Moreover, respondents who believed that wife-beating was justified under certain circumstances were more likely to experience domestic violence. These results and significant regional differences observed in this study suggest that gender role conditioning and cultural norms both contribute to domestic violence. Interventions, therefore, need to go beyond the institutional and legal levels to include cultural capital, which addresses partner and relationship issues.

  4. Treatment for cases of violence by Brazilian emergency services focusing on family relationships and life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2017-09-01

    This article analyzes data regarding cases of domestic violence treated by the emergency services through the following: the sociodemographic characteristics of the people who were treated; the events themselves; the evolution of care (from childhood to old age by gender); and the factors that differentiate cases of domestic violence compared to those committed by non-family members. Data from 24 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District were analyzed, comprising 86 emergency services: a total of 4,893 individuals were surveyed. Of those people who were treated by emergency services, 26.6% suffered domestic violence: 40.0% were children/adolescents, 57.2% were adults and 2.8% were elderly. The adjusted model, which compared victims of violence committed by other family members with those who were not family members, showed that males were less likely to suffer from domestic violence; those that had fewer years of education were at increased risk; and that women were more likely to commit domestic violence compared to the category of "both genders". This study reinforces the fact that health sector professionals need to be able to deal with domestic violence by providing support, performing good practices, abiding by care protocols, taking care of injuries, and facilitating access to other services.

  5. Family Involvement in Managing Violence of Mental Health Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontio, Raija; Lantta, Tella; Anttila, Minna; Kauppi, Kaisa; Välimäki, Maritta

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore relatives' perceptions of violent episodes and their suggestions on managing violence. Qualitative design with focus groups including relatives (n = 8) was carried out. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The relatives described patient violence in different contexts: at home, in a psychiatric hospital, and after discharge from the psychiatric hospital. They suggested interventions to achieve safer and more humane management of violent episodes. Relatives are a valuable source of information in developing strategies to manage patient violence humanely. Their views on developing the quality of psychiatric care merit more attention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Relationship Between Family-of-Origin Violence, Hostility, and Intimate Partner Violence in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence: Testing a Mediational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-09-01

    Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Towards a feminist understanding of intersecting violence against women and children in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; O'Hara, Kathleen; Nakuti, Janet; Bukuluki, Paul; Lwanyaaga, Julius; Namakula, Sylvia; Nanyunja, Barbrah; Wainberg, Milton L; Naker, Dipak; Michau, Lori

    2017-07-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and violence against children (VAC) have emerged as distinct fields of research and programming, a growing number of studies demonstrate the extent to which these forms of violence overlap in the same households. However, existing knowledge of how and why such co-occurrence takes place is limited, particularly in the Global South. The current study aims to advance empirical and conceptual understanding of intersecting IPV and VAC within families in order to inform potential programming. We explore shared perceptions and experiences of IPV and VAC using qualitative data collected in December 2015 from adults and children in Kampala, Uganda (n = 106). We find that the patriarchal family structure creates an environment that normalizes many forms of violence, simultaneously infantilizing women and reinforcing their subordination (alongside children). Based on participant experiences, we identify four potential patterns that suggest how IPV and VAC not only co-occur, but more profoundly intersect within the family, triggering cycles of emotional and physical abuse: bystander trauma, negative role modeling, protection and further victimization, and displaced aggression. The discussion is situated within a feminist analysis, including careful consideration of maternal violence and an emphasis on the ways in which gender and power dynamics can coalesce and contribute to intra-family violence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Lasch, Kathryn E; Chandra, Pinky; Lee, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict. Methods Logistic regression models were used to analyze panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4,780 married or cohabiting persons reinterviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments. Results Unemployed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence than employed respondents, after alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors are controlled for; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after other factors are controlled for, increases the risk of family violence, and satisfaction with social support from family and friends is associated with its decrease. Conclusions Alcohol misuse has an important effect on domestic violence, and the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence needs to be monitored. PMID:11342506

  9. Experience of domestic violence routine screening in Family Planning NSW clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Tara; Botfield, Jessica R; Estoesta, Jane; Markham, Pippa; Robertson, Sarah; McGeechan, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study reviewed implementation of the Domestic Violence Routine Screening (DVRS) program at Family Planning NSW and outcomes of screening to determine the feasibility of routine screening in a family planning setting and the suitability of this program in the context of women's reproductive and sexual health. A retrospective review of medical records was undertaken of eligible women attending Family Planning NSW clinics between 1 January and 31 December 2015. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and assess association between binary outcomes and client characteristics. Of 13440 eligible women, 5491 were screened (41%). Number of visits, clinic attended, age, employment status and disability were associated with completion of screening. In all, 220 women (4.0%) disclosed domestic violence. Factors associated with disclosure were clinic attended, age group, region of birth, employment status, education and disability. Women who disclosed domestic violence were more likely to have discussed issues related to sexually transmissible infections in their consultation. All women who disclosed were assessed for any safety concerns and offered a range of suitable referral options. Although routine screening may not be appropriate in all health settings, given associations between domestic violence and sexual and reproductive health, a DVRS program is considered appropriate in sexual and reproductive health clinics and appears to be feasible in a service such as Family Planning NSW. Consistent implementation of the program should continue at Family Planning NSW and be expanded to other family planning services in Australia to support identification and early intervention for women affected by domestic violence.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress, Family Functioning, and Externalizing in Adolescents Exposed to Violence: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Kyle; Richards, Maryse; Mozley, Michaela; Scott, Darrick; Rice, Catherine; Garbarino, James

    2016-09-02

    Exposure to community violence disproportionately impacts low-income, minority youth and is associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms and maladaptive adjustment. This study investigates whether posttraumatic stress mediates the relation between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms and the moderating role of family cohesion and daily family support in buffering these effects on later externalizing. Low-income, African American 7th-grade students (M age = 12.57 years; N = 254) from high-crime neighborhoods participated in a 2-year longitudinal study measuring the effects of community violence exposure. The students completed questionnaires administered by research staff over 5 consecutive days for each year of the study. Family cohesion and daily family support exhibited a significant buffering effect for several outcomes. Posttraumatic stress significantly mediated the effect of witnessing community violence on subsequent aggression. The strength of these indirect effects depended on level of family cohesion. The findings provide evidence in support of interventions provided at both individual and family levels. Mental health providers working with this population should be aware of the intertwined nature of exposure to community violence, posttraumatic stress, and subsequent maladaptive outcomes.

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Sri Lankan University Students as a Consequence of Their Exposure to Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Tishby, Orya; de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the association between exposure to family violence (i.e., witnessing interparental violence and experiencing parental violence) during childhood and adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted among a self-selected convenience sample of 476 students from Sri…

  12. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopčavar Guček Nena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors.

  13. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  14. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  15. Attention bias and anxiety in young children exposed to family violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Pollak, Seth D.; Grasso, Damion; Voss, Joel; Mian, Nicholas D.; Zobel, Elvira; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention bias towards threat is associated with anxiety in older youth and adults and has been linked with violence exposure. Attention bias may moderate the relationship between violence exposure and anxiety in young children. Capitalizing on measurement advances, the current study examines these relationships at a younger age than previously possible. Methods Young children (mean age 4.7, ±0.8) from a cross-sectional sample oversampled for violence exposure (N = 218) completed the dot-probe task to assess their attention biases. Observed fear/anxiety was characterized with a novel observational paradigm, the Anxiety Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Mother-reported symptoms were assessed with the Preschool-Age Psychiatric Assessment and Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children. Violence exposure was characterized with dimensional scores reflecting probability of membership in two classes derived via latent class analysis from the Conflict Tactics Scales: Abuse and Harsh Parenting. Results Family violence predicted greater child anxiety and trauma symptoms. Attention bias moderated the relationship between violence and anxiety. Conclusions Attention bias towards threat may strengthen the effects of family violence on the development of anxiety, with potentially cascading effects across childhood. Such associations may be most readily detected when using observational measures of childhood anxiety. PMID:26716142

  16. Delinquent behaviors among students exposed to family violence in Quebec schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile delinquency is one of the major public concerns in many countries. This study aims to document the association between exposure to interparental violence and delinquent behaviors among high school students in Quebec (Canada). Methods A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire describing delinquent behaviors as well as exposure to interparental psychological and physical violence. Findings Overall, one out of two participants has experienced delinquent behaviors and 61.8% of them have reported having been exposed to at least one of the two forms of family violence. Overall, youth exposed to interparental violence are more likely to experience delinquent behaviors. Both psychological and physical interparental violence were significantly and independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Conclusion The findings of this study point out the vulnerability of youth exposed to interparental violence. They also highlight the need in the prevention of juvenile delinquency to focus not only on youth but also on both parents that may have been involved in family violence. PMID:28111591

  17. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  18. Family Ambiguity and Domestic Violence in Asia: Concept, Law and Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, M.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This book revisits the issue of Domestic Violence (DV) in Asia by exploring the question of family ambiguity, and interrogating DV’s relationship between concept, law and strategy. Comparative experiences in the Asian context enable an examination of the effectiveness of family regulations and laws

  19. A Predictive Model of Domestic Violence in Multicultural Families Focusing on Perpetrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Choi, RN, PhD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The variables explained in this study should be considered as predictive factors of domestic violence in multicultural families, and used to provide preventive nursing intervention. Our resutls can be taken into account for developing and implementing programs on alleviating dysfunctional communication in multicultural families in Korea.

  20. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  1. Prevalence, co-occurrence and decennial trends of family violence toward children in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Marie-Ève; Chamberland, Claire; Bouchard, Camil

    2016-03-14

    In Quebec, three population-based surveys have documented the prevalence of psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence toward children. This paper aims to present 1) the results of the 2012 survey with regard to the frequency and annual prevalence of violence, and 2) the trends in all three forms of violence between 1999 and 2012 according to children's age. The three independent surveys were all conducted through telephone interviews in 1999, 2004 and 2012 by the Institut de la Statistique du Québec and reached a total sample of 9,646 children living with a mother figure. Psychological aggression, and minor and severe physical violence were measured using the Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales. The results show that repeated psychological aggression, after having increased between 1999 (48%) and 2004 (53%), slightly decreased in 2012 (49%). Minor physical violence decreased steadily between 1999 and 2012, from 48% to 35%, and severe physical violence remained stable (6%). These three forms of violence varied by the age category of the children. Finally, the results show that the co-occurrence of the use of physical and psychological violence remained high in all three surveys. The results are consistent with trends in North America and are discussed in terms of services to support families.

  2. Violence Against Women in The Family (A Case Study in Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سمیه محمداوغلي

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study has been conducted to investigate the prevalence and types of violence against women in the family and social factors affecting domestic violence. The study has been conducted with survey on 384 married women in Ardabil who have been in marital bond for at least one year. Given the social and economic heterogeneity of Ardabil city, a multistage sampling technique was used. It was revealed that obedience of wife about her role in the family, assumed male dominant role in the family and separation of male and female gender roles in the family have direct and significant impacts on violence and family living, religiosity of women and education of women and men have a significant impact on violence against women. Based on the results, the independent variables in the multiple regression explain %45/6 of the dependent variable. Socially accepted gender roles (considered obedient wife, assumed the role of male dominance and separation of gender roles have the highest impact on violence against women in the society.

  3. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15914700

  4. PTSD symptoms and family versus stranger violence in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Connor P; Elbogen, Eric B

    2014-02-01

    As a diagnosis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with violence committed by veterans in many studies; however, a potential link to specific PTSD symptoms has received relatively less attention. This paper examines the relationship between PTSD symptoms and different types of violent behavior in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Participants were randomly sampled from a roster of all separated U.S. military service members or national guard/reservists who served after September 11, 2001. Data were collected at baseline and 1-year follow-up from a national sample of N = 1,090 veterans, from 50 states and all military branches. Of these veterans, 13% reported aggression toward a family member and 9% toward a stranger during the 1-year study period. Anger symptoms at baseline predicted higher odds of family violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.30, CI [1.13, 1.48], p violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.26, CI [1.11, 1.42], p violence, whereas females were more likely to endorse aggression in the family context. The results provide limited support to the hypothesis that PTSD "flashbacks" in veterans are linked to violence. The differing multivariate models illustrate distinct veteran characteristics associated with specific types of violence.

  5. PTSD Symptoms and Family vs. Stranger Violence in Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Connor P.; Elbogen, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    As a diagnosis, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with violence committed by veterans in many studies; however, a potential link to specific PTSD symptoms has received relatively less attention. This paper examines the relationship between PTSD symptoms and different types of violent behavior in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. Participants were randomly sampled from a roster of all separated U.S. military service members or national guard/reservists who served after September 11, 2001. Data were collected at baseline and 1-year follow-up from a national sample of N = 1,090 veterans, from 50 states and all military branches. Of these veterans, 13% reported aggression toward a family member and 9% toward a stranger during the 1-year study period. Anger symptoms at baseline predicted higher odds of family violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.30, CI [1.13, 1.48], p violence at follow-up, both severe (OR = 1.26, CI [1.11, 1.42], p violence, whereas females were more likely to endorse aggression in the family context. The results provide limited support to the hypothesis that PTSD “flashbacks” in veterans are linked to violence. The differing multivariate models illustrate distinct veteran characteristics associated with specific types of violence. PMID:23646917

  6. Characteristics of family violence victims presenting to emergency departments in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Choi, Wai Man Anna; Fong, Daniel Y T; Chow, Chun Bong; Leung, Ming; Ip, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) has been shown to be a valuable location to screen for family violence. To investigate the characteristics of family violence victims presenting to EDs in a Chinese population in Hong Kong. This study examined a retrospective cohort of patients presenting to the Accident and Emergency Departments of three regional hospitals in the Kwai Tsing district of Hong Kong for evaluation and management of physical injuries related to family violence during the period of January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2008. A total of 15,797 patients were assessed. The sample comprised cases of intimate partner violence (IPV; n=10,839), child abuse and neglect (CAN; n=3491), and elder abuse (EA; n=1467). Gender differences were found in patterns of ED utilization among the patients. The rates of readmission were 12.9% for IPV, 12.8% for CAN, and 8.9% for EA. Logistic regression showed that being male, being discharged against medical advice, and arriving at the hospital via ambulance were the common factors associated with readmission to the EDs for patients victimized by IPV and CAN. This study investigates the victim profile of a large cohort of a Chinese population, providing a unique data set not previously released in this cultural or medical system. The findings give insights to early identification of victims of family violence in the EDs and suggest that screening techniques focused on multiple forms of family violence would improve identification of violence cases. Multidisciplinary collaboration between health, legal, and social service professionals is also warranted to meet the various needs of victims and to reduce hospital readmissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Masculine and family honor and youth violence: The moderating role of ethnic-cultural affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the involvement in violent behavior of at-risk Arab and Jewish male youth from a large city in Israel. It explores the role masculine and family honor plays in predicting youth involvement in violence and tests whether this association is moderated by ethnic-cultural affiliation. A total of 282 males (59.2% Arab), aged 15-21, filled out a self-report closed-ended questionnaire. We found that among both Jewish and Arab youth a greater concern with masculine honor was positively associated with involvement in violence. We also found that Arab youth are significantly more involved in violent behavior than Jewish youth, and that Arab participants were more concerned with masculine and family honor. However, contrary to what was expected, greater concern with family honor was associated with lower levels of Arab youth involvement in violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Family type, domestic violence and under-five mortality in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titilayo, Ayotunde; Anuodo, Oludare O; Palamuleni, Martin E

    2017-06-01

    Nigeria still showcases unacceptably high under-five mortality despite all efforts to reduce the menace. Investigating the significant predictors of this occurrence is paramount. To examine the interplay between family setting, domestic violence and under-five death in Nigeria. Cross-sectional secondary data, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, (NDHS) women dataset was utilized. Subset of 26,997 ever married and ever had childbirth experience respondents were extracted from the nationally representative women dataset. Dependent and Independent variables were recoded to suit the statistical analysis for the study. The study revealed that 33.7% of the respondents were in polygyny family setting; one-quarter of the ever married women reported ever experiencing one form of domestic violence or the other. The results of the logistic regressions indicate that family type and domestic violence were significant predictors of under-five children mortality in Nigeria. The study concludes that women who belong to polygyny family setting and who ever experienced sexual domestic violence are highly susceptible to experience under-five children mortality than their counterparts. The study recommends that strategies and policies aimed at improving child survival should strengthen women empowerment initiatives, discourage multiple wives and campaign against domestic violence in Nigeria.

  9. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic fai...

  10. Examining Patterns of Exposure to Family Violence in Preschool Children: A Latent Class Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Petitclerc, Amélie; Henry, David B; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    Young children can experience violence directly or indirectly in the home, with some children exposed to multiple forms of violence. These polyvictims often experience violence that is severe, chronic, and multifaceted. The current study used latent class analysis to identify and examine the pattern of profiles of exposure to family violence (i.e., violence directed towards the child and between caregivers) among a sample of 474 children ages 3-6 year who were drawn from the Multidimensional Assessment of Preschoolers Study (Wakschlag et al., 2014). The data yielded 3 classes: a polyvictimized class (n = 72; 15.2%) with high probability of exposure to all forms of violence, a harsh parenting class (n = 235; 49.5%), distinguished mainly by child-directed physical discipline in the absence of more severe forms of violence, and a low-exposure class (n = 167; 35.2%). Classes were differentiated by contextual factors, maternal characteristics, and mother-reported and observational indicators of parenting and child functioning with most effect sizes between medium and large. These findings add to emerging evidence linking polyvictimization to impaired caregiving and adverse psychological outcomes for children and offer important insight for prevention and intervention for this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  11. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence and Family Violence on School Functioning Problems among Urban Youth: The Potential Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Tia M.; Self-Brown, Shannon R.; Lai, Betty S.; Cowart-Osborne, Melissa; Tiwari, Ashwini; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M = 15 years; range = 13–16 years; 60 males, 61 females) within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home). Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence. PMID:24570897

  12. Effects of exposure to community violence and family violence on school functioning problems among urban youth: The potential mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tia eMcGill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are exposed to violence during childhood are at an increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress (PTS symptoms. The literature suggests that violence exposure might also have negative effects on school functioning, and that PTS might serve as a potential mediator in this association. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend prior research by examining PTS symptoms as a mediator of the relationship between two types of violence exposure and school functioning problems among adolescent youth from an urban setting. Participants included a sample of 121 junior high and high school students (M= 15 years; range= 13-16 years; 60 males, 61 females within high-crime neighborhoods. Consistent with our hypotheses, community violence and family violence were associated with PTS symptoms and school functioning problems. Our data suggest that community and family violence were indirectly related to school functioning problems through PTS symptoms. Findings from this study demonstrate that PTS symptoms potentially mediate the relationship between violence exposure and school functioning problems across two settings (community and home. Future research should further examine protective factors that can prevent youth violence exposure as well as negative outcomes related to violence.

  13. Laying down the Family Burden: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Resilience in the Midst of Family Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data from a cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 5,149 middle-school students from four EU countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) were used to explore the effects of family violence burden level, structural and procedural risk and protective factors, and personal characteristics on adolescents who are…

  14. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n=401, 43% female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositional problems at home and aggressive-oppositional problems at school each made unique predictions to the emergence of dating violence in late adolescence. The results suggest that aggressive family dynamics during childhood and early adolescence influence the development of dating violence primarily by fostering a child’s oppositional-aggressive responding style initially in the home, which is then generalized to other contexts. Although this study is limited by weaknesses detailed in the discussion, the contribution of longitudinal evidence including parent, teacher, and adolescent reports from both boys and girls, a dual-emphasis on the prediction of perpetration and victimization, as well as an analysis of both relations between variables and person-oriented group comparisons combine to make a unique contribution to the growing literature on adolescent partner violence. PMID:22990881

  15. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for Indian... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS...

  16. [Violence against the aged within the family: results of studies by the "Bonner HsM (treating vs. mistreating) Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R D; Brendebach, C

    1999-12-01

    Central aspects of intra-familiar violence and of their causes are discussed. The first results of the study "Handeln statt Misshandeln" (HSM, Action against Violence) are presented. Data were collected in Bonn, Germany, by the means of a postal questionnaire. Approximately 10 percent of old people reported experiences of violence in their families during the past five years. Most often mental violence and financial deceit were mentioned. Experiences of violence mainly caused psychological and emotional problems. If at all, victims searched for support in their immediate social network. Persons who were married or of bad physical health had often experiences of violence. Significant difference between victims and non-victims were detected for experiences of violence, the victims' subjective well-being, the quality of the families' external relations and the victims' socio-economic status.

  17. Minority and Immigrant Youth Exposure to Community Violence: The Differential Effects of Family Management and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Maria João Lobo; Ahlin, Eileen M

    2018-02-01

    Experiences with neighborhood violence can produce negative consequences in youth, including stress, anxiety, and deviant behavior. Studies report that immigrant and minority youth are more likely to be exposed to violence but less likely to perpetrate it. Similarly, research shows parenting practices are differentially adopted by Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Although family management strategies can often act as a barrier to the detrimental effects of exposure to community violence (ETV-C), there is a paucity of investigation on how Hispanic subgroups (e.g., Puerto Rican, Mexican) and immigrant families employ such practices in protecting their children against victimization and violence in the community. Applying an ecological framework, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the role of parenting and peer relationships on youth ETV-C, across race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our sample is drawn from Cohorts 9, 12, and 15, and is over 40% Hispanic-Latino. We investigate the differences in within and outside the home family management strategies in terms of both race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status. Our work also seeks to determine the effects of race/ethnicity and immigrant status on youth ETV-C, while examining the influence of family management and peer relations. Results indicate that the adoption of family management practices is not homogeneous across Hispanic subgroups or immigrant generational status, and parenting practices seem to mediate the relationship between these characteristics and exposure to violence. Variations in parenting practices underscore the need to disentangle the cultural plurality of racial/ethnic grouping and how immigrant generational status influences parenting choices that protect children from exposure to violence in the community.

  18. The Effectiveness of Anger Management Skills Training on Reduction Family Violence and Recovery Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مدیا تفرشی

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using questionnaires of violence and marital satisfaction, data were collected at pretest, posttest, and follow-up and analyzed by ANCOVA. Results indicated that training of anger management skills can significantly decrease family violence and increase marital satisfaction in householders. In addition, results of follow-up showed that effects of intervention lasted. The results of the study provide some evidence to suggest that training of anger management skills is an appropriate method for reducing violence and increasing marital satisfaction. Anger management skills training help women probably by reinforcement of the behavioral skills of regulation, change and create desirable emotions. As a consequence of decreased undesirable behaviors related to violence, desirable behavioral, emotional and cognitive changes were reinforced in family and marital satisfaction improved. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of anger management skills training on family violence and marital satisfaction of householders in Tehran. Methodology was Quasiexperimental on an available sample of 34 subjects from women referring to health houses in region-2 of Tehran and randomly assigned in experimental and control groups.

  19. Exposure to Family Violence as a Predictor of Dating Violence and Child-to-Parent Aggression in Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may place children on a lifelong trajectory toward violence. The primary aim of this research was to examine the associations between exposure to violence at home and two forms of violence in close relationships in Spanish adolescents: child-to-parent violence (CPV) and dating…

  20. 78 FR 27240 - Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ....095] Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in... single-source cooperative agreement to the National Council on Family Violence to support the National Domestic Violence Hotline (Hotline). SUMMARY: The Administration for Children and Families (ACF...

  1. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act...

  2. 42 CFR 136.404 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.404 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the IHS and Indian Tribes or Tribal organizations receiving funds under...

  3. Exposure to Spousal Violence in the Family, Attitudes and Dating Violence Perpetration Among High School Students in Port-au-Prince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the associations of exposure to spousal violence in the family and personal and peer attitudes with dating violence (DV) perpetration among high school students in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were 342 high school students in Grades 10 to 12 who stated that they had ever been on a date. Multiple linear regression methods were used to examine correlates of the scale of DV perpetration. Findings showed that personal acceptance of DV mediated the association between exposure to wife-perpetrated and husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration for girls. Boys who were exposed to husband-perpetrated spousal violence in the family had significantly higher levels of psychological DV perpetration than those who were not. Contrary to expectations, exposure to wife-perpetrated spousal violence in the family was negatively associated with psychological and physical/sexual DV perpetration by boys, after controlling for other factors. Overall, perceived peer tolerance of DV was more strongly associated with DV perpetration than personal tolerance of DV, and was the only significant correlate of psychological DV perpetration for girls. Perceived peer attitudes also moderated the association between boys' exposure to spousal violence in the family and DV perpetration. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The Interrelationship between Family Violence, Adolescent Violence, and Adolescent Violent Victimization: An Application and Extension of the Cultural Spillover Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yiwei; Li, Spencer D; Liu, Tzu-Hsuan

    2018-02-21

    The current study is the first study to emphasize family systems, violent norms, and violent peer association as three domains of the social environment that influence both adolescent violent offending and victimization among Chinese adolescents using a longitudinal sample. Under the framework of cultural spillover theory, the purpose of the current study was to explore how these three factors influenced adolescent violent offending and victimization. A total of 1192 middle and high school students were randomly selected from one of the largest cities in Southwest China. Structural equation model analysis was applied to investigate the direct and indirect effect of violence in the family system on violent offending and victimization. The results indicated that violent offending and victimization overlapped among Chinese adolescents. Violent peer association and acceptance of the violence norm fully mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent offending, and partially mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent victimization. In conclusion, adolescents who had experienced violence in their family system were more likely to be exposed to violent peer influences and to accept violent norms, which increased the likelihood of violence perpetration and victimization later in their life.

  5. Interparental Violence, Maternal Emotional Unavailability and Children's Cortisol Functioning in Family Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal in the present study was to examine the specificity of pathways among interparental violence, maternal emotional unavailability, and children's cortisol reactivity to emotional stressors within interparental and parent-child relationships. The study also tested whether detrimental family contexts were associated, on average, with…

  6. Systemic Approach in Latino Families Surviving Domestic Violence in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Leeds, Claudia B.; Schneider, Liora

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a treatment model grounded by professionals' knowledge and that allows the development of skills to work with families in crisis. The participants, health professionals of the Latina Domestic Violence Program (LDVP) in Philadelphia, were interviewed individually, and the answers were analyzed in accordance with…

  7. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  8. Rates and Psychological Effects of Exposure to Family Violence among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…

  9. Issues Supervising Family Violence Cases: Advocacy, Ethical Documentation, and Supervisees' Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Dawn L.

    2010-01-01

    Selected clinical and ethical issues associated with providing supervision involving family violence cases are outlined. It is argued that supervisees helping clients with trauma histories require skills beyond learning how to process the trauma with their clients. Advocacy, social action, and coordinating case conferences are some of the…

  10. Translating Research about Domestic and Family Violence into Practice in Australia: Possibilities and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Laura; Humphreys, Cathy; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2017-01-01

    The volume of research being conducted into domestic and family violence is increasing, yet knowledge translation in this area lags behind other fields such as healthcare. Little is known about how to effectively harness and implement research findings in the "real world," and there continue to be barriers to the use of rigorous research…

  11. Prevalence of family violence in adults and children : Estimates using the capture-recapture method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterlee, A.; Vink, R.M.; Smit, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reliable prevalence estimates of family violence in adults and children are difficult to obtain. Most are based on surveys or registration counts, whose research designs and methods are often questionable, making the results difficult to compare. This article presents an alternative

  12. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  13. The effect of family violence on children's academic performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Homicide perpetrated by an acquaintance or a close family member is the leading cause of death among blacks. Black children adversely affected by these violent occurrences suffer posttraumatic stress disorder. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how damage caused to black children from exposure to violence is reflected in behavior problems and poor school performance. PMID:2304094

  14. Attitude towards violence against women in the relationship and the family social climate in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Jesús Pacheco Vela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlation between attitudes toward violence against women in the couple relationship and the Family Environment Scale in its dimensions "relation", "stability" and "development" in adolescents of 4th grade to “El Bosque” high school. Method: Not experimental transactional and correlational. 63 students of 4th year high school of which 28 were male (44.4% and 35 were women (55.6% was evaluated through the Scale of Attitudes towards violence against women in the couple relationship (Scale VM, and the Family Environment Scale of Moos (FES. Results: Results: There is not correlation between attitudes towards violence against women in the relationship and dimensions of Family Enviroment Scale: Relations (r = - .133, p> .05, Development (r = - .006, p > .05 and stability (r = .112, p> .05. Conclusion: This research is important in the study of attitudes towards gender violence in our environment and its interaction with other factors like the family atmosphere above, which allows a broader vision of this important social issue and encourages broad intervention based on solid knowledge, bringing positive impact on improving the quality of life of people.

  15. Intergenerational patterns of family violence related to alcohol abuse: a genogram-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Silveira Tondowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze intergenerational patterns of alcohol related violence (ARV. An intentional sample comprising 42 family members was selected according to a set of criteria, including history of ARV. A genogram based on anonymous semi-structured taped interviews was created. The Content Analysis pointed to different patterns of repetition of intergenerational ARV. The most recurrent ones were those of lineal consanguinity (father/son and through marriage. We observed similarities over the generations of each family as regards the pattern of alcohol consumption; the type of violence; the family reaction and the family life cycle in which ARV was intensified. Our results confirm the intergenerational reproduction of ARV. In conclusion, it is important to create intervention strategies to prevent intergenerational repetition of this association of behaviors.

  16. ‘When She Calls for Help’—Domestic Violence in Christian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Westenberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in relationships is a common experience for a significant number of women. VicHealth (Australia has noted that one of the underlying and contributing factors towards violence against women is their environment, citing ‘faith-based institutions’ such as churches as one such environment for many women. Indeed, international research shows that the language of religion is often used by women to explain abuse. Additionally, abused Christian women are more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing religious beliefs to support avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ despite abuse. In contrast, however, churches can address domestic violence within a context of care, with emphasis on a theology of biblical equality. This paper examines how domestic violence may be supported by Christian language and belief, and suggests an ‘alternate theology’ concerning religious language in concepts of gender roles, sacrifice, submission, and suffering. It reviews current research on the connection between Christian religious language and domestic violence against women, to highlight the Christian church’s role as a contributing factor to such abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious language can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, sever the connections between domestic violence and religious language.

  17. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparison of Antisocial and Family-Only Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Joakim; Strand, Susanne; Selenius, Heidi

    2016-03-27

    Subtyping male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) based on their generality of violence could facilitate the difficult task of matching perpetrator subtype with efficient risk management strategies. As such, the aim of the present study was to compare antisocial and family-only male perpetrators of interpersonal violence in terms of (a) demographic and legal characteristics, (b) risk factors for violence, and (c) assessed risk and the importance of specific risk factors for violence. A quantitative design was used in this retrospective register study on data obtained from the Swedish police. Risk assessments performed with the Swedish version of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) and police registers were used. A sample of 657 male alleged IPV perpetrators were classified asantisocial(n= 341) orfamily-only(n= 316) based on their generality of violence. The results showed that the antisocial perpetrators were significantly younger, as well as more psychologically abusive. Antisocial perpetrators also had significantly more present risk factors for IPV, and were assessed with a significantly higher risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV, compared with the family-only perpetrators. The subtypes also evidenced unique risk factors with a significant impact on elevated risk for acute and severe or deadly such violence. Key findings in the present study concerned the subtypes evidencing unique risk factors increasing the risk for acute and severe or deadly IPV. Major implications of this study include the findings of such unique "red flag" risk factors for each subtype. To prevent future IPV, it is vital for the risk assessor to be aware of these red flags when making decisions about risk, as well as risk management strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Evolution of interprofessional learning: Dalhousie University's "From Family Violence to Health" module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Grace M; Ryding, Helen A; Campbell, Lindsay M

    2003-11-01

    At Dalhousie University, interprofessional (IP) learning modules are used to help future health care professionals learn to work together in resolving complex problems. One module, "From Family Violence to Health," features the role of dental professionals. This paper describes the evolution of this module from the year 2000. By February 2003, 1,182 students from 15 health care professions had completed the module. Qualitative evaluation in years 1 and 2 of the program (2000 and 2001) revealed that, before participating in the IP module, many students were able to identify a role for themselves in the recognition of family violence and knew their responsibility to report incidents. However, after participating in the module, they had a greater understanding of the reporting of family violence, a more comprehensive and supportive perspective, increased recognition of how health care professionals could work together and improved awareness of the roles of other professions. In a quantitative evaluation in year 3 (2002), mean student ratings on a scale of 1 to 5 indicated that the IP module was relevant (4.2), increased their understanding of family violence (4.0), and had some impact in promoting IP learning (3.8). As health care delivery becomes more focused on care teams and system thinking, the provision of IP training is expected to increase. The Dalhousie University IP modules (available at http://www.dal.ca/~fhp/ipl/index.html) address health and social problems for which it is critical that health care and other professionals work together. Feedback from practitioners on the development of IP education is welcomed, particularly with regard to the IP module addressing family violence.

  19. The impact of family and community violence on children's depression trajectories: examining the interactions of violence exposure, family social support, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Greeson, Megan

    2010-04-01

    This longitudinal study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationships between witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), community and school violence exposure (CSVE), family social support, gender, and depression over 2 years within a sample of 100 school-aged children. We found significant between-child differences in both the initial levels of depression and the trajectories of depression; depression over time was positively associated with change in witnessing IPV and CSVE and negatively associated with change in support. Two significant 3-way interactions were found: Gender and initial support, as well as gender and initial witnessing IPV, both significantly moderated the effect of change in witnessing IPV on the children's depression over time. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Family constellation as a treatment for overcoming the consequences of violence on victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnčić Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the implementation of family constellations by Bert Hellinger in work with clients with special emphasis on victims of physical and sexual violence. Although extremely popular in Europe and the world it has not been presented in Serbian scientific literature. As the approach has been developed in Germany as an answer to the situation where a significant part of population was a victim or perpetrator of violence during the Second World War causing suffering not only to them, but also to their offsprings, it offers a special contribution to the work with victims of violence. The aims of the paper are the presentation and analysis of the implementation of family constellations by Bert Hellinger and their effects generally in work with clients as well as with victims of physical and sexual violence. The technique of family constellations based on systemic and phenomenological approach is presented and discussed. Work is in the group, where participants form the circle and person who seeks problem resolution invites representatives - persons who are crucial for problem solution previously agreed with constellation facilitator - constellator. The constellator communicate with the representatives, encouraging them to express feelings, sensations and movement that will facilitate progress towards finding the optimal solution. The basic theoretical concepts are also analysed, including two types of conscience (individual and family, three basic principles of orders of love (principle of equal right to belong, principle of balance between giving and taking and principle of order and three levels of the soul (individual, family and great soul. The approach to overcoming consequences of violence on victims of physical violence and incest through symbolic interconnecting with the perpetrator is analysed. When it is applied to violence the victim has an opportunity to get a more comprehensive understanding and to experience an

  1. Protective Factors for Youth Exposed to Violence in Their Communities: A Review of Family, School, and Community Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J; Lavi, Iris; Douglas, Laura; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2017-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive investigation of the pattern and strength of findings in the literature regarding the environmental moderators of the relationship between exposure to community violence and mental health among children and adolescents. Twenty-nine studies met criteria for inclusion in our analysis of family, school, and community variables as moderators. Dependent variables included internalizing (e.g., anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder) and externalizing symptoms (e.g., aggression, substance use). Effect sizes for the interactions of exposure to violence and potential moderators were summarized by their patterns of protective processes. The majority of studies in the literature examined family characteristics as moderators of the exposure to violence-symptom relationship, rather than school- or community-level factors. Our results indicated more consistent patterns for (a) close family relationships and social support for internalizing symptoms and (b) close family relationships for externalizing symptoms. Overall, the most common type of protective pattern was protective-stabilizing, in which youth with higher levels of the environmental attribute demonstrate relative stability in mental health despite exposure to violence. We found no consistent evidence that parental monitoring-a dimension inversely associated with exposure to violence in prior studies-moderated the relationship between exposure to violence and symptoms. The study emphasizes the importance of strengthening family support for young people's exposure to community violence; more research is needed to provide a solid evidence base for the role of school and community-level protective factors for youth exposed to violence.

  2. A descriptive study of juvenile family violence: data from intervention order applications in a Childrens Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Baksheev, Gennady N; Mullen, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that family violence may be perpetrated by juveniles against their parents and siblings, however empirical research regarding the nature and causes of such violence is relatively limited. This study examines juvenile family violence in the context of an Intervention Order (IO) being sought against a relative aged 18years or less. All cases over a 3-year period involving an IO application in a major metropolitan Children's Court in Australia were analysed (n=438). The majority of applicants/victims were parents (78%) and to a lesser extent siblings (11%) and other relatives (9%). Most parents who sought applications were mothers (63%) and one-parent households were over-represented (66%). The majority of defendants/perpetrators were male (69%), though juvenile females constituted a significant minority (31%). Intervention orders were sought to prohibit property damage (61%), physical assaults (59%) and/or threats (53%). According to the victim reports, these behaviours emerged in the context of prolonged behavioural problems (49%), a desire to intimidate the victim (12%) or retaliation (8%). While 44% of IO applications were granted, the majority were not (56%) due to the victim discontinuing the application prior to a formal hearing. Of the orders that were granted, a third (32%) were subsequently reported as having been breached. Juvenile family violence is a serious social problem that requires more systematic research to identify the correlates of this behaviour and effective interventions to prevent or reduce its occurrence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence in the Canadian Armed Forces: The Role of Family Stress and Its Impact on Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorovsky, Alla; Hujaleh, Filsan; Wolejszo, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    Unique demands of military life (e.g., deployment) can have a significant impact on family life. Although most families cope effectively with military life stressors, some may have difficulty adjusting, experiencing marital conflicts, and violence. Evidence suggests that unmanaged occupational demands may create family stress by interfering with efforts to fulfill family duties. This study examined the effects of work-family conflict and marital satisfaction on intimate violence experienced by Canadian Armed Forces members, and the impact of such violence on their psychological well-being (N = 525). Regression analyses showed that both work-family conflict and marital satisfaction were unique and significant predictors of emotional and physical violence experienced by Canadian Armed Forces members. Moreover, bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that marital satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between work-family and family-work conflicts and intimate partner violence. The results point to the importance of examining the interrelationship between family stress and occupational stressors when exploring interpersonal violence and its psychological impact on military personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Is always the family the main risk factor in Child to Parent Violence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael March Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many of the programs carried out in order to intervene with Child to Parent Violence (CPV are directed mainly towards victims. The fact that family is the primary agent of socialization contributes to trying to find the reasons behind children and adolescents’ behavioral disorders in this field. Thus, many authors see CPV as a «high-risk» situation within the family in which minors are not properly treated, where there are degraded contexts, inadequate parenting styles, blurred boundaries, hostility and neglect, a pathological profile of the parents, conflicting relationships between the partner and disregard for the children who become considered as victims and tormentors at the same time. A large amount of research seems to support this point of view, but, is it true in most cases? Or, in other words: is always the family the main risk factor in Child to Parent Violence?

  5. [Domestic and family violence against women: a case-control study with victims treated in emergency rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with treatment of victims of domestic and family violence in emergency rooms in Brazil. This is a case-control study based on the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), 2011. Women ≥ 18 years who were victims of family and domestic violence were selected as cases and compared to accident victims (controls). Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. 623 cases and 10,120 controls were included. Risk factors according to the adjusted analysis were younger age (18-29 years), low schooling, lack of paid work, alcohol consumption, having sought treatment in a different health service, and violence on weekends or at night or in the early morning hours. The study concludes that domestic and family violence shows alcohol consumption as a strongly associated factor. Days and hours with the highest ocurrence reveal the need to adjust emergency services to treat victims.

  6. The Effects of Community and Family Violence Exposure on Anxiety Trajectories during Middle Childhood: The Role of Family Social Support as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Greeson, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study investigated the relations between community and school violence exposure, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), family social support, and anxiety, within a sample of 100 school-age children (39% female, M age = 9.90 years). Using multilevel modeling, we found heterogeneity across children in terms of their…

  7. Shattered Vision: Disenchantment of Couplehood among Female Survivors of Violence in the Shadow of Their Family-of-Origin Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for…

  8. School Variables as Mediators of Personal and Family Factors on School Violence in Taiwanese Junior High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 3,058 junior high school students in Taiwan, this study examines a model of how personal traits, family factors, and school dynamics influence school violence committed by students against students and teachers. This model proposed that school violence is directly influenced by personal traits,…

  9. Children and Political Violence from a Social Ecological Perspective: Implications from Research on Children and Families in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Mark E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The effects on children of political violence are matters of international concern, with many negative effects well-documented. At the same time, relations between war, terrorism, or other forms of political violence and child development do not occur in a vacuum. The impact can be understood as related to changes in the communities, families and…

  10. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2014-11-01

    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Family Violence and Football: The Effect of Unexpected Emotional Cues on Violent Behavior*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David; Dahl, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    We study the link between family violence and the emotional cues associated with wins and losses by local professional football teams. We hypothesize that the risk of violence is affected by the ‘gain-loss’ utility of game outcomes around a rationally expected reference point. Our empirical analysis uses police reports of violent incidents on Sundays during the professional football season. Controlling for the pre-game point spread and the size of the local viewing audience, we find that upset losses (defeats when the home team was predicted to win by 4 or more points) lead to a 10 percent increase in the rate of at-home violence by men against their wives and girlfriends. In contrast, losses when the game was expected to be close have small and insignificant effects. Upset wins (when the home team was predicted to lose) also have little impact on violence, consistent with asymmetry in the gain-loss utility function. The rise in violence after an upset loss is concentrated in a narrow time window near the end of the game, and is larger for more important games. We find no evidence for reference point updating based on the halftime score. PMID:21853617

  12. Violence against Women in the Family Home: Acknowledging the Role of Education and the Opportunities to Utilise Technology in Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggisberg, Marika

    2017-01-01

    Professionals in the health and education sector require knowledge and understanding of issues of family violence. Violence in the family home against women and children continues to present alarming problems. Significant evidence suggests that not only current and former female partners, but also children, are exposed to violence in the home.…

  13. The relationship between organized violence, family violence and mental health: findings from a community-based survey in Muhanga, Southern Rwanda

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    Heide Rieder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background : The relationship between organized violence and family violence, and their cumulative effect on mental health in post-conflict regions remains poorly understood. Objective : The aim of the present study was to establish prevalence rates and predictors of family violence in post-conflict Rwanda. And to examine whether higher levels of war-related violence and its socio-economic consequences would result in higher levels of violence within families and whether this would be related to an increase of psychological distress in descendants. Method : One hundred and eighty-eight parent–child pairs from four sectors of the district Muhanga, Southern Province of Rwanda, were randomly selected for participation in the study. Trained local psychologists administered structured diagnostic interviews. A posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD diagnosis was established using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I and child maltreatment was assessed by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Additionally, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25 assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety in descendants. Results : Prevalence rates of child abuse and neglect among descendants were below 10%. Ordinal regression analyses revealed that the level of child maltreatment in descendants was predicted by female sex, poverty, loss of the mother, exposure to war and genocide as well as parents’ level of PTSD and reported child maltreatment. Poor physical health, exposure to war and genocide, parental PTSD symptoms, and reported childhood trauma were significantly associated with depressive and anxious symptoms, while only exposure to war and genocide and poor physical health predicted the level of PTSD. Conclusion : The results indicate that cumulative stress such as exposure to organized violence and family violence in Rwandan descendants poses a risk factor for the development of depressive and anxious symptoms. Besides the support for families to

  14. Screening for Partner Violence Among Family Mediation Clients: Differentiating Types of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot J; Axelsen, Lauren; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Family mediation is mandated in Australia for couples in dispute over separation and parenting as a first step in dispute resolution, except where there is a history of intimate partner violence. However, validation of effective well-differentiated partner violence screening instruments suitable for mediation settings is at an early phase of development. This study contributes to calls for better violence screening instruments in the mediation context to detect a differentiated range of abusive behaviors by examining the reliability and validity of both established scales, and newly developed scales that measured intimate partner violence by partner and by self. The study also aimed to examine relationships between types of abuse, and between gender and types of abuse. A third aim was to examine associations between types of abuse and other relationship indicators such as acrimony and parenting alliance. The data reported here are part of a larger mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal study of clients attending nine family mediation centers in Victoria, Australia. The current analyses on baseline cross-sectional screening data confirmed the reliability of three subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the reliability and validity of three new scales measuring intimidation, controlling and jealous behavior, and financial control. Most clients disclosed a history of at least one type of violence by partner: 95% reported psychological aggression, 72% controlling and jealous behavior, 50% financial control, and 35% physical assault. Higher rates of abuse perpetration were reported by partner versus by self, and gender differences were identified. There were strong associations between certain patterns of psychologically abusive behavior and both acrimony and parenting alliance. The implications for family mediation services and future research are discussed.

  15. [Family violence and mental health in adolescence: complex trauma as a developmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciutello, Cosimo; Cheli, Mariagnese; Montenegro, Maria Elena; Campieri, Michela; Fini, Andrea; Pincanelli, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    To highlight the harmfulness and pervasive of early and repeated exposure to family violence from the theoretical perspective of complex trauma as a developmental disorder. A study carried out on a sample of 22 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18, who have been entrusted to Il Faro Bologna, a Specialist Centre for child abuse and neglect. Specific areas of psychological functioning were examined. According to the NCTSN these areas are considered vulnerable to violence in primary relationships and crucial for future mental health. They are attachment, self-concept, affect regulation, cognition and behavioural control. The data was correlated with the different forms of maltreatment and the main risk factors detected in the family environment and was collected by means of clinical interviews, family and social histories, structured interviews and self-reports recommended by the NASMHPD. The data highlights a correlation between the psychic functions examined and exposure to family violence, distortion of parental empathy and parental responsibility failure. The study indicates the need: a) to raise clinical awareness of the consequences of complex trauma on development; b) to adopt specific diagnostic tools for evaluating post-traumatic outcomes; c) to carry out regular screening in order to explore histories of maltreatment in patients cared for by mental health services.

  16. Family and community driven response to intimate partner violence in post-conflict settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Nancy; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Banywesize, Luhazi; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikenge; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Mitima, Clovis Murhula; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Glass, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This study explores risk factors, individual and family consequences and community-driven responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in post-conflict eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study was conducted in 3 rural villages in South Kivu Province of DRC, an area that has experienced prolonged conflict. Participants included 13 female survivors and 5 male perpetrators of IPV as reported during baseline data collection for the parent study, an impact evaluation of the Congolese-led livestock microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Participants described social and behavioral circumstances that increase risk for IPV; social, health and economic consequences on women and their families; and resources to protect women and their families. Social and behavioral factors reported by survivors and perpetrators indicate that IPV was linked to husband’s alcohol consumption, household economic instability, male desire to maintain his position as head of family and perceived disrespect of husband by wife. In addition to well-known health consequences of IPV, women reported negative social consequences, such as stigma, resulting in barriers for the well-being of the family. Survivors and perpetrators described the impact of IPV on their children, specifically the lack of proper parental guidance and lack of safety and stability that could result in the child(ren) misbehaving and using violence in their relationships resulting in further stigma towards the child and family. Strategies employed by survivors to protect themselves and family, include placating male behaviors (e.g. not responding to insults, trying to meet household demands). Perpetrators that tried to reduce the impact of IPV reported a preference for social and financial control of their partner rather than physical violence, believing this to be less severe. Participants described community and family based social support systems including couple’s mediation, responsible partner and

  17. Family and community driven response to intimate partner violence in post-conflict settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anjalee; Perrin, Nancy; Mpanano, Remy Mitima; Banywesize, Luhazi; Mirindi, Alfred Bacikenge; Banywesize, Jean Heri; Mitima, Clovis Murhula; Binkurhorhwa, Arsène Kajabika; Bufole, Nadine Mwinja; Glass, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    This study explores risk factors, individual and family consequences and community-driven responses to intimate partner violence (IPV) in post-conflict eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This qualitative study was conducted in 3 rural villages in South Kivu Province of DRC, an area that has experienced prolonged conflict. Participants included 13 female survivors and 5 male perpetrators of IPV as reported during baseline data collection for the parent study, an impact evaluation of the Congolese-led livestock microfinance program, Pigs for Peace. Participants described social and behavioral circumstances that increase risk for IPV; social, health and economic consequences on women and their families; and resources to protect women and their families. Social and behavioral factors reported by survivors and perpetrators indicate that IPV was linked to husband's alcohol consumption, household economic instability, male desire to maintain his position as head of family and perceived disrespect of husband by wife. In addition to well-known health consequences of IPV, women reported negative social consequences, such as stigma, resulting in barriers for the well-being of the family. Survivors and perpetrators described the impact of IPV on their children, specifically the lack of proper parental guidance and lack of safety and stability that could result in the child(ren) misbehaving and using violence in their relationships resulting in further stigma towards the child and family. Strategies employed by survivors to protect themselves and family, include placating male behaviors (e.g., not responding to insults, trying to meet household demands). Perpetrators that tried to reduce the impact of IPV reported a preference for social and financial control of their partner rather than physical violence, believing this to be less severe. Participants described community and family based social support systems including couple's mediation, responsible partner and

  18. Prevalence of violence against children in families in Tripura and its relationship with socio-economic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; Modak, Subhasis

    2010-01-01

    Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females) studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India). Data were collected by using a specially designed 'Semi-structured Questionnaire. Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320), 21.9% (70/230) and 18.1% (58/230) of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p less than 0.01).Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family(p was less than 0.01), uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p was less than 0.01)and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p was less than 0.01),irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p was less than 0.01) while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p was less than 0.01). Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p was less than 0.01). About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor

  19. Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Modak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for

  20. Family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States: what is the relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Lasch, K; Chandra, P; Lee, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This study examined the contribution of employment status, welfare benefits, alcohol use, and other individual, and contextual factors to physical aggression during marital conflict.
METHODS—Logistic regression models were used to analyse panel data collected in the National Survey of Families and Households in 1987 and 1992. A total of 4780 married or cohabiting persons re-interviewed in 1992 were included in the analysis. Domestic violence was defined as reporting that both partners were physically violent during arguments.
RESULTS—It was found that non-employed respondents are not at greater risk of family violence in comparison with employed respondents, after controlling for alcohol misuse, income, education, age, and other factors; however, employed persons receiving welfare benefits are at significantly higher risk. Alcohol misuse, which remains a predictor of violence even after controlling for other factors, increases the risk of family violence while satisfaction with social support from family and friends decreases it.
CONCLUSION—These results underscore the important effect of alcohol misuse on domestic violence, and the need to monitor the potential impact of welfare reform on domestic violence.


Keywords: family violence; alcohol misuse; employment status; welfare benefits PMID:11160171

  1. Family scenarios and violence: a clinical case story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Ferrari Bravo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the acceptance and taking-charge process of a history of incest involving a father and his daughter. This case arrived through an ad hoc telephone line set up by a territorial service aimed at listening, counselling, and treating problems and conflicts inherent in family life. The mother made the first contact with this service, ten years after the event. The case story is geared to outlining the development of the relational events within the parents‟ relationship and in relation to their daughter as well as the interactions with the family service (CPF. The purpose is also to show the procedure of the intervention and taking-charge process carried out by the psychologists of the service as well as the counter-transference feelings that have accompanied the clinical intervention and the effects they have had on the relationships between the individual members of the whole family.

  2. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Bamouh, Veronika; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Dohrmann, Katalin; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. Objective The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1) organized; and 2) family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. Method To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. Results A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Conclusions Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26886483

  3. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mueller-Bamouh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. Objective: The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1 organized; and 2 family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. Method: To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. Results: A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Conclusions: Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic

  4. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Bamouh, Veronika; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Dohrmann, Katalin; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1) organized; and 2) family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment.

  5. Finding the way out: a non-dichotomous understanding of violence and depression resilience of adolescents who are exposed to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Scambor, Christian; Scambor, Elli; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study on family violence and resilience in a random sample of 5,149 middle school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) we examined the prevalence of exposure to family violence, and we worked from the premise that adolescent can be resilient to family violence. We expanded the definition of resilience to include the absence of both physical aggression and depression symptoms in adolescents who have been exposed to violence in their families and extended our understanding of resilience to include three levels which we describe as: "resilient", "near-resilient" and "non-resilient", thus responding to calls for a more fluid and paths-based understanding of resilience. Data were collected via self-administered surveys consisting of a number of subscales that investigate depression symptoms and physical aggression. The study was analyzed with a three-stage strategy using logistic regression procedures, in which regression analyses were conducted separately for girls and boys using seven steps for modeling the three resilience levels. More than 30% of our respondents reported experiencing family violence. Contrary to previous research findings, our data showed that structural characteristics like country, gender, socio-economic status and migration status were minimally predictive of violence and depression resilience at any level. Overall, for both sexes, despite some small but significant sex differences, resilience is strongly linked to personal and relational characteristics and the absence of experiences that involved exposure to and direct experiences with violence. Resilience supportive factors confirmed by this study are: higher emotional self-control, talking with parents or friends about violence, seeking help to avoid violence, and not endorsing aggression supportive beliefs. Also key to resilience are irrespective of country, gender, and SES are lower levels of experience

  6. Childhood temperament: passive gene-environment correlation, gene-environment interaction, and the hidden importance of the family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Kao, Karen; Swann, Gregory; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-02-01

    Biological parents pass on genotypes to their children, as well as provide home environments that correlate with their genotypes; thus, the association between the home environment and children's temperament can be genetically (i.e., passive gene-environment correlation) or environmentally mediated. Furthermore, family environments may suppress or facilitate the heritability of children's temperament (i.e., gene-environment interaction). The sample comprised 807 twin pairs (mean age = 7.93 years) from the longitudinal Wisconsin Twin Project. Important passive gene-environment correlations emerged, such that home environments were less chaotic for children with high effortful control, and this association was genetically mediated. Children with high extraversion/surgency experienced more chaotic home environments, and this correlation was also genetically mediated. In addition, heritability of children's temperament was moderated by home environments, such that effortful control and extraversion/surgency were more heritable in chaotic homes, and negative affectivity was more heritable under crowded or unsafe home conditions. Modeling multiple types of gene-environment interplay uncovered the complex role of genetic factors and the hidden importance of the family environment for children's temperament and development more generally.

  7. An Australian hospital's training program and referral pathway within a multi-disciplinary health-justice partnership addressing family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsdike, Kirsty; Humphreys, Cathy; Diemer, Kristin; Ross, Stuart; Gyorki, Linda; Maher, Helena; Vye, Penelope; Llewelyn, Fleur; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2018-06-01

    An innovative health-justice partnership was established to deliver legal assistance to women experiencing family violence who attended an Australian hospital. This paper reports on a multifaceted response to build capacity and willingness of health professionals to identify signs of family violence and engage with referral pathways to on-site legal assistance. A Realistic Evaluation analysed health professionals' knowledge and attitudes towards identification, response and referral for family violence before and after training; and use of referral pathways. Of 123 health professionals participating in training, 67 completed baseline and follow-up surveys. Training improved health professionals' self-reported knowledge of, and confidence in, responding to family violence and understanding of lawyers' roles in hospitals. Belief that patients should be referred to on-site legal services increased. Training did not correspond to actual increased referrals to legal assistance. The program built capacity and willingness of health professionals to identify signs of, and respond to, family violence. Increase in referral rates to legal assistance was not shown. Potential improvements include better data capture and greater availability of legal services. Implications for public health: Strong hospital system supports and reliable recording of family violence referrals need to be in place before introducing such partnerships to other hospitals. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. What Can Elder Mistreatment Researchers Learn About Primary Prevention From Family Violence Intervention Models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kylie; Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Gassoumis, Zachary D; Mosqueda, Laura; Han, S Duke; Wilber, Kathleen H

    2017-11-28

    Elder mistreatment (EM) is a public health problem that harms millions of older Americans each year. Despite growing recognition of its occurrence, there are no evidence-based primary prevention programs. Although EM is distinct from other areas of family violence, including child maltreatment and intimate partner violence, common risk factors and theoretical underpinnings point to opportunities for prevention strategies. Drawing on evidence-based best practices found in other fields of family violence, we identify approaches that could be tested to prevent EM at the hands of family caregivers, who are among the most likely to commit mistreatment. Specifically, we examine home visiting approaches primarily used in the child maltreatment field and identify components that have potential to inform EM interventions, including prevention. We conclude that there is enough information to begin testing a prevention intervention for EM that targets caregivers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among family planning clients in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamou, Alexandre; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Traore, Pernamou; Diallo, Fatoumata Guilinty; Millimono, Sita; Wane, Defa; Toliver, Maimouna; Laffe, Kira; Verani, Fabio

    2015-12-23

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health problem that affects women's physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health. Very little data on IPV experience and FP use is available in resource-poor settings, such as in West Africa. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence, patterns and correlates of IPV among clients of an adult Family Planning clinic in Conakry, Guinea. The study data was collected for four months (March to June 2014) from women's family planning charts and from an IPV screening form at the Adult Family Planning and Reproductive Health Clinic of "Association Guinéenne pour le Bien-Etre Familial", a non-profit organization in Conakry, Guinea. 232 women out of 245 women who attended the clinic for services during the study period were screened for IPV and were included in this study. Of the 232 women screened, 213 (92%) experienced IPV in one form or another at some point in their lifetime. 169 women reported psychological violence (79.3%), 145 reported sexual violence (68.1%) and 103 reported physical violence (48.4%). Nearly a quarter of women reported joint occurrence of the three forms of violence(24%).Half of the IPV positive women were current users of family planning (51.2%) and of these, 77.9% preferred injectable contraceptives. The odds of experiencing IPV was higher in women with secondary or vocational level of education than those with higher level of education (AOR: 8.4; 95% CI 1.2-58.5). Women residing in other communes of Conakry (AOR: 5.6; 95% CI 1.4-22.9) and those preferring injectable FP methods (AOR: 4.5; 95% CI 1.2-16.8) were more likely to experience lifetime IPV. IPV is prevalent among family planning clients in Conakry, Guinea where nine out of ten women screened in the AGBEF adult clinic reported having experienced one or another type of IPV. A holistic approach that includes promotion of women's rights and gender equality, existence of laws and policies is needed to prevent and respond to IPV

  10. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cornelia

    2014-02-07

    Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009-2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore, implementing intervention

  11. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. Methods The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009–2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p violence as a form of discipline or instruction of children and women remains a significant problem, with a higher rate of intimate partner violence than in other developed countries. Furthermore

  12. Hidden child labour: Determinants of housework and family business work of children in 16 developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Webbink, E.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Jong, E. de

    2010-01-01

    We study two ‘hidden’ forms of child labour -- housework and family business work -- on the basis of representative data on 178,000 children living in 214 districts in 16 African and Asian countries. The incidence of these child labour forms varies substantially among and within the countries, with national averages ranging from a few to over 15 hours a week and many children work much more. As expected, girls are more involved in housework and boys more in family business work, but this divi...

  13. Typologies of intimate partner violence-maternal parenting and children's externalizing problems: The moderating effect of the exposure to other forms of family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Pinto, Ricardo; Levendosky, Alytia

    2018-07-01

    Typologies of IPV and parenting practices in mothers who experienced police-reported IPV remain surprisingly unexplored, in addition to how those typologies are linked with children's externalizing problems. Using data from 162 Portuguese mother-child dyads with a police or child protection services referral of IPV, this study aimed to: (a) identify IPV-parenting typologies; (b) test the associations between typologies and children's externalizing problems, and (c) examine the moderating effect of children's exposure to other forms of family violence in those associations. Using a person-centered approach, two IPV-parenting typologies were found: a spillover typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and high levels of harsh and inconsistent parenting practices; and a compartmentalized typology, with high levels of physical, psychological, and sexual violence and lower ineffective parenting practices. Results also showed that externalizing symptoms (reported by mothers and teachers) were significantly lower in children of mothers in the compartmentalized typology compared to those in the spillover typology. Children's direct exposure to other forms of family violence moderated this association. Findings suggested that children with a high exposure to other forms of family violence showed the highest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified into the spillover typology, and they exhibited the lowest levels of externalizing problems when their mothers were classified in the compartmentalized typology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Family scenarios and violence: a clinical case story

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Ferrari Bravo; Caterina Arcidiacono

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the acceptance and taking-charge process of a history of incest involving a father and his daughter. This case arrived through an ad hoc telephone line set up by a territorial service aimed at listening, counselling, and treating problems and conflicts inherent in family life. The mother made the first contact with this service, ten years after the event. The case story is geared to outlining the development of the relational events within the pa...

  15. Sexual violence as a risk factor for family planning-related outcomes among young Burundian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elouard, Yajna; Weiss, Carine; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to examine associations between experience of sexual violence and family planning-related outcomes. A multi-stage cluster survey was conducted among a representative sample of 744 young women aged 15-24 in eight provinces in Burundi. The prevalence of young women who reported having ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse was 26.1%. Young women who had experienced sexual violence (ever) were 2.5 times more likely not to have used any modern contraceptives in the 12 months preceding the survey. They were also 2.3 times more likely to report that their last pregnancy was unplanned. Higher odds of not being able to negotiate contraceptive use with their partners were only reported by young women having experienced sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the survey when adjusted for confounders. Sexual violence was found to be significantly associated with contraceptive negotiation and use as well as unplanned pregnancy. Weak perceived ability to negotiate contraceptive use highlights gender inequalities leaving young women vulnerable to unprotected sex and thus unplanned pregnancies.

  16. The Synergy of Family and Neighborhood on Rural Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Chang, Ling-Yin; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Rural adolescents are at high risk for dating violence victimization (DVV), which has serious negative consequences. Understanding more about the conditions that increase DVV risk for rural adolescents is needed to inform prevention efforts. In response to calls for examining the influence of upper levels of the social ecology on adolescent dating violence, this study examined whether associations between the family context and physical DVV were conditioned by the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which the family resided. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study of 3,236 rural adolescents nested in 65 block groups, which defined neighborhoods. Data were collected between 2003 and 2005. Multilevel growth curve modeling was conducted in 2014 to test hypothesized synergistic effects of the family and neighborhood on trajectories of physical DVV from grade 8 to 12. Low parental closeness was a DVV risk in residentially stable (pFamily aggression was a DVV risk, regardless of neighborhood characteristics (p=0.001). Low parental monitoring and rule setting were not DVV risks and their effects were not moderated by neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly (pviolence were not associated with DVV. None of the effects varied by sex of the adolescent, across time (grade), or by the combination of sex and time. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering the family and neighborhood, and particularly their synergistic effects in efforts to prevent adolescent DVV. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  18. Type of Violence, Age, and Gender Differences in the Effects of Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems: A Mega-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Baradaran, Laila P.; Abbott, Craig B.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva

    2006-01-01

    A mega-analytic study was designed to exploit the power of a large data set combining raw data from multiple studies (n=1870) to examine the effects of type of family violence, age, and gender on children's behavior problems assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our findings confirmed that children who experienced multiple forms of…

  19. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Reproductive Health and Family Planning Services in Bolivia, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto Aguirre, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to understand the relationship existing between Gender-Based Violence (GVB and the Use of Reproductive Health and Family Planning services. To carry out this task, we use multivariate logit regression models to explore the direction and strength of the relationship, using a population-based sample for Bolivian women during 2003-2004. Results show a strong, negative and significant relationship between GVB and use of RH/FP services at the population-level, after adjusting for respondent’s and partner’s individual and household characteristics. That is, GBV is strongly and significantly associated with the use of RH/FP services, in a way that women experiencing domestic violence are less likely to use those services.

  20. Changing policy and practice in the child welfare system through collaborative efforts to identify and respond effectively to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-07-01

    The Greenbook provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement Greenbook recommendations for child welfare agencies. Surveys of child welfare caseworkers show significant changes in several areas of agency policy and practice, including regular domestic violence training, written guidelines for reporting domestic violence, and working closely and sharing resources with local domestic violence service providers. Case file reviews show significant increases in the level of active screening for domestic violence, although this increase peaks at the midpoint of the initiative. These findings, coupled with on-site interview data, point to the importance of coordinating system change activities in child welfare agencies with a number of other collaborative activities.

  1. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  2. The Proposition: Imagining Race, Family and Violence on the Nineteenth-Century Australian Frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Elder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2016v69n2p165 This article analyses John Hillcoat’s 2005 film The Proposition in relation to a spate of Australian films about violence and the (postcolonial encounter released in the early twenty-first century. Extending on  Felicity Collins and Therese Davis argument that these films can be read in terms of the ways they capture or refract aspects of contemporary race relations in Australia in a post-Mabo, this article analyses how The Proposition reconstructs the trauma of the Australian frontier; how from the perspective of the twenty-first century it worries over the meaning of violence on the Australian frontier. It also explores what has become speakable (and remains unspeakable in the public sphere about the history of the frontier encounter, especially in terms of family and race.  The article argues that The Proposition and other early twenty-first century race relations films can be understood as post-reconciliation films, emerging in a period when Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians were rethinking ideas of belonging through a prism of post-enmity and forgiveness. Drawing on the theme of violence and intimate relations in the film, this article argues that the challenges to the everyday formulation of Australian history proffered in The Proposition reveal painful and powerful differences amongst Australian citizens’ understanding of who belongs and how they came to belong to the nation. I suggest that by focusing on violence in terms of intimacy, relationships, family and kin, it is possible to see this film presented an opportunity to begin to refigure ideas of belonging.

  3. A systematic review of risk and protective factors associated with family related violence in refugee families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Isabelle; Montgomery, Edith; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup

    2017-01-01

    and protective factors an ecological model was used to structure the findings. At the individual level, parental trauma experiences/mental illness, substance abuse and history of child abuse were found to be risk factors. Family level risk factors included parent-child interaction, family structure and family...... families is a result of accumulating, multiple risk factors on the individual, familial, societal and cultural level. The findings suggest that individual trauma and exile related stress do not only affect the individual but have consequences at a family level. Thus, interventions targeting family related...

  4. Exposure to family violence and attachment styles as predictors of dating violence perpetration among men and women: a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary; Reese-Weber, Marla; Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a multiple mediator model explaining how sibling perpetration and one's attachment style mediate the relation between parent-to-child victimization and dating violence perpetration. A sample of undergraduate students (n = 392 women, n = 89 men) completed measures of the aforementioned variables on an Internet survey. For men, path analyses found no mediation; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, no association was found between sibling perpetration and dating violence perpetration, and attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was positively associated with dating violence perpetration for men. For women, the hypothesized mediation model was supported; parent-to-child victimization had a direct association with dating violence perpetration, and sibling perpetration and attachment anxiety served as mediating variables. Attachment avoidance was not associated with dating violence perpetration for women. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  5. Family Violence and the Need for Prevention Research in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis Communities1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Nahwegahbow, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Existing sources produce widely varying estimates of family violence in First Nations, Inuit, and Métis communities; taken together, they imply a convincing if poorly quantified higher risk of family violence in Aboriginal communities, with the greater burden borne by women. With the accelerating HIV epidemic in some Aboriginal communities, prevention of domestic violence takes on even greater urgency. Five planks in a prevention research platform include: training emerging researchers from all Aboriginal groups to promote culturally specific research; systematic review of unpublished and published knowledge of interventions that reduce domestic violence; intervention theory development specific to each community; attention to the particular ethical issues; and methods development focused on interventions. PMID:20975851

  6. Prevalence of Family Violence and Associated Factors Among In-School Adolescents in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralo, Janaina Maria; Schor, Neia; Tavares, Carlos Mendes; Silva, Valter

    2016-05-01

    Family violence is a social and public health issue across the world for many populations and affects many different types of people, for example, children, women, and vulnerable adults. Adolescents are one of the main victims of this important phenomenon. This article estimates the prevalence of family violence in adolescents and associated factors. The study was carried out in 2012 with a probability and representative sample of 656 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years who were enrolled at public schools located in the extreme South of the city of São Paulo. The association was tested by the proportion test, Pearson's chi-square or Fischer's exact test, and Poisson regression adjusted by robust variance estimation, considering a level of significance of 5%. Among adolescents, 38.9% reported having been victims of family violence. Women were victimized with higher frequency (44.1%). The factors associated with prevalence of family violence were being of the female sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.20, 1.80]) and living only with the father (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = [1.11, 2.08]). The prevalence of adolescents who were victims of family violence is high; however, special attention must be paid to women and adolescents who live only with their father-they were established, in this study, as a risk group. Epidemiological studies of this nature are important to reveal the reality of family violence and to aid the construction of intersectoral public policies to promote health, prevent violence, and foster a peaceful culture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Performances and Deficiencies of the Regulation of the Phenomenon of Family Violence in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ionita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The family protection and support, the development and consolidation of family solidarity, basedon friendship, affection, moral and material encouragement of family members is a national goal. The acts ofviolence among members of one family can seriously affect the very existence of the family, frequentlycausing the dismemberment of it. The deeply harmful effects of violence among members of one family, bothfor them and for society, as well as the recrudescence of such violent acts imposed as a major priority theprevention and combating of this form of the violence. Family violence is a social problem and, at the sametime, a serious violation of human rights, being exercised in different forms: the punishment of minors, therestriction of the woman’s (man’s independence, the non-respect of the rights, feelings, opinions,expectations of the woman (man, violence among brothers, abuse against elderly family members etc.. It isalso a social relation whose consequences cannot be ignored at the level of political decision, from theperspective of accession to the European Union’s structures of our country.

  8. Effects of Early and Later Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems and Depression: A Longitudinal, Multi-Informant Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva; Abbott, Craig B.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of different forms of family violence at two developmental stages by assessing a sample of 110 Israeli children, drawn from the case files of Israeli family service agencies, studied longitudinally in both middle childhood and adolescence. Methods: Information about the children's adjustment was obtained from…

  9. Children and political violence from a social ecological perspective: implications from research on children and families in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Cairns, Ed

    2009-03-01

    The effects on children of political violence are matters of international concern, with many negative effects well-documented. At the same time, relations between war, terrorism, or other forms of political violence and child development do not occur in a vacuum. The impact can be understood as related to changes in the communities, families and other social contexts in which children live, and in the psychological processes engaged by these social ecologies. To advance this process-oriented perspective, a social ecological model for the effects of political violence on children is advanced. This approach is illustrated by findings and methods from an ongoing research project on political violence and children in Northern Ireland. Aims of this project include both greater insight into this particular context for political violence and the provision of a template for study of the impact of children's exposure to violence in other regions of the world. Accordingly, the applicability of this approach is considered for other social contexts, including (a) another area in the world with histories of political violence and (b) a context of community violence in the US.

  10. Familial violence socialization in childhood and later life approval of corporal punishment: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M

    2006-01-01

    The use of corporal punishment has been associated with several negative outcomes for children. As a result, scholars have begun to study factors that are associated with the approval of corporal punishment. Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, the author implemented analysis of covariance and multilevel modeling analyses to determine that there were significant associations among culture, personal and group experiences of familial violence socialization, and attitudes about corporal punishment. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: A hidden disease among cohorts of familial hypercholesterolemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chora, Joana Rita; Alves, Ana Catarina; Medeiros, Ana Margarida; Mariano, Cibelle; Lobarinhas, Goreti; Guerra, António; Mansilha, Helena; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Bourbon, Mafalda

    Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LALD) is an autosomal recessive disorder and an unrecognized cause of dyslipidemia. Patients usually present with dyslipidemia and altered liver function and mutations in LIPA gene are the underlying cause of LALD. The aim of this study was to investigate LALD in individuals with severe dyslipidemia and/or liver steatosis. Coding, splice regions, and promoter region of LIPA were sequenced by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of mutation-negative familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients (n = 492) and in a population sample comprising individuals with several types of dyslipidemia and/or liver steatosis (n = 258). This study led to the identification of LALD in 4 children referred to the Portuguese FH Study, all with a clinical diagnosis of FH. Mild liver dysfunction was present at the age of FH diagnosis; however, a diagnosis of LALD was not considered. No adults at the time of referral have been identified with LALD. LALD is a life-threatening disorder, and early identification is crucial for the implementation of specific treatment to avoid premature mortality. FH cohorts should be investigated to identify possible LALD patients, who will need appropriate treatment. These results highlight the importance of correctly identifying the etiology of the dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Bastos, Olga Maria

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of physical and psychological family violence in a sample of children and adolescents with different categories of disabilities in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional observational study based on application of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale in a sample of 270 parents or guardians. Prevalence was 83.7% for psychological aggression and 84.4% for physical maltreatment, while 96.5% of the children and adolescents with disabilities that suffered physical punishment were also victims of psychological aggression (p < 0.01) and 100% of those who suffered severe physical maltreatment also suffered psychological aggression (p = 0.01). Children and adolescents with disabilities showed increased risk of suffering family violence compared to those without disabilities. In conclusion, there is a need for greater awareness-raising and training of health teams for detection and notification of child abuse, and efforts should be made to support these families.

  13. The hidden cost of chronic fatigue to patients and their families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Ana

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 1 in 10 in the population experience fatigue of more than six months at any one time. Chronic fatigue is a common reason for consulting a general practitioner, and some patients report their symptoms are not taken seriously enough. A gap in perceptions may occur because doctors underestimate the impact of fatigue on patients' lives. The main aim of the study is to explore the economic impact of chronic fatigue in patients seeking help from general practitioners and to identify characteristics that explain variations in costs. Methods The design of study was a survey of patients presenting to general practitioners with unexplained chronic fatigue. The setting were 29 general practice surgeries located in the London and South Thames regions of the English National Health Service. Use of services over a six month period was measured and lost employment recorded. Regression models were used to identify factors that explained variations in these costs. Results The mean total cost of services and lost employment across the sample of 222 patients was £3878 for the six-month period. Formal services accounted for 13% of this figure, while lost employment accounted for 61% and informal care for 26%. The variation in the total costs was significantly related to factors linked to the severity of the condition and social functioning. Conclusions The economic costs generated by chronic fatigue are high and mostly borne by patients and their families. Enquiry about the functional consequences of fatigue on the social and occupational lives of patients may help doctors understand the impact of fatigue, and make patients feel better understood.

  14. [Family violence and aggressive and oppositional behavior in childhood: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Renata

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the world literature about two important subjects: family violence and problems of aggressive behavior and oppositional defiant disorder in childhood. We opted for publications that had used the CBCL- Child Behavior Checklist for investigating behavior problems in children. This instrument is internationally recognized for its reliability and validity, considered an efficient tool for identifying behavior problems in children. Our findings showed that marital violence predominated in the studies as kind of familiar violence able to cause problems of aggressiveness and transgression in children. Another point discussed was the lack of consensus on the terms used in the articles to refer to such behavior problems. The review showed the need for in-depth studies into this subject, mainly in the sense of thinking about prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. Aggressive behavior in children tends to remain and increase over time, a fact that points to the need for strategies for preventing these problems in the school, familiar and health environments.

  15. Notes on the courts of domestic and family violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Brandão

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of gender-based violence, the culturally appropriate biological differences reinforce a state of unequal access to rights and submission to a histori- cal model of recurring defilements, which needs a lo- cus of resistance and combat, also claimed by the ju- dicial branch. Thus, through the trailblazing creation of law number 11.340/06, the Courts for Domestic and Family Violence against Women (JVDFM were cre- ated, as a space originally designed for an attentive and different look at the various forms of physical, moral, psychological, sexual and patrimonial aggres- sion. The question that now arises is if the practice of such courts is consistent with the internationally stated objectives and with the commitments made by Brazil in implementing conditions to ensure the ef- fectiveness of public policies on Human Rights. Spe- cifically, if the free, quality legal assistance provided by the Public Defender Service, has been consciously entering this larger project of access to justice, liber- ating information, humanized guidance and techni- cal empowerment capable of breaking the cycle of violence. This text, then, is a mapping of institutional practices in order to contribute to the improvement of obtaining full citizenship and restructuring of our public sphere. 

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF PREVALENCE AND INCIDENCE OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ajduković, Marina; Rimac, Ivan; Rajter, Miroslav; Sušac, Nika

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of epidemiological research on the extent of family violence on children in the Republic of Croatia. The research used a two-phase design with a probability sample of children aged 11, 13 and 16 regularly enrolled into Croatian primary and secondary schools (N=3.644). Data was obtained within the international research FP7 project “BECAN – Balkan Epidemiological Study on Child Abuse and Neglect“. The research used the revised version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screen...

  17. Family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood predict suicide in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-05-15

    Family studies, including twin and adoption designs, have shown familial transmission of suicidal behaviors. Early environmental risk factors have an important role in the etiology of suicidal behavior. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of family history of suicide and childhood trauma on suicide risk and on severity of suicide attempt in suicide attempters. A total of 181 suicide attempters were included. Family history of suicide was assessed with the Karolinska Suicide History Interview or through patient records. Childhood trauma was assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). Suicide intent was measured with the Freeman scale. Male suicide attempters with a positive family history of suicide made more serious and well planned suicide attempts and had a significantly higher suicide risk. In logistic regression, family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child were independent predictors of suicide in male suicide attempters. The information about family history of suicide and exposure to interpersonal violence as a child derives from the patients only. In the first part of the inclusion period the information was collected from patient records. The results of this study imply that suicides among those at biological risk might be prevented with the early recognition of environmental risks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hidden Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Cebiroglu, Gökhan; Horst, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We cross-sectionally analyze the presence of aggregated hidden depth and trade volume in the S&P 500 and identify its key determinants. We find that the spread is the main predictor for a stock’s hidden dimension, both in terms of traded and posted liquidity. Our findings moreover suggest that large hidden orders are associated with larger transaction costs, higher price impact and increased volatility. In particular, as large hidden orders fail to attract (latent) liquidity to the market, hi...

  19. The Grammar of Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: This paper explores the Danish keyword vold ‘violence, abuse’ and its associated ethno-syntax. Calling into attention (i) the differences and similarities of violence-related concepts in ethnolinguistic communities, and (ii) the key role played by ethnosyntax in the elaboration...... of violence, vold, and similar concepts, the paper aims to open a new ethnolinguistic research agenda for the study of negative sociality constructs and the positive value system hidden in such concepts. The Danish ethnosyntax of vold ‘violence, abuse’ hidden in compound morphology is scrutinized. Focusing...

  20. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Towards examining pathways longitudinally, mothers and their adolescents (M = 12.33, SD =1.78, at time 1) from two-parent families in Catholic and Protestant working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, completed measures assessing multiple levels of a social ecological model. Utilizing autoregressive controls, a three-wave longitudinal model test (T1, n = 299; T2, n = 248; T3, n = 197) supported a specific pathway linking sectarian community violence, family conflict, children’s insecurity about family relationships, and adjustment problems. PMID:22313052

  1. Canada's family violence initiative: partnerships Parceria na iniciativa contra a violência familiar no Canadá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Scott

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Canada's four-year, $136 million Family Violence Initiative, the federal government is calling upon all Canadians to work in partnerships towards the elimination of family violence - child abuse, violence against women, and elder (senior abuse. Family violence is a complex problem and requires the efforts of all Canadians to resolve it. One of the key themes of the Initiative - a multidisciplinary approach to the problem of family violence - is reflected in the selection and development of projects. Activities funded by the seven federal departments and agencies involved in the Initiative emphasize partnerships with the professional, voluntary, corporate, non-government and government sectors.Durante quatro anos, no Canadá, com uma iniciativa de 136 milhões de dólares canadenses, o governo federal está convocando todos os canadenses a trabalhar em parceria para a eliminação da violência familiar - abuso ao idoso. A violência familiar é um problema complexo e requer esforços de todos canadenses para resolvê-lo. Um dos temas-chave da iniciativa - uma abordagem multidisciplinar para o problema da violência familiar - se reflete na seleção e no desenvolvimento de projetos. Atividades financiadas por sete departamentos federais e agências, envolvidos na iniciativa, enfatizam a parceria com profissionais, voluntários, e setores governamentais e não-governamentais.

  2. Intra-familial physical violence among Mexican and Egyptian youth Violência física intra-familiar entre jovens mexicanos e egípcios

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor Rivera-Rivera; Betania Allen; James F Thrasher; Ruben Chavez; Cielo Fernandez-Ortega; Osman Galal; Eduardo C Lazcano-Ponce

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of experiencing intra-familial violence among Mexican and Egyptian youth and to describe its associated risk factors. METHODS: Data from questionnaires applied to 12,862 Mexican and 5,662 Egyptian youth, aged 10 to 19, who attended public schools were analyzed. Biviarate and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between socio-demographics, the experience of intra-familial violence and violence perpetration. RESULTS: The pre...

  3. The longitudinal relationship between peer violence and popularity and delinquency in adolescent boys: examining effects by family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Angela K; Durkee, Myles I; Truong, Nancy; Atkins, Avis; Tolan, Patrick H

    2013-11-01

    Mapping the relationship of peer influences and parental/family characteristics on delinquency can help expand the understanding of findings that show an interdependence between peer and family predictors. This study explored the longitudinal relationship between two characteristics of peer relationships (violence and perceived popularity) with subsequent individual delinquency and the moderating role of family characteristics (cohesion and parental monitoring) using data from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Participants were 364 inner-city residing adolescent boys (54% African American; 40% Hispanic). After controlling for the effects of age and ethnicity, peer violence is positively related to boys' delinquency. The effect of popularity depends on parental monitoring, such that the relationship between popularity and delinquency is positive when parental monitoring is low, but there is no relationship when parental monitoring is high. Furthermore, parental monitoring contributes to the relationship between peer violence and delinquency such that there is a stronger relationship when parental monitoring is low. Additionally, there is a stronger relationship between peer violence and delinquency for boys from high cohesive families. Findings point to the value of attention to multiple aspects of peer and family relationships in explaining and intervening in the risk for delinquency. Furthermore, findings indicate the importance of family-focused interventions in preventing delinquency.

  4. Family Violence and Children’s Behavior Problems: Independent Contributions of Intimate Partner and Child-Directed Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Barnett, Melissa A.; Towe-Goodman, Nissa R.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Cox, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 581 families living in predominantly low-income, rural communities, the current study sought to investigate the longitudinal associations among father-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and child-directed physical aggression perpetrated by the mother. The unique contributions of each of these types of family violence on children’s behavioral problems at school entry were also examined. Results confirm bidirectional associations between father-perpetrated IPV and maternal physical aggression directed toward the child, and indicate that both types of physical aggression contribute to child behavior problems at school entry. PMID:25431522

  5. Distance is no hurdle: Reforming the family violence exception to better protect immigrant women in rural, regional and remote communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanh Hoang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After careful consideration consistent with COPE guidelines, the editorial staff has concluded that there is no case of plagiarism associated with this article. (10th August, 2016 The editors have received allegations that the paper references arguments and evidence without attribution to pre-existing literature, and that it exhibits stylistic similarities to other sources on the same topic. The editors are currently conducting an investigation under the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE guidelines to confirm or refute the allegations. (29th June, 2016 This article considers the impact of migration laws on immigrant women in rural, regional and remote communities (RRR communities who are victims of family violence. The Migration Regulations 1994 (Cth (‘the Regulations’ includes a ‘family violence exception’ that allows for the grant of permanent residency to women who hold a temporary partner visa in circumstances where the relationship with the Australian sponsor has broken down due to family violence. However, the Regulations impose strict procedural and evidentiary requirements for making a family violence claim. These laws disproportionately impact those in RRR communities by failing to account for their isolation, lack of access to services and particular vulnerabilities. As a result, immigrant women in RRR communities are restricted in their ability to access the family violence exception. This article calls for reform of the Regulations to address the locational disadvantages faced by immigrant women in RRR communities. Building on the work of the Australian Law Reform Commission, it argues for the repeal of the provisions governing evidentiary requirements for ‘non-judicially determined’ claims of family violence. In its place, it is suggested that there should be no restrictions on the types of evidence that can be provided. In addition, all non-judicially determined family violence claims would be referred to an

  6. The need for control, safety and trust in healthcare: A qualitative study among adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence

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    Rosmalen-Nooijens, K.A.W.L. van; Lo Fo Wong, S.H.; Prins, J.B.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) exposed to family violence are in need of professional healthcare. However, only one-third of them seek professional help. METHODS: This study investigates healthcare needs of twelve AYA exposed to family violence. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews

  7. Anger Feelings and Anger Expression as a Mediator of the Effects of Witnessing Family Violence on Anxiety and Depression in Japanese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Toshinori; Hasui, Chieko

    2006-01-01

    The effects of anger feelings (rated by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and witnessing family violence on anxiety and depression (rated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were examined in 457 junior high school students. Anxiety and depression scores were correlated with frequencies of witnessing family violence. In a…

  8. Implementing Trauma-Informed Partner Violence Assessment in Family Planning Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Flessa, Sarah; Pillai, Ruchita V; Dick, Rebecca N; Quam, Jamie; Cheng, Diana; McDonald-Mosley, Raegan; Alexander, Kamila A; Holliday, Charvonne N; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion (RC) are associated with poor reproductive health. Little is known about how family planning clinics implement brief IPV/RC assessment interventions in practice. We describe the uptake and impact of a brief, trauma-informed, universal IPV/RC assessment and education intervention. Intervention implementation was evaluated via a mixed methods study among women ages 18 and up receiving care at one of two family planning clinics in greater Baltimore, MD. This mixed methods study entailed a quasi-experimental, single group pretest-posttest study with family planning clinic patients (baseline and exit survey n = 132; 3-month retention n = 68; retention rate = 52%), coupled with qualitative interviews with providers and patients (total n = 35). Two thirds (65%) of women reported receiving at least one element of the intervention on their exit survey immediately following the clinic-visit. Patients reported that clinic-based IPV assessment is helpful, irrespective of IPV history. Relative to those who reported neither, participants who received either intervention element reported greater perceived caring from providers, confidence in provider response to abusive relationships, and knowledge of IPV-related resources at follow-up. Providers and patients alike described the educational card as a valuable tool. Participants described trade-offs of paper versus in-person, electronic medical record-facilitated screening, and patient reluctance to disclose current situations of abuse. In real-world family planning clinic settings, a brief assessment and support intervention was successful in communicating provider caring and increasing knowledge of violence-related resources, endpoints previously deemed valuable by IPV survivors. Results emphasize the merit of universal education in IPV/RC clinical interventions over seeking IPV disclosure.

  9. Family violence: walking the tight rope between maternal alienation and child safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Denise; McBride-Henry, Karen; Huntingtun, Annette

    Mothers are often alienated from their children when child abuse is suspected or confirmed, whether she is the primary abuser of the child or not. An abusive or violent partner often initiates the process of maternal alienation from children as a control mechanism. When the co-occurrence of maternal and child abuse is not recognised, nurses and health professionals risk further alienating a mother from her child/ren, which can have detrimental effects in both the short and long term. Evidence shows that when mothers are supported and have the necessary resources there is a reduction in the violence and abuse she and her children experience; this occurs even in situations where the mother is the primary abuser of her children. The family-centred care philosophy, which is widely accepted as the best approach to nursing care for children and their families, creates tension for nurses caring for children who are the victims of abuse as this care generally occurs away from the context of the family. This fragmented approach to caring for abused children can inadvertently undermine the mother-child relationship and further contribute to maternal alienation. This paper discusses the complexity of family violence for nurses negotiating the 'tight rope' between the prime concern for the safety of children and further contributing to maternal alienation, within a New Zealand context. The premise that restoration of the mother-child relationship is paramount for the long-term wellbeing of both the child/ren and the mother provides the basis for discussing implications for nursing practice.

  10. Epistemologies of Discomfort: What Military-Family Anti-War Activists Can Teach Us About Knoweldge of Violence

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    Shari Stone-Mediatore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    family: Times New Roman;">

    This paper extends feminist critiques of epistemic authority by examining their particular relevance in contexts of institutionalized violence. By reading feminist criticism of "experts" together with theories of institutionalized violence, I argue that typical expert modes of thinking are incapable of rigorous knowledge of institutionalized violence because such knowledge requires a distinctive kind of thinking-within-discomfort for which conventionally trained experts are ill-suited. I turn to a newly active group of epistemic agents-anti-war relatives of soldiers-to examine the role that undervalued epistemic traits can play in knowledge of war and other forms of structural violence.

  11. Mediators of Effects of a Selective Family-Focused Violence Prevention Approach for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how parenting and family characteristics targeted in a selective prevention program mediated effects on key youth proximal outcomes related to violence perpetration. The selective intervention was evaluated within the context of a multi-site trial involving random assignment of 37 schools to four conditions: a universal intervention composed of a student social-cognitive curriculum and teacher training, a selective family-focused intervention with a subset of high-risk students, a condition combining these two interventions, and a no-intervention control condition. Two cohorts of sixth-grade students (total N=1,062) exhibiting high levels of aggression and social influence were the sample for this study. Analyses of pre-post change compared to controls using intent-to-treat analyses found no significant effects. However, estimates incorporating participation of those assigned to the intervention and predicted participation among those not assigned revealed significant positive effects on student aggression, use of aggressive strategies for conflict management, and parental estimation of student’s valuing of achievement. Findings also indicated intervention effects on two targeted family processes: discipline practices and family cohesion. Mediation analyses found evidence that change in these processes mediated effects on some outcomes, notably aggressive behavior and valuing of school achievement. Results support the notion that changing parenting practices and the quality of family relationships can prevent the escalation in aggression and maintain positive school engagement for high-risk youth. PMID:21932067

  12. Family-Only Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Joakim; Strand, Susanne J M

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the first systematic review of family-only intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators (as originally proposed by Holtzworth-Munroe & Stuart). The aims of the present review were to summarize and describe the prevalence of the family-only perpetrator subtype, as well as to investigate what characteristics were associated with perpetrators within this subtype. Electronic literature searches in several databases (e.g., PsychINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed) were carried out. Of the 3,434 studies identified, 30 studies met the inclusion criteria as well as the methodological quality criteria. Thematic analyses were conducted, where several themes and subthemes were identified. The proportion of family-only perpetrators, averaged across sample types, was 47.5%. Drawing on the thematic analyses of the reviewed studies, family-only perpetrators presented as a less violent subtype, displaying several pro-social personality traits, as well as a lower degree of psychopathology. The findings were in line with Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart's predictions. The findings also demonstrated the utility of a 2-fold typology, consisting of a family-only and a generally violent (GV) subtype, as well as the need to reconsider the one-size-fits-all approach to IPV treatment. We also included a discussion of the terminology of the subtypes and propose an adoption of the terms "partner only violent" and "generally violent" subtypes.

  13. 77 FR 14385 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-informed approach, which involves understanding and responding to the symptoms of chronic interpersonal... recovering from the effects of the violence. Provision of services, training, technical assistance, and... and homelessness prevention services; (5) transportation, child care, respite care, job training and...

  14. Helping Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Domestic Violence and Children No. 109; Updated April 2013 As ... each year. This kind of violence is called domestic violence or intimate partner violence. The US Department of ...

  15. Implementation of a Family Planning Clinic-Based Partner Violence and Reproductive Coercion Intervention: Provider and Patient Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Levenson, Rebecca; Zelazny, Sarah; Jones, Kelley A; Anderson, Heather; Silverman, Jay G

    2017-06-01

    Despite multiple calls for clinic-based services to identify and support women victimized by partner violence, screening remains uncommon in family planning clinics. Furthermore, traditional screening, based on disclosure of violence, may miss women who fear reporting their experiences. Strategies that are sensitive to the signs, symptoms and impact of trauma require exploration. In 2011, as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial, staff at 11 Pennsylvania family planning clinics were trained to offer a trauma-informed intervention addressing intimate partner violence and reproductive coercion to all women seeking care, regardless of exposure to violence. The intervention sought to educate women about available resources and harm reduction strategies. In 2013, at the conclusion of the trial, 18 providers, five administrators and 49 patients completed semistructured interviews exploring acceptability of the intervention and barriers to implementation. Consensus and open coding strategies were used to analyze the data. Providers reported that the intervention increased their confidence in discussing intimate partner violence and reproductive coercion. They noted that asking patients to share the educational information with other women facilitated the conversation. Barriers to implementation included lack of time and not having routine reminders to offer the intervention. Patients described how receiving the intervention gave them important information, made them feel supported and less isolated, and empowered them to help others. A universal intervention may be acceptable to providers and patients. However, successful implementation in family planning settings may require attention to system-level factors that providers view as barriers. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  16. Intimate partner violence against women in Nepal: an analysis through individual, empowerment, family and societal level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Koustuv; Wang, Shumei; Svanström, Leif

    2014-01-01

    The current study estimated the national prevalence rate of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in Nepal. Besides, the individual level, empowerment level, family and societal level factors were assessed to relate with the victims of IPAVW in Nepal. Nationally representative sample of 4210 women of reproductive age (15-49 yr) were included in the study. Household surveys using two stage sampling procedures, face to face interview with pre-tested questionnaires were performed. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were target variables. A violence variable was constructed from these three types of violence. Individual level factors were measured by age, residency, education, religion and husband's education. Empowerment factors included employment status and various decision making elements. Family and societal factors included economic status, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage index, history of family violence, husband's controlling behavior and other issues. Cross tabulation with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were employed. Prevalence of emotional IPVAW was 17.5%, physical IPAVW 23.4% and sexual IPAVW 14.7%. Overall the prevalence of IPVAW in Nepal was 32.4%. Joint decision making for contraception, husband's non-controlling behavior to wives and friendly feelings were emerged as less likely to be IPVAW perpetration. The findings have immense policy importance as a nationally representative study and indicating necessity of more gender equality.

  17. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. Methods The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006–2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. Results In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Conclusions Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate

  18. Recurrent headache and interpersonal violence in adolescence: the roles of psychological distress, loneliness and family cohesion: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Synne Oien; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Zwart, John-Anker; Dyb, Grete

    2014-06-10

    Recurrent headache is the most common and disabling pain condition in adolescence. Co-occurrence of psychosocial adversity is associated with increased risk of chronification and functional impairment. Exposure to interpersonal violence seems to constitute an important etiological factor. Thus, knowledge of the multiple pathways linking interpersonal violence to recurrent headache could help guide preventive and clinical interventions. In the present study we explored a hypothetical causal model where the link between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache is mediated in parallel through loneliness and psychological distress. Higher level of family cohesion and male sex is hypothesized to buffer the adverse effect of exposure to interpersonal violence on headache. The model was assessed using data from the cross-sectional, population-based Young-HUNT 3 study of Norwegian adolescents, conducted from 2006-2008. A cohort of 10 464 adolescents were invited. The response rate was 73% (7620), age ranged from 12 and 20 years, and 50% (3832) were girls. The study comprised self-report measures of exposure to interpersonal violence, loneliness, psychological distress and family cohesion, in addition to a validated interview on headache, meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria. Recurrent headache was defined as headache recurring at least monthly during the past year, and sub-classified into monthly and weekly headache, which served as separate outcomes. In Conditional Process Analysis, loneliness and psychological distress consistently posed as parallel mediating mechanisms, indirectly linking exposure to interpersonal violence to recurrent headache. We found no substantial moderating effect of family cohesion or sex. Loneliness and psychological distress seem to play crucial roles in the relationship between exposure to interpersonal violence and recurrent headache. To facilitate coping and recovery, it may be helpful to

  19. Gaining Access to Hidden Populations: Strategies for Gaining Cooperation of Drug Sellers/Dealers and Their Families in Ethnographic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This article examines strategies for gaining the cooperation of drug sellers and their families in order to conduct ethnographic research. The strategies were developed during an eight year study of drug dealers in New York City. A key element in gaining the ability to talk with and observe drug dealers and their family members was the availability of funds to compensate respondents for interviews and other expenses associated with building and maintaining rapport. Access to more successful crack sellers and dealers rested upon the right contacts. The “right contact” is a critical element. Locating a trusted “go-between” was adapted from strategies employed by cocaine sellers to arrange transactions involving large quantities of drugs. Such transactions rely upon a trusted associate of a dealer, the “go-between,” who performs various roles and assumes risks the dealer wishes to avoid. The role of the go-between became important when ethnographers attempted to reach drug dealers for research purposes. Favors and trust are central components in the equation of access to the dealer and his family. Favors are a part of drug dealers' interaction patterns: everyone owes someone else a favor. Such reciprocity norms exist independently of the amount of drugs involved and outlast any particular transaction. Reputations and favors are related. This framework of favors, trust, and reciprocity provides a basis for the ethnographer to gain an introduction to dealers and sellers. The “go-between” is critical because he/she explains the ethnographer's role to the dealer and helps arrange an initial meeting between the ethnographer and the seller. Once the go-between has provided an initial introduction, the ethnographer marshals the communication skills necessary to convince the dealer to allow further contact and conversations. This article examines the ritual of initial conversation within its cultural framework. Developing rapport requires showing

  20. Gender-based violence in Families’ santiagueras: a study from the House of Orientation for Women and Family

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    Caridad A. Cala-Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is a social problem that has accompanied man since ancient times. Currently there are many strategies implemented by countries to try to mitigate it and give to the women their rightful place in terms of gender equality and equal rights. Nevertheless, in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba the problem of gender violence is latent, which is evident from the systematicity that women, youth, adolescents, couples and families in general come to the House of Orientation the Women and Family (COMF for help. In this sense, this paper aims to characterize gender violence in santiagueras females and visible intervention strategy implemented to minimize this reality. Research is based on the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data and methodological strategy implemented.

  1. Exposure to violence in the families-of-origin among wife-abusers and maritally nonviolent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesar, P L

    1988-01-01

    This study examined violence in the families-of-origin among wife assaulters and maritally nonviolent men. Participants were 26 wife abusers and 18 nonviolent men in therapy. Early exposure to marital violence and child abuse was assessed through interviews that were coded both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that batterers were more likely than comparison subjects to have been abused as children, to have witnessed their father beating their mother, and to have been disciplined as children with corporal punishment. Fathers were no more likely than mothers to have abused the men. There were no differences between groups in reports of parental child abuse toward siblings of the men. Differences between groups in exposure to violence were studied to explain why men who grew up in violent homes were not abusive toward their spouses. Socioeconomic status and family dynamics were examined to explain the results.

  2. Family violence among mothers seen at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria

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    B A Ayinmode

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The attention given to family violence (FV in primary medical care in Nigeria is still very insufficient in relation to its known adverse medical and psychosocial implications for women’s health. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess the prevalence rate, correlates and effects of FV among mothers attending a primary care facility in Nigeria, with the aim of gaining an understanding of whether screening for FV in the primary care setting in Nigeria would be beneficial. Methodology . A cross-sectional study of FV among 250 mothers attending the General Outpatient Department of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital was undertaken over a 5-month period. Data on the mothers’ sociodemographic characteristics, and experience of FV and its psychosocial correlates and effects were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire and a 20-item Self- Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ as instruments. Data analysis . EPI Info version 6 was used to analyse the data. Results. Sixty-nine mothers (28% had experienced FV at the hands of their husbands. Of these women, 49 (71% indicated occurrences within the preceding 2 years; in 17 (25%, the violence was severe enough to warrant a hospital visit or treatment. Mothers who experienced FV were significantly more likely to have had previous experiences of violence by an in-law; to have reported child cruelty by a husband; to have children with difficult behaviour; and to have reported that they were neglected by their husbands and not enjoying their marriages. They were also significantly more likely to have a high score on the SRQ and be identified as probable cases with psychological problems (SRQ score ≥ 5. Conclusion. In view of these findings, screening for FV in the primary care setting would be beneficial. Primary care physicians should therefore increase their interest, improve their skill, and carry out more research in the identification and management of FV.

  3. Violence Affected Family – Possibilities and Forms of Assistance Based on the Research of Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of Domestic Violence in the Region of Lower Silesia

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    BEATA ŚWIĄTEK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Family has always created an indispensable environment for a man to fulfill his needs and for his development. Family makes our lives meaningful, helps to put plans into practice and to assign goals. The need for belonging to a family constitutes a value dear to all communities. In the literature of the subject there exists a general division into functional and non-functional families. One of the factors determining a family's capability is violence. It influences the quality of the offspring upbringing, family relationships and bonds. In its air social competence of parents declines and their attitude to family-related responsibilities deteriorates. The issue of domestic violence is tackles by specialists of the area of law, psychology, sociology, pedagogy and medicine, who are studying sources and methods of fighting with this phenomenon. Its social damage is so devastating that its unambiguous definition is almost impossible. In the face of a serious threat generated by domestic violence in recent years, there have been held campaigns, workshops, local and nationwide conferences to promote assistance to violence-stricken victims. Preventive schemes have also been developed to restrain violence in schools and local community. Violence affected individuals can seek help in centers founded especially for this purpose and maintained by local councils (MOPS or county councils (PCPR, as well as non-government organizations and associations. A comprehensive support for families suffering from domestic violence is provided by Emergency Intervention Centers and Specialist Centers of Support for Victims of domestic Violence. In the region of Lower Silesia there exist two institutions of such a character, one inWroclaw and the other one in Walbrzych. Their activity involves therapeutic tasks, aid and provision for victims of domestic violence

  4. Children exposed to intimate partner violence: influences of parenting, family distress, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Ketan; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Piotrowski, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between maternal stress, parenting behavior, and sibling adjustment in relation to child trauma symptoms in families with and without a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). Maternal report was used to measure maternal stress and child trauma symptoms, whereas parenting behavior was assessed through an observational measure. Participants consisted of mothers with 2 school-age siblings recruited from the community. Results indicated that violent families reported higher levels of maternal stress and sibling trauma symptoms than nonviolent families, although no differences were found in parenting behavior. Sibling trauma symptoms and negative maternal behavior toward a sibling were strong predictors of trauma symptoms in younger siblings exposed to IPV but only modest predictors for older siblings. Moderator analyses showed that in IPV-affected families, the trauma symptoms of older siblings were related to the trauma symptoms of younger siblings when maternal stress was high. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. A family planning clinic partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive coercion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Decker, Michele R.; McCauley, Heather L.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Levenson, Rebecca R.; Waldman, Jeffrey; Schoenwald, Phyllis; Silverman, Jay G.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined the efficacy of a family planning clinic-based intervention to address intimate partner violence (IPV) and reproductive coercion. Study Design Four free-standing urban family planning clinics in Northern California were randomized to intervention (trained family planning counselors) or standard-of-care. English-and Spanish-speaking females ages 16-29 years (N=906) completed audio computer-assisted surveys prior to a clinic visit and 12 to 24 weeks later (75% retention rate). Analyses included assessment of intervention effects on recent IPV, awareness of IPV services, and reproductive coercion. Results Among women reporting past 3-month IPV at baseline, there was a 71% reduction in the odds of pregnancy coercion among participants in intervention clinics compared to participants from the control clinics that provided standard of care. Women in the intervention arm were more likely to report ending a relationship because the relationship was unhealthy or unsafe regardless of IPV status (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.01 – 2.63). Conclusions Results of this pilot study suggest that this intervention may reduce risk for reproductive coercion from abusive male partners among family planning clients and support such women to leave unsafe relationships. PMID:21310291

  6. A cross-sectional descriptive study of the family functioning, health and social support of hospital patients with family violence backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Salla; Leppäkoski, Tuija; Helminen, Mika; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-12-19

    Family violence (FV) has serious effects on the health and well-being of the family. The health sector plays a vital role in FV prevention by helping to identify abuse early, providing victims with the necessary treatment and referring patients to appropriate care. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to describe the prevalence of FV among hospital patients, as well as to assess the association between family functioning, health and social support, considering patients as the perpetrators or victims of violence. The data were collected using a Family Functioning, Health and Social Support (FAFHES) questionnaire that was given to patients who visited a Finnish central hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. As a result, the data (N = 188) were contributed by the patients who returned the questionnaire and gave permission for a follow-up survey. The participation rate was 47%, of which 73% were women and 27% were men. Their ages ranged from 18 to 89 years. The data were analysed with quantitative methods using the unadjusted analyses and linear regression model. In total, 24% of both the male and female participants had experienced or used violence at home or in the family. Of these, 22 had been the perpetrators, and 23 had been the victims. Participants in relationships and who were living together had less violence than singles and those who were not living together. The family functioning and health of the participants who had experienced or used FV were worse than those of the participants who had not. Various patients can have an FV background, and nursing professionals are on the front line to identify and intervene in FV situations. The results of this study can be utilised in the treatment of FV victims and perpetrators by training healthcare workers to identify and intervene in violence. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. A Decade of Child-Initiated Family Violence: Comparative Analysis of Child-Parent Violence and Parricide Examining Offender, Victim, and Event Characteristics in a National Sample of Reported Incidents, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jeffrey A.; Krienert, Jessie L.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines 11 years (1995-2005) of National Incident Based Reporting System data comparing victim, offender, and incident characteristics for two types of child-initiated family violence: child-parent violence (CPV) and parricide. The objective is to better understand the victim-offender relationship for CPV and parricide and to…

  8. Resilience and Vulnerability in the Midst of Sociopolitical Violence in Northern Ireland: One Family's Experience of a Paramilitary Style Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Stephen; Mullin, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the experience of one particular family living amid the sociopolitical violence in Northern Ireland to illustrate the impact of a particular traumatic event--a paramilitary assault due to mistaken identity. These attacks are often colloquially referred to as "punishment shootings" or "beatings." The…

  9. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  10. Family Functioning and Children’s Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Referred Sample Exposed to Interparental Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telman, M.D.; Overbeek, M.M.; de Schipper, J.C.; Lamers-Winkelman, F.; Finkenauer, C.; Schuengel, C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between interparental violence (IPV), child abuse and neglect, other traumatic experiences, and children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and explored the moderating role of family functioning in the aftermath of IPV. One hundred and twenty IPV-exposed

  11. The Development and Validation of the Indian Family Violence and Control Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Stephenson, Rob; Kelley, Mary E; Dunkle, Kristin L; Paranjape, Anuradha; Solas, Vikram; Karve, Latika; del Rio, Carlos; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) among married women in India and associated negative health repercussions highlight the need for effective prevention strategies and tools to measure the efficacy of such interventions. Literature supporting differing manifestations of DV by culture underscores the need for a culturally-tailored scale to more effectively measure DV in the Indian context. We therefore aimed to develop and validate such a tool, the Indian Family Violence and Control Scale (IFVCS), through a mixed-methods study. The psychometric development of IFVCS is herein discussed. After field pre-testing and expert review, a 63-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 630 married women from May-July 2013 in Pune, India. The item response theory approach for binary data to explore the IFVCS structure suggested that IFVCS is reliable, with the majority of items having high (>0.5) and significant factor loadings. Concurrent validity, assessed by comparing responses to IFVCS with the validated, abridged Conflict Tactics Scale-2, was high (r = 0.899, p<0.001) as was the construct validity, demonstrated by its significant association with several established DV correlates. Therefore, initial assessment of the IFVCS psychometric properties suggests that it is an effective tool for measuring DV among married women in India and speaks to its capacity for enhancing understanding of DV epidemiology and for evaluating the effectiveness of future DV interventions.

  12. Association Between Substance Use and the Perpetration of Family Violence in Industrialized Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choenni, Vandhana; Hammink, Alice; van de Mheen, Dike

    2017-01-01

    This review examines the association between alcohol and illicit drug use and the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment (CM). In clinical populations, alcohol use is related to IPV, although other variables are also known to influence this relationship. Studies in specialized social/health care and in the community have also demonstrated the association between alcohol use and IPV. Although data on the association between illicit drug use and IPV are less clear, in most studies perpetration seems related to the use of cannabis and cocaine. The occurrence of CM is related to alcohol use in specialized social/health care and community populations but has not been extensively investigated in clinical samples. These findings also apply to studies on the association between illicit drug use and CM. Moreover, many studies on CM fail to distinguish between the effects of alcohol and those of illicit drugs. This review concludes with recommendations for future research about substance use and family violence and discusses implications for prevention and treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The Development and Validation of the Indian Family Violence and Control Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeta S Kalokhe

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of domestic violence (DV among married women in India and associated negative health repercussions highlight the need for effective prevention strategies and tools to measure the efficacy of such interventions. Literature supporting differing manifestations of DV by culture underscores the need for a culturally-tailored scale to more effectively measure DV in the Indian context. We therefore aimed to develop and validate such a tool, the Indian Family Violence and Control Scale (IFVCS, through a mixed-methods study. The psychometric development of IFVCS is herein discussed. After field pre-testing and expert review, a 63-item questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 630 married women from May-July 2013 in Pune, India. The item response theory approach for binary data to explore the IFVCS structure suggested that IFVCS is reliable, with the majority of items having high (>0.5 and significant factor loadings. Concurrent validity, assessed by comparing responses to IFVCS with the validated, abridged Conflict Tactics Scale-2, was high (r = 0.899, p<0.001 as was the construct validity, demonstrated by its significant association with several established DV correlates. Therefore, initial assessment of the IFVCS psychometric properties suggests that it is an effective tool for measuring DV among married women in India and speaks to its capacity for enhancing understanding of DV epidemiology and for evaluating the effectiveness of future DV interventions.

  14. Bullying Victimization Among Chinese Middle School Students: The Role of Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhong; Chan, Ko Ling; Chen, Jinsong

    2018-06-01

    This study used the data from a representative sample to investigate the association between family violence (FV) and child bullying victimization (BV) in Xi'an city, China. Data on social demographic information and the prevalence of BV and FV were collected from a randomly selected sample with 3,175 middle school students aged 15 to 17 by self-administrated questionnaires. Results show that 55.9% and 30.3% of the participants have witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV), 37.7% and 30.8% have been victims of child abuse, and 54.9% and 44.6% have been bullied in a lifetime and in the preceding year, respectively. The lifetime and preceding-year co-occurrence rate of FV and BV are 45% and 30.4%, respectively. Multiple logistic regressions confirm FV as a unique risk factor in predicting both direct and relational BV after controlling for a number of confounding factors. This study suggests that FV experiences should be included in the screening and assessment of risk for child BV.

  15. 'Talk, talk, cry, laugh': learning, healing and building an Aboriginal workforce to address family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauw, Marlene L; Spangaro, Jo; Herring, Sigrid; McNamara, Lorna D

    2013-02-01

    Sexual abuse and family violence are widespread and under-reported phenomena for which Aboriginal victims face even greater barriers to asking for and receiving assistance than do others in the community. There is a need for strategies to address abuse without disempowering and alienating Aboriginal people. A program developed by the New South Wales Health Education Centre Against Violence is addressing this issue at the same time as contributing towards a strengthened Aboriginal health workforce. The training program which is a 1-year qualification course has grown from a 52% rate of graduation in its first 6 years to 92%. Three practices in the classroom have contributed to this success. These are: (i) recognition of the emotional impact of the training and its links to participants own histories; (ii) providing space to address participants negative prior educational experiences; and (iii) further developing content on the recent sociopolitical history of Aboriginal people. These practices have strengthened this successful course, which is building a skilled workforce to provide accessible, culturally sensitive services for Aboriginal people experiencing abuse.

  16. An approximation to family violence measurement in Santiago of Cali, 2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamileth Ortíz

    2007-01-01

    Objetive. La ciudad debería invertir en abordar la convivencia apuntando a identificar y potenciar los recursos que tienen las familias para mejorar la calidad de sus relaciones poniendo el acento en fortalecer las habilidades y desarrollar potencialidades de los integrantes. Materials and methods. We carried out a descriptive study using the data of the Observatory of relative’s Violence among the year 2003 at 2005. It was carried out analysis for multiple answer, they conformed to two analysis groups: children and girls smaller than 10 years, women and men bigger than 9 years. Results: It was a bigger report of cases in the year 2005. In the children, the group of 5 to 9 years reported the biggest number of cases, 35,3% for physical abuse, the parents were the biggest victimarios. 31,5% of the women reported physical abuse, the spouses were the main aggressors. In the men it was bigger report among 10 at 14 and 15 to 29 years, the physical abuse was exercised in 27,9% by mothers and 18,2% for the parents. Conclusions. The obtained data went similar to the found in other studies with other methodologies. It is required to qualify the problem study to strengthen the information of the observatory of family violence in the city.

  17. The Impact of Degree of Exposure to Violent Video Games, Family Background, and Other Factors on Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Ferguson, Christopher J

    2017-02-01

    Despite decades of study, no scholarly consensus has emerged regarding whether violent video games contribute to youth violence. Some skeptics contend that small correlations between violent game play and violence-related outcomes may be due to other factors, which include a wide range of possible effects from gender, mental health, and social influences. The current study examines this issue with a large and diverse (49 % white, 21 % black, 18 % Hispanic, and 12 % other or mixed race/ethnicity; 51 % female) sample of youth in eighth (n = 5133) and eleventh grade (n = 3886). Models examining video game play and violence-related outcomes without any controls tended to return small, but statistically significant relationships between violent games and violence-related outcomes. However, once other predictors were included in the models and once propensity scores were used to control for an underlying propensity for choosing or being allowed to play violent video games, these relationships vanished, became inverse, or were reduced to trivial effect sizes. These results offer further support to the conclusion that video game violence is not a meaningful predictor of youth violence and, instead, support the conclusion that family and social variables are more influential factors.

  18. Family Violence and Maltreatment of Women During the Perinatal Period: Associations with Infant Morbidity in Indian Slum Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta; Decker, Michele R; Boyce, Sabrina C; Ritter, Julie; Naik, D D; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of non-violent, gender-based forms of maltreatment of women by husbands and in-laws [i.e., gender-based household maltreatment (GBHM)] during pregnancy and postpartum; to clarify the role of GBHM in compromising infant health, and whether this role extends beyond that previously observed for intimate partner violence (IPV). Cross-sectional, quantitative data were collected from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants violence and GBHM) and recent infant morbidity (diarrhea, respiratory distress, fever, colic and vomiting). More than one in four women (28.4%) reported IPV during their recent pregnancy and/or during the postpartum period, 2.6% reported perinatal violence from in-laws, and 49.0% reported one or more forms of perinatal GBHM. In adjusted regression models that included all forms of family violence and maltreatment, perinatal GBHM remained significantly associated with infant morbidity (AORs 1.4-1.9); perinatal IPV and in-law violence ceased to predict infant morbidity in models including GBHM. Findings indicate that non-violent expressions of gender inequity (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care during pregnancy) are more strongly associated with poor infant health than physical or sexual violence from husbands or in-laws in urban India. These results strongly suggest the need to expand the conception of gender inequities beyond IPV to include non-violent forms of gendered mistreatment in considering their impact on infant health.

  19. The effects of happy Muslim family activities on reduction of domestic violence against Thai-Muslim spouses in Satun province

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    Kasetchai Laeheem

    2017-05-01

    The study found that before participation in the activities, significantly more subjects in the experimental group who participated in happy Muslim family activities had violent behaviors against their spouses than those in the control group who participated in normal community activities. However, after participating in the happy Muslim family activities, those in the experimental group used significantly less domestic violence against their spouses when compared with those in the control group.

  20. Improving care for victims: a study protocol of the evaluation of a centre for sexual and family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, E; LoFoWong, S; Hutschemaekers, G; Lagro-Janssen, A

    2016-09-12

    Worldwide, sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems. Victims of sexual and family violence often do not seek formal help in the acute phase. When they do seek help, they encounter a system of scattered care. For this reason, a centre for sexual and family violence was launched in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The centre provides multidisciplinary care for victims of acute sexual and/or family violence. With the study described in this study protocol, we want to evaluate the implementation process and the reach of the Center for Sexual and Family Violence Nijmegen (CSFVN). We will conduct a mixed-methods study including quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Data about the implementation process will be obtained via semistructured interviews and focus group discussions. Content analysis will be done in software program Atlas.ti. Analysis of file data will be undertaken to assess the reach of the CSFVN (patient characteristics and characteristics of the care they received). The data will be analysed in SPSS. The Medical Ethics Committee of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center approved the study protocol under file number 2012-1218. Dissemination will be done by submitting scientific articles to academic peer-reviewed journals. We will present the results at relevant international, national and local conferences and meetings. We will send press releases to relevant media. We will share the results with the network of assault centres in the Netherlands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. "Young people, adult worries": RCT of an internet-based self-support method "Feel the ViBe" for children, adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence, a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen-Nooijens, K.A.W.L. van; Prins, J.B.; Vergeer, M.; Wong, S.H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Violence in families affects children. Exposure to violence is seen as child abuse. Figures show that about one third of children exposed to violence become victim or perpetrator in their adult life: known as intergenerational transmission. Violence also affects sexual and reproductive

  2. Systemic Approach in Latino Families Surviving Domestic Violence in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Beatriz Garcia-Leeds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to attempt to create a more effective treatment model by leveraging the knowledge and skill sets of those who work most closely with these families in crisis. The participants, who consisted of the direct care staff of the Latino Domestic Violence Program (LDVP in Philadelphia, were interviewed individually, and the data was analyzed in accordance with grounded theory methodology. The participants' responses served to bring to the fore a number of important issues. The participants helped identify two main elements that needed to be part of an ideal program. 1: The program must be equipped to address all the biopsychosocial needs experienced by the family (financial, occupational, educational and mental health needs. Undocumented and non-English speaking clients’ needs must be also considered when developing a program for Latino families. 2: We should avoid utilizing a model based on mainstream (United States culture that does not respond to the needs of the community. It is important that the staff be trained in various theories/models that would help in the understanding of the clients’ culture.

  3. Children and TV Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 American ... Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that children ...

  4. Interparental violence and maternal mood disorders as predictors of adolescent physical aggression within the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Chen, Muzi; Martinez, Pedro P; Gold, Philip W; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-05-01

    Although a wealth of research has examined the effects of parental mood disorders on offspring maladjustment, studies have not identified whether elevated interparental violence (IPV) may be an exacerbating influence in this pathway. This study examined levels of physical IPV perpetration and victimization in mothers with unipolar depression or Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the processes by which maternal physical IPV moderated adolescents' physical aggression in families with maternal mood disorders. Mothers with lifetime mood disorders were predicted to have elevated IPV compared to well mothers, and maternal IPV was expected to moderate the association between lifetime mood disorders and adolescent aggression. Participants included 61 intact families with maternal depression (n = 24), BD (n = 13), or well mothers (n = 24) and two siblings (ages 10 to 18 years). Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, mothers reported on IPV perpetration and victimization, and adolescents reported on physical aggression. Mothers with BD reported significantly higher IPV perpetration, but not victimization, than depressed or well mothers. An interaction between maternal BD and IPV perpetration was a significant predictor of adolescent aggression. Main effects of maternal IPV victimization and interaction effects of maternal depression and either type of IPV on adolescent aggression were not significant. Adolescents of mothers who have BD and perpetrate IPV may be particularly vulnerable to being aggressive. Prevention and policy efforts to deter transmission of aggression in high-risk families should target families with maternal BD and intervene at the level of conflict resolution within the family. Aggr. Behav. 41:253-266, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. DEGRADATION OF PARENTAL BONDING AND VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN: THE USE OF FAMILY GENOGRAM IN THE PEDIATRIC CLINIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoncio, Égle Thomaz; Souza, Sonia Regina Pereira de; Machado, José Lúcio Martins

    2017-01-01

    To demonstrate the importance of using the family genogram in pediatric consultation, as an analysis tool to evaluate the degradation of parental bonding and also violence against children. A qualitative study was conducted in 2011 wherein 63 children, aged between 2 and 6 years, enrolled in a slum nursery, was studied. In order to construct the genogram, data were collected in four stages: pediatric evaluation at nursery; interview with caregivers; interview with teachers; and interview with the nursery coordinator. The data about the families were used to construct the genograms with the aid of GenoPro®-2016 software. In order to evaluate the quality of bonding, the following items were included in the genograms: violence against children, drug addiction, neglect, mental disorder, type of relationship among family members. The evaluated children and their families generated 55 genograms. In 38 of them, functional family arrangements, and close or very close emotional ties were observed. In 17 cases, situations involving physical, emotional, or sexual violence against children were perceived. Among these, four represented extreme cases, with fraying parental bonding, and dysfunctional family arrangements. In these families, chemical addiction was prevalent among multiple members, as well as severe mental disorder, persistent physical and verbal abuse, and sexual abuse. The use of the genogram helps to identify at an early stage the degradation of parental bonding and violence against children, and when it is incorporated into the pediatric practice routine, it may contribute to the promotion of the comprehensive health care of the child, regardless of the presence of social vulnerability.

  6. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94), high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation) (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31), parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32) and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23). Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families. PMID:22776354

  7. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanci Joviana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94, high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31, parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32 and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23. Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families.

  8. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Kopčavar Guček

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV at any time in patients’ adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients’ medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05. Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  9. Alcohol and drug consumption, depressive features, and family violence as associated with complaints to the Prosecutor's Office in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermina Natera; García, Francisco Juárez; Icaza, María Elena Medina-Mora; Sainz, Marcela Tiburcio

    2007-01-01

    The article is aimed at reporting the characteristics of the population detected at State Prosecutors' Offices including the two such offices that existed in the city selected for the study, one located in a general hospital for the inspection of violence-related cases (n = 156); and the second in the facility where all detainees are taken when arrested (n = 129), and where victims can file a complaint (n = 186). A household survey undertaken among the population 18 to 65 years of age (n = 887) was used as a group of reference. Both studies were undertaken in Pachuca City, the capital of Hidalgo, located 100 km from Mexico City during the second half of 1996. Face-to-face questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic data, drug use and drinking patterns, depressive symptomatology, and family violence. Discriminant and logistic regression analysis were undertaken. The age group from 18 to 24 displayed the highest number of legal complaints and arrests (OR = 1.773). The likelihood for appearing at a State Prosecutor's Office was higher for those living in an atmosphere of threats and injuries within the family (OR = 19) and for those that reported alcohol consumption on the day of the event (OR = 14). Extremely high rates of family violence were obtained in this sample, increasing the likelihood of arriving at the Prosecutor's Office either because arrested or for being a victim. Results confirm the relationship between alcohol use, depression, and violence, reinforcing the need to prevent alcohol abuse, especially among youth.

  10. Depression in Intimate Partner Violence Victims in Slovenia: A Crippling Pattern of Factors Identified in Family Practice Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guček, Nena Kopčavar; Selič, Polona

    2018-01-26

    This multi-centre cross-sectional study explored associations between prevalence of depression and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) at any time in patients' adult life in 471 participants of a previous IPV study. In 2016, 174 interviews were performed, using the Short Form Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire, the Zung Scale and questions about behavioural patterns of exposure to IPV. Family doctors reviewed patients' medical charts for period from 2012 to 2016, using the Domestic Violence Exposure Medical Chart Check List, for conditions which persisted for at least three years. Depression was found to be associated with any exposure to IPV in adult life and was more likely to affect women. In multivariable logistic regression modelling, factors associated with self-rated depression were identified (p < 0.05). Exposure to emotional and physical violence was identified as a risk factor in the first model, explaining 23% of the variance. The second model explained 66% of the variance; past divorce, dysfunctional family relationships and a history of incapacity to work increased the likelihood of depression in patients. Family doctors should consider IPV exposure when detecting depression, since lifetime IPV exposure was found to be 40.4% and 36.9% of depressed revealed it.

  11. Animal cruelty as an indicator of family trauma: Using adverse childhood experiences to look beyond child abuse and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Huq, Mona Sayedul; Spencer, Terry; Applebaum, Jennifer W; Hardt, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before violence is visited on other humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative Strategies to Help Families Cope with the Effects of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to…

  13. Somatic symptoms, peer and school stress, and family and community violence exposure among urban elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Shayla L; Hodgkinson, Stacy C; Belcher, Harolyn M E; Hyman, Corine; Cooley-Strickland, Michele

    2013-10-01

    Somatic symptoms are a common physical response to stress and illness in childhood. This study assessed 409, primarily African American (85.6 %), urban elementary school children to examine the association between: (1) somatic symptoms and potential external stressors (school and peer stress, family conflict, and community violence) and (2) parent and child agreement on children's self-report of somatic symptoms. The odds of self-report of somatic complaints were significantly associated with family conflict, school and peer stress, and community violence exposure (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.50; OR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.08-1.28; and OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 1.00-1.05, respectively). Identifying the associations between social, family, and community based stress and somatic symptoms may improve the quality of life for children living in urban environments through early identification and treatment.

  14. Perceived family social support buffers against the effects of exposure to rocket attacks on adolescent depression, aggression, and severe violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Henrich, Christopher C

    2016-02-01

    The authors compared the protective effects of 3 sources of perceived social support-from family members, friends, and school personnel-on internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescents exposed to rocket attacks. Data were based on 362 Israeli adolescents (median age = 14), chronically exposed to rockets from the Gaza Strip, for whom robust effects of exposure on internalizing and externalizing symptoms were reported during the 2009-2010 period (Henrich & Shahar, 2013). New analyses revealed that perceived family social support assessed in 2009 buffered against the effect of exposure to rocket attacks on depression, aggression, and severe violence during 2009-2010. Findings are consistent with a human-ecological perspective exposure to political violence and encourage the employment of family-based preventive interventions in afflicted areas. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. From Family Violence Exposure to Violent Offending: Examining Effects of Race and Mental Health in a Moderated Mediation Model Among Confined Male Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Rebecca L; Alexander, Apryl A; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-09-01

    Depression, substance use, and impulsivity have been linked to family violence exposure and to the development of violent offending during adolescence. Additionally, the indirect effects associated with these factors may not generalize across different racial/ethnic adolescent populations. The present study tested whether race/ethnicity moderated the mediated relationship between family violence exposure and violent offending, with depression, substance use, and impulsivity as mediators. A sample of 1,359 male adolescents was obtained from a juvenile correctional program. Between-racial/ethnic group comparisons were generally consistent with previous findings. The overall moderated mediation model was significant in predicting violence for both racial/ethnic groups. Different factors influenced violent offending among African Americans and European Americans in the tested model. Furthermore, race/ethnicity moderated the relationship between family violence exposure and impulsivity and substance use. Implications and future directions resolving issues are discussed concerning whether race/ethnicity should be included as a moderator in models of violence.

  16. Examining the Moderating Role of Family Cohesion on the Relationship between Witnessed Community Violence and Delinquency in a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Simone C.; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally…

  17. Exploring the potential of a family-based prevention intervention to reduce alcohol use and violence within HIV-affected families in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sumona; Brown, Felicity L; Kirk, Catherine M; Mukunzi, Sylvere; Nyirandagijimana, Beatha; Mukandanga, Josee; Ukundineza, Christian; Godfrey, Kalisa; Ng, Lauren C; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2016-03-01

    HIV-affected families report higher rates of harmful alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) and family conflict, which can have detrimental effects on children. Few evidence-based interventions exist to address these complex issues in Sub-Saharan Africa. This mixed methods study explores the potential of a family-based intervention to reduce IPV, family conflict and problems related to alcohol use to promote child mental health and family functioning within HIV-affected families in post-genocide Rwanda. A family home-visiting, evidence-based intervention designed to identify and enhance resilience and communication in families to promote mental health in children was adapted and developed for use in this context for families affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. The intervention was adapted and developed through a series of pilot study phases prior to being tested in open and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Rwanda for families affected by caregiver HIV. Quantitative and qualitative data from the RCT are explored here using a mixed methods approach to integrate findings. Reductions in alcohol use and IPV among caregivers are supported by qualitative reports of improved family functioning, lower levels of violence and problem drinking as well as improved child mental health, among the intervention group. This mixed methods analysis supports the potential of family-based interventions to reduce adverse caregiver behaviors as a major mechanism for improving child well-being. Further studies to examine these mechanisms in well-powered trials are needed to extend the evidence-base on the promise of family-based intervention for use in low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Changes in the Concept of Family Justice in Japan: The Impact of Modern Egalitarian Attitudes on Family Equality in the Areas of Inheritance and Domestic Violence (Including Murder of an Lineal Ascendant)

    OpenAIRE

    五十子, 敬子

    2008-01-01

    I Family justice in Japan: a brief overviewII Equality in the Japanese inheritance laws since 1947III Equality of treatment in sentencing: the murder of a lineal ascendantIV Changes in the concept of family justice in domestic violence: the Prevention of Spousal Violence and the Protection of Victims Act 2001V Conclusion: key points of change in the concept of family justice

  19. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Oni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

  20. Objective Structures and Symbolic Violence in the Immigrant Family and School Relationships: Study of Two Cases in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayen Cornejo Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical trend of migration processes in Chile faces a challenge given the incremental growth of immigration during recent years. This study focuses on the relationship between family and school, distinguishing within it the particular relationship between immigrant families and school agents. The qualitative approach applied here enabled a focus on the effect of the cultural diversity that immigration produces, including the configuration of conflicts between immigrant families and the school institution. The main issues discussed in this article concern the approach and the nature of interaction between schools and immigrant families. This approach is articulated with the observed emergence of symbolic violence. The characterization of the conflict of expectations among immigrant families and schools is also described, suggesting the need to rethink the practices associated with an inclusive education that allows the integration of immigrant families.

  1. Cases of fatal accidents and violence among children, adolescents and young people: perception of the family and associated factors

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    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of children and young people die from fatal accidents or violence every year and others suffer the consequences of non-lethal lesions. Knowing the associated factors is essential for moving forward in the control of these events. The study analysed the families’ perception and factors associated with deaths due to external causes of children, adolescents and young people. Cross-sectional study from deaths from accidents and violence in the age group of 0 to 24 years in the city ofCuiabá-State of Mato Grosso, followed by a domestic survey with the families. The families could not tell whether the accident/violence was a foreseeable event and do not believe that habits/lifestyle have favoured the occurrence. Intentional deaths showed a greater association with factors: maternity/paternity in adolescence, role overload of the mother, consumption of alcohol/drugs, family conflicts and prior deaths from external cause. Feelings of appreciation (study, housing, work, and whether the victim’s pregnancy has been desired were positive in a higher proportion among cases at which the victims died in an accident. The families had easy access to health care services; however, it was difficult to access the network of social and religious support. Associated factors differ according to the intentionality of the event.

  2. The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and Family Planning among Girls and Young Women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Cappa, Claudia; Petrowski, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and family planning among adolescent girls and young women in formal unions in the Philippines. Analyzing a sample (n =1,566) from the 2013 Philippines Demographic and Health Survey, logistic regression models were separately run for current contraception use and unmet need for family planning on recent physical violence (yes/no), recent sexual violence (yes/no), and recent emotional (yes/no). Findings revealed that the odds of using contraception were significantly higher among girls and young women who reported recent physical IPV (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.13, 2.99; p<0.05) and sexual IPV (OR=2.18; 95% CI=1.17, 4.06; p<0.05). No significant relationship between recent emotional IPV and contraception use was found. Having an unmet need for family planning showed no significant relationship to IPV. The study adds to a growing body of literature revealing a positive association between IPV and contraception use. Findings hold implications for the provision of family planning services for adolescents and young women in response to the recent passage of landmark legislation pertaining to reproductive health in the Philippines, the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act.

  3. Family violence against children and adolescents in context: How the territories of care are imbricated in the picture

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    Diene Monique Carlos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the context of care addressed to the families involved in family violence against children and adolescents (IVCA, as produced in the context of the Primary Health Care (PHC, from the vantage point of the practitioners of a municipality in the State of Sao Paulo. Methods: qualitative research of the social-strategic type, based on the Complexity Paradigm. The participants were 41 health practitioners in five health units of the municipality under study, pertaining to the five districts of the municipality. Data collection was done through 5 focus groups and 10 semi-structured interviews from April 24th 2013 to December 12th 2013. Data analysis was oriented by the comprehension and contextualization mindset and based on the dialogic, recursive and hologramatic principles. Results: two main issues regarding the care provided by the Health of the Family team were identified: the context of this violence (the domestic space and the power relations that prevail in the territory where this violence surfaces. The community health workers are the targets of specific attention because they experience the live/work dialogic in this same area. Conclusion: paying attention to the territory, and considering the complexity of contexts and dimensions is inherently linked to the design of care to families involved in IVCA in the PHC environment.

  4. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  5. Family identification: A beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mary Naughton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. Intimate partner violence (IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female, investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention and social policy.

  6. Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J

    1998-07-01

    Coordinating responses through the Child Development-Community Policing Program has led to multiple changes in the delivery of clinical and police services. Mental health clinicians and police officers have developed a common language for assessing and responding to the needs of children and families who have been exposed to or involved in violence. Learning from each other, these unlikely partners have established close working relationships that improve and expand the range of interventions they are able to provide while preserving the areas of expertise and responsibilities of each professional group. The immediate access to witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of violent crimes through the consultation service provides a unique opportunity to expand the understanding of clinical phenomena from the acute traumatic moment to longer-term adaptation, symptom formation, and recovery. In turn, the initiative introduces the systematic study of basic psychological and neurobiologic functions involved in traumatization as well as the investigation of psychotherapeutic and pharmacologic therapies. Similarly, program involvement with juvenile offenders has led to a coordinated response from the police, mental health, and juvenile justice systems. This project provides an opportunity to develop detailed psychological profiles and typologies of children engaged in different levels of antisocial behavior as well as to determine the characteristics that might predict with whom community-based interventions might be most successful. A recent survey of New Haven public school students has yielded promising evidence that community policing and the program are having a positive impact on the quality of life. In a survey of sixth-, eighth-, and tenth-grade students there were substantial improvements in students' sense of safety and experience of violence between 1992 and 1996. When asked if they felt safe in their neighborhood, there was an increase in the percentage of positive

  7. Family and community violence of schoolchildren from the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children.

  8. Examining the moderating role of family cohesion on the relationship between witnessed community violence and delinquency in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Simone C; Hanson, Rochelle; Begle, Angela M; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Saunders, Benjamin; Resnick, Heidi; Amstadter, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Witnessed community violence has been linked to a number of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents. Guided by Cicchetti and Lynch's (1993) ecological-transactional model, this study aimed to examine the impact that family-level factors had on negative outcomes associated with witnessed community violence. Using a nationally representative sample, we explored the moderational role of family cohesion in the relationship between witnessing community violence and delinquent behavior while taking demographic variables into account. Results from the investigation suggested that low levels of family cohesion were predictive of delinquency after controlling for race, gender, past delinquency, and direct trauma. In addition, the findings suggested that family cohesion moderated the impact of witnessed community violence on future delinquent behavior. Future directions for research and implications for practice were also discussed.

  9. Repeating the errors of our parents? Parental violence in men's family of origin and conflict management in dating couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuja, Kathy; Halford, W Kim

    2004-06-01

    Within a social learning model, family-of-origin violence places men at risk for developing negative communication in their adult relationships. Thirty young men exposed to family-of-origin violence (exposed group) and 30 unexposed young men were videotaped discussing a conflict topic with their female dating partners. Relative to the unexposed group, the exposed men and women reported higher relationship aggression and during discussion showed more negative communication, were more domineering, and the men reported more negative affect. There were no differences between the groups on cognition or heart rate. The conflict management deficits and aggression evident in the exposed group suggest that these partners are at high risk for future relationship aggression and distress.

  10. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social-ecological model including single-and two-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2010-07-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.

  11. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social ecological model including single and two-parent families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605

  12. The Relationship Between Family, Parent, and Child Characteristics and Intimate-Partner Violence (IPV) Among Ukrainian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlaka, Viktor; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Savchuk, Olena; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a sample of Ukrainian mothers of schoolchildren, and to examine the relationship between IPV and family, parent, and child characteristics utilizing multilevel models. Mothers of children aged 9-16 (n = 278, 93.5% Ukrainians) answered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) assessing IPV. We also examined the relationship between IPV and maternal age, education, employment and marital status, family income, and rural or urban residence. Eighty-one percent of women reported psychological violence and 58% reported physical assault. On average, women reported 66 instances of IPV during the last year. Multilevel modeling revealed that lower maternal education, unemployment, not living with the husband or partner, and urban residency were associated with higher IPV victimization. Younger age and family income were not significantly related to IPV. IPV was a significant social problem in the present sample of Ukrainian mothers of school age children. Future policy and violence prevention programming should focus on supporting academic and employment opportunities for women, particularly for those living in urban areas.

  13. The Impact of Sexual Abuse, Family Violence/Conflict, Spirituality, and Religion on Anger and Depressed Mood Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ullman, Sarah E; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2017-10-01

    Stressful life experiences, such as sexual abuse and family violence/conflict, relate to an increased risk of mental health problems. Religion and spirituality may prevent this negative impact, but religion and spirituality are lower among survivors of stressful life experiences. To explore this effect, we examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and family violence/conflict on anger and depressed mood. Survey data were collected from a large population-based sample of Icelandic adolescents ( N = 7,365) on their stressful life experiences, religion, spirituality, and mental health. Survivors of stressful life experiences (sexual abuse or family violence/conflict) were significantly lower on religion and spirituality than others. A hierarchical linear regression showed that stressful life experiences contributed uniquely to higher levels of anger and depressed mood. Spirituality was associated with decreased anger and depressed mood. The religion of parents and peers was also associated with decreased anger. Religious participation, on the contrary, did not have a relationship with mental health outcomes. In addition, the negative association between spirituality and anger was stronger among survivors of sexual abuse than nonabused individuals. These results confirm previous research, indicating that survivors of stressful life experiences may experience less religion and spirituality. The results also extend existing knowledge by showing that spirituality may be even more beneficial among sexual abuse survivors, as a protective factor against anger. These findings can help in the minimization of the negative mental health impact of stressful life experiences.

  14. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopčavar Guček, Nena; Petek, Davorina; Švab, Igor; Selič, Polona

    2016-03-01

    In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments. Sound recordings of the interviews were transcribed, and the record verified. The data were interpreted using content analysis. A coding scheme was developed and later verified and analysed by two independent researchers. The text of the interviews was analysed according to the coding scheme. Two coding schemes were developed: one for screening, and the other for the active detection of IPV. The main themes emerging as barriers to screening were lack of time, staff turnover, inadequate finance, ignorance of a clear definition, poor commitment to screening, obligatory follow-up, risk of deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship, and insincerity on the part of the patient. Additionally, cultural aspects of violence, uncertainty/ helplessness, fear, lack of competence and qualifications, autonomy/negative experience, and passive role/stigma/ fear on the part of the patients were barriers to active detection. All the participating doctors had had previous experience with active detection of IPV and were aware of its importance. Due to several barriers to screening for violence they preferred active detection.

  15. Moving knowledge about family violence into public health policy and practice: a mixed method study of a deliberative dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Kothari, Anita; Wathen, C Nadine

    2016-04-21

    There is a need to understand scientific evidence in light of the context within which it will be used. Deliberative dialogues are a promising strategy that can be used to meet this evidence interpretation challenge. We evaluated a deliberative dialogue held by a transnational violence prevention network. The deliberative dialogue included researchers and knowledge user partners of the Preventing Violence Across the Lifespan (PreVAiL) Research Network and was incorporated into a biennial full-team meeting. The dialogue included pre- and post-meeting activities, as well as deliberations embedded within the meeting agenda. The deliberations included a preparatory plenary session, small group sessions and a synthesizing plenary. The challenge addressed through the process was how to mobilize research to orient health and social service systems to prevent family violence and its consequences. The deliberations focused on the challenge, potential solutions for addressing it and implementation factors. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected via questionnaires, meeting minutes, dialogue documents and follow-up telephone interviews. Forty-four individuals (all known to each other and from diverse professional roles, settings and countries) participated in the deliberative dialogue. Ten of the 12 features of the deliberative dialogue were rated favourably by all respondents. The mean behavioural intention score was 5.7 on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree), suggesting that many participants intended to use what they learned in their future decision-making. Interviews provided further insight into what might be done to facilitate the use of research in the violence prevention arena. Findings suggest that participants will use dialogue learnings to influence practice and policy change. Deliberative dialogues may be a viable strategy for collaborative sensemaking of research related to family violence prevention, and other public health

  16. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOPČAVAR GUČEK, Nena; PETEK, Davorina; ŠVAB, Igor; SELIČ, Polona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. Methods In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments. Sound recordings of the interviews were transcribed, and the record verified. The data were interpreted using content analysis. A coding scheme was developed and later verified and analysed by two independent researchers. The text of the interviews was analysed according to the coding scheme. Results Two coding schemes were developed: one for screening, and the other for the active detection of IPV. The main themes emerging as barriers to screening were lack of time, staff turnover, inadequate finance, ignorance of a clear definition, poor commitment to screening, obligatory follow-up, risk of deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship, and insincerity on the part of the patient. Additionally, cultural aspects of violence, uncertainty/ helplessness, fear, lack of competence and qualifications, autonomy/negative experience, and passive role/stigma/ fear on the part of the patients were barriers to active detection. Conclusion All the participating doctors had had previous experience with active detection of IPV and were aware of its importance. Due to several barriers to screening for violence they preferred active detection. PMID:27647084

  17. Behavioral adaptation among youth exposed to community violence: a longitudinal multidisciplinary study of family, peer and neighborhood-level protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2013-12-01

    Several studies across fields have documented the detrimental effects of exposure to violence and, separately, the power of developmental assets to promote positive youth development. However, few have examined the lives of youth exposed to violence who demonstrate resilience (that is, positive adjustment despite risk), and hardly any have examined how developmental assets may shape resilient trajectories into adulthood for youth exposed to violence. What are these resources and relationships that high-risk youth can leverage to tip the balance from vulnerability in favor of resilience? We used generalized estimating equations to examine multilevel longitudinal data from 1,114 youth of ages 11-16 from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Behavioral adaptation was a dynamic process that varied over time and by level of violence exposure. In the short term, being a victim was associated with increased aggression and delinquency. In the long term though, both victims and witnesses to violence had higher odds of behavioral adaptation. Baseline family support and family boundaries, friend support, neighborhood support, and collective efficacy had positive main effects for all youth. Additionally, having family support, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities for participation modified the effect of exposure to violence and increased odds of behavioral adaptation over time. Policies, systems, and programs across sectors should focus on building caring relationships/supports with family members and friends, positive peers, and meaningful opportunities especially for witnesses and victims of violence, to promote behavioral resilience and related outcomes into adulthood for high-risk youth.

  18. Documented family violence and risk of suicide attempt among U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursano, Robert J; Stein, Murray B; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Naifeh, James A; Fullerton, Carol S; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Ng, Tsz Hin Hinz; Aliaga, Pablo A; Wynn, Gary H; Dinh, Hieu M; McCarroll, James E; Sampson, Nancy A; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Schoenbaum, Michael; Heeringa, Steven G; Kessler, Ronald C

    2018-04-01

    Suicide attempt (SA) rates in the U.S. Army increased substantially during the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This study examined associations of family violence (FV) history with SA risk among soldiers. Using administrative data from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), we identified person-month records of active duty, Regular Army, enlisted soldiers with medically documented SAs from 2004 to 2009 (n = 9650) and a sample of control person-months (n = 153,528). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of FV with SA, adjusting for socio-demographics, service-related characteristics, and prior mental health diagnosis. Odds of SA were higher in soldiers with a FV history and increased as the number of FV events increased. Soldiers experiencing past-month FV were almost five times as likely to attempt suicide as those with no FV history. Odds of SA were elevated for both perpetrators and those who were exclusively victims. Male perpetrators had higher odds of SA than male victims, whereas female perpetrators and female victims did not differ in SA risk. A discrete-time hazard function indicated that SA risk was highest in the initial months following the first FV event. FV is an important consideration in understanding risk of SA among soldiers. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Family Violence and Associated Help-Seeking Behavior among Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Anuradha; Tucker, Alyce; Mckenzie-Mack, LaTasha; Thompson, Nancy; Kaslow, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    Objective Little is known about how older African American women define family violence (FV) and what FV survivors might expect from their healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to understand how these women define FV, where they seek help for FV, and what barriers they face in these efforts. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups with 30 African American women over the age of 50, including some FV survivors, at a large, inner-city public hospital. Results Participants defined FV broadly, citing examples of abuse (physical, sexual, emotional and financial) and neglect. Spiritual sources were cited over physicians as being available to help FV survivors. Barriers to receiving assistance included negative encounters with physicians, lack of trust in the system and dearth of age-appropriate resources. Conclusions For older African American women, FV takes many forms of which many may not be obvious during the clinical encounter. Like younger FV survivors, they expect physicians to serve as a resource for FV. Practice implications Physicians caring for older African American women need to remember to ask them about FV, and when making referrals for abuse and neglect, consider offering referrals to pastoral care if appropriate. PMID:17644300

  20. Child and Youth Victimization Known to Police, School, and Medical Authorities. National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made during the last generation to encourage children and their families to report victimization to authorities. Nonetheless, concern persists that most childhood victimization remains hidden. The 2008 inventory of childhood victimization--the National Study of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV)--allowed an…

  1. Are gynaecological and pregnancy-associated conditions in family practice indicators of intimate partner violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Maartje J W; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Wester, Fred P J F; Laurant, Miranda G H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2016-08-01

    Some gynaecological and pregnancy-associated conditions are more common in abused women than in non-abused women, but this has not been examined in family practice. We aimed to investigate intimate partner violence (IPV) prevalence in family practice and to investigate whether gynaecological and pregnancy-associated conditions are more common in abused women than in non-abused women. We conducted a cross-sectional waiting room survey in 12 family practices in the Netherlands in 2012. Women were eligible if they were of 18 years or older. Questionnaires measured IPV and gynaecological and pregnancy-associated conditions. Chi-square tests were used to assess the differences in gynaecological and pregnancy-associated conditions between abused women and non-abused women. The response rate was 86% (262 of 306 women). The past-year prevalence of IPV in women who had had an intimate relationship in the past year and were not accompanied by their partner was 8.7% (n = 195). Lifetime prevalence of women who had ever had an intimate relationship, but not in the past year, was 17.6% (n = 51). Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-12.5, n = 240], menstrual disorders (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.2-11.2, n = 143), sexual problems (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.2-9.3, n = 229), miscarriages (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.062-5.8, n = 202) and induced abortions (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.028-7.3, n = 202) were significantly more common in abused women than in non-abused women. Family physicians should ask about IPV when women present with STIs, menstrual disorders, sexual problems, miscarriages or induced abortions. To improve the recognition of IPV, future research needs to investigate whether a combination of symptoms offers improved prediction of IPV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An Analysis of Family-School Collaboration in Preventing Adolescent Violence in Urban Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C. J. Gerda; Emslie, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people. Empirical evidence indicates…

  3. The Contribution of Family Communication Patterns to Children's Interpretations of Television Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmar, Marina

    1998-01-01

    A study of 191 K-6 children who viewed three violent TV clips showing identical acts of aggression but with different motivations and punishments found that children rated higher in communications were more likely to see motivated violence as more justified, while children higher in control were likely to see punished violence as less justified.…

  4. Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…

  5. Treatment, Services and Follow-up for Victims of Family Violence in Health Clinics in Maputo, Mozambique

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    Jetha, Eunice Abdul Remane

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family violence (FV is a global health problem that not only impacts the victim, but the family unit, local community and society at large.Objective: To quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the treatment and follow up provided to victims of violence amongst immediate and extended family units who presented to three health centers in Mozambique for care following violence.Methods: We conducted a verbally-administered survey to self-disclosed victims of FV who presented to one of three health units, each at a different level of service, in Mozambique for treatment of their injuries. Data were entered into SPSS (SPSS, version 13.0 and analyzed for frequencies. Qualitative short answer data were transcribed during the interview, coded and analyzed prior to translation by the principal investigator.Results: One thousand two hundred and six assault victims presented for care during the eight-week study period, of which 216 disclosed the relationship of the assailant, including 92 who were victims of FV. Almost all patients (90% waited less than one hour to be seen, with most patients (67% waiting less than 30 minutes. Most patients did not require laboratory or radiographic diagnostics at the primary (70% and secondary (93% health facilities, while 44% of patients received a radiograph at the tertiary care center. Among all three hospitals, only 10% were transferred to a higher level of care, 14% were not given any form of follow up or referral information, while 13% required a specialist evaluation. No victims were referred for psychological follow-up or support. Qualitative data revealed that some patients did not disclose violence as the etiology, because they believed the physician was unable to address or treat the violence-related issues and/or had limited time to discuss.Conclusion: Healthcare services for treating the physical injuries of victims of FV were timely and rarely required advanced levels of medical care, but there

  6. Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Interpersonal Events Among 9- to 17-Year-Old Children Attending an Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultmann, Ole; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-11-01

    Among children visiting child and adolescent mental health care (CAM), the prevalence of exposure to family violence (FV) is reported to exceed prevalence in community samples, as are potentially traumatic interpersonal events (IPE) outside the family. The aim of the study was to relate CAM patients' self-reported experiences of violence exposure to their current psychiatric symptoms and to compare patients exposed to violence with patients who reported no exposure. We asked 305 consecutive 9- to 17-year-old patients in CAM about their current and previous exposure to violence in and outside of the family. Prevalence of exposure to any kind of violence was 67%. Reported exposures were 19% to IPE, 21% to FV, and 27% to both. Children exposed to both FV and IPE were more negatively affected by the events than children exposed to FV or IPE only. Children in the FV + IPE group reported more mental health symptoms than those in the no violence (33%) group. In general, IPE was related to the outcome measures only in combination with FV. Degree of violence exposure seemed to have a dose-response relationship with the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Media coverage of violence against women in the family and in an intimate partner relationship in Serbia

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    Resimić Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the media coverage of violence against women in the family and in an intimate partner relationship in Serbia. The goal of this article is to point to the potential that implementing the relevant state policies might have on the quality of the media coverage, by analysing the effects of state policies on the media coverage of violence against women in the family and in an intimate partner relationship. This study utilizes quantitative content analysis and qualitative framing analysis on a sample of 330 articles of Serbian daily newspapers Blic, Kurir and Politika in two time periods (three months in 2006 and three months in 2013. The results of the quantitative content analysis show a significant increase in the number of articles containing information on statistics, services for victims and expert sources. Qualitative framing analysis points to the conclusion that the nature of the media frame has not meaningfully changed. Namely, under the pressure of editors, journalists continue with framing violence against women in a stereotyped fashion which reflects the suppressed position of women in the Serbian society.

  8. The prevalence of intimate partner violence in the family: a systematic review of the implications for adolescents in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Nicolette V; Frantz, José M

    2013-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and its multiple effects are well documented in Western research, but these are not adequately described in Africa. The effects of IPV on adolescent health and well-being are not conclusive. The aim of this review was to systematically appraise prevalence studies conducted on the African continent to establish the prevalence of IPV and the implications of exposure on adolescents in Africa. A comprehensive search was conducted in May 2012 for the previous 10 years, using databases such as Ebscohost (Medline, CINAHL, PsyArticles), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Project Muse and BioMed Central and also specific journals Lancet, and JSTOR. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodological quality of the studies reviewed. Seven eligible epidemiological studies were included in this review. Five of the studies were conducted in South Africa, one in Liberia, and another was a multi-country study that included Egypt, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda and Zambia. The prevalence of IPV in African countries ranged from approximately 26.5% to 48%. All studies reported exposure to family violence during childhood. The findings support the global burden of IPV. There is also a need for standardized tools to determine IPV in Africa and a clear definition that can be used in research to allow comparison with future IPV studies. In addition, the studies point to a need for interventions focusing on adolescents exposed to family violence.

  9. Treatment of Concurrent Substance Dependence, Child Neglect and Domestic Violence: A Single Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Valerie; Allen, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Although child neglect and substance abuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results. PMID:23226920

  10. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150

  11. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Shinya; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3-3.7], 4.6 [3.6-5.8], and 5.8 [4.4-7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7-4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6-2.6], 4.0 [3.1-5.1], 4.1 [3.0-5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents.

  12. "Keeping family matters behind closed doors": healthcare providers' perceptions and experiences of identifying and managing domestic violence during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Mary; Head, Jennifer; Lambert, Jaki; Zafar, Shamsa; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-09-22

    Violence against women is an international public health concern and a violation of women's rights. Domestic violence can first occur, and increase in frequency and severity, during and after pregnancy. Healthcare providers have the potential to identify and support women who experience domestic violence. We sought to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of domestic violence among doctors who provide routine antenatal and postnatal care at healthcare facilities in Pakistan. In addition, we explored possible management options from policy makers, and enabling factors of and barriers to the routine screening of domestic violence. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with doctors (n = 25) working in public and private hospitals and with officials involved in domestic violence policy development (n = 5) in Islamabad, Pakistan. Transcribed interviews were coded and codes grouped into categories. Thematic framework analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes. Most doctors have a good awareness of domestic violence and a desire to help women who report domestic violence during and after pregnancy. Enabling factors included doctors' ability to build rapport and trust with women and their suggestion that further education of both healthcare providers and women would be beneficial. However, domestic violence is often perceived as a "family issue" that is not routinely discussed by healthcare providers. Lack of resources, lack of consultation time and lack of effective referral pathways or support were identified as the main barriers to the provision of quality care. Doctors and policy advisors are aware of the problem and open to screening for domestic violence during and after pregnancy. It is suggested that the provision of a speciality trained family liaison officer or healthcare provider would be beneficial. Clear referral pathways need to be established to provide quality care for these vulnerable women in Pakistan.

  13. 78 FR 21370 - Funding Opportunity Announcement for Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ..., which involves understanding and responding to the symptoms of chronic interpersonal trauma and... recovering from the effects of the violence. Provision of services, training, technical assistance, and... and homelessness prevention services; (5) transportation, child care, respite care, job training and...

  14. Characteristics of violence against children in the family and its consequences on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevković Ljiljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability, dependence and helplessness which characterize life situation of a child, carry a risk of its victimization by different forms of violence. Violence against children, an appearance as old as human civilization, leaves multiple, deep and lasting consequences on physical and mental health, development and future life of victimized child. The aim of this paper is to point out basic characteristics of victim, violent parent and way of execution, with particular emphasis on health consequences, through brief overview of previous empirical knowledge about children victimization with domestic violence. In the introductory part of the paper a definition of violence against children and its forms is given. In the second part, on the basis of the analysis of research findings, its basic characteristics, with the emphasis on health consequences, are reviewed. In the final part of the paper author’s concluding considerations about this sensitive problem are given. .

  15. Jordanian Men's and Women's Attitudes Toward Intimate Partner Violence and Its Correlates With Family Functioning and Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Ali, Reem Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Jordan is a developing country in the Middle East and, much like other countries in the world, has high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Little information is available on Jordanian men's and women's attitudes toward IPV. The purpose of this study is to examine men's and women's attitudes toward IPV in Jordan and its relationship with some demographics and family functioning. A descriptive cross-sectional correlational design with a sample of 401 men and women was used. Descriptive statistics ( M, SD), Pearson r, t test, and ANOVA were used. The results indicated that Jordanian men and women have a lower score of IPVAS, 40.06 ( SD = 8.20), indicating lower acceptance of IPV compared with the literature. Family functioning was 3.12 ( SD = 0.46), indicating more healthy families. Family functioning was negatively correlated with IPVAS scores ( r = -.22, p = .00). All demographic variables showed small to moderate correlations with IPVAS. Education for both study participants and their spouses had a negative correlation with IPVAS ( r = -.27, p = .00) and ( r = -.20, p = .00), respectively. Male participants, individuals who were living with extended family, and those living in rural areas had significantly high IPVAS scores, indicating more accepting attitudes toward IPV. Practitioners should provide families with education on the methods of conflict resolution, effective communication within the family, problem-solving approaches, equal role distribution, and appropriate styles of establishing a family.

  16. Long-Term Impact of Family Arguments and Physical Violence on Adult Functioning at Age 30 Years: Findings from the Simmons Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Angela D.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2009-01-01

    Family arguments by the age of 15 and family physical violence by the age of 18 is found to significantly compromise key domains of adult functioning at age 30. The findings are based on data from 346 participants whose psychosocial development has been followed since age 5.

  17. Is Animal Cruelty a "Red Flag" for Family Violence? Investigating Co-Occurring Violence toward Children, Partners, and Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; DiLillo, David

    2009-01-01

    Cross-reporting legislation, which permits child and animal welfare investigators to refer families with substantiated child maltreatment or animal cruelty for investigation by parallel agencies, has recently been adopted in several U.S. jurisdictions. The current study sheds light on the underlying assumption of these policies--that animal…

  18. “It will always continue unless we can change something”: consequences of intimate partner violence for indigenous women, children, and families

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    Catherine E. Burnette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against indigenous women and girls is endemic, yet the absence of research on the consequences of this violence from the perspectives of women presents a profound barrier to the development of knowledge, along with violence prevention and mitigation. Although family is central to many indigenous communities, existing research typically examines the consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV on women or children in isolation, rather than examining its consequences holistically. Objective: The purpose of this article is to identify US indigenous women's perspectives about the impact of IPV on women, children, and families. Method: Data were collected with 29 indigenous women affected by violence from a Southeastern tribe in the United States. As part of a larger critical ethnography, pragmatic horizon analysis of life history interviews revealed the consequences of IPV across multiple levels. Results: Women reported profound psychological consequences resulting from IPV. The majority of women had witnessed IPV in their childhood, providing support for an intergenerational cycle of violence. Women reported psychological consequences on children, which paralleled those reported by women, leaving deep impressions on children across their life course. Consequences on children and whole families were extensive, indicating the negative ramifications of IPV transcended personal boundaries and affected children and families across multiple generations. Conclusions: Given the tight-knit nature of indigenous families and communities, the consequences across individuals and families were noteworthy. However, a dearth in research examining consequences of IPV across levels fails to capture the interconnections of consequences for women, children, and families. Given the centrality of family in many indigenous communities, examining IPV from a holistic perspective that incorporates multiple levels is recommended for IPV research and

  19. Affected family members' experience of, and coping with, aggression and violence within the context of problematic substance use: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Terence V; Lubman, Dan I; Boardman, Gayelene; Flood, Mollie

    2017-06-02

    Families have an important role supporting a family member with problematic substance use (PSU), although this can often be challenging and confronting. Previous research has identified high rates of family aggression and violence within the context of PSU, although few studies have examined this issue from the perspective of affected family members (AFMs) supporting a member with PSU. The aims of the current study were to understand AFMs' experience of aggression and violence while supporting a member with PSU, and to explicate the strategies they used to prevent and cope with this behaviour. Semi-structured, audio-recorded qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 AFMs from the state of Victoria in Australia. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to guide data collection and analysis. Almost 70% of participants experienced PSU-related family aggression and/or violence. Two main themes and related sub-themes were abstracted from the data capturing their experiences of this behaviour and the strategies they used to try to prevent and cope in this situation. Aggression and/or violence were variable, changeable and unpredictable; and aggression and/or violence altering social interactions and family dynamics. As a consequence, it was upsetting, stressful and emotionally exhausting to AFMs. In response to this experience, and largely through trial and error, they used several direct strategies to try to prevent and cope with the behaviour; however, most continued to struggle in these circumstances. They also highlighted additional indirect measures, which, if adopted, would enhance their existing direct strategies. More effective primary, secondary and tertiary preventive measures are needed to address family aggression and violence within the context of PSU. More support is needed for family members affected by PSU to enable them to 'stand up to,' to prevent and cope effectively with this behaviour, and to increase their help-seeking and access to

  20. Do family order and neighbor intervention against intimate partner violence protect children from abuse? Findings from Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Do, Mi Hyang; Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on previous research on intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and informal social control, we hypothesized relationships between child abuse severity and (1) protective informal social control of intimate partner violence (ISC_IPV) by neighbors, (2) intimate terrorism, (3) family order, and (4) the power of mothers in intimate relationships. In what we believe may be a first study of physical child abuse by parents in Nepal, we used a three stage cluster approach to draw a random sample of 300 families in Kathmandu. Random effects regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. The analyses found support for hypotheses one and two, but with an important caveat. Although observed (actual) protective ISC_IPV had the hypothesized negative association with child abuse severity, in one of our models perceived protective ISC_IPV was positively associated with child abuse severity. The models clarify that the overall direction of protective ISC_IPV appears to be negative (protective), but the positive finding is important to consider for both research and practice. A significant relationship between family order and child abuse severity was found, but the direction was negative rather than positive as in hypothesis three. Implications for neighborhood research and typological research on IPV and child maltreatment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Theoretical elements for a historical approach to the family and its relations of violence during the transition between the XXth and XXIst centuries

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    Bárbara Yadira García Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to relect upon the history of the ield of contemporary family and its changes from the revolution of youth in 1960s until the irst decade of the XXIst century. This historical approach is linked to the study of relations of violence inside the family context. The implementation of certain theoretical and methodological concepts allowed us to establish a contrast between several time periods, starting from the present and going back to situations of the past, following the track of micro social conlicts expressed in violence toward parental igures, as well as in violence between siblings, all of which are analyzed as typologies of what has been called domestic violence. The theoretical relection is supported by some approaches of Pierre Bourdieu regarding the reproduction of symbolic violence, and more speciically, the strategies of its reproduction in the ield of family. We emphasize on the strategies of symbolic, ethicaland educational inversion. The data used to support this article is taken from the database of two research projects on school violence in Bogota between 2009 and 2015.

  2. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence: A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisic, Eva; Groot, Arend; Snetselaar, Hanneke; Stroeken, Tielke; van de Putte, Elise

    2017-01-01

    In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself. We cross-examined 8 national data sources and extracted data about children's demographics and circumstances prior to, and during the homicide. Our primary outcomes were prior violence at home (child maltreatment, neglect or domestic violence) and homicide witness status (ranging from being at a different location altogether to being present at the scene). During the decade under study, 256 children lost a biological parent due to 137 cases of intimate partner homicide. On average, the children were 7.4 years old at the time of the homicide (51.1% were boys; 95% CI 47.3-54.7) and most lost their mother (87.1%; full population data). Immigrant children were overrepresented (59.4%; 95% CI 52.8-66.0). Of the children for whom information about previous violence at home was gathered, 67.7% (95% CI 59.7-73.7) were certainly exposed and 16.7% (95% CI 11.3-22.2) probably. Of the children who had certainly been exposed, 43.1% (95% CI 41.1-60.9) had not received social services or mental health care. The majority of the children (58.7%; 95% CI 52.1-65.3) were present at the location of the homicide when the killing took place, with varying levels of exposure. Homicide weapons mostly involved cutting weapons and firearms, leading to graphic crime scenes. Care providers need capacity not only to help children cope with the sudden loss of a parent but also with unaddressed histories of domestic violence and exposure to graphic homicide scenes, in a culture

  3. Children bereaved by fatal intimate partner violence: A population-based study into demographics, family characteristics and homicide exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alisic

    Full Text Available In the context of violence against women, intimate partner homicide increasingly receives research and policy attention. Although the impact of losing a parent due to intimate partner homicide is intuitively obvious, little is known about the children involved. We aimed to identify all children bereaved by parental intimate partner homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2003-2012, describe their demographics and family circumstances, and assess their exposure to prior violence at home and to the homicide itself.We cross-examined 8 national data sources and extracted data about children's demographics and circumstances prior to, and during the homicide. Our primary outcomes were prior violence at home (child maltreatment, neglect or domestic violence and homicide witness status (ranging from being at a different location altogether to being present at the scene. During the decade under study, 256 children lost a biological parent due to 137 cases of intimate partner homicide. On average, the children were 7.4 years old at the time of the homicide (51.1% were boys; 95% CI 47.3-54.7 and most lost their mother (87.1%; full population data. Immigrant children were overrepresented (59.4%; 95% CI 52.8-66.0. Of the children for whom information about previous violence at home was gathered, 67.7% (95% CI 59.7-73.7 were certainly exposed and 16.7% (95% CI 11.3-22.2 probably. Of the children who had certainly been exposed, 43.1% (95% CI 41.1-60.9 had not received social services or mental health care. The majority of the children (58.7%; 95% CI 52.1-65.3 were present at the location of the homicide when the killing took place, with varying levels of exposure. Homicide weapons mostly involved cutting weapons and firearms, leading to graphic crime scenes.Care providers need capacity not only to help children cope with the sudden loss of a parent but also with unaddressed histories of domestic violence and exposure to graphic homicide scenes, in a culture

  4. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N.; Barker, F. Keith; Olsson, Urban; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although ...

  5. Violência e abuso sexual na família Violence and sexual abuse within the family

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    Maria de Fátima Araújo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de relato de experiência de supervisão e atendimento de famílias que sofreram violência intrafamiliar, encaminhadas para atendimento psicológico após denúncia ou suspeita de abuso sexual infantil cometido por parentes próximos. O texto examina essa experiência à luz de reflexões surgidas nessa prática, diante dos conflitos, impasses e dificuldades vividos por profissionais e famílias envolvidos no problema. A abordagem de intervenção aqui proposta tem três características principais: 1 baseia-se no enfoque psicossocial 2 propõe o atendimento familiar conjunto, envolvendo toda a família, inclusive o agressor; e, 3introduz a perspectiva de gênero, fator historicamente preponderante na construção de relações de violência e dominação-exploração dentro da família.This article reports on the experience of supervising and providing care to families who have experienced intra-family violence and who were referred to psychological care following suspicion or denouncement of child sexual abuse committed by close relatives. It reviews this experience in the light of reflections arising from the practice in view of the conflicts, impasses and difficulties faced by professionals and families concerned. The type of intervention proposed here has three major characteristics: 1 it is based on a psychosocial approach 2 it proposes a family group treatment including the assailant and 3 it introduces the gender perspective, a historically prevailing factor in the construction of violence and domination/exploitation relationships within the family.

  6. Exposure to Family Violence and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Ainhoa; Calvete, Esther

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and child maltreatment may have devastating consequences on children's development. The aim of this research was to examine the predictive associations between exposure to violence at home (witnessing violence against the mother and/or direct victimization by the parents) and adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. A total of 613 Spanish adolescents (13-18 years) took part in this study. Results indicate that psychological victimization by the parents predicted an increase in anxious/depressive symptoms, aggressive and rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse at Time 2. In addition, rule-breaking behavior predicted an increase in adolescents' substance abuse at Time 2. Concerning gender, psychological victimization predicted an increase in anxiety/depression, aggressive behavior, rule-breaking behavior, and substance abuse in boys; whereas in girls, psychological victimization only predicted an increase in anxiety/depression.

  7. Exposure to Family Violence, Perceived Psychological Adjustment of Parents, and the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms Among Palestinian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Bargal, David

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the relationship between exposure to (i.e., witnessing and experiencing) different patterns and types of family violence during childhood, during adolescence, and during young adulthood, on one hand, and adult post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), on the other. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,969 Palestinian students using a self-administered questionnaire. The results reveal that the more the participants witnessed and experienced psychological aggression (PS) and physical violence (PH) in their families of origin, the more they exhibited PTSS. Furthermore, the results indicate that a significant amount of the variance in the participants' PTSS could be attributed to their exposure to family violence, over and above the amounts of variance that were explained by their sociodemographic characteristics and by their perceptions of their parents' psychological adjustment. The limitations of the study and implications for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Family Violence in Domestic Homicides: A Case Study of Women Who Killed Intimate Partners Post-Legislative Reform in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Danielle; Kirkwood, Deborah; Mckenzie, Mandy

    2016-05-18

    This article examines the impact of legislative reforms enacted in 2005 in Victoria, Australia, on legal responses to women charged with murder for killing their intimate partner. The reforms provided for a broader understanding of the context of family violence to be considered in such cases, but we found little evidence of this in practice. This is partly attributable to persistent misconceptions among the legal profession about family violence and why women may believe it necessary to kill a partner. We recommend specialized training for legal professionals and increased use of family violence evidence to help ensure women's claims of self-defense receive appropriate responses from Victorian courts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Gêmeos monozigóticos: revelações do discurso familiar Monozygotic twins: hidden aspects of family speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraí Lopez Barbetta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Nas famílias de gêmeos monozigóticos, algumas práticas podem acompanhar o processo de gestação, nascimento e desenvolvimento dessas crianças. Inclui-se a escolha de roupas iguais ou com diferença apenas na cor, nomes com semelhanças fonéticas, rotinas parecidas quanto à alimentação e sono. O objetivo, aqui, foi acompanhar longitudinalmente uma família, analisando os pressupostos e práticas sociais manifestados discursivamente, a respeito da gemelaridade, a partir do diagnóstico da gestação gemelar de crianças monozigóticas, considerando-se, em especial, o desenvolvimento da linguagem e o processo de constituição da identidade de tais crianças. MÉTODOS: O trabalho pauta-se na abordagem naturalista/observacional, perspectiva histórico-cultural e no paradigma de natureza indiciária. Considerou-se os dados de oito entrevistas, vídeo-gravadas a cada três meses, a partir do diagnóstico da gestação gemelar monozigótica com uma família. Os dados foram analisados, considerando-se: a descoberta, escolha de nomes, vestuário, interação, rotina, linguagem e identidade. RESULTADOS: As categorias analisadas apareceram nos discursos coletados e revelaram a dificuldade familiar em assimilar a presença de gêmeos, que acabam sendo " dois vistos como um" . CONCLUSÕES: Os aspectos sociais envolvidos frente à semelhança são marcantes o suficiente para vencer a possibilidade de alteração no processo de desenvolvimento da linguagem e identidade dessas crianças. A Fonoaudiologia precisa incorporar à prática clínica, o acolhimento dessas famílias, com suas crenças e valores, para que as intervenções fonoaudiológicas, junto a essa população, sejam efetivas.PURPOSE: Families with monozygotic twin children have some typical practices which begin in early pregnancy and persist during the childhood, including wearing the same clothes and colors, choosing phonetically similar names and offering the same food and

  10. Screening Children for Family Violence: A Review of the Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Peggy; Nelson, Heidi D.; Klein, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening children in primary health care settings for abuse and neglect resulting from family violence by examining the evidence on the performance of screening instruments and the effectiveness of interventions. METHODS We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and reference lists. English language abstracts with original data about family violence against children focusing on screening and interventions initiated or based in health care settings were included. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations and settings, methods of assessment or intervention, and outcome measures, and applied a set of criteria to evaluate study quality. RESULTS All instruments designed to screen for child abuse and neglect were directed to parents, particularly pregnant women. These instruments had fairly high sensitivity but low specificity when administered in high-risk study populations and have not been widely tested in other populations. Randomized controlled trials of frequent nurse home visitation programs beginning during pregnancy that address behavioral and psychological factors indicated improved abuse measures and outcomes. No studies were identified about interventions in older children or harms associated with screening and intervention. CONCLUSIONS No trials of the effectiveness of screening in a health care setting have been published. Clinician referrals to nurse home visitation during pregnancy and in early childhood may reduce abuse in selected populations. There are no studies about harms of screening and interventions. PMID:15083858

  11. A qualitative study of intimate partner violence universal screening by family therapy interns: implications for practice, research, training, and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todahl, Jeffrey L; Linville, Deanna; Chou, Liang-Ying; Maher-Cosenza, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Although a few family therapy researchers and clinicians have urged universal screening for intimate partner violence (IPV), how screening is implemented-and, in particular, client and therapist response to screening-is vaguely defined and largely untested. This qualitative study examined the dilemmas experienced by couples and family therapy interns when implementing universal screening for IPV in an outpatient clinic setting. Twenty-two graduate students in a COAMFTE-accredited program were interviewed using qualitative research methods grounded in phenomenology. Three domains, 7 main themes, and 26 subthemes were identified. The three domains that emerged in this study include (a) therapist practice of universal screening, (b) client response to universal screening, and (c) therapist response to universal screening. Implications for practice, research, training, and supervision are discussed.

  12. Navigating Structural Violence with Indigenous Families: The Contested Terrain of Early Childhood Intervention and the Child Welfare System in Canada

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    Alison Gerlach

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, the welfare of Indigenous children continues to be severely compromised by their involvement with child welfare authorities. In this context, there are calls for greater investment in early childhood programs to support family preservation and children’s well-being. This article reports on the findings from a critical qualitative inquiry undertaken with Aboriginal Infant Development Programs (AIDPs in Canada. The findings highlight how AIDP workers’ relational approaches countered Indigenous mothers’ experiences of feeling "like a bad parent" as a result of their involvement with the child welfare system and how workers navigated an increasingly close relationship with this system. We draw on the concept of structural violence to discuss the impact of the child welfare system on Indigenous families and AIDPs.

  13. Hidden Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunder Hawk, Anne

    In 1978, federal legislation was passed to protect tribally enrolled or potentially enrollable American Indian children and prevent the breakup of Indian families. Prior to the passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act, it was estimated that one-quarter to one-third of all Indian children were being removed from their families. In this paper, an…

  14. Mother-child emotion dialogues in families exposed to interparental violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Margreet; Overbeek, Mathilde M.; De Schipper, J. Clasien; Schoemaker, Kim; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the hypothesis that parent–child emotion dialogues among interparental violence (IPV) exposed dyads (n = 30; 4–12 years) show less quality than dialogues among nonexposed dyads (n = 30; 4–12 years). Second, we examined whether parental posttraumatic stress

  15. Domestic Violence, Risky Family Environment and Children: A Bio-Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olusegun Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Though a large body of research has investigated the impacts of domestic violence on adult victims only few studies have been devoted to the exposure of children to probable inter-spousal trauma that disrupt their neurological and biochemical pathways in development. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current empirical research that discusses…

  16. Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2003-06-01

    The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation.

  17. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The Roles of Family and Teacher Support in Moderating and Mediating Externalized and Internalized Outcomes of Exposure to Community Violence Among Arab and Jewish Adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Leshem, Becky; Guterman, Neil B

    2018-02-01

    The study examined family and teacher support as factors that can protect adolescents from internalized and externalized problems after exposure to community violence (ECV). Self-administered questionnaires were filled out by a sample of 1,832 Arab and Jewish Israeli high school students. The Arab adolescents reported significantly higher levels of community violence victimization, internalized problems, externalized problems, family support, and teacher support than the Jewish adolescents. The girls reported higher levels of internalized problems, and the boys reported higher levels of externalized problems. ECV predicted high levels of internalized and externalized problems, family support predicted low levels of internalized and externalized problems, and teacher support had no predictive role. Path analysis confirmed the significance of the relationships between ECV effects, support variables, and gender. The limitations of the study and implications of the findings for future research and for the development of family care and family intervention programs are discussed.

  19. Concerted Practice-Based Actions in Intimate Partner and Family Violence: When the Children’s Well-Being Is the Central Concern

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    Geneviève Lessard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, the exposure of children to intimate partner violence is, along with negligence, one of the most frequent forms of maltreatment. Intimate partner violence raises important issues with regard to child custody and to the exercising of parental roles. The aid provided for children exposed to intimate partner violence covers a range of programs, in particular community services specializing in intimate partner violence, frontline social and health services, and child protection. However, these resource services do not share the same missions, or the same understanding of the problems and possible solutions, since they often operate in parallel networks. The complex situations of families confronted with intimate partner violence present considerable challenges in terms of collaboration between the different organizations. Action research was employed to develop an innovative concertation strategy that fostered collaboration between practitioners from different family resource services. The strategy, which was implemented in the Québec City region between 2011 and 2013, was then evaluated. This article presents the results of this evaluation as well as the positive outcomes that the concertation strategy had for the practitioners’ practice and for the improvement of family services.

  20. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunston, Wendy; Franich-Ray, Candice; Tatlow, Sara

    2017-10-17

    Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child's caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.

  1. A Diagnosis of Denial: How Mental Health Classification Systems Have Struggled to Recognise Family Violence as a Serious Risk Factor in the Development of Mental Health Issues for Infants, Children, Adolescents and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Bunston

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS routinely overlook assessing for, and providing treatment to, infants and children living with family violence, despite family violence being declared endemic across the globe. As contemporary neuro-developmental research recognises the harm of being exposed to early relational trauma, key international diagnostic texts such as the DSM-5 and ICD-10 struggle to acknowledge or appreciate the relational complexities inherent in addressing family violence and its impacts during childhood. These key texts directly influence thinking, funding and research imperatives in adult services as well as CAMHS, however, they rarely reference family violence. Their emphasis is to pathologise conditions over exploring causality which may be attributable to relational violence. Consequently, CAMHS can miss important indicators of family violence, misdiagnose disorders and unwittingly, not address unacceptable risks in the child’s caregiving environment. Notwithstanding urgent safety concerns, ongoing exposure to family violence significantly heightens the development of mental illness amongst children. CAMHS providers cannot and should not rely on current diagnostic manuals alone. They need to act now to see family violence as a significant and important risk factor to mental health and to treat its impacts on children before these develop into enduring neurological difficulties.

  2. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spouse and from children. Results: A model with 2 indicators of violence; that is, psychological and financial violence, and physical violence, adequately fitted the observed data. The reliability of the FVS was 0.95. According to our results, 16% of older adults reported experiencing some form of family violence in the past 12 months of their interview, and 3% reported a high level of family violence (FVS > 0.36). Our results showed that the victim’s sex was not associated with the degree of violence (β = 0.02). However, the victim’s age was associated with family violence (β = −0.12). Older adults, aged 75 years and older, reported less violence than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusion: Our results lead us to conclude that family violence against older adults is common and warrants greater public health and political attention. General practitioners could play an active role in the detection of violence among older adults. PMID:25161067

  3. Multilocus phylogeny of the avian family Alaudidae (larks) reveals complex morphological evolution, non-monophyletic genera and hidden species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alström, Per; Barnes, Keith N; Olsson, Urban; Barker, F Keith; Bloomer, Paulette; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Qureshi, Masood Ahmed; Guillaumet, Alban; Crochet, Pierre-André; Ryan, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    The Alaudidae (larks) is a large family of songbirds in the superfamily Sylvioidea. Larks are cosmopolitan, although species-level diversity is by far largest in Africa, followed by Eurasia, whereas Australasia and the New World have only one species each. The present study is the first comprehensive phylogeny of the Alaudidae. It includes 83.5% of all species and representatives from all recognised genera, and was based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (in total 6.4 kbp, although not all loci were available for all species). In addition, a larger sample, comprising several subspecies of some polytypic species was analysed for one of the mitochondrial loci. There was generally good agreement in trees inferred from different loci, although some strongly supported incongruences were noted. The tree based on the concatenated multilocus data was overall well resolved and well supported by the data. We stress the importance of performing single gene as well as combined data analyses, as the latter may obscure significant incongruence behind strong nodal support values. The multilocus tree revealed many unpredicted relationships, including some non-monophyletic genera (Calandrella, Mirafra, Melanocorypha, Spizocorys). The tree based on the extended mitochondrial data set revealed several unexpected deep divergences between taxa presently treated as conspecific (e.g. within Ammomanes cinctura, Ammomanes deserti, Calandrella brachydactyla, Eremophila alpestris), as well as some shallow splits between currently recognised species (e.g. Certhilauda brevirostris-C. semitorquata-C. curvirostris; Calendulauda barlowi-C. erythrochlamys; Mirafra cantillans-M. javanica). Based on our results, we propose a revised generic classification, and comment on some species limits. We also comment on the extraordinary morphological adaptability in larks, which has resulted in numerous examples of parallel evolution (e.g. in Melanocorypha mongolica and Alauda leucoptera [both

  4. Some directions of improving the system of bodies for prevention of family violence against the under-aged (by the evidence of South-Siberian region

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    Yuliya V. Zyryanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to improve the system of bodies for prevention of family violence against the underaged in SouthSiberian region. Methods an integrity of general scientific analysis synthesis systemic analysis comparative method generalization and special scientific statistics and documents study methods. nbsp Results the article views the issues arising and existing in the activity of bodies of the system for prevention family violence against the underaged. The author states that there are gaps in the normative regulation of these bodiesrsquo functioning and problems of information interaction between them the absence of personified databank of children and families where violence occurs as it is stipulated by law the lack of a unified approach to the recognition of families and children as being in socially dangerous situation the lack of a unified approach to processing of these solutions formalism in the work the insufficiency of personnel. The article attempts to determine the directions of improving the functioning of prevention bodies to overcome the problems identified. Based on this analysis the author also offers the mechanism to coordinate the interaction of these bodies. Scientific novelty though the problem of family violence against the underaged is acute researchers had not paid sufficient attention to the study of individual aspects of the issue. Inadequate knowledge of the problem entails the lack of a true understanding of the causes and conditions that determine family violence as a consequence there are drawbacks in the organization of effective prevention system of this category of crimes. The imperfection of the prevention bodies functioning is in fact one of the conditions contributing to the occurrence of family violence against the underaged. This problem was not raised by the researchers who mainly dwell on the organization of these bodiesrsquo functioning. In addition the study of the question indicated in the title as well

  5. Disaster, Disruption to Family Life, and Intimate Partner Violence: The Case of the 2010 Earthquake in Haiti

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    Abigail Weitzman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have inherently social dimensions because they exacerbate preexisting inequalities and disrupt social norms and institutions. Despite a growing interest in the sociological aspects of disasters, few studies have quantitatively explored how disasters alter intrahousehold family dynamics. In this article, we develop and test a conceptual framework that explicates how natural disasters affect an important component of family life: intimate partner violence (IPV. We combine two waves of geocoded Demographic and Health Surveys data, collected before and after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, with spatial data on variation in the earthquake’s destruction. Our findings indicate that exposure to earthquake devastation increased the probability of both physical and sexual IPV one to two years following the disaster. These increases were accompanied by substantial changes in family functioning, the household economy, and women’s access to their social networks. Select household-level experiences during and after the earthquake, such as displacement, were also positively associated with IPV. These findings provide new insights into the multidimensional effects of disasters on family life and have important theoretical and policy implications that extend beyond the particular case of Haiti.

  6. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  7. The need for control, safety and trust in healthcare: A qualitative study among adolescents and young adults exposed to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen-Nooijens, Karin A W L; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Prins, Judith B; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2017-06-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYA) exposed to family violence are in need of professional healthcare. However, only one-third of them seek professional help. This study investigates healthcare needs of twelve AYA exposed to family violence. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews using purposive sampling to reach diversity. Open thematic coding was used to identify the most important themes. Participants experienced emotional problems, distrusted others and felt unsafe as an important consequence of their exposure to family violence. All participants expressed a need for help, but as help involved informing others, they considered it unsafe. Trust, safety and control regarding healthcare interventions emerged as vital needs. The anonymity of the Internet was considered as offering safeguards in seeking and receiving help. Trust, safety and control regarding healthcare interventions emerged as vital needs for AYA exposed to family violence. The great importance of being in control of healthcare interventions has not been reported earlier. A personal bond can lower the need for control. To comply with the three basic needs, healthcare providers should grant AYA as much control as possible while still monitoring patient safety. The Internet can be an important resource for offering low-threshold professional and peer support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Narratives of Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Second wave feminists in Australia brought the social issue of domestic violence out of the suburban shadows and into the activist and policy spotlight in the 1970s. Subsequent feminist-inspired law reforms around domestic violence included the introduction of state domestic violence order regimes in the 1980s, and amendments to the Family Law Act 1975 (Cth) in 1995 to specify family violence as one of the matters to be taken into account by the Family Court in\\ud determining the best interes...

  9. The Harper Government's New Right Neoliberal Agenda and the Dismantling of Status of Women Canada and the Family Violence Initiative

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    Ruth M Mann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates the Harper government’s 2006 restructuring and effective dismantling of Status of Women Canada and its 2011 take down of the approximate 12,000 volume online library of the federal Family Violence Initiative in relation to two developments. These are the ascendant influence of men’s rights and other antifeminist activism in Canada and globally; and the concurrent rise of a Hayekian-animated New Right neoliberal agenda intent on subordinating civil society and democratic rule to the forces of twenty-first century global capitalism. The paper contends that anti-feminism is among a host of neoconservative forces that the New Right instrumentalizes to augment and advance and its neoliberal agenda. For the New Right, however, the enemy is not gender equality or feminism per se but rather the market inhibiting commitment to social justice that feminism participates in and advances.

  10. Family Violence Exposure and Health Outcomes Among Older African American Women: Do Spirituality and Social Support Play Protective Roles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Family violence (FV), spirituality, and social support are salient psychosocial determinants of health. FV is associated with poor health among older African American women. The effect of spirituality and social support levels on the health of older African American women is unknown. Methods To assess the role of spirituality and social support as culturally relevant determinants of health status for older African American women independent of FV levels, we used a cross-sectional observational study. Two hundred twelve African American women, aged ≥50, were interviewed in two urban primary care practices. The measures used were (1) Family Violence Against Older Women (FVOW) scale, (2) Physical and Mental Composite Scores of the Short-Form 8® scale, (3) Medical Outcomes of Social Support survey (MOSS), and (4) Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Spearman correlation coefficients estimated to test associations among lifetime FV exposure, spirituality, social support, and health status outcomes and multivariate regression models were used to examine the independent effect of spirituality and social support on physical and mental health status, controlling for FV and significant demographic variables. Results Mean participant age was 63.9 years. Higher spirituality levels were significantly associated with better physical health status after adjusting for FV levels and demographic factors (F = 6.17, p = 0.0001). Similarly, higher levels of spirituality and social support both significantly correlated with better mental health status in the multivariate model (F = 13.45, p < 0.0001) that controlled for lifetime FV levels and demographic factors. Conclusions Spirituality and social support are two potentially modifiable determinants of health for older African American women. Culturally appropriate mechanisms to enhance social support and spirituality levels need to be explored as potential inteventions to improve the health of those

  11. Football and family violence: Learning from the experience of Great Britain

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    Zalcmane K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to analyse the methodological issues of the study of criminologist Dr. Stuart Kirby (Lancaster University on the link between the football game and domestic violence committed by football fans. The mentioned above study at the moment is one of a kind in Europe. The author assumes, the similar research should be held in Latvia and any other European country as well, as understanding the primary reason of a crime can lead to the most appropriate intervention to reduce or remove it. For that reason, the analysis of the prospective advantages and disadvantages of the Dr. Kirby research are presented in this article.

  12. Integrating Intimate Partner Violence Screening and Counseling in a Family Planning Clinic: Evaluation of a Pilot Project in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Delamou, Alexandre; Traore, Pernamou; Diallo, Fatoumata Guilinty; Millimono, Sita; Camara, Bienvenu Salim; Laffe, Kira; Verani, Fabio; Tolliver, Maimouna

    2016-06-01

    Few programs exist to address Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in Guinea. In 2014, Engender Health, in partnership with the local health authorities in Conakry, Guinea, piloted an integrated approach to IPV screening and counseling, within an existing family planning clinic. This article describes both the process of formulating and implementing this approach, as well as the results of an evaluation of the program. From January to June of 2014, Engender Health staff trained midwives at the Conakry International Planned Parenthood Federation family planning clinic staff in screening and counseling client for IPV. Program evaluators used project records, interview with program staff (n=3), midwives (n=3) and client exit interviews (n=53) to measure the outcomes of this pilot project. Regardless of their IPV status, clients appreciated having a venue in which to discuss IPV. Program staff also felt empowered by the additional training and support for IPV screening. The evaluation yielded valuable suggestions for improvement, including more time for staff training and mock client interview practice, additional skills in counseling, and stronger referral links for women who screen positive for IPV. Integrating IPV screening into family planning services is an important and feasible method for reaching vulnerable women with IPV services.

  13. Intra-familial physical violence among Mexican and Egyptian youth Violência física intra-familiar entre jovens mexicanos e egípcios

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    Leonor Rivera-Rivera

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of experiencing intra-familial violence among Mexican and Egyptian youth and to describe its associated risk factors. METHODS: Data from questionnaires applied to 12,862 Mexican and 5,662 Egyptian youth, aged 10 to 19, who attended public schools were analyzed. Biviarate and logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between socio-demographics, the experience of intra-familial violence and violence perpetration. RESULTS: The prevalence of having experienced intra-familial violence was comparable across the Mexican and Egyptian populations (14% and 17%, respectively. In Mexico, young men were more likely to have experienced such violence (OR=2.36 than women, whereas in Egypt, young women were at slightly greater risk than young men (OR=1.25. Older age, male gender and urban residence were independent correlates of experiencing intra-familial violence among Mexican youth. For Egyptian adolescents, in contrast, younger age, female gender and having non-married parents were independent correlates of victimization. Intra-familial violence victims were also more likely than non-victims to perpetrate violence (Mexico: OR=13.13; Egypt: OR=6.58. CONCLUSIONS: Mexican and Egyptian youth experienced intra-familial violence at a relatively low prevalence when compared with youth of other countries. A strong association was found between experiencing intra-familial violence and perpetrating violence.OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência da violência intra-familiar sofrida por jovens mexicanos e egípcios, e descrever os fatores de risco associados. MÉTODOS: Os dados analisados foram obtidos de questionários aplicados a 12.862 mexicanos e 5.662 egípcios, jovens de 10 a 19 anos, que freqüentam escolas públicas. O relacionamento entre fatores sociodemográficos, a violência sofrida e sua perpetração foram investigados por meio de análise bivariada e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A

  14. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Roles of Family Factors and Relationship Dynamics on Dating Violence Victimization and Perpetration Among College Men and Women in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2016-03-27

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Furthermore, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The roles of family factors and relationship dynamics on dating violence victimization and perpetration among college men and women in emerging adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paat, Yok-Fong; Markham, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the International Dating Violence Study, this study examined the roles of early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics factors on physical aggression in dating among U.S. college students in emerging adulthood. The interaction effects between these three domains of interest (early socialization, family social structure, and relationship dynamics) were explored to understand the underlying mechanisms that influenced victimization and perpetration in dating. In general, we found that family and relational variables associated with dating victimization and perpetration were fairly similar. Among the early socialization variables, experience of childhood neglect and having witnessed domestic violence were significantly related to victimization and perpetration. Living in a two-parent household appeared to exert a protective effect, although associations with parental education were not statistically significant. Further, the participants were more likely to experience victimization or impose aggression in dating relationships which were characterized by conflicts, distress, dominance, or psychological aggression. Overall, for the participants who came from a two-parent household, dominance in dating was linked to less violence. When the participants faced higher levels of psychological aggression, adverse early socialization factors were associated with higher levels of dating violence victimization and perpetration. Research and practice implications were discussed. PMID:27021738

  17. The trailing trials of humiliation: Legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumuda Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, violence within the home is universal across culture, religion, class, and ethnicity. Despite its widespread prevalence, such violence is not customarily acknowledged and has remained invisible-a problem thought unworthy of legal or political attention. The social construction of the divide between public and private life underlies the major problem of addressing the hidden nature of domestic violence against women. Legal jurisprudence has historically considered the domain of the house to be within the control and unquestionable authority of the male head of household. Thus, acts of violence against members of the household, whether wife or child, were perceived as discipline and essential for maintaining the rule of authority within the family. Except for sensational cases, the fear of social isolation and inhibition has caused the insidious everyday violence experienced by huge numbers of women to be hidden in the private domain. In this review, we make an attempt towards briefing the legal, social, and medical perspectives of women facing domestic violence.

  18. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  19. [Perceptions and attitudes of public health service dentists in the face of family violence in 24 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 2013-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Rovida, Tânia Adas Saliba; Costa, Adriana Alves; Garbin, Artênio José Isper

    2016-01-01

    to describe the perceptions and attitudes of dentists working in Primary Healthcare Units in the face of family violence in 24 municipalities in the interior of São Paulo state, Brazil. this is a descriptive study conducted between July 2013 and July 2014; the study population was comprised of 294 professionals; data were collected through a questionnaire containing objective and subjective questions. 111 dentists took part (37.8%), 67.5% of whom were unaware of existing legislation on cases of violence; 70.0% did not know how to report the occurrence of cases; 55.0% reported not having any responsibility for notification; 85.0% were unaware of the notification form; and 60.0% said they should intervene in cases of family violence. the perceptions and attitudes of dentists have shortcomings in relation to notification of family violence and this hinders early diagnosis of the victims of such violence.

  20. Conjugal violence in the perspective of "Family Health Strategy" professionals: a public health problem and the need to provide care for the women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-01-01

    Objective to construct a theoretical matrix based on the meanings of the interactions and actions experienced by the professionals regarding the nursing care practices and the health of women in situations of conjugal violence in the ambit of the Family Health Strategy. Methods research based in Grounded Theory. Following approval by the Research Ethics Committee, 52 professionals were interviewed in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The analysis was based on open, axial and selective codifications. Results the theoretical model was delimited based on the phenomenon "Recognizing conjugal violence as a public health problem, and the need for management of the care for the woman", which reflects the experience of the professionals in relation to care for the woman, as well as the meanings attributed to this care. Conclusions the phenomenon allows one to understand the movement of action and interaction regarding the care for the woman in a situation of conjugal violence. PMID:24553706

  1. Conjugal violence in the perspective of "Family Health Strategy" professionals: a public health problem and the need to provide care for the women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirlene Pereira Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to construct a theoretical matrix based on the meanings of the interactions and actions experienced by the professionals regarding the nursing care practices and the health of women in situations of conjugal violence in the ambit of the Family Health Strategy. METHODS: research based in Grounded Theory. Following approval by the Research Ethics Committee, 52 professionals were interviewed in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The analysis was based on open, axial and selective codifications. RESULTS: the theoretical model was delimited based on the phenomenon "Recognizing conjugal violence as a public health problem, and the need for management of the care for the woman", which reflects the experience of the professionals in relation to care for the woman, as well as the meanings attributed to this care. CONCLUSIONS: the phenomenon allows one to understand the movement of action and interaction regarding the care for the woman in a situation of conjugal violence.

  2. Conjugal violence in the perspective of "Family Health Strategy" professionals: a public health problem and the need to provide care for the women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-01-01

    to construct a theoretical matrix based on the meanings of the interactions and actions experienced by the professionals regarding the nursing care practices and the health of women in situations of conjugal violence in the ambit of the Family Health Strategy. research based in Grounded Theory. Following approval by the Research Ethics Committee, 52 professionals were interviewed in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The analysis was based on open, axial and selective codifications. the theoretical model was delimited based on the phenomenon "Recognizing conjugal violence as a public health problem, and the need for management of the care for the woman", which reflects the experience of the professionals in relation to care for the woman, as well as the meanings attributed to this care. the phenomenon allows one to understand the movement of action and interaction regarding the care for the woman in a situation of conjugal violence.

  3. THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVCA Lucia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Any form of domestic violence leaves its mark on minority's personality forma¬tion and generates dysfunctions in the behavioral, cognitive and emotional sphere. The study found that in the modern family up to 30% of children suffer from physical violence and up to 45% by psychological violence. Sexual violence, unlike other forms of violence, is more difficult to discover. It has more dramatic consequences and re¬quires a longer time for psychological recovery. In this study, are described a few cases of sexual violence in the family literally

  4. How family conflict moderates the relationship between media violence and adolescents' aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, K.M.; Piotrowski, J.; Weeda, W.D.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the joint effect of violent media exposure and family conflict on adolescents’ aggression using data from a longitudinal study with 499 Dutch 10- to 14-year-olds. High violent media exposure in combination with high family conflict was expected to lead to increased levels of

  5. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  6. Peer Modelling of Classroom Violence and Family Structure: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniveton, Bromley H.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which family background (number of siblings and birth order) interacts with a willingness to copy aggressive behavior of others among 36 boys between 60 and 68 months old. Concludes that those from larger families were more willing aggressors and that birth order did not affect imitation. (JDH)

  7. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.

  8. [Strengthening the capacity of reference in response to violence in society and within the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, G J

    2003-05-01

    Results of longitudinal studies in developmental psychology have shown the importance of protective factors especially within high risk samples for adaptive development as they serve as puffers against many risks. An outstanding protective factor is a secure parent-child attachment relationship. This article outlines the different ways how attachment relationships can serve as protective mechanisms and especially how disorganized attachment relationships are leading to maladaptation and hostile attitudes and behaviors. In doing so it underscores the special importance of attachment experiences in early infancy. The concept of attachment relationship is described as opposed to the bonding concept with regard to its implications for practice. One of the first is to intervene early. In the final part the evidence based early intervention program "STEEP" is described as an application of attachment research on a poverty sample and as a response to violence.

  9. Psychopathology, Personal and Relationship Problems in Men Who Enact Family Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determing psychopathology and personal and relationship problems in violent husband. Materials & Methods: In this cross – sectional study 230 male were selected through a multi clustral sampling from four different regions of Tehran. Then they completed Conflict Tactics Scales-2, personal and relationship Profile and Symptoms Check list-90-Revised. Based on their response to Conflict Tactics Scales-2, they were devided in to two groups. Then the psychopathological profile and personal and Relationship problems were compaired. Results: Psychopathology, personal and relationshoip Profile were drawn. It showed that violence is associated with Psychopathology and excessive personal and relationship problems in violent husband (P&le0/05. Conclusion: Violent husband in compare with nonviolent husband have more severe psychological symptomathology and more personal and relationship problems.

  10. Construction of linkage maps in full-sib families of diploid outbreeding species by minimising the number of recombinations in hidden inheritance vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the construction of linkage maps by means of the reconstruction of hidden inheritance vectors. An inheritance vector provides a description of the origin of marker alleles in an individual in terms of a binary code indicating the grandparental origin of the alleles. The

  11. 78 FR 61811 - National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-04

    ... National Domestic Violence Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... response to domestic violence has greatly improved. What was too often seen as a private matter best hidden... domestic violence homicides and improved training for police, prosecutors, and advocates. Yet we must do...

  12. Sociology of Hidden Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the concept of hidden curriculum in the sociological theories and wants to explain sociological aspects of formation of hidden curriculum. The main question concentrates on the theoretical approaches in which hidden curriculum is explained sociologically.For this purpose it was applied qualitative research methodology. The relevant data include various sociological concepts and theories of hidden curriculum collected by the documentary method. The study showed a set of rules, procedures, relationships and social structure of education have decisive role in the formation of hidden curriculum. A hidden curriculum reinforces by existed inequalities among learners (based on their social classes or statues. There is, in fact, a balance between the learner's "knowledge receptions" with their "inequality proportion".The hidden curriculum studies from different major sociological theories such as Functionalism, Marxism and critical theory, Symbolic internationalism and Feminism. According to the functionalist perspective a hidden curriculum has a social function because it transmits social values. Marxists and critical thinkers correlate between hidden curriculum and the totality of social structure. They depicts that curriculum prepares learners for the exploitation in the work markets. Symbolic internationalism rejects absolute hegemony of hidden curriculum on education and looks to the socialization as a result of interaction between learner and instructor. Feminism theory also considers hidden curriculum as a vehicle which legitimates gender stereotypes.

  13. Gender-based violence in the Spanish cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz OGANDO DÍAZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena are hardly understood from one single viewpoint. Cinema has a polyhedral approach that discloses the hidden faces of reality. There are many aspects to be shown in gender?based violence (GBV, such as its genesis and the causes of its durability; emotional abuse in the form of controlling behaviors, isolation and submission; and the consequences of all this. The range of operation for GBV is very wide (within the couple, in the family and the workplace, institutional and community?based, among others, as much as it is universal, cutting across social class, race, economic status, religion or nationality. Movies may prove useful in revealing violent male?chauvinist behaviors, some of them so deeply rooted in societies that they tend to become normalized and to go unnoticed. In spite of the efforts towards visibility, and understanding and stopping violence against women, the phenomenon remains largely unknown. The movie industry is now beginning to reflect it in motion pictures, sometimes in a more explicit or argumentative manner, at other times more covertly or obliquely. We have made a selection of ten Spanish movies depicting some of these multiple facets: violence against women in the domestic domain, sexual violence, and violence related to economic and sociocultural aspects.

  14. Violência contra a mulher, coesão familiar e drogas Violence against women, family cohesion and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Moreira Rabello

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre coesão, adaptabilidade e risco mental familiar com violência física contra a mulher e uso de drogas. MÉTODOS: Estudo tipo caso-controle pareado realizado entre 2004 e 2005 na cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba. A amostra foi constituída por 260 mulheres, divididas em 130 agredidas e 130 não agredidas. O grupo caso foi constituído de mulheres que prestaram queixa por agressão física doméstica na Delegacia Especializada da Mulher. O grupo controle foi pareado com mulheres vizinhas de bairro das vítimas queixosas na Delegacia. A coesão, a adaptabilidade e o risco mental foram avaliados pela escala Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales. Na análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Os dois grupos se comportaram de forma diferente em relação ao risco mental e coesão, mas semelhantes quanto à adaptabilidade familiar (p=0,0917. As mulheres agredidas apresentaram risco mental alto (43,1% e médio (39,2%, diferentemente das não agredidas (p=0,0016, que apresentaram médio risco (55,4%. Houve diferença significativa entre os dois grupos para o uso de drogas, com consumo maior nas famílias das mulheres agredidas (90,8% do que das não agredidas (56,9%. A droga mais utilizada foi o álcool, sendo o mais alto fator de risco para a agressão, quando consumido diariamente (OR=37,33 ou associado a outra droga (OR=29,56. CONCLUSÕES: O desequilíbrio pela falta de união entre a família e o uso de drogas altera decisivamente no funcionamento familiar, podendo gerar conflitos e agressões domésticas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between cohesion, adaptability and mental risk in families, physical violence against women and the use of drugs. METHODS: Data for this paired case-control study was collected in 2004 and 2005 in the city of Joao Pessoa, in Northeastern Brazil. The sample included 260 women

  15. Mentor mother support for mothers experiencing intimate partner violence in family practice: A qualitative study of three different perspectives on the facilitators and barriers of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, Maartje J W; Daemen, Jasper; Wester, Fred P J F; Laurant, Miranda G H; Lo Fo Wong, Sylvie H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2017-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is highly prevalent and associated with physical and mental health problems. Mentor mother support is a low threshold intervention in family practice consisting of support by non-professionals trained to support mothers experiencing IPV. A mentor mother support study showed reduced exposure to IPV and decreased symptoms of depression. Identify factors determining implementation success of mentor mother support in family practice. Individual interviews were conducted with 12 family physicians, 16 abused mothers and three mentor mothers. Four mentor mothers participated in a focus group. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The identification and discussion of abuse is hindered by family physicians' attitudes because they considered mothers experiencing IPV as a difficult target group with a responsibility of their own to break out of their violent situation. Some family physicians doubted the partner's violence because he was known as a patient as well. Acceptance of mentor mother support is related to the readiness for change of mothers experiencing IPV. Mentor mothers facilitate acceptance and completion of their support by connecting as a friend who is equal and less threatening than professionals. To improve successful implementation of mentor mother support in primary care, we should focus on family physicians' attitudes towards IPV. To change these attitudes, we recommend continuous training of family physicians. By being paraprofessional friends, mentor mothers offer low threshold support that is complementary to professional support and should be embedded more widely in primary care. [Box: see text].

  16. Father's and Mother's Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene

    2011-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…

  17. Families in vulnerable territory and reasons for not using drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Henrique de Lazari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the reasons for the non-use of drugs by members of families exposed to risk factors for use, for living in a territory with high drug circulation. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, using the Hidden Population reference to access the vulnerable and inaccessible populationand the Respondent Driven Sampling to reach the "hidden" population. The reference chain consisted of 90 families and we processed their responses by thematic content analysis, resulting in three themes: family interaction, religiosity and intrinsic factors and reasons for non-use of drugs; networks of support and interaction influencing the non-use of drugs; and occupational and educational factors and the distance from the daily life of drugs. Even in a neighborhood permeated by trafficking and violence, we identified protective factors and families whose members had never used drugs.

  18. The old Polish family and the threat of violence and lawlessness [Rodzina staropolska wobec zagrożenia przemocą i bezprawiem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan RYŚ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Old Polish family was threatened with violence and lawlessness on a scale unimaginable to modern man. On the one hand, these threats were the result of constant wars that carried conflagration, looting and the specter of slavery. On the other hand, specific understanding of justice by the nobility and assertion of their rights using military measures against their neighbors were the reason the wars were sometimes more violent and onerous than armed conflict. Old Polish family was also destroyed from the inside, usually through violence from the father, who in a patriarchal model had unlimited power, which was often abused in cruel and ruthless way. The only remedy was the law, but Old Polish system of justice lacked effective enforcement of the sentence, which gave the criminals a sense of impunity and the victims – despair and helplessness.

  19. Poverty, violence, and family disorganization: Three "Hydras" and their role in children's street movement in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Hasan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of children running away from home in Bangladesh is a major concern, and in need of critical attention. This yearlong study explores why children leave home with a sample of street children in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Purposive sampling from three locations in Dhaka yielded a sample of 75 homeless children aged 10-17. For each participant, a 60-90min in-depth qualitative interview was conducted multiple times. While the dominant explanations rely on poverty or abuse, the findings of this study reveal that the cause is actually three heads of a Hydra monster: poverty, abuse, and family disorganization and their interactions. It shows that the primary reasons for children breaking from their family are all interrelated. The findings from this study are likely to add knowledge regarding the issues and may lead to preventative interventions for street children and their families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    Citizenship and Political Violence in Peru recounts the hidden history of how local processes of citizen formation in an Andean town were persistently overruled from the nineteenth century on, thereby perpetuating antagonism toward the Peruvian state and political centralism. The analysis points...... violence in the 1980s. The book builds on the detailed study of a unique municipal archive in Tarma and ethnographic research from both before and after the violence....

  1. Husband's Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Family Maltreatment of Low-Income Postpartum Women in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jennifer A; Donta, Balaiah; Ritter, Julie; Naik, D D; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2018-07-01

    Husbands' alcohol use has been associated with family-level stress and intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in India. Joint family systems are common in India and IPV often co-occurs with non-violent family maltreatment of wives (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care). Alcohol use increases for some parents following the birth of a child. This study examined 1,038 postpartum women's reports of their husbands' alcohol use and their own experiences of IPV (by husband) and non-violent maltreatment from husbands and/or in-laws. We analyzed cross-sectional, quantitative data collected in 2008, from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants Mumbai, India. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models estimated associations between the independent variable (husbands' past month use of alcohol) and two dependent variables (postpartum IPV and maltreatment). Overall, 15% of husbands used alcohol, ranging from daily drinkers (10%) to those who drank one to two times per week (54%). Prevalence of postpartum IPV and family maltreatment was 18% and 42%, respectively. Prevalence of IPV among women married to alcohol users was 27%. Most abused women's husbands always (27%) or sometimes (37%) drank during violent episodes. Risk for IPV increased with a man's increasing frequency of consumption. Women who lived with a husband who drank alcohol, relative to non-drinkers, were more likely to report postpartum IPV, aOR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [1.3, 3.1]. Husbands' drinking was marginally associated with increased risk for family maltreatment, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI = [1.0, 2.1]. Our findings suggest that men's alcohol use is an important risk factor for postpartum IPV and maltreatment. Targeted services for Indian women contending with these issues are implicated. Postpartum care offers an ideal opportunity to screen for IPV, household maltreatment, and other health risks, such as husband's use of alcohol

  2. Does war contribute to family violence against children? Findings from a two-generational multi-informant study in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saile, Regina; Ertl, Verena; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    After 20 years of civil war in Northern Uganda, the continuity of violence within the family constitutes a major challenge to children's healthy development in the post-conflict era. Previous exposure to trauma and ongoing psychopathology in guardians potentially contribute to parental perpetration against children and dysfunctional interactions in the child's family ecology that increase children's risk of maltreatment. In order to investigate distal and proximal risk factors of child victimization, we first aimed to identify factors leading to more self-reported perpetration in guardians. Second, we examined factors in the child's family environment that promote child-reported experiences of maltreatment. Using a two-generational design we interviewed 368 children, 365 female guardians, and 304 male guardians from seven war-affected rural communities in Northern Uganda on the basis of standardized questionnaires. We found that the strongest predictors of self-reported aggressive parenting behaviors toward the child were guardians' own experiences of childhood maltreatment, followed by female guardians' victimization experiences in their intimate relationship and male guardians' posttrautmatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and alcohol-related problems. Regarding children's self-report of victimization in the family, proximal factors including violence between adults in the household and male guardians' PTSD symptom severity level predicted higher levels of maltreatment. Distal variables such as female guardians' history of childhood victimization and female guardians' exposure to traumatic war events also increased children's report of maltreatment. The current findings suggest that in the context of organized violence, an intergenerational cycle of violence persists that is exacerbated by female guardians' re-victimization experiences and male guardians' psychopathological symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  4. How many Slovenian family practice attendees are victims of intimate partner violence? A re-evaluation cross-sectional study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selic, Polona; Svab, Igor; Gucek, Nena Kopcavar

    2013-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) can be considered a leading public health problem affecting approximately 50% of women during the course of their lifetimes. This study was carried out with the aim of re-testing the prevalence data and providing sufficient grounds for decision-makers in family medicine in Slovenia to adopt much-needed protocols for IPV management in the field. In January 2012, every tenth general practitioner (GP) registered in Slovenia, of a total of 958, was invited to participate in a multi-centre cross-sectional study, and 9.4% of them, working in 90 family practices, agreed to participate. From February 1 to March 1, 2012, they asked every fifth family practice attendee aged 18 years and above, regardless of gender, to participate in the study. The short version of Domestic Violence Exposure Questionnaire was administered to 2572 patients. In the sample, there were more women (62.9% (n = 1617)). The average age of all the participants was 49.0 ± 16.1 years. Of 2572 participants (95.3% response rate), 17.1% people had been exposed to either emotional or both physical and emotional abuse. The prevalence of psychological violence was 10.3%, and that of concurrent physical and psychological abuse 6.8%, with all the patients exposed to physical IPV disclosing concurrent psychological violence. Female gender and previous formal divorce were risk factors identified in all three multivariate logistic regression models. The odds of concurrent physical and psychological and either type of IPV exposure in patients were lessened by an age of 65 years or above. The odds for either type of IPV were also lower in single people, while in concurrent physical and psychological IPV exposure, living in urban settings acted as a protective factor. In Slovenian family practice attendees, an IPV exposure prevalence of approximately 17% should be considered a valid estimation.

  5. [Prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women from 20 to 35 years in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Sánchez, Paulina; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela; Nuño-Donlucas, María Olimpia; Sahagún-Cuevas, Minerva Natalia; Hernández-Calderón, Jéssica; Ramírez-Ramos, Joana Kareli

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women is one of the most important health problems in recent times. In Mexico, it is reported a prevalence of 21.5% during pregnancy; however, it seems to be underdiagnosed. The objective is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women from 20 to 35 years at the Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) 171 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). It was performed a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 102 pregnant women to which we applied a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (ISVP). 19 women (18.6%) suffered violence; of these, 10.8% (n=11) experienced physical violence, 5.9% (n=6) psychological violence, and 4% (n=4) sexual violence. We used chi squared between the variable violence and each of the sociodemographic factors: 52.6% women (n=10) were married (p=0.005), 26.3% (n=5) had a bachelor's degree (p=0.074), 57.8% (n=11) had planned their pregnancy, 47.3% (n=9) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 78.95% (n=15) worked as laborers, shop-keepers or professionals (p=0.016). Among pregnant women belonging in UMF 171 of IMSS, domestic violence is a problem with a prevalence of 18.6%.

  6. Epistemologies of Discomfort: What Military-Family Anti-War Activists Can Teach Us About Knoweldge of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Stone-Mediatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends feminist critiques of epistemic authority by examining their particular relevance in contexts of institutionalized violence. By reading feminist criticism of "experts" together with theories of institutionalized violence, I argue that typical expert modes of thinking are incapable of rigorous knowledge of institutionalized violence because such knowledge requires a distinctive kind of thinking-within-discomfort for which conventionally trained experts are ill-suited. I turn to a newly active group of epistemic agents-anti-war relatives of soldiers-to examine the role that undervalued epistemic traits can play in knowledge of war and other forms of structural violence.

  7. 78 FR 23263 - Standing Funding Opportunity Announcement for Family Violence Prevention and Services Grants to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... and group counseling, peer support groups, and referral to community-based services to assist family..., including age- appropriate counseling, supportive services, and services for the nonabusing parent that... dependents, for short-term, transitional, or long-term safety; and Provide counseling, advocacy, or...

  8. Parental Criminality, Family Violence and Intergenerational Transmission of Crime Within a Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junger, Marianne; Greene, J.; Schipper, R.; Hesper, F.; Estourgie, V.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies documented that crime is heavily concentrated in families. However, many studies relied on relatively small samples, often males and information on criminal involvement was self-reported. The present study investigates: (1) the prevalence of arrests in three generations; (2) the

  9. Family Law Proceedings, Domestic Violence and the Impact upon School: A Neglected Area of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Maria; Bruno, Linnea; Nasman, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to open up a discussion about an unexplored area of children's lives at school. While there has been considerable discussion of issues about child protection and the cooperation between school and social services in that context, studies on the intersection between school and family law proceedings seem virtually…

  10. The Effects of Violence and Aggression From Parents on Child Protection Workers’ Personal, Family, and Professional Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Littlechild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings from a survey of the experiences of child protection workers in England when working with parents who exhibit aggression and violence. This work explores the effects on workers in their professional lives, and on themselves and their families in their private lives. The article examines workers’ thoughts and experiences about the effects of parental hostility on workers’ ability to protect children. The article also details workers’ experiences of the nature and effectiveness of training and support in this area. These findings are then examined in the light of the results of an analysis of the literature, including the findings from serious case review (SCR reports in England (official inquiries into the causes of child deaths where the children are known to social and health services. The majority of the 590 respondents in the survey were social workers (n = 402; 68%, reflecting the fact that case management of child protection cases in the United Kingdom is the responsibility of social workers working in statutory agencies. This article addresses, from a consideration of the secondary analysis and the original research findings from the survey, how individual workers, managers, and agencies can best understand and then respond effectively to aggressive parental behaviors.

  11. The mother who cannot provide liberation: family atom analysis of women victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Guglielmin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents the discussion about the analysis carried out on family atoms that were completed in the first psychodrama group meetings carried out in all the Empower Daphne III program partner countries. The issue of the relationship with the mother is central to the aim of the project, in that we hypothesise that the mothers of victims are incapable of educating their daughters about personal autonomy in relation to men, due to the traditional culture in which they grew up in. The article presents information about the use and processing of the survey tool “Family atom ” created by Jacob Moreno and the analysis of the data that emerged in parallel to the reports sent periodically by the psychodramatists to the monitoring and analysis team. From the results three types of maternal relationships emerge (positive, negative and incongruent that enable us to confirm the initial hypothesis of this action research.

  12. The sound of barking dogs: violence and terror among Salvadoran families in the postwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia

    2002-12-01

    This article examines the transgenerational transmission of trauma among campensino living in a rural, repopulated community in El Salvador. Research with Holocaust survivors and their children has shown that traumatic symptoms can be transmitted to children who did not directly experience the Holocaust. The mechanisms by which this transgenerational transmission occurs have not been fully explored and require an expansion of medical and anthropological conceptualizations of posttraumatic illness. Through their reactions to and interpretations of everyday events, campesino parents who lived in the guerrilla camps explicitly transmit trauma to children who did not experience the recent civil war. Illness narratives by sufferers of nervios transmit trauma and point to the basic immorality of the war, an immorality that continues today. In addition, the symptoms of nervios constitute a mechanism by which trauma is implicitly transmitted. Symptoms of nervios point to what generally is not and, indeed, cannot be voiced: the destruction of primary relationships in the family and unresolved grief and helplessness, which, through the responses of family members to the sufferer, are reproduced and reenacted in the present family context.

  13. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  14. The association between intimate partner domestic violence and the food security status of poor families in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; da Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2016-05-01

    To assess the association between physical intimate partner violence and household food security within households with schoolchildren. Cross-sectional study. Salvador, Bahia, north-eastern Brazil. The study was conducted in 1019 households with students. Violence between couples was evaluated using the Portuguese version of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), previously adapted and validated for use in Brazil. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS) was used to identify food insecurity. We also obtained socio-economic information for each participant. We used multivariate Poisson regression to assess the associations of interest. According to the results of the BFIS, 62·5% of the households were found to experience food insecurity, including 19·5% moderate food insecurity and 6·5% severe food insecurity. The prevalence of minor physical violence was 9·6% (95% CI 7·8, 11·4%) and of severe physical violence was 4·7% (95% CI 3·4, 6·0%) among the couples. In the final multivariate model, it was found that couples reporting minor (prevalence ratio=1·23; 95% CI 1·12, 1·35) and severe (prevalence ratio=1·16; 95% CI 1·00, 1·34) physical violence were more likely to be experiencing household food insecurity, compared with those not reporting physical violence. Physical intimate partner violence was associated with food insecurity of households. The present study brings new data to the subject of the role of violence in the context of food insecurity.

  15. Political Violence and Child Adjustment: Longitudinal Tests of Sectarian Antisocial Behavior, Family Conflict, and Insecurity as Explanatory Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Edward M.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of political violence on child maladjustment is a matter of international concern. Recent research has advanced a social ecological explanation for relations between political violence and child adjustment. However, conclusions are qualified by the lack of longitudinal tests. Toward examining pathways longitudinally,…

  16. Fear of the Loss of Honor: Implications of Honor-Based Violence for the Development of Youth and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedem, Mina; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence committed against young women, and in some cases young men, who are considered to have violated honor-based norms are reported in several countries, making honor-based violence (HBV) a global concern. This article is an overview of research in this area and summarizes key findings from a Swedish program of research dedicated…

  17. Violencia intrafamiliar, realidad de la mujer latinoamericana Intra-family violence, a reality of Latin-American woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Espinosa Morales

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la aparición de la violencia intrafamiliar hacia la mujer latinoamericana como fenómeno que trasciende las barreras culturales, religiosas y sociales, que exige una transformación y pronto accionar por los sistemas nacionales de salud, pues ocupa en la actualidad un lugar importante dentro de los problemas de la salud pública; para solucionarlo es indispensable conocerlo y realizar acciones en su prevención y control. Se muestra cómo está adquiriendo auge en las diferentes sociedades. Se reconocen sus diferentes clasificaciones según contexto, y se evalúan los diferentes modelos teóricos que tratan de explicar esta realidad sociocultural, con el objetivo profundizar sobre el tema y contribuir, de esta forma, a ampliar el conocimiento de todo el personal de las ciencias médicas en esa arista del saber. Tratar el gran problema de la violencia intrafamiliar condujo a indagar sobre su origen y tratar de resolver las interrogantes de cómo enfrentarla, prevenirla y erradicarla, y llegar a ser agentes de cambio que fomenten la salud estilos de vida saludables.The intra-family violence to Latin-American woman is analyzed like a phenomenon going beyond the cultural, religious and social barriers, demanding a transformation and a fast action by part of the national health systems, since it has nowadays an important place within the public health problems and for its solution it is necessary to know it and to carried out actions for prevention and control. It is demonstrated how this problem is increasing in the different societies. The different classifications of this problem are recognized according to the context and we assessed the different theoretical models trying to explain this sociocultural reality to deepen on the subject and to contribute in this way, to develop the knowledge of all the medical sciences staff in this area. Approaching of this serious problem of intrafamily violence leads to investigate on its origin and

  18. [Children, television and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  19. Understanding Youth Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...

  20. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.