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Sample records for hidden causative factor

  1. Backward causation, hidden variables and the meaning of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bell's theorem requires the assumption that hidden variables are independent of future measurement settings. This independence assumption rests on surprisingly shaky ground. In particular, it is puzzlingly time-asymmetric. The paper begins with a summary of the case for considering hidden variable models which, ...

  2. Backward causation, hidden variables and the meaning of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bell's theorem requires the assumption that hidden variables are independent of future measurement settings. This independence assumption rests on surprisingly shaky ground. In partic- ular, it is puzzlingly time-asymmetric. The paper begins with a summary of the case for considering hidden variable models ...

  3. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women ... Cerebral Aneurysms 7 Types of Aphasia 8 Brain Stem Stroke 9 Cognitive Challenges After Stroke 10 Personality ...

  4. Bacterial Keratitis: Risk Factors and Causative Agents | Bataineh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: to describe the clinical, microbiological characteristics and risk factors of. Bacterial Keratitis at Prince Zeid and Rashed ... Offending organisms were isolated in 17(50%) cases only. Pseudomonas in 10(58.8%) cases ... Pseudomonas was the major causative organism. Proper sampling and microbiological ...

  5. Causative factors and rehabilitation of patellar tendinopathy: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanell Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellar tendinopathy (PT is a common chronic pathology of the knee, with a high prevalence in athletes and the general population.Objectives: The objectives of this article were to systematically investigate all the evidence applicable to the intrinsic and extrinsic causative factors and rehabilitation of PT, and then integrate and link rehabilitation with the main causative factors identified.Method: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Various tools were used to evaluate the methodological quality of the eligible articles. Data were interpreted descriptively, and the causative factors and rehabilitation of PT were analysed.Results: Twenty studies were included in the review. The distinctive factor responsible for PT is the mechanical theory. Seven intrinsic and four extrinsic risk factors were identified, with the main intrinsic risk factors being muscle flexibility and strength, and extrinsic risk factors being acquisition and level of skills. PT can be treated with numerous different therapeutic modalities, although eccentric muscle training showed exceptional results. The intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors can only be transformed and reduced by rehabilitation, which is inevitable to improve PT pain and function.Conclusion: The essence of an integrated management protocol for PT is to identify the dominant contributing factors, whether intrinsic or extrinsic, and to reduce the load on the patellar tendon by modifying these factors by either rehabilitation intervention or direct modification of the equipment or environment to obtain a positive outcome towards pain management and function.

  6. Human factors in the causation of road traffic crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, E; Moustaki, M

    2000-01-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are responsible for a substantial fraction of morbidity and mortality and are responsible for more years of life lost than most of human diseases. In this review, we have tried to delineate behavioral factors that collectively represent the principal cause of three out of five RTCs and contribute to the causation of most of the remaining. Although sharp distinctions are not always possible, a classification of behavioral factors is both necessary and feasible. Thus, behavioral factors can be distinguished as (i) those that reduce capability on a long-term basis (inexperience, aging, disease and disability, alcoholism, drug abuse), (ii) those that reduce capability on a short-term basis (drowsiness, fatigue, acute alcohol intoxication, short term drug effects, binge eating, acute psychological stress, temporary distraction), (iii) those that promote risk taking behavior with long-term impact (overestimation of capabilities, macho attitude, habitual speeding, habitual disregard of traffic regulations, indecent driving behavior, non-use of seat belt or helmet, inappropriate sitting while driving, accident proneness) and (iv) those that promote risk taking behavior with short-term impact (moderate ethanol intake, psychotropic drugs, motor vehicle crime, suicidal behavior, compulsive acts). The classification aims to assist in the conceptualization of the problem that may also contribute to behavior modification-based efforts.

  7. Perceived Role Of Dietary Factors In Cancer Causation And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the relatively high degree of awareness of cancer and acceptance of dietary factors as cancer risk determinants, campaigns which involve skill transfer and removal of barriers to change would enhance cancer preventive behaviour among university undergraduate. It is recommended that improvement in health ...

  8. [Inflammation and oxidation: predictive and/or causative factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Viadero, Carlos; Jiménez-Sanz, Magdalena; Fernández-Pérez, Anzu; Verduga Vélez, Rosario; Crespo Santiago, Dámaso

    2016-06-01

    Brain ageing leads to a series of changes that reduce the processes of adaptation and response. These transformations can end in cognitive impairment and/or dementia. Although the cause of these changes is diverse, inflammation and oxidative stress explain some of the pathophysiological mechanisms of these anomalies of brain functioning. Neuroinflammation triggers neuronal injury through the presence of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of microglia through membrane receptors and nuclear activation factors. This neuroinflammatory phenomenon also affects neuron plasticity, altering the genesis and maintenance of long-term potentiation, leading to impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory. Oxidative stress and the production of free oxygen radicals also cause toxic effects in aged brains, largely due to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The identification of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of these events could shed new light on possible therapeutic targets and offer strategies for the prevention of diseases related to brain ageing, cognitive impairment and dementia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Syed Zubair; Qureshi, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As a member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls,…

  10. Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Zubair Haider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the causative factors of child labour in selected districts of South Punjab, Pakistan. As member of the International Labour Organization (ILO Pakistan has a responsibility to stamp out child labour from its regions. Our sample was selected from seven working environments (workshops, hotels, tea stalls, households, etc. through purposive sampling. The data were collected via a questionnaire which was completed by a sample of 547 working children. The findings of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA explored four factors from the research. Multilevel analyses were calculated to pinpoint the causative factors of child labour. The study results revealed that, due to family responsibilities, a lack of educational opportunities for children from low-income families, and increasing poverty, children develop an interest in working to earn their livelihood at the cost of their education. The children are involved in labour because their parents cannot meet their personal and educational requirements.

  11. Causative bacteria and risk factors for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Shinichi; Obata, Yoko; Sato, Shuntaro; Muta, Kumiko; Kitamura, Mineaki; Kawasaki, Satoko; Hirose, Misaki; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Nishino, Tomoya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is beneficial for patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD), there are some critical complications. PD-related peritonitis accounts for about 30% of all cases of catheter removal and transition to hemodialysis. We investigated the incidence, causative bacteria, and risk factors of PD-related peritonitis and peritonitis-related withdrawal in patients treated in the Nagasaki University Hospital. Methods: Subjects were 43 PD patients in the Nagas...

  12. Risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis in daily disposable contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Fiona; Naduvilath, Thomas; Keay, Lisa; Radford, Cherry; Dart, John; Edwards, Katie; Carnt, Nicole; Minassian, Darwin; Holden, Brien

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated independent risk factors and causative organisms in microbial keratitis in daily disposable contact lens (CL)-wearers. A multisite prospective case-control study was undertaken. Cases were daily disposable CL-wearers attending Moorfields Eye Hospital with microbial keratitis and those reported through a one-year surveillance study in Australia and in New Zealand. A population-based telephone survey identified daily disposable CL-wearing controls. Subjects completed a questionnaire describing CL-wear history, hygiene and demographics. The sample used for risk factor analysis was weighted in proportion to the CL-wearing population at each location. Corneal scrape results were accessed. Independent risk factors were determined using multiple binary logistic regression. Causative organisms in different CL-wear modalities were compared using a chi-squared test. 963 daily disposable CL-wearers were identified, from which 67 cases and 374 controls were sampled. Independent risk factors were; wearing CLs every day compared with less frequent use (OR 10.4x; 95% CI 2.9-56.4), any overnight wear (OR 1.8x; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), less frequent hand washing (OR 1.8x; 95% CI 1.6-2.0), and smoking (OR 1.3x; 95% CI 1.1-1.6). Certain daily disposable CLs (OR 0.2x; 95% CI 0.1-0.2) had protective effects. Environmental organisms were less frequently recovered with daily disposable CLs (20%), compared with other modalities (36%; pkeratitis with daily disposable CLs. Risk varied with daily disposable CL type. The profile of causative organisms is consistent with less severe disease.

  13. Causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohu, S.; Halid, A.; Nagapan, S.; Fattah, A.; Latif, I.; Ullah, K.

    2017-11-01

    Cost overrun is an increase of cost of project from approved budget which was signed by parties at the time of tender. Cost overrun in construction of highway projects is a common problem worldwide and construction industry of Pakistan is also facing this crucial problem of cost overrun in highway projects of Pakistan. The main objective of this research is to identify the causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects of Sindh province of Pakistan. A well designed questionnaire was developed based on 64 common factors of cost overrun from literature review. Developed questionnaire was distributed among selected 30 experts from owner/client, designer/consultant and contractor who have experience more than 20 years’ experience in highway projects. The collected data was statistical analyzed. After analysis results showed that delay process in payment by client, inadequate planning, client interference, poor contract management, delay of decision making, change of scope of project and financial problems faced by client were most causative factors of cost overrun in highway projects. This research will provide alertness to stakeholders of highway projects of Sindh province to avoid cost overrun in projects.

  14. Lack of hidden complement fixing IgM rheumatoid factor in adult seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, D L; Moore, T L

    1980-01-01

    IgM rheumatoid factors capable of complement fixation and activation are commonly present in the sera of adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Hidden complement fixing IgM rheumatoid factor has been demonstrated in the majority of patients with juvenile RA and hidden agglutinating IgM rheumatoid factors have been demonstrated in the serum of adults with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 27 adults with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and were unable to demonstrate hidden complement f...

  15. Case-control study of possible causative factors in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuyp, E.; Burgoyne, A.; Aitchison, T.; MacKie, R.

    1987-02-01

    A detailed case control study was carried out on 53 patients (33 males and 20 females) with histologically proven mycosis fungoides and on an age- and sex-matched control population. Possible causative factors investigated included occupation, recreation, and exposure to petrochemicals, pesticides, insecticides, and potential carcinogens. Exposure to plants of the Compositae family, tanning history, and chronic sun exposure were also investigated, as were smoking history, drug ingestion history, and other skin disease. Personal and family histories of other malignancies were also investigated. The only statistically significant difference to emerge was that the patients with mycosis fungoides had significantly more family history of atopic dermatitis. In view of the absence of any significant difference between patients and controls with regard to personal history of atopic dermatitis, this difference may be the result of multiple statistical testing rather than a phenomenon of true biological significance.

  16. Public awareness of human papillomavirus as a causative factor for oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael U; Carr, Michele M; Goldenberg, David

    2015-06-01

    To assess the public's awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a causative factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three-item survey. Local shopping malls and Maxwell Air Force Base in 2012. Respondents were randomly chosen to participate in 23-item survey at various local shopping malls and at Maxwell Air Force Base in 2012. The χ(2) test was used in statistical analysis. The majority of respondents (n = 319) were civilians; 158 were military officer trainees (MOTs). All MOTs had a bachelor's degree or higher, while 37% of civilian respondents had a bachelor's degree or higher. Most MOTs (82%) were aware of oropharyngeal cancer, and 53% of civilians had not heard of oropharyngeal cancer (P < .0001). Most respondents (73% civilian and 91% military) were aware of the association between HPV and cervical cancer. Conversely, 75% of civilian population and 49% of MOTs were not aware of the association between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer (P < .0001). The majority of respondents (61% military and 81% civilian) did not know that both sexes were eligible for HPV vaccine (P < .0001). Most respondents were aware that HPV is a causative agent of cervical cancer. However, the majority were not aware of the association between oropharyngeal cancer and HPV. Furthermore, many respondents were not aware that HPV equally affects males and females and that the vaccine is available for both sexes. This underscores the need to educate the public on the availability of HPV vaccine and the association between HPV and oropharyngeal cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  17. The Pion Form Factor Within the Hidden Local Symmetry Model

    CERN Document Server

    Benayoun, Maurice; DelBuono, L.; Leruste, P.; O'Connell, Heath Bland; Leruste, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze a pion form factor formulation which fulfills the Analyticity requirement within the Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) Model. We show that it implies an $s$--dependent dressing of the $\\rho-\\gamma$ VMD coupling and an account of several coupled channels. The corresponding function $F_\\pi(s)$ provides nice fits of the pion form factor data from $s=-0.25$ to $s=1$ GeV$^2$. It is shown that the coupling to $K \\bar{K}$ has little effects, while $\\omg \\pi^0$ improves significantly the fit quality below the $\\phi$ mass. All parameters, except for the subtraction polynomial coefficients are fixed from the rest of the HLS phenomenology. The fits show consistency with the expected behaviour of $F_\\pi(s)$ at $s=0$ up to ${\\cal O} (s^2)$ and with the phase shift data on $\\delta_1^1(s)$ from threshold to somewhat above the $\\phi$ mass. The $\\omg$ sector is also examined in relation with recent data from CMD--2.

  18. Irregular location of major pectoral muscle can be a causative factor of pectus excavatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Morotomi, Tadaaki; Takano, Naoki; Jiang, Hua; Kishi, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Pectus excavatum-commonly known as funnel chest-is one of the most frequently observed congenital deformities, in which the patients' thoraces present concavity. This paper presents our original hypothesis that the abnormal positioning of the major pectoral muscle can be a potential factor in the occurrence of pectus excavatum, and evaluates the validity of the hypothesis by performing an anatomical and a biomechanical study. An anatomical study on clinical cases revealed that the major pectoral muscle tends to be positioned more superiorly in pectus excavatum patients than in normal persons. The biomechanical study, using three-dimensional finite element dynamic simulation, revealed that the major pectoral muscle functions to elevate the sternum and that the elevating effect is reduced when the muscle is located at superior regions on the thoracic wall. These findings support our hypothesis that the abnormal position of the major pectoral muscle is a potential causative factor for pectus excavatum. This hypothesis suggests that, during surgical correction of pectus excavatum with an open approach, surgeons should reposition the major pectoral muscle to its correct anatomical position to avoid recurrence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Venous reflux on contrast-enhanced head and neck magnetic resonance angiography: Analysis of causative factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Jae; Lee, Eun Ja [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jong Myon [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the causative factors of venous reflux on contrast-enhanced head and neck magnetic resonance angiography. We retrospectively reviewed 150 patients with right-arm injections and 150 patients with left-arm injections. We included the age, gender, body mass index, history of hypertension, and history of diabetes mellitus in the evaluation of all patients. We measured the shortest width of the left or right brachiocephalic vein (BCV), the diameter of the aortic arch, and the distance between the sternum and vertebral body. The relationship between these factors and the venous reflux was analyzed. In patients with venous reflux, we performed qualitative image scoring for suboptimal images. In patients with venous reflux, the image quality of the left-arm injection group was significantly inferior to the image quality of the right-arm injection group. The mean age and the male-to-female ratio of patients with venous reflux were significantly higher than those of patients without venous reflux. In patients receiving the left-arm injection, the mean shortest width of the left BCV was significantly narrower in patients with venous reflux than in patients without venous reflux. A left-arm injection should be avoided, especially in elderly patients, to acquire an optimal image.

  20. Cholesterol as a Causative Factor in Alzheimer Disease: A Debatable Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. Gibson; Li, Ling; Müller, Walter E.; Eckert, Gunter P.

    2014-01-01

    High serum/plasma cholesterol levels have been suggested as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Some reports, mostly retrospective epidemiological studies, have observed a decreased prevalence of AD in patients taking the cholesterol lowering drugs, statins. The strongest evidence causally linking cholesterol to AD is provided by experimental studies showing that adding/reducing cholesterol alters amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) levels. However, there are problems with the cholesterol-AD hypothesis. Cholesterol levels in serum/plasma and brain of AD patients do not support cholesterol as a causative factor in AD. Prospective studies on statins and AD have largely failed to show efficacy. Even the experimental data are open to interpretation given that it is well-established that modification of cholesterol levels has effects on multiple proteins, not only APP and Aβ. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to examine the above-mentioned issues and discuss the pros and cons of the cholesterol-AD hypothesis, and the involvement of other lipids in the mevalonate pathway, such as isoprenoids and oxysterols, in AD. PMID:24329875

  1. Multi-factorial causative model for back pain management; relating causative factors and mechanisms to injury presentations and designing time- and cost effective treatment thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    Back pain resolution has not statistically improved over many years with some literature suggesting chronic back pain to be increasing. From a search of literature on causes, events, mechanisms, factors and treatment for back pain, a model is developed that relates causes of back injury to factors that result in pain through two primary mechanisms; muscle fatigue and muscle/tendon/connective tissue strain or sprain with other main mechanisms being diminished reactivity and strength, changes in tendon/tissue mechanical properties and fear of back pain recurrence/fear of movement following a back pain episode. The model highlights the fact that back pain/injury is multi-factorial with numerous circular relationships. Therefore treatment should also be multi-factorial; a combination of physical and psychological therapy with attention to mechanisms at work or in daily living that exacerbate the injury and delay recovery thereof. Exercise is one method that can reduce muscle imbalance, improve resilience to muscle fatigue, and address reactivity and strength. More importantly, eccentric exercise can rectify musculotendinous or connective tissue injury which plays a role in prolonging the back injury cycle. Posture is identified as a causative factor for back pain with the time exposure for posture representing the largest portion of daily activities. From literature and from clinical observation, treatment methods can be improved and incorporated into integrated multi-modal programs. An integrated exercise program that commences with motor control exercise and progresses into functional movement is suggested. Furthermore a modification of the McKenzie extension movement may benefit back injury rehabilitation for a majority of lower back pain patients. Otherwise the sit-to-stand movement is a regular and frequent exacerbating mechanism of back pain and likely continuously tears connective tissue during the movement thus prolonging the cycle of back pain and can be

  2. Optimization of Causative Factors for Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation Using Remote Sensing and GIS Data in Parts of Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Jie; Tien Bui, Dieu; Yunus, Ali P; Jia, Kun; Song, Xuan; Revhaug, Inge; Xia, Huan; Zhu, Zhongfan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the potentiality of certainty factor models (CF) for the best suitable causative factors extraction for landslide susceptibility mapping in the Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. To test the applicability of CF, a landslide inventory map provided by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) was split into two subsets: (i) 70% of the landslides in the inventory to be used for building the CF based model; (ii) 30% of the landslides to be used for the validation purpose. A spatial database with fifteen landslide causative factors was then constructed by processing ALOS satellite images, aerial photos, topographical and geological maps. CF model was then applied to select the best subset from the fifteen factors. Using all fifteen factors and the best subset factors, landslide susceptibility maps were produced using statistical index (SI) and logistic regression (LR) models. The susceptibility maps were validated and compared using landslide locations in the validation data. The prediction performance of two susceptibility maps was estimated using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC). The result shows that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the LR model (AUC = 0.817) is slightly higher than those obtained from the SI model (AUC = 0.801). Further, it is noted that the SI and LR models using the best subset outperform the models using the fifteen original factors. Therefore, we conclude that the optimized factor model using CF is more accurate in predicting landslide susceptibility and obtaining a more homogeneous classification map. Our findings acknowledge that in the mountainous regions suffering from data scarcity, it is possible to select key factors related to landslide occurrence based on the CF models in a GIS platform. Hence, the development of a scenario for future planning of risk mitigation is achieved in an efficient manner.

  3. Evidence of Biomass Smoke Exposure as a Causative Factor for the Development of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Capistrano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive disease of the lungs characterised by chronic inflammation, obstruction of airways, and destruction of the parenchyma (emphysema. These changes gradually impair lung function and prevent normal breathing. In 2002, COPD was the fifth leading cause of death, and is estimated by the World Health Organisation (WHO to become the third by 2020. Cigarette smokers are thought to be the most at risk of developing COPD. However, recent studies have shown that people with life-long exposure to biomass smoke are also at high risk of developing COPD. Most common in developing countries, biomass fuels such as wood and coal are used for cooking and heating indoors on a daily basis. Women and children have the highest amounts of exposures and are therefore more likely to develop the disease. Despite epidemiological studies providing evidence of the causative relationship between biomass smoke and COPD, there are still limited mechanistic studies on how biomass smoke causes, and contributes to the progression of COPD. This review will focus upon why biomass fuels are used, and their relationship to COPD. It will also suggest methodological approaches to model biomass exposure in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Prevalence and clinical value of IgA and hidden rheumatoid factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is so difficult to be diagnosed early and a small subgroup of patients has positive IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) detected by the standard agglutination techniques. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of IgA and hidden RFs among patients with JRA, to evaluate their ...

  5. Cultural Factors Related to the Hidden Curriculum for Students with Autism and Related Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung

    2011-01-01

    The hidden curriculum, the unwritten rules and standards for social conduct that most people take for granted and learn more or less automatically, poses a challenge for many individuals on the autism spectrum because of deficits in social cognition and social interaction skills. Compounding challenges are cultural factors, such as age, ethnicity,…

  6. Prevalence and clinical value of IgA and hidden rheumatoid factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    diagnosed early and a small subgroup of patients has positive IgM rheumatoid ... Key words: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid factors, IgA-RF, hidden .... feet): X-ray films were taken at the time of sampling. Evaluation was done after the method of Rau and. Herborn14 for scoring soft tissue swelling, joint space.

  7. GEOSTATISTICAL BASED SUSCEPTIBILITY MAPPING OF SOIL EROSION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ITS CAUSATIVE FACTORS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULKADIR T. SHOLAGBERU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion hazard is the second biggest environmental challenges after population growth causing land degradation, desertification and water deterioration. Its impacts on watersheds include loss of soil nutrients, reduced reservoir capacity through siltation which may lead to flood risk, landslide, high water turbidity, etc. These problems become more pronounced in human altered mountainous areas through intensive agricultural activities, deforestation and increased urbanization among others. However, due to challenging nature of soil erosion management, there is great interest in assessing its spatial distribution and susceptibility levels. This study is thus intend to review the recent literatures and develop a novel framework for soil erosion susceptibility mapping using geostatistical based support vector machine (SVM, remote sensing and GIS techniques. The conceptual framework is to bridge the identified knowledge gaps in the area of causative factors’ (CFs selection. In this research, RUSLE model, field studies and the existing soil erosion maps for the study area will be integrated for the development of inventory map. Spatial data such as Landsat 8, digital soil and geological maps, digital elevation model and hydrological data shall be processed for the extraction of erosion CFs. GISbased SVM techniques will be adopted for the establishment of spatial relationships between soil erosion and its CFs, and subsequently for the development of erosion susceptibility maps. The results of this study include evaluation of predictive capability of GIS-based SVM in soil erosion mapping and identification of the most influential CFs for erosion susceptibility assessment. This study will serve as a guide to watershed planners and to alleviate soil erosion challenges and its related hazards.

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven A; Harris, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials.

  9. Periorbital hyperpigmentation: A study of its prevalence, common causative factors and its association with personal habits and other disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik B Sheth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH is one of the most commonly encountered conditions in routine dermatology practice. There are only few published studies about its prevalence, classification, and pathogenesis but none showing its association with habits, and other medical conditions in Indian patients. Aims: To determine prevalence and type of POH, common causative factors, and its association with personal habits and other disorders within various age and sex groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients attending the dermatology OPD were included in study and were subjected to detailed history, careful clinical and Wood′s lamp examination, eyelid stretch test and laboratory investigations. Clinical photographs of all patients were taken. Results: POH was most prevalent in 16-25 years age group (47.50% and in females (81% of which majority were housewives (45.50%. Commonest form of POH was constitutional (51.50% followed by post inflammatory (22.50%. Lower eyelids were involved in 72.50%. Grade 2 POH was seen in 58%. Wood′s lamp examination showed POH to be dermal in 60.50%. Faulty habits were observed viz. lack of adequate sleep (40%, frequent cosmetic use (36.50%, frequent eye rubbing (32.50%, and lack of correction for errors of refraction like myopia in 12% patients. Strong association of POH with stress (71%, atopy (33% and family history (63% was noted. Conclusions: Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a multi-factorial entity. It is absolutely essential to classify the type of POH and determine underlying causative factors in order to direct appropriate measures for better and successful outcome in future.

  10. Work related psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal disorders: potential risk factors, causation and evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Colin; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Musculo Skeletal Disorders (MSDs) are the focus of considerable attention and research in occupational health, which is in part due to high prevalence rates and associated costs. In the United States, the total cost associated with MSDs increased from $81 billion in 1986 to $215 billion in 2005 [3]. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown associations between work-related psychosocial factors and MSDs, and the role of psychosocial factors and stress in these disorders has received increased attention. Several reviews have reported associations between MSDs and work-related psychosocial factors such as high workload/demands, high perceived stress levels, low social support, low job control, low job satisfaction and monotonous work. Several theories have been proposed to explain the apparent relationship between stress and MSDs in the workplace from a biological perspective. These include the biopsychosocial model of job stress, the hyperventilation theory, the migraine theory, the muscle spindle theory and the Cinderella hypothesis. Within the literature, a vast array of questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to measure the psychosocial factors that occur within the workplace. This article presents a discussion of existing knowledge of the psychosocial risk factors potentially linked to MSDs and potential pathways to injury. A discussion of evaluation approaches used to estimate psychosocial risk exposures in workplaces is also presented.

  11. Some Causative Factors in Bank Deposit Supply Model in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined some of the factors that influence the commercial bank deposit supply behaviour in Nigeria. Specifically, we examined the impact of deposit interest rate, foreign exchange rate, Treasury bill rate and Growth rate of Gross Domestic Product on the deposit output behaviour of commercial banks.

  12. Influential factors on learning through the hidden curriculum in the perspective of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zohreh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abedi, Heidarali

    2014-04-01

    Nursing curriculum is not always overt; it can also exist covertly in the form of a hidden curriculum. This study aims to explain the factors influencing learning through the hidden curriculum in the perspective of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. This qualitative study was conducted through purposeful sampling strategy on 24 undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students studying in the first to the fourth years of their education. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and this process continued until data saturation and categories' emergence. Inductive content analysis was used for data analysis. Professional promotion as a learning factor, impact of personal characteristics on learning, educator's behavior as a learning stimulus, and feedback as a learning stimulus are the main categories emerged in this study; some of them included sub-categories as well. Professional promotion, personal characteristics, educator's behavior and feedback were the main influencing factors on learning through the hidden curriculum in undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The findings of this study can be used for developing strategies to promote nursing education and as a result patient care. Further studies are recommended to identify other factors.

  13. Influential factors on learning through the hidden curriculum in the perspective of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOHREH KARIMI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing curriculum is not always overt; it can also exist covertly in the form of a hidden curriculum. This study aims to explain the factors influencing learning through the hidden curriculum in the perspective of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. Method: This qualitative study was conducted through purposeful sampling strategy on 24 undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students studying in the first to the fourth years of their education. The data were collected using semistructured interviews and this process continued until data saturation and categories’ emergence. Inductive content analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Professional promotion as a learning factor, impact of personal characteristics on learning, educator’s behavior as a learning stimulus, and feedback as a learning stimulus are the main categories emerged in this study; some of them included sub-categories as well. Conclusion: Professional promotion, personal characteristics, educator’s behavior and feedback were the main influencing factors on learning through the hidden curriculum in undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The findings of this study can be used for developing strategies to promote nursing education and as a result patient care. Further studies are recommended to identify other factors.

  14. The chronobiological pattern as a causative factor of falls in the population older than 65 years

    OpenAIRE

    López Soto, Pablo Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: Las caídas son un problema físico, social y económico común entre la población mayor de 65 años. Se le ha dedicado mucho tiempo a la identificación de los factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos de las mismas; sin embargo las variables temporales de la caídas no suelen informarse. En este sentido, la revisión sistemática preliminar sobre el fenómeno de la caída ha dado soporte a la importancia de definir patrones temporales en las caídas y sus causas; así como al valor...

  15. The Pepcon Disaster-Causative Factors and potential Preventive and Mitigative Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, H E; Alvares, N J

    2003-07-25

    On May 4, 1988, the PEPCON plant experienced three major and several smaller explosions that caused over $70 million in property damage and caused two deaths. The PEPCON plant produced Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), a major ingredient for rocket fuel. The PEPCON plant and the nearby Kidd Marshmallow plant were totally destroyed by the detonations. The initiating event for the explosions was a fire that originated in the Batch Dryer Building and spread to adjacent storage. Several factors combined to cause the AP in the major storage fields to detonate, the most important being lack of adequate separation between storage units. Welding and flame cutting procedure with poor fire watch protocol was the prime candidate for fire ignition. There were no automatic fire suppression systems at the plant. Buildings including the Batch Dryer Building were made of combustible building material (fiberglass). There was poor housekeeping and no control of AP dust generation. AP was stored in combustible polyethylene drums, aluminum tote bins, 30-gallon steel storage drums and fiber reinforced tote bags. There were high-density storage practices. In addition, a contributing factor to the rapid fire-spread was that the wind that day was blowing directly from the batch dryer building to the storage areas. This paper claims that if codes, standards, and well-known hazard identification safety techniques were implemented at PEPCON, then the disaster would have been averted. A limited scope probabilistic risk assessment was conducted to establish the effectiveness of various preventive and mitigative features that could have been deployed to avert the disaster. The major hazard at the PEPCON site was fire and explosion involving the processing, production and storage of AP, which was then and is currently stored as a class 4 oxidizer. Since minute quantities of contamination can cause AP to be detonable by shock, there has been an ongoing debate concerning its reclassification to a class

  16. Epidemiology in a changing world: variation, causation and ubiquitous risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil

    2011-04-01

    We are all living in the era of globalization and, like it or not, it is going to change the way we practise epidemiology, the kinds of questions we ask and the methods we use to answer them. However, the methods, and ways of thinking about the health of populations, that will be required for epidemiology in the 21st century are in some instances quite different from the standard epidemiological techniques that are taught in most textbooks and courses today. As we develop epidemiological methods for addressing the scientific and public health problems of the 21st century, it is important that we consider, once again, the distinction between the analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. This has primarily been considered with respect to genetic research, and also with regard to the problems of making comparisons between different populations and environments at the same point in time. It has not been considered in depth with regard to the issues of conducting epidemiological research in a world that is changing over time. In this article, I first consider the statistical and scientific issues involved in the distinction between the analysis of variance and the analysis of causes. I then discuss some examples of the implications of this distinction for the theory and practice of epidemiology in a changing world, particularly with regard to risk factors that become ubiquitous over time. Sometimes the most important causes of disease are invisible because they are everywhere.

  17. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Triantafyllopoulos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added.

  18. Macrophage Infiltration Is a Causative Factor for Ligamentum Flavum Hypertrophy through the Activation of Collagen Production in Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takeyuki; Hara, Masamitsu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Kobayakawa, Kazu; Yokota, Kazuya; Kijima, Ken; Yoshizaki, Shingo; Harimaya, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Inagaki, Yutaka; Shiba, Keiichiro; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Okada, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy causes lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leading to leg pain and disability in activities of daily living in elderly individuals. Although previous studies have been performed on LF hypertrophy, its pathomechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that infiltrating macrophages were a causative factor for LF hypertrophy. Induction of macrophages into the mouse LF by applying a microinjury resulted in LF hypertrophy along with collagen accumulation and fibroblasts proliferation at the injured site, which were very similar to the characteristics observed in the severely hypertrophied LF of human. However, we found that macrophage depletion by injecting clodronate-containing liposomes counteracted LF hypertrophy even with microinjury. For identification of fibroblasts in the LF, we used collagen type I α2 linked to green fluorescent protein transgenic mice and selectively isolated green fluorescent protein-positive fibroblasts from the microinjured LF using laser microdissection. A quantitative RT-PCR on laser microdissection samples revealed that the gene expression of collagen markedly increased in the fibroblasts at the injured site with infiltrating macrophages compared with the uninjured location. These results suggested that macrophage infiltration was crucial for LF hypertrophy by stimulating collagen production in fibroblasts, providing better understanding of the pathophysiology of LF hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hidden-Markov Factor analysis as a spatiotemporal model for electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Akinyinka; Doyle, Werner K; Devinsky, Orrin; Friedman, Daniel; Thesen, Thomas; Gilja, Vikash

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to extracting low-dimensional neural trajectories that summarize the electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals recorded with high-channel-count electrode arrays implanted subdurally. In our approach, Hidden-Markov Factor Analysis (HMFA), a finite set of factor analyzers are used to model the relationship between the high-dimensional ECoG neural space and a low-dimensional latent neural space; the factor analyzers at different time points are in turn linked together with a hidden Markov model. The recorded ECoG signals were band-pass filtered such that our analysis was focused on a sub-band (76-100Hz) of high gamma. HMFA affords the quantization of the ECoG neural space and dimensionality reduction in a common probabilistic space. We applied this method to the ECoG recordings of 2 subjects who responded with button presses to audiovisual stimuli in an experimental task. Using a goodness-of-fit metric that measures how well the ECoG activity of each electrode can be predicted by all the other electrodes, we found that HMFA performed best when compared with Gaussian-Process Factor Analysis (GPFA) and other related spatiotemporal modeling techniques. In contradistinction to HMFA, GPFA and the other techniques integrate temporal smoothing with dimensionality reduction. We believe that this method will provide a powerful tool for relating high-channel-count ECoG signals to the perception and behavior of subjects.

  20. Most Factor VIII B Domain Missense Mutations Are Unlikely to Be Causative Mutations for Severe Hemophilia A: Implications for Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kyoichi; Selvaraj, Sundar R; Miao, Hongzhi Z; Pipe, Steven W

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background & Objective The factor VIII (FVIII) B domain shares very little amino acid homology to other known proteins and is not directly necessary for procoagulant activity. Despite this, missense mutations within the B domain have been reported in patients with hemophilia A. Given that the B domain is dispensable for secretion and function of FVIII, we hypothesized that these mutations should not be causative of hemophilia A in these patients. Methods Plasmid vectors containing B domain missense mutations that were reported to be associated with moderate/severe hemophilia A (T751S, D826E, V993L, H1047Y, T1353A, N1441K, L1462P, E1579D, A1591S, P1641L and S1669L) were analyzed for their effect on synthesis and secretion compared to FVIII wild-type (WT) following transient transfection into COS-1 and CHO cells in vitro. Further, H1047Y, N1441K and E1579D mutants were expressed in vivo in a hemophilia A mouse model by hydrodynamic tail-vein injection. Results FVIII activity and antigen levels for all mutants expressed into the conditioned media of COS-1 and CHO cells were similar to FVIII WT. Also, plasma expression of these mutants was similar to FVIII WT in hemophilia A mice. An in vivo tail clip bleeding assay also demonstrated that blood loss from hemophilia A mice expressing FVIII WT, H1047Y, N1441K and E1579D were similar. Conclusion We conclude that most missense mutations within the FVIII B domain would be unlikely to lead to severe hemophilia A and that the majority of such missense mutations represent polymorphisms or non-pathologic mutations. PMID:21645226

  1. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery S Pettis

    linked to colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor.

  2. [Operating time of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH)--the causative factors and the course of the postoperative period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobin, Leszek; Maciołek-Blewniewska, Grazyna; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to find the causative factors of prolongation of the operating time of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) and to analyse the influence of the operating time on the course of the postoperative period. Retrospective analysis of 103 LAVH procedures performed from June 2002 to April 2006 for benign conditions. All the cases have been divided in two groups, depending on the operating time: 45 procedures up to 90 minutes (average 76, range 50-90) and 58--over 90 minutes (average 126, range 95-210). In both groups we have analysed patient characteristics, indications, uterine size, intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss, hospital stay, the day of the return to the general diet, anaesthetic and antibiotic demand in postoperative period. There were 42.2% of postmenopausal patients in the "short-time" LAVH group and 17.2% in the "long-time" LAVH group (p < 0.05). 8.9% women in the short LAVH group and 31.0% in the long LAVH group had had no vaginal deliveries (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in previous surgery history between the groups. Significant correlation of operating time of LAVH with patient weight (r = 0.26, p < 0.01) and BMI (Body Mass Index) (r = 0.21, p < 0.05) was noted. Uterine size was bigger in the long LAVH group (p < 0.01). There was one intraoperative complication (bowel injury) and three postoperative ones (two cases of bleeding to abdominal cavity demanding reoperation and one to the abdominal wall from injured superficial epigastric artery), all occurred in the long LAVH group. The average perioperative decrease in haemoglobin concentration was insignificantly higher in the long LAVH group (2.0 g% vs 1.4%). There was 4.4% rate of antibiotic demand after the short LAVH procedures and 24.1% after the long ones (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in anaesthetic demand. The average day of introducing the general diet was 1,0 (range 1-2) in the short LAVH group and 1,4 (range

  3. Colony Failure Linked to Low Sperm Viability in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Queens and an Exploration of Potential Causative Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rice, Nathan; Joselow, Katie; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Chaimanee, Veeranan

    2016-01-01

    colony performance and laboratory and field data provide evidence that temperature extremes are a potential causative factor.

  4. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka’s CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in d...

  5. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  6. Beliefs about Drinking Problem Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Bullers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that “internal” or personal attributions about the causes of problem drinking increase the likelihood of seeking treatment and treatment efficacy, while “external” attributions, such as environmental, social or cultural causations, may hinder treatment efforts. Results of survey data from a sample of 152 US college students found three main causation belief factors, which were differentially associated with age, heavy drinking, protestant religion, and exposure to problem drinkers. The "Social Cause" factor was the most strongly endorsed belief suggesting external, but surmountable attributions for problem drinking. Implications of attributions for treatment efficacy are discussed.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven A.; Harris, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials. PMID

  8. Hidden Blood Loss and Its Influential Factors After Laparoscopy-Assisted Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Fan, Heng-Wei; Yi, Wan-Wan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-10-24

    Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of gastric cancer. It is generally thought that a minimally invasive technique results in less visible blood loss during the surgery. Nevertheless, a meaningful perioperative hidden blood loss (HBL) is often ignored. In this study, we investigated the amount of HBL and the influential factors after LAG for gastric cancer. A retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 62 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy-assisted total or distal gastrectomy at our center from May 2016 to May 2017. The HBL was calculated according to Gross's and Nadler's formula. The data of patient gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, preoperative and postoperative hematocrit, postoperative drainage, albumin loss, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were analyzed by multivariate linear regression analysis. The type of surgical reconstruction was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. The difference between the preoperative blood pressure and postoperative blood pressure was measured by paired sample t-test and boxplot. The HBL was 322.2 ± 195.9 mL (64.3% ± 14.1% in total blood loss [TBL]), the TBL was 475.6 ± 222.8 mL, and the hemoglobin (HB) loss was 15.0 ± 8.7 (11.5% ± 6.1% of HB level loss). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that gender, hypertension, and albumin loss between preoperation and postoperation are influential factors of HBL in patients after LAG for gastric cancer. Compared to male patients, female patients are positively associated with HBL. In our study, we found HBL is a significant segment of TBL and is much larger than what we considered previously in LAG for gastric cancer. Gender, hypertension, and albumin loss are significantly correlated with HBL. Therefore, paying attention to HBL is significant for promoting clinical treatment and ensuring patients' safety.

  9. Russell on Mnemic Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Bernecker

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the standard view, the causal process connecting a past representation and its subsequent recall involves intermediary memory traces. Yet Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein held that since the physiological evidence for memory traces isn't quite conclusive, it is prudent to come up with an account of memory causation-referred to as nmemic causation—that manages without the stipulation of memory traces. Given mnemic causation, a past representation is directly causally active over a temporal distance. I argue that the stipulation of memory traces is indeed indispensable for analyzing memory causation.

  10. svapls: an R package to correct for hidden factors of variability in gene expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sutirtha; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2013-07-24

    Hidden variability is a fundamentally important issue in the context of gene expression studies. Collected tissue samples may have a wide variety of hidden effects that may alter their transcriptional landscape significantly. As a result their actual differential expression pattern can be potentially distorted, leading to inaccurate results from a genome-wide testing for the important transcripts. We present an R package svapls that can be used to identify several types of unknown sample-specific sources of heterogeneity in a gene expression study and adjust for them in order to provide a more accurate inference on the original expression pattern of the genes over different varieties of samples. The proposed method implements Partial Least Squares regression to extract the hidden signals of sample-specific heterogeneity in the data and uses them to find the genes that are actually correlated with the phenotype of interest. We also compare our package with three other popular softwares for testing differential gene expression along with a detailed illustration on the widely popular Golub dataset. Results from the sensitivity analyes on simulated data with widely different hidden variation patterns reveal the improved detection power of our R package compared to the other softwares along with reasonably smaller error rates. Application on the real-life dataset exhibits the efficacy of the R package in detecting potential batch effects from the dataset. Overall, Our R package provides the user with a simplified framework for analyzing gene expression data with a wide range of hidden variation patterns and delivering a differential gene expression analysis with substantially improved power and accuracy.The R package svapls is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/svapls/index.html.

  11. Potential causative agents of acute gastroenteritis in households with preschool children : prevalence, risk factors, clinical relevance and household transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusinkveld, M.; Mughini-Gras, L.; Pijnacker, R.; Vennema, H.; Scholts, R.; van Huisstede-Vlaanderen, K. W.; Kortbeek, T.; Kooistra-Smid, M.; van Pelt, W.

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) morbidity remains high amongst preschool children, posing a significant societal burden. Empirical data on AGE-causing agents is needed to gauge their clinical relevance and identify agent-specific targets for control. We assessed the prevalence, risk factors and

  12. Hyperlactatemia in patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass: Causative factors and its effect on surgical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Naik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the Study: To identify the factors causing high lactate levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB and to assess the association between high blood lactate levels and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods: A retrospective observational study including 370 patients who underwent cardiac surgeries under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on serum lactate levels; those with serum lactate levels greater than or equal to 4 mmol/L considered as hyperlactatemia and those with serum lactate levels less than 4 mmol/L. Blood lactate samples were collected intraoperatively and postoperatively in the ICU. Preoperative and intraoperative risk factors for hyperlactatemia were identified using the highest intraoperative value of lactate. The postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with hyperlactatemia was studied using the overall (intraoperative and postoperative values peak lactate levels. Preoperative clinical data, perioperative events and postoperative morbidity and mortality were recorded. Results: Intraoperative peak blood lactate levels of 4.0 mmol/L or more were present in 158 patients (42.7%. Females had higher peak intra operative lactate levels (P = 0.011. There was significant correlation between CPB time (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.024; P = 0.003 and aortic cross clamp time (r = 0.02, P = 0.007 with peak intraoperative blood lactate levels. Patients with hyperlactatemia had significantly higher rate of postoperative morbidity like atrial fibrillation (19.9% vs. 5.3%; P = 0.004, prolonged requirement of inotropes (34% vs. 11.8%; P = 0.001, longer stay in the ICU (P = 0.013 and hospital (P = 0.001. Conclusions: Hyperlactatemia had significant association with post-operative morbidity. Detection of hyperlactatemia in the perioperative period should be considered as an indicator of inadequate tissue oxygen delivery and must be

  13. Vehicular Causation Factors and Conceptual Design Modifications to Reduce Aortic Strain in Numerically Reconstructed Real World Nearside Lateral Automotive Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwadi, Aditya; Yang, King H

    2015-01-01

    Aortic injury (AI) leading to disruption of the aorta is an uncommon but highly lethal consequence of trauma in modern society. Most recent estimates range from 7,500 to 8,000 cases per year from a variety of causes. It is observed that more than 80% of occupants who suffer an aortic injury die at the scene due to exsanguination into the chest cavity. It is evident that effective means of substantially improving the outcome of motor vehicle crash-induced AIs is by preventing the injury in the first place. In the current study, 16 design of computer experiments (DOCE) were carried out with varying levels of principal direction of force (PDOF), impact velocity, impact height, and impact position of the bullet vehicle combined with occupant seating positions in the case vehicle to determine the effects of these factors on aortic injury. Further, a combination of real world crash data reported in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database, Finite Element (FE) vehicle models, and the Wayne State Human Body Model-II (WSHBM-II) indicates that occupant seating position, impact height, and PDOF, in that order play, a primary role in aortic injury.

  14. Gender differences in carpal tunnel relative cross-sectional area: a possible causative factor in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, S A; Giddins, G

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has not established a consistent difference in hand size or carpal tunnel cross-sectional area between patients with and without carpal tunnel syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that there would be no difference in relative carpal tunnel sizes between men and women. We defined relative carpal tunnel size as the cross-sectional areas at the inlet (level of the pisiform) and outlet (level of the hook of the hamate) of the carpal tunnel divided by the length of the capitate (as a measure of hand size). We made the measurements on the magnetic resonance imaging scans of 50 men and 50 women taken for symptoms unrelated to carpal tunnel syndrome. The mean relative cross-sectional area was appreciably smaller in women than men (p carpal tunnel cross-sectional area relative to the size of the hand is constitutionally smaller in women than in men. This could in theory be a significant factor in patients developing carpal tunnel syndrome. V. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. A novel embryological theory of autism causation involving endogenous biochemicals capable of initiating cellular gene transcription: a possible link between twelve autism risk factors and the autism 'epidemic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chiara R

    2011-05-01

    Human alpha-fetoprotein is a pregnancy-associated protein with an undetermined physiological role. As human alpha-fetoprotein binds retinoids and inhibits estrogen-dependent cancer cell proliferation, and because retinoic acid (a retinol metabolite) and estradiol (an estrogen) can both initiate cellular gene transcription, it is hypothesized here that alpha-fetoprotein functions during critical gestational periods to prevent retinoic acid and maternal estradiol from inappropriately stimulating gene expression in developing brain regions which are sensitive to these chemicals. Prenatal/maternal factors linked to increased autism risk include valproic acid, thalidomide, alcohol, rubella, cytomegalovirus, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autoimmune disease, stress, allergic reaction, and hypothyroidism. It will be shown how each of these risk factors may initiate expression of genes which are sensitive to retinoic acid and/or estradiol - whether by direct promotion or by reducing production of alpha-fetoprotein. It is thus hypothesized here that autism is not a genetic disorder, but is rather an epigenetic disruption in brain development caused by gestational exposure to chemicals and/or conditions which either inhibit alpha-fetoprotein production or directly promote retinoic acid-sensitive or estradiol-sensitive gene expression. This causation model leads to potential chemical explanations for autistic brain morphology, the distinct symptomatology of Asperger's syndrome, and the differences between high-functioning and low-functioning autism with regard to mental retardation, physical malformation, and sex ratio. It will be discussed how folic acid may cause autism under the retinoic acid/estradiol model, and the history of prenatal folic acid supplementation will be shown to coincide with the history of what is popularly known as the autism epidemic. It is thus hypothesized here that prenatal folic acid supplementation has contributed to the

  16. Economics, History, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Economics and history both strive to understand causation: economics using instrumental variables econometrics and history by weighing the plausibility of alternative narratives. Instrumental variables can lose value with repeated use because of an econometric tragedy of the commons bias: each successful use of an instrument potentially creates an additional latent variable bias problem for all other uses of that instrument - past and future. Economists should therefore consider historians' a...

  17. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods.

  18. Latent time-varying factors in longitudinal analysis: a linear mixed hidden Markov model for heart rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagona, Francesco; Jdanov, Dmitri; Shkolnikova, Maria

    2014-10-15

    Longitudinal data are often segmented by unobserved time-varying factors, which introduce latent heterogeneity at the observation level, in addition to heterogeneity across subjects. We account for this latent structure by a linear mixed hidden Markov model. It integrates subject-specific random effects and Markovian sequences of time-varying effects in the linear predictor. We propose an expectationŰ-maximization algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation, based on data augmentation. It reduces to the iterative maximization of the expected value of a complete likelihood function, derived from an augmented dataset with case weights, alternated with weights updating. In a case study of the Survey on Stress Aging and Health in Russia, the model is exploited to estimate the influence of the observed covariates under unobserved time-varying factors, which affect the cardiovascular activity of each subject during the observation period. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Social mechanisms and social causation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedel Weinert

    2014-01-01

    .... Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber's wider notion of adequate causation in order...

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) population in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Mohammed H; Ansel, Samir; Mohamed-Cherif, Abdallah; Benfodil, Karima; Khelef, Djamel; Youngs, Curtis R; Kaidi, Rachid; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima

    2017-08-31

    Query (Q) fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2) test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2-78.3) and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8-97.8) at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1) age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55-30.41), (2) herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01-19.59) and (3) infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro-ecologically and

  1. Rates of self-reported 'burnout' and causative factors amongst urologists in Ireland and the UK: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kelly, Fardod; Manecksha, Rustom P; Quinlan, David M; Reid, Alex; Joyce, Adrian; O'Flynn, Kieran; Speakman, Mark; Thornhill, John A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the incidence of 'burnout' among UK and Irish urological consultants and non-consultant hospital doctors (NCHDs). The second objective was to identify possible causative factors and to investigate the impact of various vocational stressors that urologists face in their day-to-day work and to establish whether these correlate with burnout. The third objective was to develop a new questionnaire to complement the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), more specific to urologists as distinct from other surgical/medical specialties, and to use this in addition to the MBI to determine if there is a requirement to develop effective preventative measures for stress in the work place, and develop targeted remedial measures when individuals are affected by burnout. A joint collaboration was carried out between the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) and the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS). Anonymous voluntary questionnaires were sent to all current registered members of both governing bodies. The questionnaire comprised two parts: the first part encompassed sociodemographic data collection and identifying potential risk factors for burnout, and the second used the MBI to objectively assess for workplace burnout. To evaluate differences in burnout, 2 × 2 contingency tables and Fischer's exact probability tests were used. In all, 575 urologists responded to the online survey out of a total of 1380 invites, yielding a 42% response rate. All respondents were aged burnout, while 46 (8%) sought professional help for symptoms of burnout. In all, 460 respondents (80%) felt that burnout should be evaluated amongst members of the ISU/BAUS, and 345 (60%) would avail of counselling if provided. This is the first study to address the issue of burnout across two separate health systems in the UK and Ireland. This study has shown previously undescribed high levels of burnout characterised by EE and DP, with associated significant levels of self-medication amongst a

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius population in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Benaissa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Query (Q fever is a globally distributed zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterial agent for which ruminants are the most prevalent natural reservoir. Data regarding Q fever infection in camels in Algeria are limited. Therefore, a survey to detect seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was conducted among healthy camel populations in a vast area in southeastern Algeria to determine distribution of the Q fever causative organism and to identify risk factors associated with infection. Between January and March 2016, blood samples were collected from 184 camels and serum samples were subsequently analysed using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA kit. At the time of blood collection, a questionnaire investigating 13 potential predisposing factors associated with C. burnetii seropositivity was completed for every dromedary camel and herd. Results were analysed by a chi-square (χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii at the animal level was 71.2% (95% CI: 65.2–78.3 and 85.3% (95% CI: 72.8–97.8 at the herd level. At the animal level, differences in seroprevalence were observed because of herd size, animal age, animal sex, presence of ticks and contact with other herds. A multivariable logistic regression model identified three main risk factors associated with individual seropositivity: (1 age class > 11 years (OR = 8.81, 95% CI: 2.55–30.41, (2 herd size > 50 head (OR = 4.46, 95% CI: 1.01–19.59 and (3 infestation with ticks (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.5. This study of seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection in camels in Algeria revealed a high seroprevalence of Q fever in camel populations in southeastern Algeria and provided strong evidence that Q fever represents an economic, public health and veterinary concern. Appropriate measures should be taken to prevent the spread of C. burnetii and to reduce the risk of Q fever in farm animals and humans in this agro

  3. Median Light Rail Crossing: Accident Causation And Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Coifman, Benjamin; Bertini, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on accident causation and countermeasures at arterial median light rail grade crossings. It synthesizes accident causation and prevention literature from several fields, including traffic engineering, human factors and cognitive psychology, as it relates to the complex LRT grade crossing.

  4. Hidden voices: prevalence and risk factors for violence against women with disabilities in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Misra, Geetanjali; Hawkes, Sarah

    2015-03-18

    There is an increasing body of evidence on the extent and predictors of violence against women in Nepal. However, much of the published research does not yet take into account additional features of marginalization and vulnerability suffered by some women - for example, women socially excluded on account of their disability. Critical gaps exist in empirical data on the extent, risk factors, access to care, socio-economic and health consequences of violence among women with disabilities in Nepal. This paper addresses some these gaps and aims to promote evidence-informed policy and programme responses in Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 475 women with disability aged 16 years and above in three districts in Nepal. In-depth interviews with 12 women who reported violence in the survey were also carried out. Using multivariate statistical methods we estimated the prevalence and risk factors for violence experienced both over the past 12 months and lifetime. Over the lifetime, 57.7% of women reported they had ever experienced violence, including emotional violence (55.2%); physical violence (34%); and sexual violence (21.5%). Over the preceding 12 months, 42% of women reported that they had experienced violence. Multivariate analysis showed that women with disabilities who were young, working in paid employment, and those who required permission from husbands/family to go to health centres or participate in community organizations were at increased risk of violence. Women experienced a range of negative outcomes from violence - including physical and emotional trauma. However, a majority of women did not seek care or redress from the health, justice or other sectors. Women in Nepal are at high risk of violence, often from members of their immediate family or local community. Rates of violence are higher in women with disability than among women in the general population. Tackling violence requires a comprehensive approach that addresses the root causes of

  5. Intentional Hidden Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    氏原, 陽子

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to make clear the existence of an intentional hidden curriculum and define the hidden curriculum. First, this paper criticizes hidden curriculum arguments thatregard hidden curriculum as unintentional learning outcome. Since these arguments can go up Bloom, this paper reviews Bloom and shows that the biggest problem is the difficulty injudging whether there is intention or not. Second, this paper investigates into intentional hidden curriculum. Portelli argues about the hidden...

  6. Social mechanisms and social causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedel Weinert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the notion of social mechanisms by comparison with the notions of evolutionary and physical mechanisms. It is argued that social mechanisms are based on trends, and not lawlike regularities, so that social mechanisms are different from mechanisms in the natural sciences. Taking as an example of social causation the abolition of the slave trade, this paper argues that social mechanisms should be incorporated in Weber’s wider notion of adequate causation in order to achieve their explanatory purpose

  7. Incidence, causative factors and mortality rates of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in northern Italy: data from the REACT registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphoorn, Janouk; Cazzaniga, Simone; Gamba, Chiara; Schroeder, Jan; Citterio, Antonella; Rivolta, Alma Lisa; Vighi, Giuseppe Danilo; Naldi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions. We assessed incidence, drug exposure and mortality, analysing data obtained from the Lombardy Registry of Severe Cutaneous Reactions (REACT). Data were collected from hospitals in the Italian Lombardy region (9,502,272 people). A trained monitor was sent to the reporting hospital to collect data on drug exposure and clinical features. The algorithm for drug causality for epidermal necrolysis algorithm was applied to assess drug causality. Defined Daily Dose (DDD) was used to express drug consumption. From April 2009 to November 2014, 17 cases of TEN and 59 cases of SJS were collected. The overall incidence rate was 1.40 cases (95%CI, 1.12-1.76) per million people per year. A total of 15 cases died during hospitalization with a mortality rate of 16.9% for SJS and 29.4% for TEN. Overall, 55.4% of cases had a probable or very probable relation with drug exposure. In a total of five patients (6.6%), no causative drug for the reaction was identifiable. Allopurinol contributed to the highest number of cases (23 cases), while the highest incidence based on more than one case reported was observed for cotrimoxazole and lamotrigine, with 5.37 cases (95%CI, 2.09-13.80) and 3.54 (95%CI, 1.21-10.42) per 10 million DDD/year, respectively. We confirmed that SJS and TEN are rare adverse cutaneous reactions. As expected, mortality was influenced by the degree of skin detachment. The profile of drugs associated with the reactions was in agreement with data from other surveillance systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Serum Anti-TPO and TPO Gene Polymorphism as a Predictive Factor for Hidden Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Patient with Bronchial Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shabrawy, Reham M; Atta, Amal H; Rashad, Nearmeen M

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones T3 and T4. Autoimmune thyroiditis is a common disorder affecting 10% of population worldwide. A key feature of autoimmune thyroiditis is the presence of anti TPO antibodies, and some mutation of the TPO gene. Association between autoimmune thyroiditis and other autoimmune disorders has been reported but little is known about association with allergic diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate frequency of hidden autoimmune thyroiditis among allergic patient and examine possible relationship between anti-TPO levels and polymorphism at the TPO gene A2173/C exon 12 and different types of allergens. The study included 50 adult Egyptian patients with allergic rhinitis and /or bronchial asthma and 50 controls. For each subject, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin 4 (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) hormones were measured. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) level was detected by ELISA; and TPO gene polymorphism 2173A>C exon 12 was analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Skin prick test was done to assess allergic response in patients. Serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH did not show any statistical significant difference between patients and groups. However, mean serum anti-TPO level was statistically higher in patients than controls, and correlated positively with body mass index, age, diastolic blood pressure, suggesting higher prevalence of hidden autoimmune thyroiditis in allergic patients than in control group. 2173A>C Genotyping revealed that the frequency of C allele is increased in the patient group. C allele represents a risk factor with odds ratio of 2.37 (1.035-5.44) and a significant P value TPO 2173A>C polymorphism may be considered as a risk factor for developing autoimmune thyroiditis in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and that these patients should regularly be checked for hidden thyroiditis. Copyright© by the Egyptian Association of

  9. Identification of road user related risk factors, Deliverable 5.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filtness, A. & Papadimitriou, E. (Eds.) Leskovšek, B. Focant, N. Martensen, H. Sgarra, V. Usami, D.S. Soteropoulos, A. Stadlbauer, S. Theofilatos, A. Yannis, G. Ziakopoulos, A. Diamandouros, K. Durso, C. Goldenbeld, C. Loenis, B. Schermers, G. Petegem, J.-H. van Elvik, R. Hesjevoll, I.S. Quigley, C. & Papazikou, E.

    2017-01-01

    The present Deliverable (D5.1) describes the identification and evaluation of infrastructure related risk factors. It outlines the results of Task 5.1 of WP5 of SafetyCube, which aimed to identify and evaluate infrastructure related risk factors and related road safety problems by (i) presenting a

  10. Obvious and hidden anxiety and the related factors in operating room nurses employed in general hospital, Qazvin, Iran: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayalha, Hamid; Yazdi, Zohreh; Rastak, Shahram; Dizaniha, Mojtaba

    2013-09-29

    Health promotion and security of manpower in a society is one of the pillars to progress a society. Anxiety, is the most common psychological disorder in societies and occupations like nursing' anesthesia technicians and operation room technicians. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of anxiety, and its severity in Iranian nurses working in operation room. Also, we determined the most important associated factors with anxiety. In this cross sectional study' 152 nurses working in operating room participated. The tool to gather the data was a questionnaire, that included three parts; demographic information' obvious anxiety questions and hidden anxiety questions of Spielburger. Obtained data was analysed with SPSS 16 software. The majority of participants were females (94.7%) with experience at work less than 10 years (84.9%). The average scores of participants in obvious and hidden anxiety were 41.9±39.4 (range 20 to 75) and 39.4±8.2 (range 20 to 70), respectively. Anxiety level was significantly higher in females than males (P=0.04). The most prevalent cause of anxiety, was contact with infected biological factors (23% of nurses). The less important cause was concern about retirement (42.8% of nurses). Our results suggest that, anxiety disorders is prevalent in Iranian nurses working in public city hospitals, which warrants immediate programs for intervention to improve working situations in work place.

  11. Review article: Causative factors and clinical management of patients with Crohn?s disease who lose response to anti-TNF? therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Danese, Silvio; Fiorino, Gionata; Reinisch, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: The addition of anti-tumour necrosis factor-(TNF)? agents to the therapeutic armamentarium against Crohn?s disease (CD) has been a revolution in its management. However, approximately 25 to 40% of patients who initially benefit from anti TNF-? treatment develop intolerable adverse events or loose their response during maintenance therapy. AIM: To summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying loss of response (LoR) in these patients, and the thera...

  12. Post-operative central nervous system infections after cranial surgery in China: incidence, causative agents, and risk factors in 1,470 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, R; Zhu, Y; Shen, Y; Shen, J; Tong, Y; Yu, H; Wen, L

    2014-05-01

    A post-operative central nervous system infection (PCNSI) is a dangerous complication after cranial surgery. Although a large number of neurosurgical procedures are performed in hospitals in China, PCNSI-related data from this country are rarely reported. To address this issue, we examined the incidence of PCNSI after cranial surgery, the potential risk factors, and the offending etiologic agents in a large Chinese population. The medical records and post-operative courses for patients >16 years of age who underwent elective or emergency cranial surgeries between May 2010 and May 2012 and who survived for >7 days were reviewed retrospectively. Pre-operative data, surgery-related records, and post-operative variables were evaluated as risk factors for PCNSI after cranial surgery. Among 1,470 surgeries, 1,340 were craniotomies and 130 involved the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There were 109 patients with PCNSIs, resulting in a total infection rate of 7.4 %. The dominant Gram-positive organism isolated (Staphylococcus aureus) was the most common pathogen isolated. Based on multivariate analysis, the risk of PCNSI was increased by a CSF leak [odds ratio (OR), 3.545; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 2.053-6.122; p China. CSF leakage, CSF drainage of any kind, subsequent short-term surgery, and surgery duration were major risk factors, indicating that surgery-focused management might be the most effective way to minimize the risk for PCNSI after cranial surgery.

  13. CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY AND ITS IMPACT ON COMMUNITY HEALTH: A NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL STUDY IN MIDNAPORE MUNICIPAL AREA, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Roy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Health is socio-demographic construct of population. In an urban area social, economic and political systems simultaneously operate within a geographically defined space in which the urban dwellers accommodate and act as key player. As such the physical and social factors virtually affect the community health as a consequence of disparity in accessing health. Health disparities in smaller towns of the developing world have drawn serious attention as they are poorly suffering from the problems of ‘urban penalty’. This paper deals with statistical clustering of neighbourhoods on the basis of quality of life, social deprivation and multiple suffering quantified as the variables derived from measurable parameters. Neighbourhoods inequality has been mapped as per the score received by each neighbourhood in respect to the above three variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA has also been employed for grouping the neighbourhoods in social terms. Then it has been tried to examine relationship between health attainment and social status of the neighbourhoods. The study shows that status of health does not merely depend on socio-demographic and political factors but availability of healthcare facilities, health related behaviour, health perception and awareness have played significant roles. The findings of the study may be helpful for setting planning strategies most important of which would be inclusion of local people in catering health services.

  14. Causative Factors of Social Inequality and its Impact on Community Health: a Neighbourhood Level Study in Midnapore Municipal Area, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, U.

    2016-10-01

    Health is socio-demographic construct of population. In an urban area social, economic and political systems simultaneously operate within a geographically defined space in which the urban dwellers accommodate and act as key player. As such the physical and social factors virtually affect the community health as a consequence of disparity in accessing health. Health disparities in smaller towns of the developing world have drawn serious attention as they are poorly suffering from the problems of `urban penalty'. This paper deals with statistical clustering of neighbourhoods on the basis of quality of life, social deprivation and multiple suffering quantified as the variables derived from measurable parameters. Neighbourhoods inequality has been mapped as per the score received by each neighbourhood in respect to the above three variables. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has also been employed for grouping the neighbourhoods in social terms. Then it has been tried to examine relationship between health attainment and social status of the neighbourhoods. The study shows that status of health does not merely depend on socio-demographic and political factors but availability of healthcare facilities, health related behaviour, health perception and awareness have played significant roles. The findings of the study may be helpful for setting planning strategies most important of which would be inclusion of local people in catering health services.

  15. Novel host-related virulence factors are encoded by squirrelpox virus, the main causative agent of epidemic disease in red squirrels in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C Darby

    Full Text Available Squirrelpox virus (SQPV shows little evidence for morbidity or mortality in North American grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, in which the virus is endemic. However, more recently the virus has emerged to cause epidemics with high mortality in Eurasian red squirrels (S. vulgaris in Great Britain, which are now threatened. Here we report the genome sequence of SQPV. Comparison with other Poxviridae revealed a core set of poxvirus genes, the phylogeny of which showed SQPV to be in a new Chordopoxvirus subfamily between the Molluscipoxviruses and Parapoxviruses. A number of SQPV genes were related to virulence, including three major histocomaptibility class I homologs, and one CD47 homolog. In addition, a novel potential virulence factor showing homology to mammalian oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS was identified. This family of proteins normally causes activation of an endoribonuclease (RNaseL within infected cells. The putative function of this novel SQPV protein was predicted in silico.

  16. The role of diet and other environmental factors in the causation of gastric cancer in Iran--a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzi, Farhad; Whelan, Anna; Kaldor, John; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-10-15

    Despite a declining trend in the incidence of gastric cancer (GC), it is still a major global public health concern of the 21st century. The rates of GC reported from Ardabil Province, Iran, are among the highest in the world. To investigate risk factors for GC in Ardabil, we undertook a population-based case-control study. The study aimed to recruit all Ardabil residents newly diagnosed with GC in the time period of 2004-2005, and 2 controls per case. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Ten milliliters of blood was collected for blood grouping and investigating the presence of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori. During the study period, 217 people with GC and 394 controls were recruited. In multivariate analysis, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.35-4.32) were found to be the factors that were most strongly related to GC. High intake of Allium vegetables (OR = 0.35) and fruit, especially citrus fruit (OR = 0.31) and consumption of fresh fish (OR = 0.37) were significantly protective. On the other hand, consumption of red meat (OR = 3.40) and dairy products (OR = 2.28) were positively associated with the risk of GC. People who had a preference for higher salt intake (OR = 3.10) and drinking strong and hot tea (OR = 2.64 and 2.85, respectively) were at higher risk. In conclusion, Helicobacter pylori infection as measured by serum IgG as well as the consumption of red meat and dairy products increases the risk of GC in Ardabil, while the intake of fresh fruit and fresh fish decrease the risk.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 activation plays a causative role in urothelial cancer pathogenesis in cooperation with Pten loss in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Mona; Ahmad, Imran; van Rhijn, Bas W. G.; van der Kwast, Theodorus; Bergman, Andre M.; King, Louise; Ridgway, Rachel; Leung, Hing Y.; Fraser, Sioban; Sansom, Owen J.; Iwata, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Although somatic mutations and overexpression of the tyrosine kinase Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) are strongly associated with bladder cancer, evidence for their functional involvement in the pathogenesis remains elusive. Previously we showed that activation of Fgfr3 alone is not sufficient to initiate urothelial tumourigenesis in mice. Here we hypothesise that cooperating mutations are required for Fgfr3-dependent tumourigenesis in the urothelium and analyse a mouse model in which an inhibitor of Pi3k-Akt signalling, Pten, is deleted in concert with Fgfr3 activation (UroIICreFgfr3+/K644EPtenflox/flox). Two main phonotypical characteristics observed in the urothelium were increased urothelial thickness and abnormal cellular histopathology, including vacuolisation, condensed cellular appearance, enlargement of cells and nuclei, and loss of polarity. These changes were not observed when either mutation was present individually. Expression patterns of known urothelial proteins indicated the abnormal cellular differentiation. Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that Fgfr3 and Pten mutations cooperatively caused cellular enlargement, while Pten contributed to an increased cell proliferation. Finally, FGFR3 overexpression was analysed along the level of phosphorylated mTOR in sixty-six T1 urothelial tumours in tissue microarray, which supported the occurrence of functional association of these two signalling pathways in urothelial pathogenesis. Taken together, this study provides evidence supporting a functional role of FGFR3 in the process of pathogenesis in urothelial neoplasm. Given the wide availability of inhibitors specific to FGF signalling pathways, our model may open the avenue for FGFR3-targeted translation in urothelial disease. PMID:24519156

  18. Helicobacter pylori : the causative agent of peptic ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review examines Helicobacter pylori as an organism and as the causative agent of peptic ulcers. The review also examined the classification of ulcers, how the bacterium produces the ulcer, some of the virulence factors possessed by the organism, its metabolism and growth requirements. The incidence and ...

  19. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  20. Changing the Hidden Curriculum of Campus Rape Prevention and Education: Women's Self-Defense as a Key Protective Factor for a Public Health Model of Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Martha; Cermele, Jill

    2015-10-16

    Recent activist, policy, and government efforts to engage in campus rape prevention education (RPE), culminating in the 2014 White House Task Force recommendations to combat campus sexual assault, prompt a need to examine the concept of "prevention" in the context of sexual assault on U.S. college campuses and their surrounding community service agencies. This article reviews previous research on effective resistance to sexual assault, showing that self-defense is a well-established protective factor in a public health model of sexual assault prevention. The article goes on to show, through an examination of campus rape prevention efforts framed as "primary prevention," that self-defense is routinely excluded. This creates a hidden curriculum that preserves a gender status quo even while it strives for change. The article concludes with recommendations for how administrators, educators, facilitators, funding agencies, and others can incorporate self-defense into campus RPE for a more effective, data-driven set of sexual assault prevention efforts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Locating Hidden Servers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oeverlier, Lasse; Syverson, Paul F

    2006-01-01

    .... Announced properties include server resistance to distributed DoS. Both the EFF and Reporters Without Borders have issued guides that describe using hidden services via Tor to protect the safety of dissidents as well as to resist censorship...

  2. Rationality, mental causation and social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of mental causation in the context of rational choice theory. The author defends psychological aspect of rational explanation against the challenge of contemporary reductive materialism.

  3. Discrete symmetries from hidden sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Wien,A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Richter, Robert [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Hamburg University,Hamburg (Germany); Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen,Nijmegen (Netherlands); Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC,Madrid (Spain)

    2015-06-29

    We study the presence of abelian discrete symmetries in globally consistent orientifold compactifications based on rational conformal field theory. We extend previous work http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2012.08.008 by allowing the discrete symmetries to be a linear combination of U(1) gauge factors of the visible as well as the hidden sector. This more general ansatz significantly increases the probability of finding a discrete symmetry in the low energy effective action. Applied to globally consistent MSSM-like Gepner constructions we find multiple models that allow for matter parity or Baryon triality.

  4. Search for Hidden Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Petrov, A; Dolmatov, A; Kurbatov, E; Khoriauli, G; Solovev, V

    The SHiP Experiment is a new general-purpose fixed target facility at the SPS to search for hidden particles as predicted by a very large number of recently elaborated models of Hidden Sectors which are capable of accommodating dark matter, neutrino oscillations, and the origin of the full baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Specifically, the experiment is aimed at searching for very weakly interacting long lived particles including Heavy Neutral Leptons - right-handed partners of the active neutrinos; light supersymmetric particles - sgoldstinos, etc.; scalar, axion and vector portals to the hidden sector. The high intensity of the SPS and in particular the large production of charm mesons with the 400 GeV beam allow accessing a wide variety of light long-lived exotic particles of such models and of SUSY. Moreover, the facility is ideally suited to study the interactions of tau neutrinos.

  5. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) - NMVCCS XML Case Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVVCS) was a nationwide survey of crashes involving light passenger vehicles, with a focus on the factors related...

  6. Hidden-loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombeau, J L; Turnbul, R B

    1978-04-01

    Records of 15 patients having hidden-loop colostomies were reviewed. All patients had metastatic colonic cancers with impending obstructions. Six colostomies were subsequently opened because of obstructions due to cancer. All colostomy openings were done using local anesthesia in the emergency room. This technique prevented six major celiotomies and provided additional time of living without a stoma. There were two postoperative stomal prolapses, one of which necessitated reoperation. A hidden-loop colostomy is easily constructed and readily opened. It should be considered at celiotomy for selected patients who have metastatic colonic cancer with impending obstruction.

  7. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Goo Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014 has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation.

  8. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  9. The hidden values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgitte; Jensen, Karsten Klint

    “The Hidden Values - Transparency in Decision-Making Processes Dealing with Hazardous Activities”. The report seeks to shed light on what is needed to create a transparent framework for political and administrative decisions on the use of GMOs and chemical products. It is our hope that the report...

  10. Hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, S R

    1996-06-01

    'Profiles' of protein structures and sequence alignments can detect subtle homologies. Profile analysis has been put on firmer mathematical ground by the introduction of hidden Markov model (HMM) methods. During the past year, applications of these powerful new HMM-based profiles have begun to appear in the fields of protein-structure prediction and large-scale genome-sequence analysis.

  11. Hidden risks for pneumonia in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hidden risks for pneumonia in Malawi. 06 Fullerton', SB Gordon2. 1. Department of ... cal but unseen risk factors for pneumonia. This paper reviews how recent research in Malawi and ..... Gyorkey F, Lahart C, Rossen RD. The effect of HIV infection on phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by human. 51. 52. 54.

  12. Distribution territories and causative mechanisms of ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, A.; Grive, E.; Alvarez-Sabin, J. [Unidad de Resonancia Magnetica, Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic stroke prognosis, risk of recurrence, clinical assessment, and treatment decisions are influenced by stroke subtype (anatomic distribution and causative mechanism of infarction). Stroke subtype diagnosis is better achieved in the early phase of acute ischemia with the use of multimodal MR imaging. The pattern of brain lesions as shown by brain MR imaging can be classified according to a modified Oxfordshire method, based on the anatomic distribution of the infarcts into six groups: (1) total anterior circulation infarcts, (2) partial anterior circulation infarcts, (3) posterior circulation infarcts, (4) watershed infarcts, (5) centrum ovale infarcts, and (6) lacunar infarcts. The subtype of stroke according to its causative mechanism is based on the TOAST method, which classifies stroke into five major etiologic groups: (1) large-vessel atherosclerotic disease, (2) small-vessel atherosclerotic disease, (3) cardioembolic source, (4) other determined etiologies, and (5) undetermined or multiple possible etiologies. The different MR imaging patterns of acute ischemic brain lesions visualized using diffusion-weighted imaging and the pattern of vessel involvement demonstrated with MR angiography are essential factors that can suggest the most likely causative mechanism of infarction. This information may have an impact on decisions regarding therapy and the performance of additional diagnostic tests. (orig.)

  13. How Classical Conditioning Shapes Placebo Analgesia: Hidden versus Open Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Przemyslaw; Adamczyk, Waclaw; Swider, Karolina; Bajcar, Elzbieta A; Kicman, Pawel; Lisinska, Natalia

    2017-07-22

    To investigate the influence of expectancy of pain intensity, fear of pain (trait), and fear (state) on the effectiveness of hidden and open conditioning to produce placebo analgesia. A total of 90 healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups (hidden conditioning, open conditioning, and control) that received electrical stimuli preceded by either orange or blue lights. One color was paired with painful stimuli (control stimuli) and the other color was paired with nonpainful stimuli (conditioned stimuli) in both the hidden and open conditioning groups. Only participants in the open conditioning group were informed about this association. In the control group, both color lights were followed by control stimuli. In the testing phase, both colored lights were followed by identical control stimuli. Participants rated pain intensity, expectancy of pain intensity, fear, and fear of pain. A significant analgesic effect was found only in the hidden conditioning group, where no explicit verbal suggestions were provided. Hidden conditioning had an effect on expectancy and fear-participants in the hidden conditioning group expected less pain and experienced less fear in relation to conditioned stimuli. Fear was the only predictor of placebo analgesia in the hidden conditioning group. Neither expectancy of pain intensity nor fear of pain predicted placebo analgesia. Fear seems to be a more important factor than expectancy in producing placebo analgesia induced by hidden conditioning.

  14. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    OpenAIRE

    Imane Boudellioua; Rozaimi B Mahamad Razali; Maxat Kulmanov; Yasmeen Hashish; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Eva Goncalves-Serra; Nadia Schoenmakers; Gkoutos, Georgios V.; Schofield, Paul N.; Robert Hoehndorf

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated rea...

  15. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  16. Semantic prioritization of novel causative genomic variants

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2017-04-17

    Discriminating the causative disease variant(s) for individuals with inherited or de novo mutations presents one of the main challenges faced by the clinical genetics community today. Computational approaches for variant prioritization include machine learning methods utilizing a large number of features, including molecular information, interaction networks, or phenotypes. Here, we demonstrate the PhenomeNET Variant Predictor (PVP) system that exploits semantic technologies and automated reasoning over genotype-phenotype relations to filter and prioritize variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets. We demonstrate the performance of PVP in identifying causative variants on a large number of synthetic whole exome and whole genome sequences, covering a wide range of diseases and syndromes. In a retrospective study, we further illustrate the application of PVP for the interpretation of whole exome sequencing data in patients suffering from congenital hypothyroidism. We find that PVP accurately identifies causative variants in whole exome and whole genome sequencing datasets and provides a powerful resource for the discovery of causal variants.

  17. Hidden Photons in Extra Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Chris J.; Jaeckel, Joerg; Roy, Sabyasachi

    2013-01-01

    Additional U(1) gauge symmetries and corresponding vector bosons, called hidden photons, interacting with the regular photon via kinetic mixing are well motivated in extensions of the Standard Model. Such extensions often exhibit extra spatial dimensions. In this note we investigate the effects of hidden photons living in extra dimensions. In four dimensions such a hidden photon is only detectable if it has a mass or if there exists additional matter charged under it. We note that in extra di...

  18. Using HPGe detector for a solar hidden-photons search

    CERN Document Server

    Horvat, R; Krcmar, M; Krecak, Z; Ljubicic, A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the results of our search for photons from a U(1) gauge factor in the hidden sector of the full theory, by observing the single spectrum in a HPGe detector arising as a result of the photoelectric-like absorption of hidden photons emitted from the Sun on germanium atoms inside the detector. The main ingredient of the theory used in our analysis, a severely constrained kinetic mixing from the two U(1) gauge factors and massive hidden photons, leads to both photon into hidden states oscillations and to a minuscule coupling of hidden photons to visible matter, of which the latter our experimental setup has been designed to observe. On a theoretical side, full account was taken of the effects of refraction and damping of photons while propagating in the Sun's interior. We exclude hidden photons with kinetic couplings chi > (1.5x10^{-6}-2.6x10^{-11}) for the mass region 1.7x10^{-4} eV < m_\\gamma' < 3.4 eV. Our constraints on the mixing parameter chi at sub-eV hidden-photon masses p...

  19. Naturally light hidden photons in LARGE volume string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, M. [LPTHE, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Univ. Durham (United Kingdom); Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Extra ''hidden'' U(1) gauge factors are a generic feature of string theory that is of particular phenomenological interest. They can kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and are thereby accessible to a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations and laboratory experiments. In this paper we investigate the masses and the kinetic mixing of hidden U(1)s in LARGE volume compactifications of string theory. We find that in these scenarios the hidden photons can be naturally light and that their kinetic mixing with the ordinary electromagnetic photon can be of a size interesting for near future experiments and observations. (orig.)

  20. Causation and Responsibility: A New Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Mortellaro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In “Property, Causality, and Liability” and “Causation and Aggression,” Hans-Hermann Hoppe and Stephan Kinsella & Patrick Tinsley, respectively, argue against the Rothbardian position on criminal liability, especially with regard to the issue of incitement. This essay takes a critical look at the suggested approaches of both and attempts to defend the Rothbardian position on incitement from their criticisms. Further, this essay examines the views of Walter Block on incitement and attempts to correct inconsistencies in his position with regard to murder contracts and threats.

  1. The hidden curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rechell G; Mai, Derek

    2012-09-01

    The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Internal Medicine Third Year Clerkship Program recently instituted an academic exercise to be completed by medical students during the first 6 weeks of their 12 weeks of Internal Medicine. The academic exercise involves reflecting on professional values through art and being exposed to the hidden curriculum of professionalism. Students are instructed at the beginning of their clerkship to observe the professional activities of their teachers, peers, ancillary staff, and of themselves. Students are provided a selection of art pieces to choose from. They select one which best exemplifies the professional activity they observed and are then to write a structured, reflective article.

  2. Hidden bone erosions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salaffi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pictorial essay was to demonstrate the diagnostic efficacy of high-resolution sonography in detecting bone erosions in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Standard X-Ray of the feet did not reveal clearly evident erosions. Ultrasonography was able to detect the presence of bone erosions of the metatarsal heads of both the first toes and of the V toe of the left foot. Because the appearance of bone erosions on radiographs of a patient with a recent onset arthritis indicates a poor prognosis, the possibility of demonstrating small hidden erosions at the level of the early targets of the disease is of relevant practical value.

  3. Perceptions of Older People Regarding Their Vision and Incident Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mei Ying; Chu, Byoung Sun; Lee, Pei-Chu; Chiang, Te-Ju; Alshamli, Nasser; Alghamdi, Waleed; Lai, Jennifer; Yeung, Wendy; Bridge, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    It is widely known that visual impairment (VI) is a risk factor for falls, but patients or their eye care practitioners may not recognize other kinds of incidents as being problematic because of their vision. Consequently, older people with VI may have unmet needs for advice on how to carry out activities of daily living safely. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand whether older people with VI consider their vision as a causative factor of incidents they experience and their perceptions regarding the prevention of future incidents. If sample size permitted, a secondary aim was to evaluate whether quantitative findings supported their perceptions. The study design was a prospective cohort study evaluating injurious and damaging incidents and related near misses using open questions in a written 2-weekly large-print diary with active follow-up over 8 weeks in older people (>60 years, n = 80) with and without VI. Baseline measures included habitual binocular visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, 3-m walk test, and Short Form 12 physical and mental component scores. Participants' diary entries were coded. Factor analysis and binary logistic analysis were used to investigate whether baseline measures were predictive of incident occurrence. Risk and preventative factors identified were compared. Participants perceived that their vision was implicated in bump and fall incidents. Quantitative analysis indicated that contrast sensitivity and fitness were significant predictors of incident occurrence. Six vision-related and five non-vision-related causative factors were identified by participants as contributing factors. Participants frequently stated "don't know" when asked to identify solutions to prevent incident recurrence. Participants had unmet needs for advice in relation to incident prevention. It would be prudent for eye care practitioners to raise incident prevention in eye care consultations regardless of voiced patient concerns.

  4. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  5. Discovering hidden viral piracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eddo; Kliger, Yossef

    2005-12-01

    Viruses and developers of anti-inflammatory therapies share a common interest in proteins that manipulate the immune response. Large double-stranded DNA viruses acquire host proteins to evade host defense mechanisms. Hence, viral pirated proteins may have a therapeutic potential. Although dozens of viral piracy events have already been identified, we hypothesized that sequence divergence impedes the discovery of many others. We developed a method to assess the number of viral/human homologs and discovered that at least 917 highly diverged homologs are hidden in low-similarity alignment hits that are usually ignored. However, these low-similarity homologs are masked by many false alignment hits. We therefore applied a filtering method to increase the proportion of viral/human homologous proteins. The homologous proteins we found may facilitate functional annotation of viral and human proteins. Furthermore, some of these proteins play a key role in immune modulation and are therefore therapeutic protein candidates.

  6. Managing Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This chapter investigates the concept of the ‘hidden costs’ of offshoring, i.e. unexpected offshoring costs exceeding the initially expected costs. Due to the highly undefined nature of these costs, we position our analysis towards the strategic responses of firms’ realisation of hidden costs. In......-by-doing process, where hidden costs motivate firms and their employees to search for new and better knowledge on how to successfully manage the organisation. We illustrate this thesis based on the case of the LEGO Group....

  7. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  8. The Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    of offshoring. Specifically, we propose that hidden costs can be explained by the combination of increasing structural, operational and social complexity of offshoring activities. In addition, we suggest that firm orientation towards organizational design as part of an offshoring strategy and offshoring...... of our study is to suggest how hidden costs of offshoring can be mitigated through an explicit orientation towards improving organizational processes and structures as well as experience with offshoring.......This study seeks to explain hidden costs of offshoring, i.e. unexpected costs resulting from the relocation of business tasks and activities outside the home country. We develop a model that highlights the role of complexity, design orientation and experience in explaining hidden costs...

  9. Hidden Statistics of Schroedinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    Work was carried out in determination of the mathematical origin of randomness in quantum mechanics and creating a hidden statistics of Schr dinger equation; i.e., to expose the transitional stochastic process as a "bridge" to the quantum world. The governing equations of hidden statistics would preserve such properties of quantum physics as superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods.

  10. Etiology in psychiatry: embracing the reality of poly-gene-environmental causation of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Rudolf; Zwicker, Alyson

    2017-06-01

    Intriguing findings on genetic and environmental causation suggest a need to reframe the etiology of mental disorders. Molecular genetics shows that thousands of common and rare genetic variants contribute to mental illness. Epidemiological studies have identified dozens of environmental exposures that are associated with psychopathology. The effect of environment is likely conditional on genetic factors, resulting in gene-environment interactions. The impact of environmental factors also depends on previous exposures, resulting in environment-environment interactions. Most known genetic and environmental factors are shared across multiple mental disorders. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, in particular, are closely causally linked. Synthesis of findings from twin studies, molecular genetics and epidemiological research suggests that joint consideration of multiple genetic and environmental factors has much greater explanatory power than separate studies of genetic or environmental causation. Multi-factorial gene-environment interactions are likely to be a generic mechanism involved in the majority of cases of mental illness, which is only partially tapped by existing gene-environment studies. Future research may cut across psychiatric disorders and address poly-causation by considering multiple genetic and environmental measures across the life course with a specific focus on the first two decades of life. Integrative analyses of poly-causation including gene-environment and environment-environment interactions can realize the potential for discovering causal types and mechanisms that are likely to generate new preventive and therapeutic tools. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  11. A neural network model of causative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to "do" anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the "causative actions" circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in "functional" actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013).

  12. 66 Causative Constructions: A Descriptive Analysis Philip Manda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    Imoh: Causative Constructions: A Descriptive Analysis. 68 abstracts of the Bible. This, they did by devising ... introduction to the study, section two reviews the causative literature, section three presents the data and analysis .... lexical categories form the basis for this grammatical processes namely, verbs and adjectives.

  13. Top-down causation and emergence: some comments on mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, George F R

    2012-02-06

    Both bottom-up and top-down causation occur in the hierarchy of structure and causation. A key feature is multiple realizability of higher level functions, and consequent existence of equivalence classes of lower level variables that correspond to the same higher level state. Five essentially different classes of top-down influence can be identified, and their existence demonstrated by many real-world examples. They are: algorithmic top-down causation; top-down causation via non-adaptive information control, top-down causation via adaptive selection, top-down causation via adaptive information control and intelligent top-down causation (the effect of the human mind on the physical world). Through the mind, abstract entities such as mathematical structures have causal power. The causal slack enabling top-down action to take place lies in the structuring of the system so as to attain higher level functions; in the way the nature of lower level elements is changed by context, and in micro-indeterminism combined with adaptive selection. Understanding top-down causation can have important effects on society. Two cases will be mentioned: medical/healthcare issues, and education-in particular, teaching reading and writing. In both cases, an ongoing battle between bottom-up and top-down approaches has important consequences for society.

  14. The Kihema causative construction within Baker's theory of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baker (1988) states that the causative verb is a morpheme that needs to be attached to a host. A base verb must move cyclically and fuses with the causative verb in a higher clause. By the projection principle, this movement should not destroy thematically relevant structures; hence, the moved verb root must leave a trace to ...

  15. Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A. Ruegg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Less-known forces are involved in the etiology of lung cancer and have relevant implications for providers in ameliorating care. The purpose of this article is to discuss theories of causation of lung cancer using historical analyses of the evolution of the disease and incorporating related explanations integrating the relationships of science, nursing, medicine, and society. Literature from 160 years was searched and Thagard’s model of causation networks was used to exhibit how nursing and medicine were significant influences in lung cancer causation theory. Disease causation interfaces with sociological norms of behavior to form habits and rates of health behavior. Historically, nursing was detrimentally manipulated by the tobacco industry, engaging in harmful smoking behaviors, thus negatively affecting patient care. Understanding the underlying history behind lung cancer causation may empower nurses to play an active role in a patient’s health.

  16. Hidden photons in connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Goodsell, Mark D. [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France)

    2013-06-15

    Light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so called hidden photons, which reside in a hidden sector have attracted much attention since they are a well motivated feature of many scenarios beyond the Standard Model and furthermore could mediate the interaction with hidden sector dark matter.We review limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from such experiments at KEK and Orsay. In addition, we study the possibility of having dark matter in the hidden sector. A simple toy model and different supersymmetric realisations are shown to provide viable dark matter candidates in the hidden sector that are in agreement with recent direct detection limits.

  17. Stargate of the Hidden Multiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Antonov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Concept of Monoverse, which corresponds to the existing broad interpretation of the second postulate of the special theory of relativity, is not consistent with the modern astrophysical reality — existence of the dark matter and the dark energy, the total mass-energy of which is ten times greater than the mass-energy of the visible universe (which has been considered as the entire universe until very recent . This concept does not allow to explain their rather unusual properties — invisibility and lack of baryon content — which would seem to even destroy the very modern understanding of the term ‘matter’. However, all numerous alternative concepts of Multiverses, which have been proposed until today, are unable to explain these properties of the dark matter and dark energy. This article describes a new concept: the concept of the hidden Multiverse and hidden Supermultiverse, which mutual invisibility of parallel universes is explained by the physical reality of imaginary numbers. This concept completely explains the phenomenon of the dark matter and the dark energy. Moreover, it is shown that the dark matter and the dark energy are the experimental evidence for the existence of the hidden Multiverse. Described structure of the hidden Multiverse is fully consistent with the data obtained by the space stations WMAP and Planck. An extremely important property of the hidden Multiverse is an actual possibility of its permeation through stargate located on the Earth.

  18. Manifestations of Hidden Curriculum in a Community College Online Opticianry Program: An Ecological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the influential factors at work within an online learning environment is a growing area of interest. Hidden or implicit expectations, skill sets, knowledge, and social process can help or hinder student achievement, belief systems, and persistence. This qualitative study investigated how hidden curricular issues transpired in an…

  19. Siltation of Ore Particles in Leaching Tanks: Causative Factors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Comminution is the progressive reduction in the size of an ore to a suitable size range to liberate the mineral of interest from the worthless gangue material or shorten the travel distance of reagents during leaching. In a typical gold extraction plant where agitation leaching is employed, comminution may be ...

  20. Hidden worlds in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a resurgence in research and interest in the areas of quantum computation and entanglement. This new book addresses the hidden worlds or variables of quantum physics. Author Gérard Gouesbet studied and worked with a former student of Louis de Broglie, a pioneer of quantum physics. His presentation emphasizes the history and philosophical foundations of physics, areas that will interest lay readers as well as professionals and advanced undergraduate and graduate students of quantum physics. The introduction is succeeded by chapters offering background on relevant concepts in classical and quantum mechanics, a brief history of causal theories, and examinations of the double solution, pilot wave, and other hidden-variables theories. Additional topics include proofs of possibility and impossibility, contextuality, non-locality, classification of hidden-variables theories, and stochastic quantum mechanics. The final section discusses how to gain a genuine understanding of quantum mec...

  1. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding.......Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  2. Licensing of Instrumental Case in Hindi/Urdu Causatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Ramchand

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I revisit the licensing and interpretation of instrumental case-marked nominals in Hindi/Urdu causative constructions to argue against the hypothesis that the se-marked phrase corresponds to a demoted agent. Rather, I will argue that a more unified analysis of se-phrases can be achieved through an event-structural analysis, in line with the standard interpretation of other adverbials in the syntax. Since the ‘intermediate agent’ interpretation is only possible with indirect causatives in Hindi/Urdu, the event structural analysis proposed here also has implications for the direct vs. indirect causation distinction in the syntax.

  3. Hidden Crises and Communication : An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  4. Hidden Crises and Communication: An Interactional Analysis of Hidden Crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Annette Klarenbeek

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I describe the ways in which the communication discipline can make a hidden crisis transparent. For this purpose I examine the concept of crisis entrepreneurship from a communication point of view. Using discourse analysis, I analyse the discursive practices of crisis entrepreneurs in

  5. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    OpenAIRE

    Tricia Shi; Bruno Tambasco

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay h...

  6. Laser Shearography Reveals Hidden "Unbonds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.

    1992-01-01

    Flaws identified faster than in ultrasonic inspection. Holographic technique detects hidden "unbonds", and does not require elaborate provisions for suppression of vibrations. Laser-shearographic apparatus used to observe object while stress being applied. Shearographic image indicative of deflection caused by stress. Also used to inspect complexly contoured surfaces.

  7. Sexual Harrassment: A Hidden Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Bernice R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The hidden but serious problem of sexual harassment of students and employees by college faculty is discussed, some statistics are given, and legal and court opinions outlined. Harassment as a violation of Title IX is analyzed, and implications for institutional action to curb it are outlined. (MSE)

  8. Characterization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters using hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Baldi, P.; Chauvin, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we utilize hidden Markov models (HMMs) and information theory to analyze prokaryotic and eukaryotic promoters. We perform this analysis with special emphasis on the fact that promoters are divided into a number of different classes, depending on which polymerase-associated factors...

  9. Analysing the hidden curriculum: use of a cultural web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossop, Liz; Dennick, Reg; Hammond, Richard; Robbé, Iain

    2013-02-01

    Major influences on learning about medical professionalism come from the hidden curriculum. These influences can contribute positively or negatively towards the professional enculturation of clinical students. The fact that there is no validated method for identifying the components of the hidden curriculum poses problems for educators considering professionalism. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a cultural web, adapted from a business context, might assist in the identification of elements of the hidden curriculum at a UK veterinary school. A qualitative approach was used. Seven focus groups consisting of three staff groups and four student groups were organised. Questioning was framed using the cultural web, which is a model used by business owners to assess their environment and consider how it affects their employees and customers. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically using a combination of a priori and emergent themes. The cultural web identified elements of the hidden curriculum for both students and staff. These included: core assumptions; routines; rituals; control systems; organisational factors; power structures, and symbols. Discussions occurred about how and where these issues may affect students' professional identity development. The cultural web framework functioned well to help participants identify elements of the hidden curriculum. These aspects aligned broadly with previously described factors such as role models and institutional slang. The influence of these issues on a student's development of a professional identity requires discussion amongst faculty staff, and could be used to develop learning opportunities for students. The framework is promising for the analysis of the hidden curriculum and could be developed as an instrument for implementation in other clinical teaching environments. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.

  10. EVALUASI HIDDEN CURRICULUM DI SMP NEGERI BOJA, KABUPATEN KENDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neni Lestari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the implementation and impact of Hidden Curriculum, as well as the determinant factors of success and sustainability in SMPN 2 Boja Kendal. This study was an evaluative research using qualitative approach. The data collected by using observation, interviews, and documentation. Data analyzed by collecting and selecting to be deduce. Validity used triangulation data that combined the result of observation, interviews, and documentation. The results of the study were: 1 The activities of hidden curriculum development at SMPN 2 Boja Kendal, namely: flag ceremony, school environmental management, establishing and enforcing discipline, special religious worship, smiles, greetings and courtesies, exemplary, relationship among students and principal, teachers, and staff, school canteen services. 2 The impact of the hidden curriculum development was the changing of school community’s behavior being better, created clean and beautiful school environment, the improvement of public trust to the school toward their kids’ education. Development of the hidden curriculum could establish students good character and an optimal achievement as well as a good school culture. 3 Internal supporting factors including: qualified human resources, the availability of school facilities, school environment was clean and beautiful. External supporting factors occur in the form of endorsement of the parents, school committees and communities in establishing good and virtuous character for the students.

  11. Quantifying hidden individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Ulrich; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    Aging is assumed to be driven by the accumulation of damage or some other aging factor which shapes demographic patterns, including the classical late age mortality plateaus. However to date, heterogeneity in these damage stages is not observed. Here, we estimate underlying stage distributions...

  12. Epitope discovery with phylogenetic hidden Markov models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lacerda, Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Existing methods for the prediction of immunologically active T-cell epitopes are based on the amino acid sequence or structure of pathogen proteins. Additional information regarding the locations of epitopes may be acquired by considering the evolution of viruses in hosts with different immune backgrounds. In particular, immune-dependent evolutionary patterns at sites within or near T-cell epitopes can be used to enhance epitope identification. We have developed a mutation-selection model of T-cell epitope evolution that allows the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of the host to influence the evolutionary process. This is one of the first examples of the incorporation of environmental parameters into a phylogenetic model and has many other potential applications where the selection pressures exerted on an organism can be related directly to environmental factors. We combine this novel evolutionary model with a hidden Markov model to identify contiguous amino acid positions that appear to evolve under immune pressure in the presence of specific host immune alleles and that therefore represent potential epitopes. This phylogenetic hidden Markov model provides a rigorous probabilistic framework that can be combined with sequence or structural information to improve epitope prediction. As a demonstration, we apply the model to a data set of HIV-1 protein-coding sequences and host HLA genotypes.

  13. Laser experiments explore the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Gies, H. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Recently, the laser experiments BMV and GammeV, searching for light shining through walls, have published data and calculated new limits on the allowed masses and couplings for axion-like particles. In this note we point out that these experiments can serve to constrain a much wider variety of hidden-sector particles such as, e.g., minicharged particles and hidden-sector photons. The new experiments improve the existing bounds from the older BFRT experiment by a factor of two. Moreover, we use the new PVLAS constraints on a possible rotation and ellipticity of light after it has passed through a strong magnetic field to constrain pure minicharged particle models. For masses

  14. The Consensus String Problem and the Complexity of Comparing Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsø, Rune Bang; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2002-01-01

    The basic theory of hidden Markov models was developed and applied to problems in speech recognition in the late 1960s, and has since then been applied to numerous problems, e.g. biological sequence analysis. Most applications of hidden Markov models are based on efficient algorithms for computing...... the probability of generating a given string, or computing the most likely path generating a given string. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the most likely string, or consensus string, generated by a given model, and its implications on the complexity of comparing hidden Markov models. We show...... that computing the consensus string, and approximating its probability within any constant factor, is NP-hard, and that the same holds for the closely related labeling problem for class hidden Markov models. Furthermore, we establish the NP-hardness of comparing two hidden Markov models under the L∞- and L1...

  15. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative Agents and Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma) or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma). It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%). They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7%) of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%), face (2.8%), and trunk (2.8%), and buttock (2.8%). Most patients (68.5%) were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome. PMID:25284877

  16. Mycetoma in Iran: Causative agents and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by true fungi (eumycetoma or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma. It usually involves the subcutaneous tissue after a traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. We reviewed retrospectively 13 patients with mycetoma. Materials and Methods: This study reports the etiologic agents and distribution of mycetoma in 35 cases from 1994 to2009 in Iran. The diagnostic of mycetoma were confirmed by histopathology and direct preparation, culture techniques, and histopathology of granules and surgical biopsies, radiological examination of the affected site. Results: Mycetoma was identified in 35 patients of 168 suspected patients (20.8%. They occurred in 22 male and 13 females. Their ages ranged from 14 to 80 years. The duration of the disease ranged from two months to 38 years. Sixteen patients had eumycetoma, and 19 patients had actinomycetoma, one of them had mix infections by eumycetoma and actinomycetoma. The majority of the patients were from central and states in south and north of Iran. The feet were most affected site (65.7% of the cases, followed by hands (25.7%, face (2.8%, and trunk (2.8%, and buttock (2.8%. Most patients (68.5% were more than 40 year-old. The male to female ratio was 5:3. The disease was abundant among housewife in urban and farmer in rural area of Iran. The most common prevalent mycetoma agents in this study were Actinomyces sp. There was a history of risk factors in 28.6% of patients in this study. Conclusion: Mycetoma occasionally occurs particularly in the South, Central, and North of Iran, and seen most often in persons, who live in hot, humid climates. If there are risk factors for invasive fungal infections traumatic inoculation with any fungus may result in rapid local spread and systemic disease, often with fatal outcome.

  17. APPROUSH TO SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsapov D.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased level of morbidity of infective endocarditis (IE connected with new risk factors: intravenous drug use, cardiosurgical interventions, hemodialysis brought new clinical forms of the disease. As it shown in a literature main pathogenetic factors of IE are bacteraemia, trauma of endocardium and invasive medical procedures. Very typical pathogens are streptococci and staphylococci. Most typically mitral and aortal valves are affected with spreading of vegetations on surrounding media. Discussion. IE is polyetiologic disease caused by more than 128 microorganisms, and still a challenge for medical professionals. Detection a causative agent is critical for proper specific treatment. In different sources data on percentage of proven cases very according to country and different medical centres reflecting different local epidemiology of IE, diagnostic criteria and protocols. Culture negative infectious endocarditis (CNIE is considered in case of obtaining of three negative results of cultivation of samples on a standard blood agar during 7 days and subculturing. CNIE incidence very form 2% to 33% according to different researches and higher in cases of community acquired infection and reseeding antibacterial treatment. Some of cases of CNIE caused by gram - negative fastidious microorganisms - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Actinobacillus, Actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae, with united in HACEK group according to their properties to colonize oropharynx and requirement in special conditions and duration of incubation. Detection of some intracellular bacteria, such as C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. require immunological methods of detection, histological methods and of PCR. Conclusion. In case of diagnostics of patients with CNIE it is necessary to use a combination of prolonged subculturing of serum, emboli and histologic material on blood agar with microscopy by Warthin

  18. Detect and exploit hidden structure in fatty acid signature data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Suzanne; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Thiemann, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Estimates of predator diet composition are essential to our understanding of their ecology. Although several methods of estimating diet are practiced, methods based on biomarkers have become increasingly common. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a popular method that continues to be refined and extended. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis is based on differences in the signatures of prey types, often species, which are recognized and designated by investigators. Similarly, predator signatures may be structured by known factors such as sex or age class, and the season or region of sample collection. The recognized structure in signature data inherently influences QFASA results in important and typically beneficial ways. However, predator and prey signatures may contain additional, hidden structure that investigators either choose not to incorporate into an analysis or of which they are unaware, being caused by unknown ecological mechanisms. Hidden structure also influences QFASA results, most often negatively. We developed a new method to explore signature data for hidden structure, called divisive magnetic clustering (DIMAC). Our DIMAC approach is based on the same distance measure used in diet estimation, closely linking methods of data exploration and parameter estimation, and it does not require data transformation or distributional assumptions, as do many multivariate ordination methods in common use. We investigated the potential benefits of the DIMAC method to detect and subsequently exploit hidden structure in signature data using two prey signature libraries with quite different characteristics. We found that the existence of hidden structure in prey signatures can increase the confusion between prey types and thereby reduce the accuracy and precision of QFASA diet estimates. Conversely, the detection and exploitation of hidden structure represent a potential opportunity to improve predator diet estimates and may lead to new

  19. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  20. On the causation of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L G; Berger, G S; Edelman, D A; Newton, W; Fullan, N; Bailey, R; Friberg, J

    1984-05-15

    The classic descriptive model of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) omits any direct statement that sexual intercourse leads to the development of the lower genital or cervical infection which ultimately leads to upper genital or tubal infection. Despite this, clinicians treating patients with PID frequently, either implicity or explicitly, link its onset to sexual activity. In the past decade numerous authors have commented on the strong association between the widespread changes in sexual attitudes and behavior (without describing them in detail) and the enormous rise in sexually transmitted diseases and PID. With the advent of the case control study, the epidemiologist viewed sexual activity as only 1 of many risk factors for the development of PID. Yet, the clinician often maintanied that this relationship was too obvious to require case control studies to prove the point. The sum, the classic hypothesis on the pathogenesis of PID has remained virtually unchanged for nearly 8 decades in spite of its limitations, such as the failure to consider the endogenous and exogenous risk factors for the development of PID in a given patient. Possibly the greatest defect of the classic theory is its failure to address the precise mechanisms by which the infectious agents that cause PID travel from the lower to the upper genital tract. Existing literature suggests that 3 mechanisms may be operative. The 1st mechanism is that motile trichomonads are capable of ascending from the vagina to the level of the fallopian tubes and may carry with them a variety of infectious agents. The 2nd suspected mechanism for transport of microorganisms to the fallopian tubes is by attachment to sperm. If this occurs, then clearly spermatozoa may serve as vectors of pelvic infection. Abundant evidence exists to support the concept that sperm intimately associate with a variety of infectious agents, many of which are unrecognized as pathogens in the female. The 3rd suspected mechanism for

  1. Understanding Neonatal Jaundice: A Perspective on Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald S. Cohen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal jaundice can be best understood as a balance between the production and elimination of bilirubin, with a multitude of factors and conditions affecting each of these processes. When an imbalance results because of an increase in circulating bilirubin (or the bilirubin load to significantly high levels (severe hyperbilirubinemia, it may cause permanent neurologic sequelae (kernicterus. In most infants, an increase in bilirubin production (e.g., due to hemolysis is the primary cause of severe hyperbilirubinemia, and thus reducing bilirubin production is a rational approach for its management. The situation can become critical in infants with an associated impaired bilirubin elimination mechanism as a result of a genetic deficiency and/or polymorphism. Combining information about bilirubin production and genetic information about bilirubin elimination with the tracking of bilirubin levels means that a relative assessment of jaundice risk might be feasible. Information on the level of bilirubin production and its rate of elimination may help to guide the clinical management of neonatal jaundice.

  2. Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy and Causation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, M J

    2016-07-01

    A vaginal childbirth is the result of the internal (endogenous) expulsive forces of uterine contractions, usually supplemented by active maternal pushing1. Depending on the clinical circumstances, additional external (exogenous) traction forces may be required from the birth attendant. This blend of internal and external forces varies from birth to birth. Women who have had a previous vaginal delivery, for example, may deliver successfully with uterine contractions alone and the role of the birth attendant may be simply to control and slow the delivery so that trauma to the maternal perineum from stretching by the fetal head is minimised. In contrast, additional traction may be required by an obstetrician at the time of an operative vaginal delivery for fetal distress or dystocia. The strength of the traction required may be increased by clinical factors, for example, fetal macrosomia or malposition. The traction should be axial in the direction of the birth canal, which is a vector combining horizontal and vertical traction at 25-45 degrees below the horizontal when the woman is in the lithotomy position.

  3. Celebrity Endorsement : Hidden factors to success

    OpenAIRE

    Saouma, Joulyana; Chabo, Dimed

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The use of celebrity endorsement strategy is nowadays more frequently used by marketers in order to increase their sales and thereby extend their market shares. Many celebrities are used in various marketing campaigns and in most cases; the use of celebrities as endorsers is seen from mainly positive aspects. This made the authors curious whether the negative aspects, that also exists when using celebrities as endorsers, affects consumers in their purchasing decisions when a celebrit...

  4. A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Denis

    2012-02-06

    Must higher level biological processes always be derivable from lower level data and mechanisms, as assumed by the idea that an organism is completely defined by its genome? Or are higher level properties necessarily also causes of lower level behaviour, involving actions and interactions both ways? This article uses modelling of the heart, and its experimental basis, to show that downward causation is necessary and that this form of causation can be represented as the influences of initial and boundary conditions on the solutions of the differential equations used to represent the lower level processes. These insights are then generalized. A priori, there is no privileged level of causation. The relations between this form of 'biological relativity' and forms of relativity in physics are discussed. Biological relativity can be seen as an extension of the relativity principle by avoiding the assumption that there is a privileged scale at which biological functions are determined.

  5. [The characteristics of biological properties of E. coli O104:H4--the causative agent of large-scale alimentary ictus in Germany may 2001].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaftyreva, L A; Egorova, S A; Makarova, M A; Zabrovskaia, A V; Matveeva, Z N; Syzhaeva, L V; Artamononva, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    The review presents the characteristics of E. coli O104:H4, the causative agent of large-scale alimentary ictus in Germany in spring time 2011. The antigenic characteristics and factors of E. coli pathogenicity are taken into account. The causative agent has a combination of pathogenic factors of two groups of diarrheigenic Escherichia: shigella similar toxin, specific for entero-hemorrhagic E. coli and adhesins of enteroaggregative E. coli.

  6. The causative construction in Lingála | Meeuwis | Annales Aequatoria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots-clés: lingála, dérivation verbale, causatif, applicatif. This study of the causative verbal derivation in ... Subsequently, the interaction of the causative and applicative is analysed, and attention is devoted to the behaviour of the complements in a causative construction. Keywords: Lingála, verbal dérivation, causative, ...

  7. Diabetes Causation Beliefs Among Spanish-Speaking Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Jeannie Belinda; Mayer, Sallie D; Mezuk, Briana R; Avula, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the inquiry of cultural diabetes causation beliefs can improve Hispanic/Latino patient self-management. Two semistructured focus groups were conducted with 13 Hispanic/Latinos adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prior to taking part in the group discussion, participants completed a demographic survey and the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. The top 5 diabetes causation items endorsed by participants per the questionnaire included stress or worry, behavior, hereditary, diet/eating habits, and family problems/worries. The qualitative analysis revealed stress as a recurring theme for a cause of diabetes. Work stress was specifically identified as a contributor to unhealthy eating and diabetes. Most participants were aware of and believed in susto and referred to it as coraje (anger). Participants believed that asking patients about their diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status can help health professionals (1) better understand the patient and (2) identify and prioritize diabetes treatments. Participants also indicated that the role of doctors is important and the encouragement that they give to patients is clinically and spiritually valued. Stress was identified as a cause of diabetes in addition to unhealthy diets and heredity. Asking patients about diabetes causation beliefs and emotional status may help prioritize treatment and management goals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. ChiShona periphrastic causatives as syntactic complex predicates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ChiShona periphrastic causatives as syntactic complex predicates: An HPSG analysis. ... We utilise analytical insights from the notion of Argument Composition (AC) and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) theory. Since AC is considered as a lexical process, its account of complex predicates satisfies strict ...

  9. Transitivity and the ontology of causation | Unwin | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that it is very hard to analyse causation in such a way that prevents everything from causing everything else. This is particularly true if we assume that the causal relation is transitive, for it all too often happens that causal chains that we wish to keep separate pass through common intermediate events. It is also ...

  10. CGRP may play a causative role in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L H; Haderslev, P A; Jacobsen, V B

    2002-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP...... attacks may play a causative role....

  11. Concepts Concerning 'Disease\\' Causation, Control, and the current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ethical necessity that doctors understand the complex social, political, environmental and economic dynamics involved in infectious disease outbreaks. This article discusses some important concepts concerning 'disease' causation and control with specific reference to the current cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe ...

  12. Integrating causation in investigative ecological weight of evidence assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan W; Chapman, Peter M

    2017-07-01

    Weight of evidence (WOE) frameworks integrate environmental assessment data to reach conclusions regarding relative certainty of adverse environmental effects due to stressors, possible causation, and key uncertainties. Such studies can be investigative (i.e., determining whether adverse impact is occurring to identify a need for management) or retrospective (i.e., determining the cause of a detected impact such that management efforts focus on the correct stressor). Such WOE assessments do not themselves definitively establish causation; they provide the basis for subsequent follow-up studies to further investigate causation. We propose a modified investigative WOE framework that includes an additional weighting step, which we term "direction weighting." This additional step allows for the examination of alternative hypotheses and provides improved certainty regarding possible causation. To our knowledge, this approach has not been previously applied in investigative ecological WOE assessments. We provide a generic example of 2 conflicting hypotheses related to a mine discharging treated effluent to a freshwater lake: chemical toxicity versus nutrient enrichment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:702-713. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Standard Javanese Causatives in online editorials and short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Malihah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the distinctive features of the standard Javanese causatives in on-line editorials and short stories. This research is based on written corpus. This written corpus was compiled from articles published in an online newspaper Solo Pos. To analyze the corpus, I have developed a system of manual annotation to identify the features of verb transitivity, the animacy and humanness of the verb, the presence of active, passive and ergative-like clauses and the number of other grammatical and semantic features using a system of tags. Using this annotation, I analyze the data based on dua anlaysis: genre analysis, functional analysis using a quantitative method. The findings show that genre influences the selection of causative types (markers. Also, there exists gawe used as a verb of causation in both editorials and short stories which contradicts to the canonical rule of the Javanese active verb and Malihah’s (2014 findings. The finding also shows that the standard Javanese causative in online editorials and short stories occurs with intransitive verbs. The last finding is that active clause is the relative prominent type of clause which occurs in all marker. In conclusion, the above findings have made contributions to knowledge to Javanese grammar.

  14. [Assessment of hidden curriculum components by medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega B, Javiera; Fasce H, Eduardo; Pérez V, Cristhian; Ibáñez G, Pilar; Márquez U, Carolina; Parra P, Paula

    2014-11-01

    Hidden curriculum refers to the unwritten, unofficial, and often unintended lessons, values, and perspectives that students learn at the university, which influences the acquisition of professional skills. To analyze the perception about the influence of the hidden curriculum in the education of medical students at the Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Qualitative investigation with case study approach. Seventeen graduated medical students were selected by probability sampling. A semi-structured interview was used to collect the information and a content analysis was applied. Forty seven percent of participants recognized having fulfilled their academic expectations. As favorable factors for academic achievement the students underlined clinical practice, access to patients and to clinical fields. As negative factors, they identified the lack of commitment, educational support and over-specialization of their mentors. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of the educational environment of undergraduated medical students. This information should be used to modify teaching environments.

  15. Social exclusion, health and hidden homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D

    2016-10-01

    Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hidden neural networks: application to speech recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate the hidden neural network HMM/NN hybrid on two speech recognition benchmark tasks; (1) task independent isolated word recognition on the Phonebook database, and (2) recognition of broad phoneme classes in continuous speech from the TIMIT database. It is shown how hidden neural networks...

  17. Insight: Exploring Hidden Roles in Collaborative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into interaction modes between players in co-located, collaborative games. In particular, hidden traitor games, in which one or more players is secretly working against the group mission, has the effect of increasing paranoia and distrust between players, so this paper looks into the opposite of a hidden traitor – a hidden benefactor. Rather than sabotaging the group mission, the hidden benefactor would help the group achieve the end goal while still having a reason to stay hidden. The paper explores what games with such a role can look like and how the role changes player interactions. Finally, the paper addresses the divide between video game and board game interaction modes; hidden roles are not common within video games, but they are of growing prevalence in board games. This fact, combined with the exploration of hidden benefactors, reveals that hidden roles is a mechanic that video games should develop into in order to match board games’ complexity of player interaction modes.

  18. Hidden Variable Theories and Quantum Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We clarify the meaning of Bell's theorem and its implications for the construction of hidden variable theories by considering an example system consisting of two entangled spin-1/2 particles. Using this example, we present a simplified version of Bell's theorem and describe several hidden variable theories that agree with the predictions of…

  19. Hidden Curriculum in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nancy; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Mann, Karen; Batty, Helen; LaForet, Karen; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Silver, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In developing curricula for undergraduate and graduate medical education, educators have become increasingly aware of an interweaving of the formal, informal, and hidden curricula and their influences on the outcomes of teaching and learning. But, to date, there is little in the literature about the hidden curriculum of medical practice, which…

  20. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives us a safe way to see how the sun damages our skin. In the UV photos that ... on the right, you can see what hidden sun damage looks like. Compare these UV photos with ...

  1. Building Simple Hidden Markov Models. Classroom Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Wai-Ki; Ng, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are widely used in bioinformatics, speech recognition and many other areas. This note presents HMMs via the framework of classical Markov chain models. A simple example is given to illustrate the model. An estimation method for the transition probabilities of the hidden states is also discussed.

  2. Becoming a Hidden Champion: From Selective use of Customer Intimacy and Product Leadership to Business Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Balas Rant Melita; Korenjak Cerne Simona

    2017-01-01

    This paper sheds light on factors that support SMEs becoming market leaders on an international scale. Specifically, it studies the hidden champion type of companies, defined as SMEs that hold market leadership in narrow business segments on a regional or wider international scale. The market positioning of hidden champions is defined subjectively by CEOs in such a way that they create a high level of business attractiveness. This explorative study reveals that product leadership and customer...

  3. Helioscope bounds on hidden sector photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, J.

    2007-12-15

    The flux of hypothetical ''hidden photons'' from the Sun is computed under the assumption that they interact with normal matter only through kinetic mixing with the ordinary standard model photon. Requiring that the exotic luminosity is smaller than the standard photon luminosity provides limits for the mixing parameter down to {chi} hidden photon mass. Furthermore, it is pointed point out that helioscopes looking for solar axions are also sensitive to hidden photons. The recent results of the CAST collaboration are used to further constrain the mixing parameter {chi} at low masses (m{sub {gamma}}{sub '}<1 eV) where the luminosity bound is weaker. In this regime the solar hidden photon ux has a sizable contribution of longitudinally polarized hidden photons of low energy which are invisible for current helioscopes. (orig.)

  4. Heating up the Galaxy with hidden photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovsky, Sergei [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Hernández-Chifflet, Guzmán [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY, 10003 (United States); Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de la República,Montevideo, 11300 (Uruguay)

    2015-12-29

    We elaborate on the dynamics of ionized interstellar medium in the presence of hidden photon dark matter. Our main focus is the ultra-light regime, where the hidden photon mass is smaller than the plasma frequency in the Milky Way. We point out that as a result of the Galactic plasma shielding direct detection of ultra-light photons in this mass range is especially challenging. However, we demonstrate that ultra-light hidden photon dark matter provides a powerful heating source for the ionized interstellar medium. This results in a strong bound on the kinetic mixing between hidden and regular photons all the way down to the hidden photon masses of order 10{sup −20} eV.

  5. The Perfect Storm: Preterm Birth, Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms, and Autism Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Carmina; Dammann, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    A unifying model of autism causation remains elusive, and thus well-designed explanatory models are needed to develop appropriate therapeutic and preventive interventions. This essay argues that autism is not a static disorder, but rather an ongoing process. We discuss the link between preterm birth and autism and briefly review the evidence supporting the link between immune system characteristics and both prematurity and autism. We then propose a causation process model of autism etiology and pathogenesis, in which both neurodevelopment and ongoing/prolonged neuroinflammation are necessary pathogenetic component mechanisms. We suggest that an existing model of sufficient cause and component causes can be interpreted as a mechanistic view of etiology and pathogenesis and can serve as an explanatory model for autism causal pathways.

  6. Game of Objects: vicarious causation and multi-modal media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Pedinotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies philosopher Graham Harman's object-oriented theory of "vicarious causation" to an analysis of the multi-modal media phenomenon known as "Game of Thrones." Examining the manner in which George R.R. Martin's best-selling series of fantasy novels has been adapted into a board game, a video game, and a hit HBO television series, it uses the changes entailed by these processes to trace the contours of vicariously generative relations. In the course of the resulting analysis, it provides new suggestions concerning the eidetic dimensions of Harman's causal model, particularly with regard to causation in linear networks and in differing types of game systems.

  7. Aggregated analysis of in-depth accident causation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Davide Shingo; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca; Gigli, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Data collected from in-depth road accident investigations are very informative and may contain more than 500 accident-related variables for a single investigated case. These data may be used to get a more detailed knowledge on accident and injury causation associated with a specific accident scenario. However, due to their complexity, studies using in-depth data at aggregated levels are not common. The objective of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyse aggregated accident causation charts in order to highlight strong and weak relationships between crash causes and pre-crash scenarios. These relationships can be taken into account when developing or assessing new road safety measures (e.g. in-vehicle systems). The methodology has been applied to an in-depth accident dataset derived from the European project SafetyNet. Four different pre-crash scenarios associated with the accident scenario 'vehicles encountering something while remaining in their lane' have been investigated. Even if generalization of these results should be done with care because of database representativeness issues, the methodology is promising, highlighting, for example, a well-defined causation pattern related to vehicles striking a vehicle in rear-end accidents.

  8. Downward Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Nancey; O’Connor, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    How is free will possible in the light of the physical and chemical underpinnings of brain activity and recent neurobiological experiments? How can the emergence of complexity in hierarchical systems such as the brain, based at the lower levels in physical interactions, lead to something like genuine free will? The nature of our understanding of free will in the light of present-day neuroscience is becoming increasingly important because of remarkable discoveries on the topic being made by neuroscientists at the present time, on the one hand, and its crucial importance for the way we view ourselves as human beings, on the other. A key tool in understanding how free will may arise in this context is the idea of downward causation in complex systems, happening coterminously with bottom up causation, to form an integral whole. Top-down causation is usually neglected, and is therefore emphasized in the other part of the book’s title. The concept is explored in depth, as are the ethical and legal implications of...

  9. Quantum computation and hidden variables

    CERN Document Server

    Aristov, V V

    2010-01-01

    Many physicists limit oneself to an instrumentalist description of quantum phenomena and ignore the problems of foundation and interpretation of quantum mechanics. This instrumentalist approach results to "specialization barbarism" and mass delusion concerning the problem, how a quantum computer can be made. The idea of quantum computation can be described within the limits of quantum formalism. But in order to understand how this idea can be put into practice one should realize the question: "What could the quantum formalism describe?", in spite of the absence of an universally recognized answer. Only a realization of this question and the undecided problem of quantum foundations allows to see in which quantum systems the superposition and EPR correlation could be expected. Because of the "specialization barbarism" many authors are sure that Bell proved full impossibility of any hidden-variables interpretation. Therefore it is important to emphasize that in reality Bell has restricted to validity limits of t...

  10. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-09-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessity to specify a priori a fixed number of hidden states available but also of the problem of overfitting. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms are often employed for inference in such models. However, convergence of such algorithms is rather difficult to verify, and as the complexity of the task at hand increases the computational cost of such algorithms often becomes prohibitive. These limitations can be overcome by variational techniques. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for infinite HCRF models, and a novel variational inference approach on a model based on coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures, the HCRF-DPM. We show that the variational HCRF-DPM is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and performs as well as the best parametric HCRFs-chosen via cross-validation-for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain in audiovisual sequences.

  11. A survey of hidden-variables theories

    CERN Document Server

    Belinfante, F J

    1973-01-01

    A Survey of Hidden-Variables Theories is a three-part book on the hidden-variable theories, referred in this book as """"theories of the first kind"""". Part I reviews the motives in developing different types of hidden-variables theories. The quest for determinism led to theories of the first kind; the quest for theories that look like causal theories when applied to spatially separated systems that interacted in the past led to theories of the second kind. Parts II and III further describe the theories of the first kind and second kind, respectively. This book is written to make the literat

  12. Approximating hidden chaotic attractors via parameter switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danca, Marius-F.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay V.; Chen, Guanrong

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of approximating hidden chaotic attractors of a general class of nonlinear systems is investigated. The parameter switching (PS) algorithm is utilized, which switches the control parameter within a given set of values with the initial value problem numerically solved. The PS-generated attractor approximates the attractor obtained by averaging the control parameter with the switched values, which represents the hidden chaotic attractor. The hidden chaotic attractors of a generalized Lorenz system and the Rabinovich-Fabrikant system are simulated for illustration.

  13. Modelling ECG signals with hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, A

    1996-10-01

    In this paper, we have studied the use of continuous probability density function hidden Markov models for the ECG signal analysis problem. Our previous work has focused on syntactic pattern recognition methods in signal processing. Hidden Markov model is basically a non-deterministic probabilistic finite state machine, which can be constructed inductively. It has been widely used in speech recognition and DNA modelling. We have found that hidden Markov models are very suitable for ECG recognition and analysis problems and that they are able to model accurately segmented ECG signals.

  14. Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery from Two Tertiary Hospitals in Western Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Acharya

    Full Text Available Hospital based delivery has been an expensive experience for poor households because of hidden costs which are usually unaccounted in hospital costs. The main aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of hospital based delivery and determine the factors associated with the hidden costs.A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 post-partum mothers with their husbands/house heads during the discharge time in Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A face to face interview with each respondent was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Hidden costs were calculated based on the price rate of the market during the time of the study.The total hidden costs for normal delivery and C-section delivery were 243.4 USD (US Dollar and 321.6 USD respectively. Of the total maternity care expenditures; higher mean expenditures were found for food & drinking (53.07%, clothes (9.8% and transport (7.3%. For postpartum women with their husband or house head, the total mean opportunity cost of "days of work loss" were 84.1 USD and 81.9 USD for normal delivery and C-section respectively. Factors such as literate mother (p = 0.007, employed house head (p = 0.011, monthly family income more than 25,000 NRs (Nepalese Rupees (p = 0.014, private hospital as a place of delivery (p = 0.0001, C-section as a mode of delivery (p = 0.0001, longer duration (>5days of stay in hospital (p = 0.0001, longer distance (>15km from house to hospital (p = 0.0001 and longer travel time (>240 minutes from house to hospital (p = 0.007 showed a significant association with the higher hidden costs (>25000 NRs.Experiences of hidden costs on hospital based delivery and opportunity costs of days of work loss were found high. Several socio-demographic factors, delivery related factors (place and mode of delivery, length of stay, distance from hospital and travel time were associated with hidden costs. Hidden costs can be a

  15. Hidden Costs of Hospital Based Delivery from Two Tertiary Hospitals in Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jeevan; Kaehler, Nils; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Subedi, Sudarshan; Adhikari, Bipin

    2016-01-01

    Hospital based delivery has been an expensive experience for poor households because of hidden costs which are usually unaccounted in hospital costs. The main aim of this study was to estimate the hidden costs of hospital based delivery and determine the factors associated with the hidden costs. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 post-partum mothers with their husbands/house heads during the discharge time in Manipal Teaching Hospital and Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal. A face to face interview with each respondent was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Hidden costs were calculated based on the price rate of the market during the time of the study. The total hidden costs for normal delivery and C-section delivery were 243.4 USD (US Dollar) and 321.6 USD respectively. Of the total maternity care expenditures; higher mean expenditures were found for food & drinking (53.07%), clothes (9.8%) and transport (7.3%). For postpartum women with their husband or house head, the total mean opportunity cost of "days of work loss" were 84.1 USD and 81.9 USD for normal delivery and C-section respectively. Factors such as literate mother (p = 0.007), employed house head (p = 0.011), monthly family income more than 25,000 NRs (Nepalese Rupees) (p = 0.014), private hospital as a place of delivery (p = 0.0001), C-section as a mode of delivery (p = 0.0001), longer duration (>5days) of stay in hospital (p = 0.0001), longer distance (>15km) from house to hospital (p = 0.0001) and longer travel time (>240 minutes) from house to hospital (p = 0.007) showed a significant association with the higher hidden costs (>25000 NRs). Experiences of hidden costs on hospital based delivery and opportunity costs of days of work loss were found high. Several socio-demographic factors, delivery related factors (place and mode of delivery, length of stay, distance from hospital and travel time) were associated with hidden costs. Hidden costs can be a

  16. The phosphoproteome of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei, causative agent of African sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Isabelle R E; Martin, David M A; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Lamont, Douglas; Barber, Jonathan D; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael A J

    2009-07-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and related animal diseases, and it has over 170 predicted protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for cellular function that, thus far, has been studied in T.brucei principally through putative kinase mRNA knockdown and observation of the resulting phenotype. However, despite the relatively large kinome of this organism and the demonstrated essentiality of several T. brucei kinases, very few specific phosphorylation sites have been determined in this organism. Using a gel-free, phosphopeptide enrichment-based proteomics approach we performed the first large scale phosphorylation site analyses for T.brucei. Serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphorylation sites were determined for a cytosolic protein fraction of the bloodstream form of the parasite, resulting in the identification of 491 phosphoproteins based on the identification of 852 unique phosphopeptides and 1204 phosphorylation sites. The phosphoproteins detected in this study are predicted from their genome annotations to participate in a wide variety of biological processes, including signal transduction, processing of DNA and RNA, protein synthesis, and degradation and to a minor extent in metabolic pathways. The analysis of phosphopeptides and phosphorylation sites was facilitated by in-house developed software, and this automated approach was validated by manual annotation of spectra of the kinase subset of proteins. Analysis of the cytosolic bloodstream form T. brucei kinome revealed the presence of 44 phosphorylated protein kinases in our data set that could be classified into the major eukaryotic protein kinase groups by applying a multilevel hidden Markov model library of the kinase catalytic domain. Identification of the kinase phosphorylation sites showed conserved phosphorylation sequence motifs in several kinase activation segments, supporting the view that

  17. Regularity and counterfactuality in Hume's treatment of causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Oscar de Almeida Marques

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the several theories of causation current in our days, Hume is said to be the inspiration of two of the most influential and accepted: the regularity theory, first clearly formulated by Thomas Brown in 1822, and the counterfactual theory, proposed by David Lewis in 1973. After a brief outline of the comparative merits and difficulties of these two views, I proceed to examine whether Hume's own treatment of causation actually corresponds to any of them. I will show that his first definition of cause, coupled with his rules by which to judge about causes and effects, contains elements that, properly developed, allow us to address successfully some traditional difficulties of the regularity view of causation, without resorting to the conceptual resources employed in the counterfactual approach. Therefore, we can properly classify Hume as an advocate of the conception of causation as regularity, noting however that his primary goal in his research and definitions of the concept was to provide not so much an analysis of causation as such, but of causation as we apprehend it, in the form of our ability to make causal inferences and refine them to reach the more sophisticated causal reasonings that are required in the theoretical and practical issues of life.Das diversas teorias da causação existentes em nossos dias, Hume pode ser considerado o precursor de duas das mais influentes e aceitas: a teoria regularista, formulada claramente pela primeira vez por Thomas Brown, em 1822, e a teoria contrafatualista, proposta por David Lewis em 1973. Depois de um breve resumo dos méritos e dificuldades comparativos dessas duas perspectivas, passo a examinar se o tratamento de Hume da causação corresponde, na verdade a algum deles. Mostro que a sua primeira definição de causa, juntamente com suas regras para julgar sobre as causas e efeitos, contém elementos que, devidamente desenvolvidos, permitem-nos abordar com sucesso algumas dificuldades

  18. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  19. Coding with partially hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Rissanen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Partially hidden Markov models (PHMM) are introduced. They are a variation of the hidden Markov models (HMM) combining the power of explicit conditioning on past observations and the power of using hidden states. (P)HMM may be combined with arithmetic coding for lossless data compression. A general...... 2-part coding scheme for given model order but unknown parameters based on PHMM is presented. A forward-backward reestimation of parameters with a redefined backward variable is given for these models and used for estimating the unknown parameters. Proof of convergence of this reestimation is given....... The PHMM structure and the conditions of the convergence proof allows for application of the PHMM to image coding. Relations between the PHMM and hidden Markov models (HMM) are treated. Results of coding bi-level images with the PHMM coding scheme is given. The results indicate that the PHMM can adapt...

  20. Hidden Costs and the Role of Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued that the......This paper addresses estimation errors in strategic decision-making processes due to hidden costs. While previous research has investigated the antecedents of hidden costs, this paper investigates performance consequences. Using unique data on 221 offshoring implementations, it is argued...... that the inability to effectively estimate the costs of implementing an activity in a foreign location has a negative impact on the process performance of that activity. Performance is deterred as operations are likely to be disrupted by opportunity costs and managerial responses. However, this relationship...

  1. Matriarki dan Hidden Women dalam Syair Damarwulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of Damarwulan was a popular story. The reception toward this story was various. Syair, hikayat, legendriya, serat, and performance found at Javanist. Toe Syair of Damarwulan ML 176 appears many characteristics. The reading of this syair discovered much suspicious about the position of Queen of Majapahit, Kenconowungu. This paper explores matriarchal and hidden women into Syair Damarwulan. This paper used feminist perspective to explore matriarchal and hidden women. This paper has concluded that the process of matriarchal was always followed by hidden women. Relation of Queen Kenconowungu­ Menakjinggo and Damarwulan was one of several evidence. The presence of Damarwulan as a hero and image of idol man was the end • of process hidden women

  2. Efficient sensitivity analysis in hidden markov models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renooij, Silja

    2012-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis in hidden Markov models (HMMs) is usually performed by means of a perturbation analysis where a small change is applied to the model parameters, upon which the output of interest is re-computed...

  3. Hidden systematics of fission channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Karl-Heinz

    2013-12-01

    of the fissioning system obey a hidden systematics that can be explained by the number of states in the vicinity of the outer fission barrier as a function of mass asymmetry, if the potential is constructed as the sum of the macroscopic contribution of the compound nucleus and empirically determined fragment shells. This hidden systematics also explains the transition from asymmetric to symmetric fission around 226Th and around 258Fm.

  4. Alerta Empreendedor e as Abordagens Causation e Effectuation sobre Empreendedorismo/Entrepreneurial Alertness and the Causation and Effectuation Approaches to Entrepreneurship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valter da Silva Faia; Marco Aurélio Garcia Rosa; Hilka Pelizza Vier Machado

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aimed to relate the level of entrepreneurial alertness to entrepreneurial approaches causation, consistent with the concept of planning and analysis, and effectuation, consistent with the...

  5. Discover Aggregates Exceptions over Hidden Web Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaim, Saad Bin; Liu, Weimo; Zhang, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, many web databases "hidden" behind their restrictive search interfaces (e.g., Amazon, eBay) contain rich and valuable information that is of significant interests to various third parties. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of estimating/tracking certain aggregate queries over dynamic hidden web databases. Nonetheless, tracking all possible aggregate query answers to report interesting findings (i.e., exceptions), while still adhering to the stringent query-count limit...

  6. Bias and Causation Models and Judgment for Valid Comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Herbert I

    2010-01-01

    A one-of-a-kind resource on identifying and dealing with bias in statistical research on causal effects. Do cell phones cause cancer? Can a new curriculum increase student achievement? Determining what the real causes of such problems are, and how powerful their effects may be, are central issues in research across various fields of study. Some researchers are highly skeptical of drawing causal conclusions except in tightly controlled randomized experiments, while others discount the threats posed by different sources of bias, even in less rigorous observational studies. Bias and Causation pre

  7. Coherence, causation, and the future of cognitive neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Christopher H; Chrysikou, Evangelia G

    2014-01-01

    Nachev and Hacker's conceptual analysis of the neural antecedents of voluntary action underscores the real danger of ignoring the meta-theoretical apparatus of cognitive neuroscience research. In this response, we temper certain claims (e.g., whether or not certain research questions are incoherent), consider a more extreme consequence of their argument against cognitive neuroscience (i.e., whether or not one can speak about causation with neural antecedents at all), and, finally, highlight recent methodological developments that exemplify cognitive neuroscientists' focus on studying the brain as a parallel, dynamic, and highly complex biological system.

  8. Causation at Different Levels: Tracking the Commitments of Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter; Kertész, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    This paper tracks the commitments of mechanistic explanations focusing on the relation between activities at different levels. It is pointed out that the mechanistic approach is inherently committed to identifying causal connections at higher levels with causal connections at lower levels......, whereas, in a recent paper, Craver and Bechtel argue that the mechanistic approach is able to make downward causation intelligible. The paper concludes that the mechanistic approach imbued with identity statements is no better candidate for anchoring higher levels to lower ones while maintaining...

  9. 77 FR 5711 - Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 81 RIN 0920-AA39 Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under... proposed amendment to the probability of causation guidelines.\\2\\ All of the comments offered support for... probability of causation value of ``zero.'' There were two related scientific reasons for designating CLL as...

  10. Causative Chain Difference for each Type of Accidents in Japanese Maritime Traffic Systems (MTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanginingastuti Mutmainnah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Causative chain (CC is a failure chain that cause accident as an outcome product of the second step of MOP model, namely line relation analysis (LRA. This CC is a connection of several causative factors (CF, an outcome product of first step of MOP model, namely corner analysis (CA. MOP Model is an abbreviation from 4M Overturned Pyramid, created by authors by combining 2 accident analysis models. There are two steps in this model, namely CA and LRA. Utilizing this model can know what is CF that happen dominantly to the accidents and what is a danger CC that characterize accidents in a certain place and certain period. By knowing the characteristics, the preventive action can be decided to decrease the number of accident in the next period. The aim of this paper is providing the development of MOP Model that has been upgraded and understanding the characteristics of each type accident. The data that is analyzed in this paper is Japanese accidents from 2008 until 2013, which is available on Japan Transportation Safety Board (JTSB’s website. The analysis shows that every type of accidents has a unique characteristic, shown by their CFs and CCs. However, Man Factor is still playing role to the system dominantly.

  11. Hidden local symmetry and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Koichi

    Gerry Brown was a godfather of our hidden local symmetry (HLS) for the vector meson from the birth of the theory throughout his life. The HLS is originated from very nature of the nonlinear realization of the symmetry G based on the manifold G/H, and thus is universal to any physics based on the nonlinear realization. Here, I focus on the Higgs Lagrangian of the Standard Model (SM), which is shown to be equivalent to the nonlinear sigma model based on G/H = SU(2)L × SU(2)R/SU(2)V with additional symmetry, the nonlinearly-realized scale symmetry. Then, the SM does have a dynamical gauge boson of the SU(2)V HLS, "SM ρ meson", in addition to the Higgs as a pseudo-dilaton as well as the NG bosons to be absorbed in to the W and Z. Based on the recent work done with Matsuzaki and Ohki, I discuss a novel possibility that the SM ρ meson acquires kinetic term by the SM dynamics itself, which then stabilizes the skyrmion dormant in the SM as a viable candidate for the dark matter, what we call "dark SM skyrmion (DSMS)".

  12. Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.

  13. Estimating empirical codon hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maio, Nicola; Holmes, Ian; Schlötterer, Christian; Kosiol, Carolin

    2013-03-01

    Empirical codon models (ECMs) estimated from a large number of globular protein families outperformed mechanistic codon models in their description of the general process of protein evolution. Among other factors, ECMs implicitly model the influence of amino acid properties and multiple nucleotide substitutions (MNS). However, the estimation of ECMs requires large quantities of data, and until recently, only few suitable data sets were available. Here, we take advantage of several new Drosophila species genomes to estimate codon models from genome-wide data. The availability of large numbers of genomes over varying phylogenetic depths in the Drosophila genus allows us to explore various divergence levels. In consequence, we can use these data to determine the appropriate level of divergence for the estimation of ECMs, avoiding overestimation of MNS rates caused by saturation. To account for variation in evolutionary rates along the genome, we develop new empirical codon hidden Markov models (ecHMMs). These models significantly outperform previous ones with respect to maximum likelihood values, suggesting that they provide a better fit to the evolutionary process. Using ECMs and ecHMMs derived from genome-wide data sets, we devise new likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) of positive selection. We found classical LRTs very sensitive to the presence of MNSs, showing high false-positive rates, especially with small phylogenies. The new LRTs are more conservative than the classical ones, having acceptable false-positive rates and reduced power.

  14. Downward causation by information control in micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Luc; Calkins, Erin R

    2012-02-06

    The concepts of functional equivalence classes and information control in living systems are useful to characterize downward (or top-down) causation by feedback information control in synthetic biology. Herein, we re-analyse published experiments of microbiology and synthetic biology that demonstrate the existence of several classes of functional equivalence in microbial organisms. Classes of functional equivalence from the bacterial operating system, which processes and controls the information encoded in the genome, can readily be interpreted as strong evidence, if not demonstration, of top-down causation (TDC) by information control. The proposed biological framework reveals how this type of causality is put in action in the cellular operating system. Considerations on TDC by information control and adaptive selection can be useful for synthetic biology by delineating the irreducible set of properties that characterizes living systems. Through a 'retro-synthetic' biology approach, these considerations could contribute to identifying the constraints behind the emergence of molecular complexity during the evolution of an ancient RNA/peptide world into a modern DNA/RNA/protein world. In conclusion, we propose TDCs by information control and adaptive selection as the two types of downward causality absolutely necessary for life.

  15. Deletion Mutagenesis and Identification of Causative Mutations in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shangang; Li, Aixia; Zhang, Chi; Holding, David

    2018-01-01

    We describe a method for gamma-irradiation of mature maize seeds to generate mutants with opaque endosperm and reduced kernel fill phenotypes. We also describe methods for mapping mutants and identifying causal gene mutations. Using this method, a population of 1788M2 families and 47 Mo17 × F2s showing stable, segregating, and viable kernel phenotypes was developed. For molecular characterization of the mutants, we utilized a novel functional genomics platform that combines separate Bulked Segregant RNA and exome sequencing data sets (BSREx-seq) to map causative mutations and identify candidate genes within mapping intervals. We also describe the use of exome capture sequencing of F2 mutant and normal pools to perform mapping and candidate gene identification without the need for separate RNA-seq (BSEx-seq). To exemplify the utility of the deletion mutants for functional genomics and provide proof-of-concept for the bioinformatics platform, we summarize the identification of the causative deletion in two mutants. Mutant 937, which was characterized by BSREx-seq, harbors a 6203-bp in-frame deletion covering six exons within the Opaque-1 gene on chromosome 4. Preliminary investigation of opaque mutant 1486 with BSEx-seq shows a tight mapping interval and associated deletion on chromosome 10.

  16. Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics; Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics and Phenomenology; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)

  17. Correlation not causation: the relationship between personality traits and political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Brad; Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-01-01

    The assumption in the personality and politics literature is that a person's personality motivates them to develop certain political attitudes later in life. This assumption is founded on the simple correlation between the two constructs and the observation that personality traits are genetically influenced and develop in infancy, whereas political preferences develop later in life. Work in psychology, behavioral genetics, and recently political science, however, has demonstrated that political preferences also develop in childhood and are equally influenced by genetic factors. These findings cast doubt on the assumed causal relationship between personality and politics. Here we test the causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes using a direction of causation structural model on a genetically informative sample. The results suggest that personality traits do not cause people to develop political attitudes; rather, the correlation between the two is a function of an innate common underlying genetic factor.

  18. Maternal education and adolescent drug use: a longitudinal analysis of causation and selection over a generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miech, Richard; Chilcoat, Howard

    2005-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that in the USA illegal drug use among adolescents between the 1980s and 1990s became significantly more prevalent in families with lower maternal education in comparison to families with higher maternal education. In this study, we examine whether this inter-generational change results from either (a) a changing influence of socioeconomic status on drug use, as predicted by the inter-generational social 'causation' hypothesis, or (b) a negative influence of drug use on socioeconomic status, as predicted by the inter-generational social 'selection/drift' hypothesis. The analyses are based on the US National Longitudinal Study of 1979, which includes information on drug use for both a nationally representative sample of respondents aged 19-27 in 1984, as well as drug use information for the children of these respondents, who were aged 18-27 in 1998. The results indicate that inter-generation change in cocaine and marijuana use resulted almost entirely from social causation. These findings support illegal drug use as a good candidate for analyses in the 'fundamental cause' tradition that seek to understand the social factors that concentrate poor health and health behaviors in the lower social strata over historical time.

  19. Beliefs about causation of schizophrenia: do Indian families believe in supernatural causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, T N; Thara, R

    2001-03-01

    Beliefs about the causation of schizophrenia could influence the attitudes patients' families adopt towards the patient and may also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Indian families have been typically described as often believing in causes like supernatural forces and therefore seeking help from magico-religious healers. In the changing mental health scenario in India, this impression needs verification. Key relatives living with 254 chronic schizophrenia patients were interviewed and asked to name the causes they believed were behind the illness. A list of possible causes was provided for the families to select from, and relatives were also encouraged to mention other possible causes, not featured in the list. The possible causes identified and the factors related to attributions made were analysed. A supernatural cause was named by only 12% of the families and as the only cause by 5%. Psychosocial stress was most commonly cited cause, followed by personality defect and heredity. A small number of families (14%) could not name any cause and 39% named more than one cause. Patient gender and education, duration of illness and the key relative's education and the nature of relationship were related to the type of causal attributions made. Families living with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia receiving treatment in urban India rarely subscribe to the idea of supernatural causation of the illness. The causal attributions made by them are fairly rational and understandable, given the relative lack of exposure to proper information about the illness.

  20. THE ROLE OF ADVERSE LIFESTYLE CHANGES IN THE CAUSATION OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Lotfi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Adverse lifestyle changes like rapid change in dietary habits coupled with decreased physical activity and increasing rates of alcohol and tobacco consumption can increase Coronary Artery Disease risk factors and its mortality even higher than the rates predicted. To evaluate the role of Adverse Lifestyle changes factors in the causation of CAD, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in an urban area of East Delhi from April 2002 to December 2003. A total of 500 subjects with age group 30-75 (250 cases and 250 controls, were included in this study. To obtain more validate comparisons, 250 controls also was selected from community of East Delhi. The tool of enquiry was a pre-tested and pre-coded questionnaire. A confidence level of 95% and study power of 80% were considered for the interpretation of possible significant findings. Sexwise stratified analysis was separately done for male and female subjects using Multiple Logistic Regression. Comparison of male cases with their counterparts in both control groups indicated that milk consumption, using saturated oils for cooking medium, and tobacco consumption could account for as CAD independent predictors (P < 0.001. The comparison of female cases with their counterparts in both control groups also showed that majority of those significantly were nuts consumer (P < 0.01. Male cases compared to males in hospital group and female cases compared with females in community control group significantly were nuts consumer and used saturated oils in their cookings respectively (P < 0.01. Our study showed that dietary factors such as consumption of milk, nuts, saturated oils and smoking, as misbehavior factor, could play an important role in the causation of Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD in urban area of East Delhi, India.

  1. Why are educated adults slim-Causation or selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Paul T; Lynch, Jamie L

    2014-03-01

    More educated adults tend to have lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower risk of overweight and obesity. We contrast two explanations for this education gradient in BMI. One explanation is selection: adolescents with high BMI are less likely to plan for, attend, and complete higher levels of education. An alternative explanation is causation: higher education confers lifelong social, economic, and psychological benefits that help adults to restrain BMI growth. We test the relative importance of selection and causation using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), which tracks self-reported BMI from adolescence (age 15) through young adulthood (age 29). Ordinal regression models confirm the selection hypothesis that high-BMI adolescents are less likely to complete higher levels of education. Selection has primarily to do with the fact that high-BMI adolescents tend to come from socioeconomically disadvantaged families and tend to have low grades and test scores. Among high-BMI girls there is also some evidence that educational attainment is limited by bullying, poor health, and early pregnancy. About half the selection of high-BMI girls out of higher education remains unexplained. Fixed-effects models control for selection and suggest that the causal effect of education on BMI, though significant, accounts for only one-quarter of the mean BMI differences between more and less educated adults at age 29. Among young adults, it appears that most of the education gradient in BMI is due to selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Research on Hidden Failures of Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lie Shu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hidden failure is often appear on civil aircraft, and it is a big risk for normal safe operation. The reason for this failure is the instability of the resistance of the electrical contact. The study on electrical contact is applied science of the reliability, the contact resistance is an important parameter of the reliability of the electrical contact system. In this paper, It also Produces the latest research results from factors that affect contact resistance and contact resistance microscopic model, and then it produces the method of the calculating and measuring engineering about the contact resistance. Lastly, it is point out the future direction of the electrical contacts.

  3. Empowering students with the hidden curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Hilary; Collett, Tracey

    2017-11-27

    The hidden curriculum (HC) refers to unscripted, ad hoc learning that occurs outside the formal, taught curriculum and can have a powerful influence on the professional development of students. While this learning may be positive, it may conflict with that taught in the formal curriculum. Medical schools take a range of steps to address these negative effects; however, the existence and nature of the concept tends to be hidden from students. Since 2007, our medical school has incorporated into its small group programme an educational activity exploring the concept of the hidden curriculum. We undertook a qualitative evaluation of our intervention, conducting a thematic analysis of students' wiki reflections about the HC. We also analysed students' responses to a short questionnaire about the educational approach used. The majority of students felt that the HC session was important and relevant. Most appeared able to identify positive and negative HC experiences and consider how these might influence their learning and development, although a few students found the concept of the HC hard to grasp. Revealing and naming the hidden curriculum can make students aware of its existence and understand its potential impact. The hidden curriculum may also be a useful tool for triggering debate about issues such as power, patient centredness, personal resilience and career stereotypes in medicine. Supporting students to think critically about HC experiences may empower them to make active choices about which messages to take on board. The hidden curriculum can have a powerful influence on the professional development of students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  4. Hidden treasures - 50 km points of interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommi, Matias; Kortelainen, Jaana

    2015-04-01

    Tampere is third largest city in Finland and a regional centre. During 70's there occurred several communal mergers. Nowadays this local area has both strong and diversed identity - from wilderness and agricultural fields to high density city living. Outside the city center there are interesting geological points unknown for modern city settlers. There is even a local proverb, "Go abroad to Teisko!". That is the area the Hidden Treasures -student project is focused on. Our school Tammerkoski Upper Secondary School (or Gymnasium) has emphasis on visual arts. We are going to offer our art students scientific and artistic experiences and knowledge about the hidden treasures of Teisko area and involve the Teisko inhabitants into this project. Hidden treasures - Precambrian subduction zone and a volcanism belt with dense bed of gold (Au) and arsenic (As), operating goldmines and quarries of minerals and metamorphic slates. - North of subduction zone a homogenic precambrian magmastone area with quarries, products known as Kuru Grey. - Former ashores of post-glasial Lake Näsijärvi and it's sediments enabled the developing agriculture and sustained settlement. Nowadays these ashores have both scenery and biodiversity values. - Old cattle sheds and dairy buildings made of local granite stones related to cultural stonebuilding inheritance. - Local active community of Kapee, about 100 inhabitants. Students will discover information of these "hidden" phenomena, and rendering this information trough Enviromental Art Method. Final form of this project will be published in several artistic and informative geocaches. These caches are achieved by a GPS-based special Hidden Treasures Cycling Route and by a website guiding people to find these hidden points of interests.

  5. [The hidden curriculum in medical teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alberto O

    2012-09-01

    Medical education must ascribe to a curriculum but clinical teaching poses special difficulties that go beyond any programming attempt. Attitudes and skills learned during tutored clinical practice are called the "hidden curriculum". The figure and personal features of the teacher, his environment and the atmosphere that projects every particular medical school, are essential to shape the characteristics of the student. Paradoxically, it is almost impossible to measure the impact of this hidden curriculum. This article is a reflection on an issue that is acquiring special relevance in medical education.

  6. Hidden Markov models estimation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, Robert J; Moore, John B

    1995-01-01

    As more applications are found, interest in Hidden Markov Models continues to grow. Following comments and feedback from colleagues, students and other working with Hidden Markov Models the corrected 3rd printing of this volume contains clarifications, improvements and some new material, including results on smoothing for linear Gaussian dynamics. In Chapter 2 the derivation of the basic filters related to the Markov chain are each presented explicitly, rather than as special cases of one general filter. Furthermore, equations for smoothed estimates are given. The dynamics for the Kalman filte

  7. Searching for hidden sectors in multiparticle production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchis-Lozano, Miguel-Angel; Moreno-Picot, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of a hidden sector beyond the Standard Model, e.g. a Hidden Valley model, on factorial moments and cumulants of multiplicity distributions in multiparticle production with a special emphasis on the prospects for LHC results.

  8. The impact of hidden liquidity in limit order books

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Stefan; Sandås, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    We report evidence that the presence of hidden liquidity is associated with greater liquidity in the order books, greater trading volume, and smaller price impact. Limit and market order submission behavior changes when hidden liquidity is present consistent with at least some traders being able to detect hidden liquidity. We estimate a model of liquidity provision that allows us to measure variations in the marginal and total payoffs from liquidity provision in states with and without hidden...

  9. Design and Implementation of Domain based Semantic Hidden Web Crawler

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi; Bhatia, Komal Kumar; Dixit, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Web is a wide term which mainly consists of surface web and hidden web. One can easily access the surface web using traditional web crawlers, but they are not able to crawl the hidden portion of the web. These traditional crawlers retrieve contents from web pages, which are linked by hyperlinks ignoring the information hidden behind form pages, which cannot be extracted using simple hyperlink structure. Thus, they ignore large amount of data hidden behind search forms. This paper emphasizes o...

  10. Trawling for tor hidden services: Detection, measurement, deanonymization

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Pustogarov, Ivan; Weinmann, Ralf-Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Tor is the most popular volunteer-based anonymity network consisting of over 3000 volunteer-operated relays. Apart from making connections to servers hard to trace to their origin it can also provide receiver privacy for Internet services through a feature called "hidden services". In this paper we expose flaws both in the design and implementation of Tor's hidden services that allow an attacker to measure the popularity of arbitrary hidden services, take down hidden services and deanonymize ...

  11. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the

  12. Co-morbidity between major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders: shared etiology or direct causation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, A R; Pettit, J W; Lewinsohn, P M; Seeley, J R; Roberts, R E

    2011-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders (ANX) are debilitating and prevalent conditions that often co-occur in adolescence and young adulthood. The leading theoretical models of their co-morbidity include the direct causation model and the shared etiology model. The present study compared these etiological models of MDD-ANX co-morbidity in a large, prospective, non-clinical sample of adolescents tracked through age 30. Logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between ANX and MDD at Time 1 (T1). In prospective analyses, Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine T1 predictors of subsequent disorder onset, including risk factors specific to each disorder or common to both disorders. Prospective predictive effect of a lifetime history of one disorder (e.g. MDD) on the subsequent onset of the second disorder (e.g. ANX) was then examined. This step was repeated while controlling for common risk factors. The findings supported relatively distinct profiles of risk between MDD and ANX depending on order of development. Whereas the shared etiology model best explained co-morbid cases in which MDD preceded ANX, direct causation was supported for co-morbid cases in which ANX preceded MDD. Consistent with previous research, significant cross-sectional and prospective associations were found between MDD and ANX. The results of the present study suggest that different etiological models may characterize the co-morbidity between MDD and ANX based upon the temporal order of onset. Implications for classification and prevention efforts are discussed.

  13. Algorithms for a parallel implementation of Hidden Markov Models with a small state space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper; Sand, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    , they require very little communication between processors, and are fast in practice on models with a small state space. We have tested our implementation against two other imple- mentations on artificial data and observe a speed-up of roughly a factor of 5 for the forward algorithm and more than 6......Two of the most important algorithms for Hidden Markov Models are the forward and the Viterbi algorithms. We show how formulating these using linear algebra naturally lends itself to parallelization. Although the obtained algorithms are slow for Hidden Markov Models with large state spaces...

  14. The hidden costs of nudging: Experimental evidence from reminders in fundraising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mette Trier; Gravert, Christina

    a dynamic model of donation and unsubscription behavior with limited attention. We test the model in a second field experiment. The model is estimated structurally to perform a welfare analysis. Not accounting for hidden costs overstates the welfare effects for donors by factor ten and hides potential......We document the hidden costs of a popular nudge and show how these costs distort policy making when neglected. In a field experiment with a charity, we find reminders increasing intended behavior (donations), but also increasing avoidance behavior (unsubscriptions from the mailing list). We develop...

  15. Gamma rays from hidden millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  16. Gamma rays from 'hidden' millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, M.

    1993-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  17. Dermatologic hazards from hidden contacts with penicillin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonk, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The unbridled use of penicillin after its discovery by Fleming has resulted in possible hazards to human health due to traces of the drug being present in food and other hidden sources. These hazards may include toxic effects, hypersensitivity reactions and possibly a raising of the frequency and duration of allergy to penicillin.

  18. Petro Rents, Political Institutions, and Hidden Wealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...

  19. The strength of glass, hidden damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    The strength of float glass is a necessary engineering parameter. Determining this strength is a complex problem. Earlier results have shown that statistically bending test results are not a homogeneous group. To explain this, a theoiy of "hidden damage" is proposed. The essence of this theory is

  20. The Hidden Curriculum of Doctoral Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-DeKam, Jenni L.; Hamilton, Boni; Loyd, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    We examined the hidden curriculum of doctoral advising by conceptualizing the advisor as a teacher. Using autoethnographic methods in this case study, we simultaneously explored both sides of the advisor-student relationship. The constructivist paradigm permeated all aspects of the research: data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The…

  1. Discovering Hidden Treasures with GPS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Palmer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    "I found it!" Addison proudly proclaimed, as she used an iPhone and Global Positioning System (GPS) software to find the hidden geocache along the riverbank. Others in Lisa Bostick's fourth grade class were jealous, but there would be other geocaches to find. With the excitement of movies like "Pirates of the Caribbean" and…

  2. Perceptual consequences of "hidden" hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Christopher J; Barker, Daphne; Prendergast, Garreth

    2014-09-09

    Dramatic results from recent animal experiments show that noise exposure can cause a selective loss of high-threshold auditory nerve fibers without affecting absolute sensitivity permanently. This cochlear neuropathy has been described as hidden hearing loss, as it is not thought to be detectable using standard measures of audiometric threshold. It is possible that hidden hearing loss is a common condition in humans and may underlie some of the perceptual deficits experienced by people with clinically normal hearing. There is some evidence that a history of noise exposure is associated with difficulties in speech discrimination and temporal processing, even in the absence of any audiometric loss. There is also evidence that the tinnitus experienced by listeners with clinically normal hearing is associated with cochlear neuropathy, as measured using Wave I of the auditory brainstem response. To date, however, there has been no direct link made between noise exposure, cochlear neuropathy, and perceptual difficulties. Animal experiments also reveal that the aging process itself, in the absence of significant noise exposure, is associated with loss of auditory nerve fibers. Evidence from human temporal bone studies and auditory brainstem response measures suggests that this form of hidden loss is common in humans and may have perceptual consequences, in particular, regarding the coding of the temporal aspects of sounds. Hidden hearing loss is potentially a major health issue, and investigations are ongoing to identify the causes and consequences of this troubling condition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Hidden Convexity in Partially Separable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Tal, A.; den Hertog, D.; Laurent, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper identifies classes of nonconvex optimization problems whose convex relaxations have optimal solutions which at the same time are global optimal solutions of the original nonconvex problems. Such a hidden convexity property was so far limited to quadratically constrained quadratic problems

  4. Evolving the structure of hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    won, K. J.; Prugel-Bennett, A.; Krogh, A.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for finding the structure of hidden Markov Models (HMMs) used for biological sequence analysis. The GA is designed to preserve biologically meaningful building blocks. The search through the space of HMM structures is combined with optimization of the emission...

  5. Becoming a Hidden Champion: From Selective use of Customer Intimacy and Product Leadership to Business Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balas Rant Melita

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper sheds light on factors that support SMEs becoming market leaders on an international scale. Specifically, it studies the hidden champion type of companies, defined as SMEs that hold market leadership in narrow business segments on a regional or wider international scale. The market positioning of hidden champions is defined subjectively by CEOs in such a way that they create a high level of business attractiveness. This explorative study reveals that product leadership and customer intimacy are two blocks that build the business attractiveness of hidden champions. More specifically, the study on data from 93 niche leaders from Central and Eastern Europe showed that product leadership negatively moderates the business attractiveness-performance relationship, while the impact of the combination of product leadership and customer intimacy on the business attractiveness-firm performance relationship is not straightforward and depends on different combinations of these values.

  6. The hidden curriculum of the medical care for elderly patients in medical education: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiboom, A.A.; Diedrich, C.; de Vries, H.; Hertogh, C.; Scheele, F.

    2015-01-01

    Despite more attention being given to geriatrics in medical curricula, few new physicians are seeking training in this field. So far, there has been no exploration of factors in the hidden curriculum that could potentially influence the persisting lack of interest in this field of medicine. To study

  7. Commensal Koch's postulates: establishing causation in human microbiota research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; Forster, Samuel C; Lawley, Trevor D

    2017-11-04

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and the development of sophisticated bioinformatics analysis methods, algorithms, and pipelines to handle the large amounts of data generated have driven the field of human microbiome research forward. This specialist knowledge has been crucial to thoroughly mine the human gut microbiota, particularly in the absence of methods for the routine cultivation of most enteric microorganisms. In recent years, however, significant efforts have been made to address the 'great plate count anomaly' and to overcome the barriers to cultivation of the fastidious and mostly strictly anaerobic bacteria that reside in the human gut. As a result, many new species have been discovered, characterised, genome sequenced, and deposited in culture collections. These continually expanding resources enable experimental investigation of the human gut microbiota, validation of hypotheses made with sequence-based analyses, and phenotypic characterisation of its constituent microbes. Herein we propose a variant of Koch's postulates, aimed at providing a framework to establish causation in microbiome studies, with a particular focus on demonstrating the health-promoting role of the commensal gut microbiota. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, J; Wren, B W; Thomson, N R; Titball, R W; Holden, M T; Prentice, M B; Sebaihia, M; James, K D; Churcher, C; Mungall, K L; Baker, S; Basham, D; Bentley, S D; Brooks, K; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A M; Chillingworth, T; Cronin, A; Davies, R M; Davis, P; Dougan, G; Feltwell, T; Hamlin, N; Holroyd, S; Jagels, K; Karlyshev, A V; Leather, S; Moule, S; Oyston, P C; Quail, M; Rutherford, K; Simmonds, M; Skelton, J; Stevens, K; Whitehead, S; Barrell, B G

    2001-10-04

    The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.

  9. Assigning the causative lightning to the whistlers observed on satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chum

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the penetration of lightning induced whistler waves through the ionosphere by investigating the correspondence between the whistlers observed on the DEMETER and MAGION-5 satellites and the lightning discharges detected by the European lightning detection network EUCLID. We compute all the possible differences between the times when the whistlers were observed on the satellite and times when the lightning discharges were detected. We show that the occurrence histogram for these time differences exhibits a distinct peak for a particular characteristic time, corresponding to the sum of the propagation time and a possible small time shift between the absolute time assigned to the wave record and the clock of the lightning detection network. Knowing this characteristic time, we can search in the EUCLID database for locations, currents, and polarities of causative lightning discharges corresponding to the individual whistlers. We demonstrate that the area in the ionosphere through which the electromagnetic energy induced by a lightning discharge enters into the magnetosphere as whistler mode waves is up to several thousands of kilometres wide.

  10. Causation as Strategy: Interpreting Humours among Tibetan Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, Audrey

    2006-08-01

    The article focuses on the incidence of humoural wind ( rlung ) disorders among Tibetan exiles in India. It investigates the reasons behind the emergence of rlung as a significant problem among Tibetan exiles, and seeks to unpack some of the local meanings of this 'epidemic'. Previous studies have generally described rlung disorders as symptomatic of political and moral concerns, highlighting the connections that Tibetans make between physical, moral and psychological states in the context of Buddhist practice and everyday life. This paper aims to further nuance these findings by showing that, while Tibetan exiles include complex causes linked to morality and psychosocial wellbeing in their explanations of rlung disorders, they also 'cut' into this explanatory network in strategic ways, sometimes bypassing religious or psychosocial interpretations of illness altogether. Drawing on this analysis, the article warns researchers against literal readings of general religious precepts when analysing people's everyday negotiations of illness and wellbeing: the attribution of causation is always strategic, and religious observance should never be assumed to be uniform, or taken as a given.

  11. Illness Causation and Interpretation in a Newar Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Subedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the core concerns of medical anthropology is to explore how people in different cultures and social groups explain the causes of ill health, the type of treatment they believe in, and to whom they turn if they do become ill. This article focuses on the understanding of illness causation by the Newars in Kirtipur and their concern about biological and socio-cultural aspects of healthy behavior, and particularly with the ways in which they have been coping in everyday life. The basic method of data collection for this study was formal and informal discussions with the elderly Newar males and females, followed by discussions with youths to explore the variations in their perceptions. The findings show that the understanding of illness etiology is multi-causal. The individual, natural, social, and supernatural causes are not mutually exclusive but are usually linked together in a particular case. In any specific case of illness, moreover, people’s explanatory model varies in how they explain its etiology.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v5i0.6358 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 5, 2011: 101-120    

  12. Membangun Karakter Siswa Melalui Kegiatan Intrakurikuler, Ekstrakurikuler, dan Hidden Curriculum di SD Budi Mulia Dua Pandeansari Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prawidya Lestari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available STUDENUDENUDENUDENTS CHARACTERER BUILDINUILDINUILDINUILDINUILDINUILDING THROUGH HIDDEN CURRICULUM CURRICULUM , IN TRACURRICULER , AND EXTRACURRICUL AR ACTIVITY (Study In Sd Budi Mulia Dua Pandeansari Yogyakarta This article aimed to know how the SD Budi Mulia dua Pandeansari character education concept, how the implementation of character education through the hidden curriculum extracurricular, and intracurriculer activities, supporting factor and resistance from thWe implementation. This research is a field research. In the form of qualitative research that is analytically descriptive. The results of the study showed that: First, the concept of character education in SD Budi Mulia Dua Pandeansari on the fact of the matter into the hidden curriculum that is based on the vision, mission, and eight learning base. Second, implementation of character education in SD Budi Mulia Dua Pandeansari realized through extracurricular and intracurriculer activities, and school culture. In intracurriculer activities and extracurricular activities there are hidden curriculum that the verbal curriculum or written curriculum.

  13. Beliefs and perception of ill-health causation: a socio-cultural qualitative study in rural North-Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahissay, Mesfin H; Fenta, Teferi G; Boon, Heather

    2017-01-26

    Understanding perceptions of the causes of ill-health common in indigenous communities may help policy makers to design effective integrated primary health care strategies to serve these communities. This study explored the indigenous beliefs of ill-health causation among those living in the Tehuledere Woreda /district/ in North East Ethiopia from a socio-cultural perspective. The study employed a qualitative ethnographic method informed by Murdock's Theory of Illness. Participatory observation, over a total of 5 months during the span of one year, was supplemented by focus group discussions (n = 96 participants in 10 groups) and in-depth interviews (n = 20) conducted with key informants. Data were analyzed thematically using narrative strategies. In these communities, illness is perceived to have supernatural (e.g., almighty God/ Allah, nature spirits, and human agents of the supernatural), natural (e.g., environmental sanitation and personal hygiene, poverty, biological and psychological factors) and societal causes (e.g., social trust, experiences of family support and harmony; and violation of social taboos). Therefore, the explanatory model of illness causation in this community was very similar to that of the Murdock model with one key difference: social elements need to be added to the model. Members of the study community believes that supernatural, natural and social elements are linked to ill-health causation. A successful integrated primary health care strategy should include strategies for supporting patients' needs in all three of these domains.

  14. Causation or selection - examining the relation between education and overweight/obesity in prospective observational studies: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T J; Roesler, N M; von dem Knesebeck, O

    2017-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the association between education and overweight/obesity. Yet less is known about the relative importance of causation (i.e. the influence of education on risks of overweight/obesity) and selection (i.e. the influence of overweight/obesity on the likelihood to attain education) hypotheses. A systematic review was performed to assess the linkage between education and overweight/obesity in prospective studies in general populations. Studies were searched within five databases, and study quality was appraised with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. In total, 31 studies were considered for meta-analysis. Regarding causation (24 studies), the lower educated had a higher likelihood (odds ratio: 1.33, 1.21-1.47) and greater risk (risk ratio: 1.34, 1.08-1.66) for overweight/obesity, when compared with the higher educated. However, these associations were no longer statistically significant when accounting for publication bias. Concerning selection (seven studies), overweight/obese individuals had a greater likelihood of lower education (odds ratio: 1.57, 1.10-2.25), when contrasted with the non-overweight or non-obese. Subgroup analyses were performed by stratifying meta-analyses upon different factors. Relationships between education and overweight/obesity were affected by study region, age groups, gender and observation period. In conclusion, it is necessary to consider both causation and selection processes in order to tackle educational inequalities in obesity appropriately. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Students' Big Three Personality Traits, Perceptions of Teacher Interpersonal Behavior, and Mathematics Achievement: An Application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampous, Kyriakos; Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the application of the Model of Reciprocal Causation (MRC) in examining the relationship between student personality (personal factors), student-perceived teacher interpersonal behavior (environment), and Mathematics achievement (behavior), with the simultaneous investigation of mediating effects…

  16. A synthetic approach to compare the large truck crash causation study and naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jeffrey S; Hanowski, Richard J; Bocanegra, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    Truck crashes represent a significant problem on our nation's highways. There is a great opportunity to learn about crash causation by analyzing and comparing the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) and naturalistic driving (ND) data. These data sets provide in-depth information, but have contrasting strengths and weaknesses. The LTCCS contains information on high-severity crashes (crashes and fatal crashes), but relied on data collected during crash investigations. The LTCCS identified principal driver errors in the crash, such as the Critical Reason, but not detailed behaviors or scenario sequences. The ND data sets relate primarily to non-crashes that are detectable from dynamic vehicle events, such as hard braking, swerve, etc., provide direct video observations of the driver and the surrounding driving scene and precise information on driver inputs (kinematics) and captured events, and provide certain types of exposure data that cannot easily be obtained using crash reconstruction data. The ND data are collected continuously, thereby capturing both safety-critical events and normative driving (i.e., baseline). The current project evaluated large-truck crash data from the LTCCS and two large-truck ND data sets, the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and the Drowsy Driver Warning System Field Operational Test. A synthetic risk ratio analysis on the associated factor, Following Too Closely, indicated that truck drivers in the LTCCS were 1.34 times more likely to be involved in a crash, than an ND crash-relevant conflict, if they were following too closely (i.e., tailgating). Given several caveats noted in the paper, this study suggests it's possible to use the ND data set to calculate the exposure of a given behavior and use the LTCCS data set to calculate the crash exposure to the same behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Causation model of autism: Audiovisual brain specialization in infancy competes with social brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Karen Frankel; Oestreicher, Leonard M

    2016-06-01

    Earliest identifiable findings in autism indicate that the autistic brain develops differently from the typical brain in the first year of life, after a period of typical development. Twin studies suggest that autism has an environmental component contributing to causation. Increased availability of audiovisual (AV) materials and viewing practices of infants parallel the time frame of the rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown an association between ASD and increased TV/cable screen exposure in infancy, suggesting AV exposure in infancy as a possible contributing cause of ASD. Infants are attracted to the saliency of AV materials, yet do not have the experience to recognize these stimuli as socially relevant. The authors present a developmental model of autism in which exposure to screen-based AV input in genetically susceptible infants stimulates specialization of non-social sensory processing in the brain. Through a process of neuroplasticity, the autistic infant develops the skills that are driven by the AV viewing. The AV developed neuronal pathways compete with preference for social processing, negatively affecting development of social brain pathways and causing global developmental delay. This model explains atypical face and speech processing, as well as preference for AV synchrony over biological motion in ASD. Neural hyper-connectivity, enlarged brain size and special abilities in visual, auditory and motion processing in ASD are also explained by the model. Positive effects of early intervention are predicted by the model. Researchers studying causation of autism have largely overlooked AV exposure in infancy as a potential contributing factor. The authors call for increased public awareness of the association between early screen viewing and ASD, and a concerted research effort to determine the extent of causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Causative Microorganisms in Intensive Care Unit: A Two Year Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Palabıyık

    2016-12-01

    causative microorganisms are important factors for scheduling appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment and detection of correct infection control strategies in ARICU. As a consequently, if VAP was suspected, empirical antibiotic therapy should be planned against gram-negative microorganisms.

  19. Hidden Broad-line Regions in Seyfert 2 Galaxies: From the Spectropolarimetric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pu; Wang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-05-01

    The hidden broad-line regions (BLRs) in Seyfert 2 galaxies, which display broad emission lines (BELs) in their polarized spectra, are a key piece of evidence in support of the unified model for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, the detailed kinematics and geometry of hidden BLRs are still not fully understood. The virial factor obtained from reverberation mapping of type 1 AGNs may be a useful diagnostic of the nature of hidden BLRs in type 2 objects. In order to understand the hidden BLRs, we compile six type 2 objects from the literature with polarized BELs and dynamical measurements of black hole masses. All of them contain pseudobulges. We estimate their virial factors, and find the average value is 0.60 and the standard deviation is 0.69, which agree well with the value of type 1 AGNs with pseudobulges. This study demonstrates that (1) the geometry and kinematics of BLR are similar in type 1 and type 2 AGNs of the same bulge type (pseudobulges), and (2) the small values of virial factors in Seyfert 2 galaxies suggest that, similar to type 1 AGNs, BLRs tend to be very thick disks in type 2 objects.

  20. Entropy and Information Transmission in Causation and Retrocausation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moddel, Garret

    2006-10-01

    Although experimental evidence for retrocausation exists, there are clearly subtleties to the phenomenon. The bilking paradox, in which one intervenes to eliminate a subsequent cause after a preceding effect has occurred, appears on the surface to show that retrocausation is logically impossible. In a previous paper, the second law of thermodynamics was invoked to show that the entropy in each process of a psi interaction (presentience, telepathy, remote perception, and psychokinesis) cannot decrease, prohibiting psi processes in which signals condense from background fluctuations. Here it is shown, perhaps contrary to one's intuition, that reversible processes cannot be influenced through retrocausation, but irreversible processes can. The increase in thermodynamic entropy in irreversible processes — which are generally described by Newtonian mechanics but not Lagrangian dynamics and Hamilton's Principle — is required for causation. Thermodynamically reversible processes cannot be causal and hence also cannot be retrocausal. The role of entropy in psi interactions is extended by using the bilking paradox to consider information transmission in retroactive psychokinesis (PK). PK efficiency, ηPK, is defined. A prediction of the analysis is that ηPK ⩽ H/H0, where H is the information uncertainty or entropy in the retro-PK agent's knowledge of the event that is to be influenced retrocausally. The information entropy can provide the necessary ingredient for non-reversibility, and hence retrocausation. Noise and bandwidth limitations in the communication to the agent of the outcome of the event increase the maximum PK efficiency. Avoidance of the bilking paradox does not bar a subject from using the premonition of an event to prevent it from occurring. The necessity for large information entropy, which is the expected value of the surprisal, is likely to be essential for any successful PK process, not just retro-PK processes. Hence uncertainty in the

  1. Is chronic rhinosinusitis related to allergic rhinitis in adults and children? Applying epidemiological guidelines for causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, C.; Vlastos, I.; Picavet, V.; van Drunen, C.; Garas, G.; Prokopakis, E.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis has been assessed in a number of observational and experimental studies. In this review, we attempt their synthesis and evaluation using the modified Bradford Hill guidelines for causation. Although there is no proof of causation,

  2. 76 FR 36891 - Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 81 RIN 0920-AA39 Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under... proposed rule entitled ``Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees...

  3. Prediction of causative genomic relationships using sequence data of five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    Jersey, 28 Montbéliarde, 23 Normande and 24 Danish Red bulls. Different scenarios varying the number of causative mutations (10, 50, 100 or 250), minor allele frequency of causative mutations and prediction markers, and sets of prediction markers were used. Prediction markers were either SNP on the 50K...

  4. Hidden Markov latent variable models with multivariate longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinyuan; Xia, Yemao; Zhu, Hongtu

    2017-03-01

    Cocaine addiction is chronic and persistent, and has become a major social and health problem in many countries. Existing studies have shown that cocaine addicts often undergo episodic periods of addiction to, moderate dependence on, or swearing off cocaine. Given its reversible feature, cocaine use can be formulated as a stochastic process that transits from one state to another, while the impacts of various factors, such as treatment received and individuals' psychological problems on cocaine use, may vary across states. This article develops a hidden Markov latent variable model to study multivariate longitudinal data concerning cocaine use from a California Civil Addict Program. The proposed model generalizes conventional latent variable models to allow bidirectional transition between cocaine-addiction states and conventional hidden Markov models to allow latent variables and their dynamic interrelationship. We develop a maximum-likelihood approach, along with a Monte Carlo expectation conditional maximization (MCECM) algorithm, to conduct parameter estimation. The asymptotic properties of the parameter estimates and statistics for testing the heterogeneity of model parameters are investigated. The finite sample performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by simulation studies. The application to cocaine use study provides insights into the prevention of cocaine use. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Modeling promoter grammars with evolving hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Sandelin, Albin; Marstrand, Troels Torben

    2008-01-01

    factors are involved in the regulation of a set of co-regulated genes. If so, promoters can be modeled with connected regulatory features, where the network of connections is characteristic for a particular mode of regulation. RESULTS: With the goal of automatically deciphering such regulatory structures......MOTIVATION: Describing and modeling biological features of eukaryotic promoters remains an important and challenging problem within computational biology. The promoters of higher eukaryotes in particular display a wide variation in regulatory features, which are difficult to model. Often several......, we present a method that iteratively evolves an ensemble of regulatory grammars using a hidden Markov Model (HMM) architecture composed of interconnected blocks representing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and background regions of promoter sequences. The ensemble approach reduces the risk...

  6. Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).

  7. Extended abstract of a hidden agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguen, J.; Malcolm, G. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The initial goal of our hidden research programme was both straightforward and ambitious: give a semantics for software engineering, and in particular for the object paradigm, supporting correctness proofs that are as simple and mechanical as possible. This emphasizes proofs rather than models, and thus suggests an equational approach, rather than one based on higher order logic, denotational semantics, or any kind of model, because equational proofs achieve maximal simplicity and mechanization, and yet are fully expressive. We introduce powerful coinduction techniques for proving behavioral properties of complex systems. We make the no doubt outrageous claim that our hidden approach gives simpler proofs than other formalisms; this is because we exploit algebraic structure that most other approaches discard.

  8. Hidden geometric correlations in real multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleineberg, Kaj-Kolja; Boguñá, Marián; Ángeles Serrano, M.; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos

    2016-11-01

    Real networks often form interacting parts of larger and more complex systems. Examples can be found in different domains, ranging from the Internet to structural and functional brain networks. Here, we show that these multiplex systems are not random combinations of single network layers. Instead, they are organized in specific ways dictated by hidden geometric correlations between the layers. We find that these correlations are significant in different real multiplexes, and form a key framework for answering many important questions. Specifically, we show that these geometric correlations facilitate the definition and detection of multidimensional communities, which are sets of nodes that are simultaneously similar in multiple layers. They also enable accurate trans-layer link prediction, meaning that connections in one layer can be predicted by observing the hidden geometric space of another layer. And they allow efficient targeted navigation in the multilayer system using only local knowledge, outperforming navigation in the single layers only if the geometric correlations are sufficiently strong.

  9. Randomised intervention study to assess the prevalence of subclinical vascular disease and hidden kidney disease and its impact on morbidity and mortality: The ILERVAS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Betriu

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The ILERVAS project will reveal the prevalence of subclinical vascular disease and hidden kidney disease, determine whether or not their early diagnosis brings health benefits and will also allow investigation of new risk factors.

  10. Cold dark matter from the hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica

    2012-02-15

    Weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs) such as hidden photons (HP) and axion-like particles (ALPs) have been proposed as cold dark matter candidates. They might be produced non-thermally via the misalignment mechanism, similarly to cold axions. In this talk we review the main processes of thermalisation of HP and we compute the parameter space that may survive as cold dark matter population until today. Our findings are quite encouraging for experimental searches in the laboratory in the near future.

  11. Hidden Costs of Control in Social Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhold, Simon; Riener, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of social identity in reactions to control. We propose a simple principal-agent model with control that incorporates the existence of social groups. Our laboratory experiment shows that, in contrast to no-group agents, agents in social groups (i) perform better; (ii) expect less control; (iii) do not reciprocate when facing less control than expected; (iv) decrease their performance substantially when actual control exceeds their expectation. Hidden costs of c...

  12. The hidden curriculum and my three wishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meru, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Personal ideals often clash with the reward structure of dental education. The hidden curriculum sometimes teaches corner-cutting and worse while publically espousing high standards. Changing the professionals without changing the profession in which they work multiplies frustration and offers little hope of progress. Three wishes for changes to the system are identified: (a) fixed dates for National Board testing, (b) comprehensive admissions standards, and (c) no live-patient, one-shot initial licensure examinations.

  13. "Hidden" social networks in behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; McAneney, Helen; Davis, Michael; Tully, Mark A; Valente, Thomas W; Kee, Frank

    2015-03-01

    We investigated whether "hidden" (or unobserved) social networks were evident in a 2011 physical activity behavior change intervention in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Results showed evidence of unobserved social networks in the intervention and illustrated how the network evolved over short periods and affected behavior. Behavior change interventions should account for the interaction among participants (i.e., social networks) and how such interactions affect intervention outcome.

  14. Crash Causation In Nigerian Roads – Failure Mode Analysis | Dike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of many researches on the causes of road traffic accidents have always resolved around three main factors, the human, environmental and vehicular factors. In this study, emphasis was placed on the vehicular factor in road traffic accident. It looked into detail on those vehicle components whose failures result in ...

  15. Daytime Thermal Anisotropy of Urban Neighbourhoods: Morphological Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scott Krayenhoff

    2016-01-01

    results allow first order estimation of the minimum effective anisotropy magnitude of urban neighbourhoods as a function of building-height-to-spacing ratio, building plan area density, and shortwave irradiance. Finally, four “local climate zones” are simulated at two latitudes. Removal of neighbourhood street orientation regularity for these zones decreases maximum anisotropy by 3%–31%. Furthermore, thermal and radiative material properties are a weaker predictor of anisotropy than neighbourhood morphology. This study is the first systematic evaluation of effective anisotropy magnitude and causation for urban landscapes.

  16. Lepton mixing from the hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludl, P. O.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Experimental results indicate a possible relation between the lepton and quark mixing matrices of the form UPMNS≈VCKM†UX , where UX is a matrix with special structure related to the mechanism of neutrino mass generation. We propose a framework which can realize such a relation. The main ingredients of the framework are the double seesaw mechanism, SO(10) grand unification and a hidden sector of theory. The latter is composed of singlets (fermions and bosons) of the grand unified theory (GUT) symmetry with masses between the GUT and Planck scale. The interactions in this sector obey certain symmetries Ghidden. We explore the conditions under which symmetries Ghidden can produce flavor structures in the visible sector. Here the key elements are the basis-fixing symmetry and mediators which communicate information about properties of the hidden sector to the visible one. The interplay of SO(10) symmetry, basis-fixing symmetry identified as Z2×Z2 and Ghidden can lead to the required form of UX. A different kind of new physics is responsible for generation of the CKM mixing. We present the simplest realizations of the framework which differ by nature of the mediators and by symmetries of the hidden sector.

  17. Involvement of hidden allergens in food allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añíbarro, B; Seoane, F J; Múgica, M V

    2007-01-01

    Hidden allergens in foods can induce allergic reactions. Currently it is not possible to estimate the exact prevalence of these reactions but they are clearly a growing problem. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the role of hidden allergens (their importance, the types of food involved, and the severity of reactions) in allergic reactions in our geographical area. A retrospective study was carried out in an adult population. Over a five year period, a total of 530 food reactions were reviewed. One hundred nineteen reactions (22.4%) were considered to be due to hidden allergens. Thirty-two percent of these were anaphylactic reactions. The most common hidden allergen was the Anisakis simplex larvae present in fish and shellfish. Fish allergens hidden in other foods caused reactions in 35% of fish-allergic patients. Twenty-two per cent of allergic reactions caused by eggs were due to egg allergens hidden in foods. All but one of the reactions caused by hidden legume allergens occurred in soy-allergic patients. Reactions caused by hidden fruits and hidden nuts were very uncommon. Hidden allergens were the cause of a quarter of all food allergic reactions, mainly as a result of contamination and carelessness on the part of the patient. A simplex was the hidden allergen most frequently involved. Fruits and nuts were not frequent hidden allergens in our area. Reactions due to other uncommon foods such as soy, mustard, flavourings, and honey were multiple and usually went unnoticed. Only if the sources of hidden allergens are determined will it be possible to avoid such substances and thus guarantee the safety of the allergic patient.

  18. Stepping towards causation in studies of neighborhood and environmental effects: how twin research can overcome problems of selection and reverse causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; Mills, Brianna; Strachan, Eric; Hurvitz, Philip; Huang, Ruizhu; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Turkheimer, Eric

    2014-05-01

    No causal evidence is available to translate associations between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes into beneficial changes to built environments. Observed associations may be causal or result from uncontrolled confounds related to family upbringing. Twin designs can help neighborhood effects studies overcome selection and reverse causation problems in specifying causal mechanisms. Beyond quantifying genetic effects (i.e., heritability coefficients), we provide examples of innovative measures and analytic methods that use twins as quasi-experimental controls for confounding by environmental effects. We conclude that collaboration among investigators from multiple fields can move the field forward by designing studies that step toward causation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Causation mechanism analysis for haze pollution related to vehicle emission in Guangzhou, China by employing the fault tree approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiqing; Fan, Hongbo; Qiu, Yongfu; Cheng, Zhiyu; Xu, Pingru; Qian, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Recently, China has frequently experienced large-scale, severe and persistent haze pollution due to surging urbanization and industrialization and a rapid growth in the number of motor vehicles and energy consumption. The vehicle emission due to the consumption of a large number of fossil fuels is no doubt a critical factor of the haze pollution. This work is focused on the causation mechanism of haze pollution related to the vehicle emission for Guangzhou city by employing the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) method for the first time. With the establishment of the fault tree system of "Haze weather-Vehicle exhausts explosive emission", all of the important risk factors are discussed and identified by using this deductive FTA method. The qualitative and quantitative assessments of the fault tree system are carried out based on the structure, probability and critical importance degree analysis of the risk factors. The study may provide a new simple and effective tool/strategy for the causation mechanism analysis and risk management of haze pollution in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurodynamics of mind: the arrow illusion of conscious intentionality as downward causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutta, Joaquín; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Cornejo, Carlos; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2010-06-01

    In cognitive neuroscience, the reissue of the notion of emergence and downward causation has been used as an interlevel model of mind-brain interactions from different perspectives. Within this perspective, intentionality has been interpreted as global to local determination (downward causation) on the neurophysiological level. Consciousness would act as the large-scale, global activity of the system that governs or constrains local interactions of neurons. This argument seems to solve several difficulties with regard to descriptions of consciousness on a neurophysiological and mental level. Nevertheless, the inconsistencies of this argument are shown, and a contextual and pragmatic explanation of the downward causation of consciousness is given.

  1. Causative alternation in Persian Complex predicates: a Frame-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SAFARI ALI

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a frame-based description of verbal polysemy is used to answer some questions concerning syntactic behavior and argument structures associated with complex predicates in Persian. In Persian a number of CPs consisting of a light verb (LV) and a preverb (PV) participate in causative alternation. The causative variant is formed with the LV ændaxtæn 'cause to fall' and the anti-causative variant is formed with oftadæn 'fall'. In some contexts these verbs do not participate in causa...

  2. APPROUSH TO SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDIDIS

    OpenAIRE

    Katsapov D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Increased level of morbidity of infective endocarditis (IE) connected with new risk factors: intravenous drug use, cardiosurgical interventions, hemodialysis brought new clinical forms of the disease. As it shown in a literature main pathogenetic factors of IE are bacteraemia, trauma of endocardium and invasive medical procedures. Very typical pathogens are streptococci and staphylococci. Most typically mitral and aortal valves are affected with spreading...

  3. Hidden blood loss after surgery for hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, N B; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the total blood loss associated with surgery for fracture of the hip and to identify risk factors for increased blood loss. We prospectively studied 546 patients with hip fracture. The total blood loss was calculated on the basis of the haemoglobin difference, the number...... with aspirin, intra-operative hypotension and gastro-intestinal bleeding or ulceration were all independent predictors of blood loss. We conclude that total blood loss after surgery for hip fracture is much greater than that observed intra-operatively. Frequent post-operative measurements of haemoglobin...... of transfusions and the estimated blood volume. The hidden blood loss, in excess of that observed during surgery, varied from 547 ml (screws/ pins) to 1473 ml (intramedullary hip nail and screw) and was significantly associated with medical complications and increased hospital stay. The type of surgery, treatment...

  4. Hidden blood loss after surgery for hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Bang; Kehlet, H

    2006-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the total blood loss associated with surgery for fracture of the hip and to identify risk factors for increased blood loss. We prospectively studied 546 patients with hip fracture. The total blood loss was calculated on the basis of the haemoglobin difference, the number...... of transfusions and the estimated blood volume. The hidden blood loss, in excess of that observed during surgery, varied from 547 ml (screws/ pins) to 1473 ml (intramedullary hip nail and screw) and was significantly associated with medical complications and increased hospital stay. The type of surgery, treatment...... with aspirin, intra-operative hypotension and gastro-intestinal bleeding or ulceration were all independent predictors of blood loss. We conclude that total blood loss after surgery for hip fracture is much greater than that observed intra-operatively. Frequent post-operative measurements of haemoglobin...

  5. VISIBLE COSTS AND HIDDEN COSTS IN THE BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criveanu Maria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidden costs are present in the activity of any company, hardly identified in the traditional administrative accounting. The high levels of the hidden costs and their unknown presence have serious consequences on the decisions made by the managers. This paper aims at presenting some aspects related to the hidden costs that occur in the activity of the companies in the baking industry and the possibilities to reduce their level.

  6. ADAPTIVE LEARNING OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS FOR EMOTIONAL SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tkachenia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-line unsupervised algorithm for estimating the hidden Markov models (HMM parame-ters is presented. The problem of hidden Markov models adaptation to emotional speech is solved. To increase the reliability of estimated HMM parameters, a mechanism of forgetting and updating is proposed. A functional block diagram of the hidden Markov models adaptation algorithm is also provided with obtained results, which improve the efficiency of emotional speech recognition.

  7. HIDDEN WEB EXTRACTOR DYNAMIC WAY TO UNCOVER THE DEEP WEB

    OpenAIRE

    DR. ANURADHA; BABITA AHUJA

    2012-01-01

    In this era of digital tsunami of information on the web, everyone is completely dependent on the WWW for information retrieval. This has posed a challenging problem in extracting relevant data. Traditional web crawlers focus only on the surface web while the deep web keeps expanding behind the scene. The web databases are hidden behind the query interfaces. In this paper, we propose a Hidden Web Extractor (HWE) that can automatically discover and download data from the Hidden Web databases. ...

  8. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Frisch, Tobias; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Baumbach, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD) and bronchial

  9. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD

  10. The Hidden Curricula of Medical Education: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Carlton; Mhlaba, Tsholofelo; Stewart, Kearsley A; Moletsane, Relebohile; Gaede, Bernhard; Moshabela, Mosa

    2017-11-07

    To analyze the plural definitions and applications of the term "hidden curriculum" within the medical education literature and to propose a conceptual framework for conducting future research on the topic. The authors conducted a literature search of nine online databases, seeking articles published on the hidden, informal, or implicit curriculum in medical education prior to March 2017. Two reviewers independently screened articles with set inclusion criteria and performed kappa coefficient tests to evaluate interreviewer reliability. They extracted, coded, and analyzed key data, using grounded theory methodology. The authors uncovered 3,747 articles relating to the hidden curriculum in medical education. Of these, they selected 197 articles for full review. Use of the term "hidden curriculum" has expanded substantially since 2012. U.S. and Canadian medical schools are the focus of two-thirds of the empirical hidden curriculum studies; data from African and South American schools are nearly absent. Few quantitative techniques to measure the hidden curriculum exist. The "hidden curriculum" is understood as a mostly negative concept. Its definition varies widely, but can be understood via four conceptual boundaries: (1) institutional-organizational, (2) interpersonal-social, (3) contextual-cultural, and/or (4) motivational-psychological. Future medical education researchers should make clear the conceptual boundary or boundaries they are applying to the term "hidden curriculum," move away from general musings on its effects, and focus on specific methods for improving the powerful hidden curriculum.

  11. Associations, causation and model in psychiatry Associações, causas e modelos em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival Caetano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses models, associations and causation in psychiatry. The different types of association (linear, positive, negative, exponential, partial, U shaped relationship, hidden and spurious between variables involved in mental disorders are presented as well as the use of multiple regression analysis to disentangle interrelatedness amongst multiple variables. A useful model should have internal consistency, external validity and predictive power; be dynamic in order to accommodate new sound knowledge; and should fit facts rather than they other way around. It is argued that whilst models are theoretical constructs they also convey a style of reasoning and can change clinical practice. Cause and effect are complex phenomena in that the same cause can yield different effects. Conversely, the same effect can have a different range of causes. In mental disorders and human behaviour there is always a chain of events initiated by the indirect and remote cause; followed by intermediate causes; and finally the direct and more immediate cause. Causes of mental disorders are grouped as those: (i which are necessary and sufficient; (ii which are necessary but not sufficient; and (iii which are neither necessary nor sufficient, but when present increase the risk for mental disorders.Este artigo discute modelos, associações e fatores causais em psiquiatria. Os diferentes tipos de associação (linear, positiva, negativa, exponencial, parcial, em forma de U, escondida e fortuita entre as variáveis envolvidas na ocorrência de transtornos mentais são apresentados, bem como o uso da análise de regressão múltipla para analisar covariâncias entre múltiplas variáveis. Um modelo, para ser útil, deve ter consistência interna, validade externa e poder preditivo, ser dinâmico para incorporar novas descobertas e adequar-se aos fatos, e não o contrário. Os modelos, embora sejam construtos teóricos, implicam em uma dada forma de pensar e t

  12. Photodynamic therapy in combating the causative microorganisms from endodontic infections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Câmara, Andréa Cruz

    2014-01-01

    ...s. The purpose of this paper is to review the dental literature about the main factors that encompass the use of PDT combined with endodontic treatment for decontamination of the root canal system...

  13. Direct, Indirect and Inferred Causation: Finite and Infinitive Complements of Deixar and Fazer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Vesterinen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article examines the variation between finite and infinitive complements of the two Portuguese causation verbs deixar and fazer from a cognitive perspective. It is argued that the difference between these complements is mainly semantic and that it can be explained by the notion of linguistic iconicity, i.e. the semantic differences can be seen in the formal differences. Accordingly, a minor formal distance between the main verb and the complement verb in the infinitive complements signals a prototypically direct causation. On the other hand, a greater distance in the finite complements implies an indirect causation. Further, it is claimed that the indirect causation is often of an inferential and more complex character, thus giving rise to a higher degree of subjectification in the finite complements than in the infinitive complements.

  14. A new approach for annual flood frequency estimation: Hybrid Causative Event Method: Conference Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Thyer, Mark; Li, Jing; Lambert, Martin; Kuczera, George; Metcalfe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Conference presentation from Engineers Australia, Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium, 2012, Sydney Australia.Summarises the Hybrid Causative Event-based Method for Annual Flood Frequency Estimation, see Li et al(2014,2015) (links provided below)

  15. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  16. Hidden Treasure: Successful International Doctoral Students Who Found and Harnessed the Hidden Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Dely Lazarte; Baumfield, Vivienne; Reid, Kate; Makara, Kara A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws from an institutionally-funded phenomenological study of international PhD students' academic acculturation, which focuses on the distinctive strengths, challenges, and hidden opportunities facing this cohort within the context of their transition from one academic culture to another. The first section introduces the theoretical…

  17. "Isn't the Trigger the Thing that Sets the Rest of It on Fire?" Causation Maps: Emphasising Chronology in Causation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Analogies for teaching about causation abound. Rick Rogers is alert, however, to the risks inherent in drawing on everyday ideas to explain historical processes. What most often gets lost is the importance of the chronological dimension; both the length of time during which some contributory causes may have been present, and the ways in which they…

  18. Teaching Vocabulary By Using Hidden Mysteries Game

    OpenAIRE

    Simamora, Ignasius John; Bunau, Eusabinus; Arifin, Zainal

    2014-01-01

    The researcher tried to find whether teaching vocabulary mastery through Hidden Mysteries Game can improve students' vocabulary mastery. Furthermore, this research was designed in the form of pre-experimental research. The data of this research were obtained by doing Pretest and Post-test assessment. The data analysis indicated that the mean score of the students' pre-test was 55.48 (below passing grade 65.00) while the mean score of the students' post-test was 70 (above passing grade 65.00)....

  19. LHC: Standard Higgs and hidden Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englert, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.englert@googlemail.com [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham University (United Kingdom); Plehn, Tilman [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Rauch, Michael [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Zerwas, Dirk [LAL, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Zerwas, Peter M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2012-02-07

    Interpretations of Higgs searches critically involve production cross sections and decay probabilities for different analysis channels. Mixing effects can reduce production rates, while invisible decays can reduce decay probabilities. Both effects may transparently be quantified in Higgs systems where a visible Higgs boson is mixed with a hidden sector Higgs boson. Recent experimental exclusion bounds can be re-interpreted in this context as a sign for non-standard Higgs properties. Should a light Higgs boson be discovered, then our analysis will quantify how closely it may coincide with the Standard Model.

  20. Maurice Halbwachs: Official and hidden memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Enrique Carretero Pasin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show, in general terms, how Maurice Halbwachs  has discovered presence and vitality in the collective memories which have been excluded from the socially-institutionalized world. In order to decipher his opaque writing, one should try for a sociology of the depths, for a sociological look that, separating itself from the dominant positivism of the social sciences, manages to penetrate the hidden logic that permanently underlies social life. This article seeks to uncover the nature of a collective memory that respects the vicissitudes of time, as well as its difficult relations both with official memory and with the dominant historical record. 

  1. Maurice Halbwachs: Official and hidden memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carretero, Angel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to show, in general terms, how Maurice Halbwachs has discovered presence and vitality in the collective memorieswhich have been excluded from the socially-institutionalized world. In order to decipher his opaque writing, one should try for a sociology of the depths, for a sociological look that, separating itself from the dominant positivism of the social sciences, manages to penetrate the hidden logic that permanently underlies social life. This article seeks to uncover the nature of a collective memory that respects the vicissitudes of time, as well as its difficult relations both with official memory and with the dominant historical record.

  2. Hidden Anemias in the Critically Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    With increasing knowledge of the risks associated with receiving blood transfusions, a new paradigm of bloodless medicine is needed. Principles of bloodless medicine include careful monitoring for obvious and hidden anemias, rapid intervention, minimizing blood losses from laboratory testing and procedures, and careful management of bleeding diatheses. As evidence is revealed and refined, standard treatment of anemia in the intensive care unit will include erythropoietin-stimulating agents, iron, folate, and vitamin B12, which will reduce risks associated with blood transfusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hidden photon CDM search at Tokyo

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Jun'ya; Horie, Tomoki; Minowa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    We report on a search for hidden photon cold dark matter (HP CDM) using a novel technique with a dish antenna. We constructed two independent apparatus: one is aiming at the detection of the HP with a mass of $\\sim\\,\\rm{eV}$ which employs optical instruments, and the other is for a mass of $\\sim5\\times10^{-5}\\, \\rm{eV}$ utilizing a commercially available parabolic antenna facing on a plane reflector. From the result of the measurements, we found no evidence for the existence of HP CDM and set upper limits on the photon-HP mixing parameter $\\chi$.

  4. Genetic Algorithms Principles Towards Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M. Hewahi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a general approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs to evolve Hidden Markov Models (HMM. The problem appears when experts assign probability values for HMM, they use only some limited inputs. The assigned probability values might not be accurate to serve in other cases related to the same domain. We introduce an approach based on GAs to find
    out the suitable probability values for the HMM to be mostly correct in more cases than what have been used to assign the probability values.

  5. Hidden Costs and Challenges of Servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yifan; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    Servitization has been recognized as the process of creating value through adding services to products. Labels, such as “route to growth”, “profitability and economic stability”, “closer customer relationship”, have been attached to servitization. However, contrary to the positive connotations...... of these labels, the potential benefits of servitization are often overshadowed by costs associated with it. By using the cases of Chinese and Danish manufacturing firms, this study takes a closer look at possible hidden costs of servitization and contributes to our understanding of servitization performance...

  6. Hidden Markov Models for Human Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Pierre; Brunak, Søren; Chauvin, Yves

    1997-01-01

    We analyse the sequential structure of human genomic DNA by hidden Markov models. We apply models of widely different design: conventional left-right constructs and models with a built-in periodic architecture. The models are trained on segments of DNA sequences extracted such that they cover...... complete internal exons flanked by introns, or splice sites flanked by coding and non-coding sequence. Together, models of donor site regions, acceptor site regions and flanked internal exons, show that exons - besides the reading frame - hold a specific periodic pattern. The pattern has the consensus: non...

  7. Uncovering the Hidden Costs of Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marcus M.; Manning, Stephan; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates estimation errors due to hidden costs—the costs of implementation that are neglected in strategic decision-making processes—in the context of services offshoring. Based on data from the Offshoring Research Network, we find that decision makers are more likely to make cost......-estimation errors given increasing configuration and task complexity in captive offshoring and offshore outsourcing, respectively. Moreover, we show that experience and a strong orientation toward organizational design in the offshoring strategy reduce the cost-estimation errors that follow from complexity. Our...

  8. Hidden Scale Invariance in Condensed Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    . This means that the phase diagram becomes effectively one-dimensional with regard to several physical properties. Liquids and solids with isomorphs include most or all van der Waals bonded systems and metals, as well as weakly ionic or dipolar systems. On the other hand, systems with directional bonding...... (hydrogen bonds or covalent bonds) or strong Coulomb forces generally do not exhibit hidden scale invariance. The article reviews the theory behind this picture of condensed matter and the evidence for it coming from computer simulations and experiments...

  9. Hidden-service Statistics Reported by Relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    received, then 7 an adversary that knows the . onion address of a hidden service (and thus can obtain its Introduction Points) could infer how many...to identify if an individual was a member of a diseased study group based only on per-gene statistics (where here data per-gene replace data per...hide any single or repeated 9 publication of any given group of at most 8 onion services (e.g. a set of 8 or fewer related onion addresses that are

  10. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  11. Is chronic rhinosinusitis related to allergic rhinitis in adults and children? Applying epidemiological guidelines for causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalas, C; Vlastos, I; Picavet, V; van Drunen, C; Garas, G; Prokopakis, E

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis has been assessed in a number of observational and experimental studies. In this review, we attempt their synthesis and evaluation using the modified Bradford Hill guidelines for causation. Although there is no proof of causation, especially in the pediatric literature, an evaluation of underlying allergies is recommended at least as an initial measure of symptoms relief. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adverse cutaneous drug reactions: Clinical pattern and causative agents in a tertiary care center in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudukadan David

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs are caused by a wide variety of agents. Aims: Our objective was to ascertain the clinical spectrum of ACDRs and the causative drugs in this part of India and to find any risk factors. Methods: Ninety patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions were recruited for this study during 2001-2003. Hematological and biochemical investigations were done in all of them. The VDRL and HIV (ELISA tests were performed where the underlying risk factors were present. Patch testing, intradermal testing and oral provocation tests were done wherever feasible. Results: The mean age of the patients with cutaneous drug eruptions was 37.06 years. Most of them (52.2% were in the age group of 20-39 years. The male to female ratio was 0.87: 1. The most common eruptions observed were fixed drug eruption (31.1% and maculopapular rash (12.2%, and the most common causes were co-trimoxazole (22.2% and dapsone (17.7%. Conclusion: The pattern of ACDRs and the drugs causing them is remarkably different in our population. Knowledge of these drug eruptions, the causative drugs and the prognostic indicators is essential for the clinician.

  13. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631

  14. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Ruel-Bergeron

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.

  15. Beliefs and perception of ill-health causation: a socio-cultural qualitative study in rural North-Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin H. Kahissay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding perceptions of the causes of ill-health common in indigenous communities may help policy makers to design effective integrated primary health care strategies to serve these communities. This study explored the indigenous beliefs of ill-health causation among those living in the Tehuledere Woreda /district/ in North East Ethiopia from a socio-cultural perspective. Methods The study employed a qualitative ethnographic method informed by Murdock’s Theory of Illness. Participatory observation, over a total of 5 months during the span of one year, was supplemented by focus group discussions (n = 96 participants in 10 groups and in-depth interviews (n = 20 conducted with key informants. Data were analyzed thematically using narrative strategies. Results In these communities, illness is perceived to have supernatural (e.g., almighty God/ Allah, nature spirits, and human agents of the supernatural, natural (e.g., environmental sanitation and personal hygiene, poverty, biological and psychological factors and societal causes (e.g., social trust, experiences of family support and harmony; and violation of social taboos. Therefore, the explanatory model of illness causation in this community was very similar to that of the Murdock model with one key difference: social elements need to be added to the model. Conclusion Members of the study community believes that supernatural, natural and social elements are linked to ill-health causation. A successful integrated primary health care strategy should include strategies for supporting patients’ needs in all three of these domains.

  16. Remarks on Causative Verbs and Object Deletion in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Rappaport Hovav and Levin [Rappaport Hovav, M., Levin, B., 1998. "Building verb meanings." In: Butt, M., Geuder, W. (Eds.), "The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors." CSLI Publications, Stanford, pp. 97-134] contend that result verbs disallow object deletion because of their lexical semantic properties. Their point is that…

  17. Open and hidden agendas of "asymptomatic" patients who request check-up exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Sabina; Schläpfer, Martin; Langewitz, Wolf; Kaufmann, Gilbert; Nüesch, Reto; Battegay, Edouard; Zimmerli, Lukas U

    2011-04-19

    Current guidelines for a check-up recommend routine screening not triggered by specific symptoms for some known risk factors and diseases in the general population. Patients' perceptions and expectations regarding a check-up exam may differ from these principles. However, quantitative and qualitative data about the discrepancy between patient- and provider expectations for this type of clinic consultation is lacking. For a year, we prospectively enrolled 66 patients who explicitly requested a "check-up" at our medical outpatient division. All patients actively denied upon prompting having any symptoms or specific health concerns at the time they made their appointment. All consultations were videotaped and analysed for information about spontaneously mentioned symptoms and reasons for the clinic consultation ("open agendas") and for cues to hidden patient agendas using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). All patients initially declared to be asymptomatic but this was ultimately the case in only 7 out of 66 patients. The remaining 59 patients spontaneously mentioned a mean of 4.2 ± 3.3 symptoms during their first consultation. In 23 patients a total of 31 hidden agendas were revealed. The primary categories for hidden agendas were health concerns, psychosocial concerns and the patient's concept of disease. The majority of patients requesting a general check-up tend to be motivated by specific symptoms and health concerns and are not "asymptomatic" patients who primarily come for preventive issues. Furthermore, physicians must be alert for possible hidden agendas, as one in three patients have one or more hidden reasons for requesting a check-up.

  18. Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David

    2017-11-01

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.

  19. Hidden Markov Model for Stock Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyet Nguyen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hidden Markov model (HMM is typically used to predict the hidden regimes of observation data. Therefore, this model finds applications in many different areas, such as speech recognition systems, computational molecular biology and financial market predictions. In this paper, we use HMM for stock selection. We first use HMM to make monthly regime predictions for the four macroeconomic variables: inflation (consumer price index (CPI, industrial production index (INDPRO, stock market index (S&P 500 and market volatility (VIX. At the end of each month, we calibrate HMM’s parameters for each of these economic variables and predict its regimes for the next month. We then look back into historical data to find the time periods for which the four variables had similar regimes with the forecasted regimes. Within those similar periods, we analyze all of the S&P 500 stocks to identify which stock characteristics have been well rewarded during the time periods and assign scores and corresponding weights for each of the stock characteristics. A composite score of each stock is calculated based on the scores and weights of its features. Based on this algorithm, we choose the 50 top ranking stocks to buy. We compare the performances of the portfolio with the benchmark index, S&P 500. With an initial investment of $100 in December 1999, over 15 years, in December 2014, our portfolio had an average gain per annum of 14.9% versus 2.3% for the S&P 500.

  20. ESO's Hidden Treasures Brought to Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition attracted nearly 100 entries, and ESO is delighted to announce the winners. Hidden Treasures gave amateur astronomers the opportunity to search ESO's vast archives of astronomical data for a well-hidden cosmic gem. Astronomy enthusiast Igor Chekalin from Russia won the first prize in this difficult but rewarding challenge - the trip of a lifetime to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. The pictures of the Universe that can be seen in ESO's releases are impressive. However, many hours of skilful work are required to assemble the raw greyscale data captured by the telescopes into these colourful images, correcting them for distortions and unwanted signatures of the instrument, and enhancing them so as to bring out the details contained in the astronomical data. ESO has a team of professional image processors, but for the ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 competition, the experts decided to give astronomy and photography enthusiasts the opportunity to show the world what they could do with the mammoth amount of data contained in ESO's archives. The enthusiasts who responded to the call submitted nearly 100 entries in total - far exceeding initial expectations, given the difficult nature of the challenge. "We were completely taken aback both by the quantity and the quality of the images that were submitted. This was not a challenge for the faint-hearted, requiring both an advanced knowledge of data processing and an artistic eye. We are thrilled to have discovered so many talented people," said Lars Lindberg Christensen, Head of ESO's education and Public Outreach Department. Digging through many terabytes of professional astronomical data, the entrants had to identify a series of greyscale images of a celestial object that would reveal the hidden beauty of our Universe. The chance of a great reward for the lucky winner was enough to spur on the competitors; the first prize being a trip to ESO's Very Large

  1. Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P; Krtouš, Pavel; Kubizňák, David

    2017-01-01

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing-Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a "seed object" which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.

  2. Hidden Curriculum as One of Current Issue of Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2015-01-01

    There are several issues in the education system, especially in the curriculum field that affect education. Hidden curriculum is one of current controversial curriculum issues. Many hidden curricular issues are the result of assumptions and expectations that are not formally communicated, established, or conveyed within the learning environment.…

  3. The Hidden Curriculum of Youth Policy: A Dutch Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, Marit; de Winter, Micha; Koops, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Youth policy is more than a mere response to the actual behavior of children, but it is equally influenced by values and beliefs of policy makers. These values are however rarely made explicit and, therefore, the authors refer to them as "the hidden curriculum" of youth policy. The study investigation explicates this hidden curriculum by…

  4. The Hidden Curriculum of Gender in Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Susan W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of the "hidden curriculum" can reveal complex issues of gender in dance education, ones which often reinforce gender stereotypes in the larger culture. The hidden curriculum, referring to everything students are learning besides what teachers are explicitly teaching, is generated through the taken for granted structures and practices…

  5. Secret Codes: The Hidden Curriculum of Semantic Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Carmichael, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is a long tradition in education of examination of the hidden curriculum, those elements which are implicit or tacit to the formal goals of education. This article draws upon that tradition to open up for investigation the hidden curriculum and assumptions about students and knowledge that are embedded in the coding undertaken to facilitate…

  6. Integration and the Hidden Curriculum in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, Roger; McKenzie, George; Leah, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - The principal aim of this paper is to present the case for securing greater affinity between the formal curriculum and the hidden curriculum with respect to integration in business education. Design/methodology/approach - Consideration is given to the concept of the hidden curriculum, as manifested in the compartmentalised nature of…

  7. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative prediction of snowfall and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 3. Hidden Markov Model for quantitative ... A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been developed for prediction of quantitative snowfall in Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of Indian Himalaya. The model predicts snowfall for two days in ...

  8. Optimisation of Hidden Markov Model using Baum–Welch algorithm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 1. Optimisation of Hidden Markov ... The present work is a part of development of Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based avalanche forecasting system for Pir-Panjal and Great Himalayan mountain ranges of the Himalaya. In this work, HMMs have been ...

  9. A new 'hidden colour hypothesis' in hadron physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore the hidden colour would manifest itself as a short-range repulsion in the region. ≤1 fm in deuteron. So the two nucleons though bound, stay considerably away from each other. Hence this new hypothesis is able to explain the basic property of short-range repulsion in nuclear physics. The hidden colour concept in ...

  10. Seuss's Butter Battle Book: Is There Hidden Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleaf, David W.; Martin, Rita J.

    1986-01-01

    Examines whether elementary school children relate to the "harmful hidden message" about nuclear war in Dr. Seuss's THE BUTTER BATTLE BOOK. After ascertaining the children's cognitive level, they participated in activities to find hidden meanings in stories, including Seuss's book. Students failed to identify the nuclear war message in…

  11. Hidden Parameter Markov Decision Processes: A Semiparametric Regression Approach for Discovering Latent Task Parametrizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi-Velez, Finale; Konidaris, George

    2016-07-01

    Control applications often feature tasks with similar, but not identical, dynamics. We introduce the Hidden Parameter Markov Decision Process (HiP-MDP), a framework that parametrizes a family of related dynamical systems with a low-dimensional set of latent factors, and introduce a semiparametric regression approach for learning its structure from data. We show that a learned HiP-MDP rapidly identifies the dynamics of new task instances in several settings, flexibly adapting to task variation.

  12. Evolution of Co-operation When the Strategies are Hidden: The Human Mating Game

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Watve; Anuja Damle; Bratati Ganguly; Anagha Kale

    2007-01-01

    Defection is frequently seen in co-operative systems [1-3]. Game theoretical solutions to stabilize cooperation rely on reciprocity and reputation in iterated games[4-5]. One of the basic requirements for reciprocity or reputation building is that the strategies of players and the resulting payoffs should be open at the end of every interaction. For games in which the strategies and payoffs remain hidden, these stabilizing factors are unlikely to work. We examine the evolution of cooperation ...

  13. Gauge coupling unification with hidden photon, and minicharged dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Ryuji; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2017-05-01

    We show that gauge coupling unification is realized with a greater accuracy in the presence of a massless hidden photon which has a large kinetic mixing with hypercharge. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and find that the GUT unification scale is around 1016.5GeV which sufficiently suppresses the proton decay rate, and that the unification is essentially determined by the kinetic mixing only, and it is rather insensitive to the hidden gauge coupling or the presence of vector-like matter fields charged under U(1)H and/or SU(5). Matter fields charged under the unbroken hidden U(1)H are stable and they contribute to dark matter. Interestingly, they become minicharged dark matter which carries a small but non-zero electric charge, if the hidden gauge coupling is tiny. The minicharged dark matter is a natural outcome of the gauge coupling unification with a hidden photon.

  14. Abelian Hidden Sectors at a GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, David E.; Poland, David; /Harvard U.; Zurek, Kathryn; /Fermilab /Michigan U.

    2009-04-16

    We discuss mechanisms for naturally generating GeV-scale hidden sectors in the context of weak-scale supersymmetry. Such low mass scales can arise when hidden sectors are more weakly coupled to supersymmetry breaking than the visible sector, as happens when supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the visible sector by gauge interactions under which the hidden sector is uncharged, or if the hidden sector is sequestered from gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking. We study these mechanisms in detail in the context of gauge and gaugino mediation, and present specific models of Abelian GeV-scale hidden sectors. In particular, we discuss kinetic mixing of a U(1){sub x} gauge force with hypercharge, singlets or bi-fundamentals which couple to both sectors, and additional loop effects. Finally, we investigate the possible relevance of such sectors for dark matter phenomenology, as well as for low- and high-energy collider searches.

  15. Quantum cosmology: From hidden symmetries towards a new (supersymmetric) perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalzadeh, S.; Rostami, T.; Moniz, P. V.

    2016-02-01

    We review pedagogically some of the basic essentials regarding recent results intertwining boundary conditions, the algebra of constraints and hidden symmetries in quantum cosmology. They were extensively published in Refs. [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014), S. Jalalzadeh, T. Rostami and P. V. Moniz, Eur. Phys. J. C 75 (2015) 38, arXiv:gr-qc/1412.6439 and T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 023526, arXiv:gr-qc/1507.04212], where complete discussions and full details can be found. More concretely, in Refs. [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014) and S. Jalalzadeh, T. Rostami and P. V. Moniz, Eur. Phys. J. C 75 (2015) 38, arXiv:gr-qc/1412.6439] it has been shown that specific boundary conditions can be related to the algebra of Dirac observables. Moreover, a process afterwards associated to the algebra of existent hidden symmetries, from which the boundary conditions can be selected, was introduced. On the other hand, in Ref. [T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 023526, arXiv:gr-qc/1507.04212] it was subsequently argued that some factor ordering choices can be extracted from the hidden symmetries structure of the minisuperspace model. In Refs. [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 89 (2014), S. Jalalzadeh, T. Rostami and P. V. Moniz, Eur. Phys. J. C 75 (2015) 38, arXiv:gr-qc/1412.6439 and T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 023526, arXiv:gr-qc/1507.04212], we proceeded gradually towards less simple models, ranging from a FLRW model with a perfect fluid [S. Jalalzadeh, S. M. M. Rasouli and P. V. Moniz, Phys. Rev. D 90 (2014) 023541] up to a conformal scalar field content [T. Rostami, S. Jalalzadeh and

  16. Beliefs About Cancer Causation and Prevention As a Function of Personal and Family History of Cancer: A National, Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lykins, Emily L.B.; Graue, Lili O.; Brechting, Emily H.; Roach, Abbey R.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests individuals possess multifaceted cognitive representations of various diseases. These illness representations consist of various beliefs, including causal attributions for the disease, and are believed to motivate, guide, and shape health-related behavior. As little research has examined factors associated with beliefs about cancer causation, the present study examined the relationship between personal and family history of cancer and beliefs about the causes and prevention ...

  17. Massively parallel DNA sequencing successfully identifies new causative mutations in deafness genes in patients with cochlear implantation and EAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Miyagawa

    Full Text Available Genetic factors, the most common etiology in severe to profound hearing loss, are one of the key determinants of Cochlear Implantation (CI and Electric Acoustic Stimulation (EAS outcomes. Satisfactory auditory performance after receiving a CI/EAS in patients with certain deafness gene mutations indicates that genetic testing would be helpful in predicting CI/EAS outcomes and deciding treatment choices. However, because of the extreme genetic heterogeneity of deafness, clinical application of genetic information still entails difficulties. Target exon sequencing using massively parallel DNA sequencing is a new powerful strategy to discover rare causative genes in Mendelian disorders such as deafness. We used massive sequencing of the exons of 58 target candidate genes to analyze 8 (4 early-onset, 4 late-onset Japanese CI/EAS patients, who did not have mutations in commonly found genes including GJB2, SLC26A4, or mitochondrial 1555A>G or 3243A>G mutations. We successfully identified four rare causative mutations in the MYO15A, TECTA, TMPRSS3, and ACTG1 genes in four patients who showed relatively good auditory performance with CI including EAS, suggesting that genetic testing may be able to predict the performance after implantation.

  18. Improving GRN re-construction by mining hidden regulatory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Shen, Weiming; Chong, Yanwen; Wang, Hong-Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Inferring gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from gene expression data is an important but challenging issue in systems biology. Here, the authors propose a dictionary learning-based approach that aims to infer GRNs by globally mining regulatory signals, known or latent. Gene expression is often regulated by various regulatory factors, some of which are observed and some of which are latent. The authors assume that all regulators are unknown for a target gene and the expression of the target gene can be mapped into a regulatory space spanned by all the regulators. Specifically, the authors modify the dictionary learning model, k-SVD, according to the sparse property of GRNs for mining the regulatory signals. The recovered regulatory signals are then used as a pool of regulatory factors to calculate a confidence score for a given transcription factor regulating a target gene. The capability of recovering hidden regulatory signals was verified on simulated data. Comparative experiments for GRN inference between the proposed algorithm (OURM) and some state-of-the-art algorithms, e.g. GENIE3 and ARACNE, on real-world data sets show the superior performance of OURM in inferring GRNs: higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the precision-recall curves.

  19. … To be hidden does not mean to be merely revealed – Part 1 Artistic research on hidden curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Krause

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This text revisits the long-term project Hidden Curriculum, initiated by Annette Krauss. The project addresses unquestioned routines, hierarchies of knowledge (part 1, and the role of the body in learning processes (part 2 from the perspective of secondary/high school education (in the research on a hidden curriculum. A deeper analysis of educational studies on the phenomenon of ‘hidden curriculum’ in relation to the feminist and critical pedagogies of bell hooks, Paulo Freire, and Jacques Rancière brings forward important insights generated through the artistic research within hidden curriculum. The aim of this text is to address academic canons, corporeality, and investigate everyday norms through revisiting the framework, results, and processes of the collaborative research into hidden curriculum with secondary high school students.

  20. Incidence, Causative Mechanisms, and Anatomic Localization of Stroke in Pituitary Adenoma Patients Treated With Postoperative Radiation Therapy Versus Surgery Alone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, Margriet G.A., E-mail: g.a.sattler@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vroomen, Patrick C. [Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim J. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schers, Henk J. [Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Netherlands); Berg, Gerrit van den [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R. [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beek, André P. van [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk

  1. Application of the Viterbi Algorithm in Hidden Markov Models for Exploring Irrigation Decision Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Anticipating farmers' irrigation decisions can provide the possibility of improving the efficiency of canal operations in on-demand irrigation systems. Although multiple factors are considered during irrigation decision making, for any given farmer there might be one factor playing a major role. Identification of that biophysical factor which led to a farmer deciding to irrigate is difficult because of high variability of those factors during the growing season. Analysis of the irrigation decisions of a group of farmers for a single crop can help to simplify the problem. We developed a hidden Markov model (HMM) to analyze irrigation decisions and explore the factor and level at which the majority of farmers decide to irrigate. The model requires observed variables as inputs and the hidden states. The chosen model inputs were relatively easily measured, or estimated, biophysical data, including such factors (i.e., those variables which are believed to affect irrigation decision-making) as cumulative evapotranspiration, soil moisture depletion, soil stress coefficient, and canal flows. Irrigation decision series were the hidden states for the model. The data for the work comes from the Canal B region of the Lower Sevier River Basin, near Delta, Utah. The main crops of the region are alfalfa, barley, and corn. A portion of the data was used to build and test the model capability to explore that factor and the level at which the farmer takes the decision to irrigate for future irrigation events. Both group and individual level behavior can be studied using HMMs. The study showed that the farmers cannot be classified into certain classes based on their irrigation decisions, but vary in their behavior from irrigation-to-irrigation across all years and crops. HMMs can be used to analyze what factor and, subsequently, what level of that factor on which the farmer most likely based the irrigation decision. The study shows that the HMM is a capable tool to study a process

  2. Photodynamic therapy in combating the causative microorganisms from endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes; Câmara, Andréa Cruz

    2014-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is presented as a promising antimicrobial therapy that can eliminate microorganisms present in endodontic infections. This treatment is based on the use of a nontoxic photosensitizing agent followed by irradiation of a resonant light source being capable of generating highly reactive species that are harmful to microorganisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the dental literature about the main factors that encompass the use of PDT combined with endodontic treatment for decontamination of the root canal system. A literature search was performed using the following index databases: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and MedLine, between 2000 and 2014, looking for studies regarding antimicrobial action of PDT and its application to endodontic therapy. It was observed that despite numerous promising results, it is still necessary to establish different parameters so that PDT can be used with maximum effectiveness in eliminating microorganisms that cause endodontic infections.

  3. Methodology, inference and causation: environmental lead exposure and childhood intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, G A; Factor-Litvak, P

    2001-05-01

    Kaufman's critique of the literature on the associations between lead exposure and child intelligence raises important methodological and inferential points. We address the concerns he raises regarding measuring known and unknown confounders, statistical modeling, reverse causality and quality control. Mismeasurement of potential confounders of the lead-IQ relationship, such as parenting skills, parental intelligence, maternal smoking during pregnancy, or otitis media can either strengthen or weaken the estimated association between exposure and child intelligence. Despite some variability in design and measurement, a series of comprehensive prospective investigations in varied populations, by different sets of investigators, provided consistent replication; taken together these studies point to the conclusion that lead exposure has adverse consequences for child development, and that the deficits are likely to be small in comparison to the contribution of measured social factors.

  4. Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Andrea; Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph

    2010-07-01

    Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we propose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally thermal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed.

  5. Interpretation in Quantum Physics as Hidden Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-10-01

    Prior research has demonstrated how the realist perspectives of classical physics students can translate into specific beliefs about quantum phenomena when taking an introductory modern physics course. Student beliefs regarding the interpretation of quantum mechanics often vary by context, and are most often in alignment with instructional goals in topic areas where instructors are explicit in promoting a particular perspective. Moreover, students are more likely to maintain realist perspectives in topic areas where instructors are less explicit in addressing interpretive themes, thereby making such issues part of a hidden curriculum. We discuss various approaches to addressing student perspectives and interpretive themes in a modern physics course, and explore the associated impacts on student thinking.

  6. Dynamic portfolio optimization across hidden market regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Peter; Madsen, Henrik; Lindström, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Regime-based asset allocation has been shown to add value over rebalancing to static weights and, in particular, reduce potential drawdowns by reacting to changes in market conditions. The predominant approach in previous studies has been to specify in advance a static decision rule for changing...... the allocation based on the state of financial markets or the economy. In this article, model predictive control (MPC) is used to dynamically optimize a portfolio based on forecasts of the mean and variance of financial returns from a hidden Markov model with time-varying parameters. There are computational...... advantages to using MPC when estimates of future returns are updated every time a new observation becomes available, since the optimal control actions are reconsidered anyway. MPC outperforms a static decision rule for changing the allocation and realizes both a higher return and a significantly lower risk...

  7. Magneto-Radar Hidden Metal Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Las Vegas, NV)

    2005-07-05

    A varying magnetic field excites slight vibrations in an object and a radar sensor detects the vibrations at a harmonic of the excitation frequency. The synergy of the magnetic excitation and radar detection provides increased detection range compared to conventional magnetic metal detectors. The radar rejects background clutter by responding only to reflecting objects that are vibrating at a harmonic excitation field, thereby significantly improving detection reliability. As an exemplary arrangement, an ultra-wideband micropower impulse radar (MIR) is capable of being employed to provide superior materials penetration while providing range information. The magneto-radar may be applied to pre-screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients, landmine detection and finding hidden treasures.

  8. Speech Defect Analysis Using Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uhlir

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is the analysis of speech deteriorated by a very rare disease, which induce epileptic seizures in a part of brain responsible for speech production. Speech defects, represented mostly by the combination of missing and mismatched phonemes, are sought and examined in the spectral and time domain. An algorithm, proposed in this paper, is based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs and it is most suitable for the speech recognition tasks. The algorithm is able to analyze in both time and spectral domains simultaneously; in the spectral domain as a log-likelihood score and in the time domain as a forced time alignment of the HMMs. The suggested algorithm works properly in the time domain. The results for the spectral domain are not credible, because the algorithm have to be tested on more data (not available at the time of paper preparation.

  9. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    investigates the creative processes of the collective and the individual and clarifies some of the hidden realities behind the PBL-based creative processes, both through an inquiry with the students and a more methodological and theoretical approach. The paper also explores how to integrate artistic......How do architecture students experience the contradictions between the individual and the group at the Department of Architecture and Design of Aalborg University? The Problem-Based Learning model has been extensively applied to the department’s degree programs in coherence with the Integrated...... for the education as being intuition, reflection, artistic progression and critical interpretation (Kiib 2004). “As the reflection and critical interpretation are well integrated within the education, mostly parts of the exam evaluation, it seems like the artistic progression and intuition are somewhat drowning...

  10. The hidden biology of sponges and ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Casey W; Leys, Sally P; Haddock, Steven H D

    2015-05-01

    Animal evolution is often presented as a march toward complexity, with different living animal groups each representing grades of organization that arose through the progressive acquisition of complex traits. There are now many reasons to reject this classical hypothesis. Not only is it incompatible with recent phylogenetic analyses, but it is also an artifact of 'hidden biology', that is, blind spots to complex traits in non-model species. A new hypothesis of animal evolution, where many complex traits have been repeatedly gained and lost, is emerging. As we discuss here, key details of this new model hinge on a better understanding of the Porifera and Ctenophora, which have each been hypothesized to be sister to all other animals, but are poorly studied and often misrepresented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Probabilistic Resilience in Hidden Markov Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerati, Jacopo; Beltrame, Giovanni; Schwind, Nicolas; Zeltner, Stefan; Inoue, Katsumi

    2016-05-01

    Originally defined in the context of ecological systems and environmental sciences, resilience has grown to be a property of major interest for the design and analysis of many other complex systems: resilient networks and robotics systems other the desirable capability of absorbing disruption and transforming in response to external shocks, while still providing the services they were designed for. Starting from an existing formalization of resilience for constraint-based systems, we develop a probabilistic framework based on hidden Markov models. In doing so, we introduce two new important features: stochastic evolution and partial observability. Using our framework, we formalize a methodology for the evaluation of probabilities associated with generic properties, we describe an efficient algorithm for the computation of its essential inference step, and show that its complexity is comparable to other state-of-the-art inference algorithms.

  12. Nuclear scissors modes and hidden angular momenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbutsev, E. B., E-mail: balbuts@theor.jinr.ru; Molodtsova, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Schuck, P. [Université Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, IN2P3–CNRS (France)

    2017-01-15

    The coupled dynamics of low-lying modes and various giant resonances are studied with the help of the Wigner Function Moments method generalized to take into account spin degrees of freedom and pair correlations simultaneously. The method is based on Time-Dependent Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov equations. The model of the harmonic oscillator including spin–orbit potential plus quadrupole–quadrupole and spin–spin interactions is considered. New low-lying spin-dependent modes are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the scissors modes. A new source of nuclear magnetism, connected with counter-rotation of spins up and down around the symmetry axis (hidden angular momenta), is discovered. Its inclusion into the theory allows one to improve substantially the agreement with experimental data in the description of energies and transition probabilities of scissors modes.

  13. Hidden gauge structure of supersymmetric free differential algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianopoli, Laura [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy); D’Auria, Riccardo [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); Ravera, Lucrezia [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino,Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino,Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-16

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the role of the nilpotent fermionic generator Q{sup ′} introduced in http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0550-3213(82)90376-5 and appearing in the hidden supergroup underlying the free differential algebra (FDA) of D=11 supergravity. We give a physical explanation of its role by looking at the gauge properties of the theory. We find that its presence is necessary, in order that the extra 1-forms of the hidden supergroup give rise to the correct gauge transformations of the p-forms of the FDA. This interpretation is actually valid for any supergravity containing antisymmetric tensor fields, and any supersymmetric FDA can always be traded for a hidden Lie superalgebra containing extra fermionic nilpotent generators. As an interesting example we construct the hidden superalgebra associated with the FDA of N=2, D=7 supergravity. In this case we are able to parametrize the mutually non local 2- and 3-form B{sup (2)} and B{sup (3)} in terms of hidden 1-forms and find that supersymmetry and gauge invariance require in general the presence of two nilpotent fermionic generators in the hidden algebra. We propose that our approach, where all the invariances of the FDA are expressed as Lie derivatives of the p-forms in the hidden supergroup manifold, could be an appropriate framework to discuss theories defined in enlarged versions of superspace recently considered in the literature, such us double field theory and its generalizations.

  14. The hidden curriculum of the medical care for elderly patients in medical education: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiboom, Ariadne; Diedrich, Chantal; Vries, Henk De; Hertogh, Cees; Scheele, Fedde

    2015-01-01

    Despite more attention being given to geriatrics in medical curricula, few new physicians are seeking training in this field. So far, there has been no exploration of factors in the hidden curriculum that could potentially influence the persisting lack of interest in this field of medicine. To study this hidden curriculum in medical education in relation to medical care of elderly patients, the authors used a qualitative research design including participant observations on two internal medicine wards in a teaching hospital and semistructured interviews. The results showed that elderly patients with multiple problems are seen as frustrating and not interesting. Medical students were not stimulated to go into the totality of medical problems of elderly patients. They picked up a lot of disparaging remarks about these patients. The mainly negative attitudes demonstrated by role models, in particular the residents, may potentially influence the development of future doctors and their choice of career.

  15. Detecting broad domains and narrow peaks in ChIP-seq data with hiddenDomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starmer, Joshua; Magnuson, Terry

    2016-03-24

    Correctly identifying genomic regions enriched with histone modifications and transcription factors is key to understanding their regulatory and developmental roles. Conceptually, these regions are divided into two categories, narrow peaks and broad domains, and different algorithms are used to identify each one. Datasets that span these two categories are often analyzed with a single program for peak calling combined with an ad hoc method for domains. We developed hiddenDomains, which identifies both peaks and domains, and compare it to the leading algorithms using H3K27me3, H3K36me3, GABP, ESR1 and FOXA ChIP-seq datasets. The output from the programs was compared to qPCR-validated enriched and depleted sites, predicted transcription factor binding sites, and highly-transcribed gene bodies. With every method, hiddenDomains, performed as well as, if not better than algorithms dedicated to a specific type of analysis. hiddenDomains performs as well as the best domain and peak calling algorithms, making it ideal for analyzing ChIP-seq datasets, especially those that contain a mixture of peaks and domains.

  16. Sociocultural Dimension of Hidden Content in a Professional Language Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Shishlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: studying curriculum as a pedagogical problem has traditionally been reduced to the analysis of its explicit content, set in official educational documents. However, a much less studied hidden content plays a significant role in education. So, what is the role of the hidden curriculum during professional language training? The purpose of the article is to determine the potential impact of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Comparing the worldview presented in textbooks with students’ one has allowed us to estimate the rate of influence of hidden curr iculum. Materials and Methods: the methodological basis of the work is the cultural concept of personalityoriented education. The methodology for studying the role of hidden curriculum includes four stages: at the first stage, the authors set the criteria for selecting textbooks for analysis and do the selection; at the second stage, the authors select sociocultural concepts for analysis; at the third stage, the scheme of analysis is designed and the analysis of textbooks is done; at the fourth stage, the authors identify the potential influence of hidden curriculum on students’ conceptual worldview. Results: the structure of hidden curriculum has been determined and the scheme for analysing its subject component has been developed. The authors have identified a significant influence of hidden curriculum on students’ worldview, which represents the scientific novelty of the article. Discussion and Conclusions: the article gives the definition of a hidden curriculum which is new for Russian pedagogy and presents a methodology for its analysis in EFL textbooks. That analysis is recommended to be conducted when selecting teaching materials both i n languages and other humanities.

  17. The Hidden Factors Behind Japan's Highly Productive Management Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Linda S.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Japanese management from the perspective of the complex relationship between Japanese culture and their practice of lifelong employment, shared authority in decision making, and dissolution of many of the privileges of rank. (Author)

  18. DNA double-strand breaks: A potential causative factor for mammalian aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Li (Han); J.R. Mitchell (James); P. Hasty (Paul)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAging is a pleiotropic and stochastic process influenced by both genetics and environment. As a result the fundamental underlying causes of aging are controversial and likely diverse. Genome maintenance and in particular the repair of DNA damage is critical to ensure longevity needed for

  19. Computational Approach to Characterize Causative Factors and Molecular Indicators of Chronic Wound Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    individual parameters were sampled independently from intervals, permitting up to 2-fold deviations (up or down ) from the corresponding default values. This...dealing. Bull. Math . Biol. 68: 197–207. 32. Waugh, H. V., and J. A. Sherratt. 2007. Modeling the effects of treating diabetic wounds with engineered skin...kinetics of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cy- tokine secretion induced by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear

  20. Soil erosion and causative factors at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Joel B.

    1988-01-01

    Areas of significant soil erosion and unvegetated road cuts were identified and mapped for Vandenberg Air Force Base. One hundred forty-two eroded areas (most greater than 1.2 ha) and 51 road cuts were identified from recent color infrared aerial photography and ground truthed to determine the severity and causes of erosion. Comparison of the present eroded condition of soils (as shown in the 1986 photography) with that in historical aerial photography indicates that most erosion on the base took place prior to 1928. However, at several sites accelerated rates of erosion and sedimentation may be occurring as soils and parent materials are eroded vertically. The most conspicuous erosion is in the northern part of the base, where severe gully, sheet, and mass movement erosion have occurred in soils and in various sedimentary rocks. Past cultivation practices, compounded by highly erodible soils prone to subsurface piping, are probably the main causes. Improper range management practices following cultivation may have also increased runoff and erosion. Aerial photography from 1986 shows that no appreciable headward erosion or gully sidewall collapse have occurred in this area since 1928.

  1. Restraint Procedures and Challenging Behaviours in Intellectual Disability: An Analysis of Causative Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Persons with intellectual disability often evince challenging behaviours. Efforts have been underway for some time to develop prosocial or positive skill acquisition treatments to address challenging behaviours. However, physical/mechanical and chemical restraint is still commonly used in many clinical and community settings. Such…

  2. Epidemiology in a changing world: variation, causation and ubiquitous risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, N.

    2011-01-01

    We are all living in the era of globalization and, like it or not, it is going to change the way we practise epidemiology, the kinds of questions we ask and the methods we use to answer them. However, the methods, and ways of thinking about the health of populations, that will be required for epidemiology in the 21st century are in some instances quite different from the standard epidemiological techniques that are taught in most textbooks and courses today. As we develop epidemiological meth...

  3. Qat Habit in Yemen Society: A Causative Factor for Oral Periodontal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman A. Ali

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a common habit among Yemeni population on the periodontal status was investigated. This cross-sectional study was done on 2500 Yemenis with mean age 27.01 years (1818 males and 682 females. Among these 1528 were qat chewers and 972 were non-chewers. Detailed questionnaire and pre-designed scoring system for the periodontal status were employed for each case. Study results indicated that out of 972 non-chewers 116(12% had periodontal pocketing and 18 (1.9% cases had gingival recession. On the other hand, out of 1528 chewers, 468 (31.8% had periodontal pockets and 98 (6.4% with gum bleeding, p<0.05. These effects were found to increase with increased frequency and duration of chewing. It was concluded that habit of qat can cause damage to the periodontal ligament as pocketing and gum recession.

  4. End of life and beyond as hidden curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Barbara Backer; Grimsley, Catherine; Kelley, Teresa; Nissen, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    End-of-life experiences are unique. Most can vividly recall feelings during those times. Governing boards in the United States attempt to guide nursing faculty regarding end of life curriculum. Yet, the beliefs of faculty members arising from those unique experiences can alter the tone and message of what students are actually taught--often surfacing as hidden curriculum. In this column the authors discuss hidden curriculum while presenting the beliefs regarding end of life, of four nursing faculty members from a single university. Heightened awareness and respect for the beliefs of all faculty members within any university setting is imperative in decreasing the development of hidden curriculum.

  5. Hidden Area and Mechanical Nonlinearities in Freestanding Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Ryan J. T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Bolotin, Kirill I.

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effect of out-of-plane crumpling on the mechanical response of graphene membranes. In our experiments, stress was applied to graphene membranes using pressurized gas while the strain state was monitored through two complementary techniques: interferometric profilometry and Raman spectroscopy. By comparing the data obtained through these two techniques, we determined the geometric hidden area which quantifies the crumpling strength. While the devices with hidden area ˜0 % obeyed linear mechanics with biaxial stiffness 428 ±10 N /m , specimens with hidden area in the range 0.5%-1.0% were found to obey an anomalous nonlinear Hooke's law with an exponent ˜0.1 .

  6. Evaluation of patch test in identification of causative agent in drug rashes due to antiepileptics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatve Maneesha

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Patch test was evaluated for the identification of causative agent in cutaneous eruptions due to antiepileptics. Patch tests were carried out in twenty patients and ten controls with carbamazepine, phenytoin sodium, phenobarbitone and sodium valproate. Sodium valproate was found tobe irritant in 1 and 5% concentration and further dilution is recommended for patch testing. Patch test was positive in 14 (70% patients and in 7 with suspected drug alone, and remaining 7 were positive with more than one antiepileptic drug. We recommended patch test for identification of causative drug in rashes due to antiepileptics.

  7. Causation and Effectuation Processes: Opportunity Discovery and Exploitation Logics of Habitual Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how habitual entrepreneurs (i.e. serial and portfolio entrepreneurs) discover and exploit opportunities, deal with risk and uncertainty, predict or control the future, and plan their businesses based on a causation and effectuation perspective. This study thereby uncovered...... the causation and effectuation logics applied by habitual entrepreneurs with regard to four dimensions of the venture creation: View of the future (VF), Opportunity Discovery (OD), Opportunity Exploitation (OE), and Dealing with Risk (DR). Six habitual entrepreneurs, who had to meet three strictly defined...

  8. How can physics underlie the mind? top-down causation in the human context

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, George

    2016-01-01

    Physics underlies all complexity, including our own existence: how is this possible? How can our own lives emerge from interactions of electrons, protons, and neutrons? This book considers the interaction of physical and non-physical causation in complex systems such as living beings, and in particular in the human brain, relating this to the emergence of higher levels of complexity with real causal powers. In particular it explores the idea of top-down causation, which is the key effect allowing the emergence of true complexity and also enables the causal efficacy of non-physical entities, including the value of money, social conventions, and ethical choices.

  9. The complete linkage disequilibrium test: a test that points to causative mutations underlying quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uleberg Eivind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetically, SNP that are in complete linkage disequilibrium with the causative SNP cannot be distinguished from the causative SNP. The Complete Linkage Disequilibrium (CLD test presented here tests whether a SNP is in complete LD with the causative mutation or not. The performance of the CLD test is evaluated in 1000 simulated datasets. Methods The CLD test consists of two steps i.e. analysis I and analysis II. Analysis I consists of an association analysis of the investigated region. The log-likelihood values from analysis I are next ranked in descending order and in analysis II the CLD test evaluates differences in log-likelihood ratios between the best and second best markers. Under the null-hypothesis distribution, the best SNP is in greater LD with the QTL than the second best, while under the alternative-CLD-hypothesis, the best SNP is alike-in-state with the QTL. To find a significance threshold, the test was also performed on data excluding the causative SNP. The 5th, 10th and 50th highest TCLD value from 1000 replicated analyses were used to control the type-I-error rate of the test at p = 0.005, p = 0.01 and p = 0.05, respectively. Results In a situation where the QTL explained 48% of the phenotypic variance analysis I detected a QTL in 994 replicates (p = 0.001, where 972 were positioned in the correct QTL position. When the causative SNP was excluded from the analysis, 714 replicates detected evidence of a QTL (p = 0.001. In analysis II, the CLD test confirmed 280 causative SNP from 1000 simulations (p = 0.05, i.e. power was 28%. When the effect of the QTL was reduced by doubling the error variance, the power of the test reduced relatively little to 23%. When sequence data were used, the power of the test reduced to 16%. All SNP that were confirmed by the CLD test were positioned in the correct QTL position. Conclusions The CLD test can provide evidence for a causative SNP, but its power may be low in situations

  10. Hidden Markov Model Application to Transfer The Trader Online Forex Brokers

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Suharleni; Agus Widodo; Endang Wahyu H

    2012-01-01

    Hidden Markov Model is elaboration of Markov chain, which is applicable to cases that can’t directly observe. In this research, Hidden Markov Model is used to know trader’s transition to broker forex online. In Hidden Markov Model, observed state is observable part and hidden state is hidden part. Hidden Markov Model allows modeling system that contains interrelated observed state and hidden state. As observed state in trader’s transition to broker forex online is category 1, category 2, cate...

  11. Prediction of Annual Rainfall Pattern Using Hidden Markov Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    1Department of Mathematics, 2Department of Crop Production,. Federal University of Technology Minna, ... Keywords: Markov model, Hidden Markov model, Transition probability, Observation probability, Crop. Production, Annual Rainfall ... introduced unobserved climate states with them. The transitions between these ...

  12. Hidden Markov Analysis of Nucleosome Unwrapping Under Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruithof, M; van Noort, J

    2009-01-01

    .... Here we measured the force-induced unwrapping of DNA from a single nucleosome and show that hidden Markov analysis, adopted for the nonlinear force-extension of DNA, can readily resolve unwrapping...

  13. HMMoC-a compiler for hidden Markov models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lunter, Gerton

    2007-01-01

    Hidden Markov models are widely applied within computational biology. The large data sets and complex models involved demand optimized implementations, while efficient exploration of model space requires rapid prototyping...

  14. Self-similarity of complex networks and hidden metric spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M Angeles; Krioukov, Dmitri; Boguñá, Marián

    2008-02-22

    We demonstrate that the self-similarity of some scale-free networks with respect to a simple degree-thresholding renormalization scheme finds a natural interpretation in the assumption that network nodes exist in hidden metric spaces. Clustering, i.e., cycles of length three, plays a crucial role in this framework as a topological reflection of the triangle inequality in the hidden geometry. We prove that a class of hidden variable models with underlying metric spaces are able to accurately reproduce the self-similarity properties that we measured in the real networks. Our findings indicate that hidden geometries underlying these real networks are a plausible explanation for their observed topologies and, in particular, for their self-similarity with respect to the degree-based renormalization.

  15. Anaphylaxis due to carrot as hidden food allergen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schiappoli, M; Senna, G; Dama, A; Bonadonna, P; Crivellaro, M; Passalacqua, G

    2002-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, carrot alone is rarely responsible for severe systemic reactions. We report a case of anaphylactic shock due to the inadvertent ingestion of carrot as a hidden allergen contained in an ice-cream...

  16. Probability of causation of liver disease for radiation exposure: impact of interaction with hepatitis-C virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cologne, J. B.; Sharp, G. B.; Fujivara, S. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Pawel, D. J. [US Environmental Protecion Agency, New York (United States)

    2002-07-01

    From the point of view of probability of causation (POC), exposure to other risk factors is an important determinant of the role played by radiation in producing disease. Studies of atomic-bomb survivors provide suggestive evidence of a possible interaction between whole-body radiation exposure and chronic hepatitis-C viral (HCV) infection in the etiology of liver disease, but the precise mechanism of the joint effect is in doubt. Estimates of liver disease prevalence as a function of radiation dose and hence different estimates of POC, estimated by the radiation attributable proportion conditional on HCV status differ depending on whether one fits an additive or a multiplicative model to the odds of disease, but the data do not allow a clear discrimination between the two models. Among HCV-negative individuals, radiation exposure accounts for a fraction of liver-disease cases varying from 0% at 0 Gy to almost 40% at 4 Gy. Among HCV-positive individuals, only a few percent of diseased cases can be attributed to radiation at 4 Gy if the joint effect is additive, but if the joint effect is multiplicative, about 30% of the diseased cases exposed to 4 Gy can be attributed to radiation. We estimated the proportion of cases associated with radiation conditional on HCV status using a more general, mixture model that does not impose restrictions such as additivity or multiplicativity. Estimated POC based on the mixture model was similar for HCV negative and positive individuals. Although the mixture model may not reflect the true mechanism of joint effect, it avoids restrictive assumptions that cannot be tested using the available data. We consider such an empirical approach to be preferable to assuming a specific mechanistic model for estimating probability of causation in situations where the mechanism of the joint effect from epidemiological studies including unmeasured factors is in doubt.

  17. The Hidden Curriculum: Exposing the Unintended Lessons of Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura; Saciragic, Lana; Kim, Joanna; Posner, Glenn

    2016-10-25

     The hidden curriculum is a set of ethical, moral, and value-based teachings communicated to doctors-in-training, providing a basis for their future interactions with patients, peers, and colleagues. The aim of our study is to introduce the concept of the hidden curriculum to a cohort of third-year medical students and to subsequently evaluate their understanding. In particular, we sought to measure and benchmark the degree of hidden curriculum recognition within a Canadian medical education context. With the help of student feedback, we elicited ideas for future directions. One hundred and fifty-four third-year medical students completing their obstetrics and gynaecology core clinical rotation attended a workshop on the hidden curriculum. Students completed two sets of evaluations; a voluntary anonymous pre- and post-workshop questionnaire evaluating their knowledge and opinions regarding the hidden curriculum, and a mandatory workshop evaluation. Answers to pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were compared using Mann-Whitney U test, and thematic analysis was used to code the students' comments to identify common themes.  A standardized workshop on the hidden curriculum significantly improved students' understanding and highlighted the importance of the hidden curriculum. Voluntary student comments (N = 108) were categorized according to five themes:  1) Students who were not sensitized to the hidden curriculum (8; 7.4%); 2) students who were sensitized but unaware of the hidden curriculum (12; 11.1%); 3) students who were sensitized and aware of the hidden curriculum (34; 31.5%); 4) comments on teaching methodologies/environment (43; 39.8%); and 5) suggestions for enhancement (11; 10.2%).  A simple, cost-effective intervention, such as a workshop, can effectively assess and address the hidden curriculum. Many students are highly sensitized to and are aware of the positive and negative effects of role modeling on their development.  The students are

  18. Aligning the Hidden Curriculum of Management Education With PRME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that mainstreaming responsible management education in line with the Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME) requires close attention to the hidden curriculum (HC), that is, the implicit dimensions of educational experiences. Altering formal curricular goals...... combined with transformative learning and communities of practice theory, the article offers an inquiry-based framework for PRME implementation that takes these moral learning and socialization processes into account. It provides suggestions for how to address the hidden curriculum both in the diagnostic...

  19. Hidden Symmetry from Supersymmetry in One-Dimensional Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Andrianov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When several inequivalent supercharges form a closed superalgebra in Quantum Mechanics it entails the appearance of hidden symmetries of a Super-Hamiltonian. We examine this problem in one-dimensional QM for the case of periodic potentials and potentials with finite number of bound states. After the survey of the results existing in the subject the algebraic and analytic properties of hidden-symmetry differential operators are rigorously elaborated in the Theorems and illuminated by several examples.

  20. Bayesian extreme quantile regression for hidden Markov models

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsourelis, Antonios

    2012-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University The main contribution of this thesis is the introduction of Bayesian quantile regression for hidden Markov models, especially when we have to deal with extreme quantile regression analysis, as there is a limited research to inference conditional quantiles for hidden Markov models, under a Bayesian approach. The first objective is to compare Bayesian extreme quantile regression and th...

  1. Hidden charged dark matter and chiral dark radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Nagata, Natsumi; Tang, Yong

    2017-10-01

    In the light of recent possible tensions in the Hubble constant H0 and the structure growth rate σ8 between the Planck and other measurements, we investigate a hidden-charged dark matter (DM) model where DM interacts with hidden chiral fermions, which are charged under the hidden SU(N) and U(1) gauge interactions. The symmetries in this model assure these fermions to be massless. The DM in this model, which is a Dirac fermion and singlet under the hidden SU(N), is also assumed to be charged under the U(1) gauge symmetry, through which it can interact with the chiral fermions. Below the confinement scale of SU(N), the hidden quark condensate spontaneously breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry such that there remains a discrete symmetry, which accounts for the stability of DM. This condensate also breaks a flavor symmetry in this model and Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with this flavor symmetry appear below the confinement scale. The hidden U(1) gauge boson and hidden quarks/Nambu-Goldstone bosons are components of dark radiation (DR) above/below the confinement scale. These light fields increase the effective number of neutrinos by δNeff ≃ 0.59 above the confinement scale for N = 2, resolving the tension in the measurements of the Hubble constant by Planck and Hubble Space Telescope if the confinement scale is ≲1 eV. DM and DR continuously scatter with each other via the hidden U(1) gauge interaction, which suppresses the matter power spectrum and results in a smaller structure growth rate. The DM sector couples to the Standard Model sector through the exchange of a real singlet scalar mixing with the Higgs boson, which makes it possible to probe our model in DM direct detection experiments. Variants of this model are also discussed, which may offer alternative ways to investigate this scenario.

  2. Analytic Causative Constructions in Medieval Spanish: The Origins of a Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaphre Villanueva, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to provide an inventory of the Analytic Causative constructions that were in use in Peninsular Spanish from the 12th to the 16th centuries from the constructional perspective of Cognitive Grammar. A detailed profile of each construction was made including its constructional schema along with relevant semantic, syntactic,…

  3. Solanum torvum as a causative agent of enzootic calcinosis in Papua, New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K M; Simonite, J P; Pullen, L; Simpson, J A

    1979-09-01

    Inclusion of dried powdered leaves of Solanum torvum Swartz (collected in Papua, New Guinea) in the diet of rats induced hypercalcaemai rapidly and hyperphosphataemia more slowly; soft tissue calcification was most evident in the kidney and lung. Solanum torvum may be a causative agent of enzootic calcinosis in cattle in Papua, New Guinea.

  4. Disentangling causation: complex roles of coral-associated microorganisms in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, Hanaka; Bourne, David G

    2017-10-13

    Rapidly changing climate regimes combined with other anthropogenic pressures are implicated in increased disease epizootics among reef building corals, resulting in changing habitat structure. These accumulated stressors directly contribute to disease outbreaks by compromising the coral host immune system, modulating virulence of microbial pathogens and/or disrupting the balance within the microbiome of the holobiont. Disentangling coral disease causation has been challenging, and while progress has been made for certain diseases in terms of the roles the associated microorganisms play, it is evident that like in other marine or terrestrial systems, compromised host health cannot always be attributed to a single causative agent. Here, we summarize the current state in knowledge of microbial induced coral diseases, and discuss challenges and strategies to further disentangle disease causation. With the major environmental pressures coral reefs face over the next century, understanding interactions between host, environmental and microbial causative agent(s) that lead to disease, is still a priority to enable development of effective strategies for building resilience into coral populations. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Long-Term Trends in the Epidemiology of Neonatal Sepsis and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Causative Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Agnes; Gerards, Leo J.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.; Fleer, Andre; Krediet, Tannette G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In an era with increased maternal antibiotic use, patterns in early- and late-onset sepsis and antibiotic susceptibility may have changed. Objectives: To identify longitudinal trends in causative microorganisms for neonatal sepsis and analyze antibiotic susceptibility of all blood

  6. Acquiring the English Causative Alternation: Evidence from the University of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseel Zibin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current study was to test whether Advanced Jordanian EFL learners have acquired the English causative alternation. To this end, we used a Grammaticality Judgment Task (GJT to determine whether the participants would be able distinguish between alternating and non-alternating causative/inchoative verbs. The verbs used in the GJT were chosen based on their frequency in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA. The sample of the study consisted of eighty advanced Jordanian EFL learners, studying English Language and Literature at the University of Jordan. The results revealed that the participants have not acquired the English causative alternation (total mean=61%. Specifically, the results showed that the participants encountered some difficulties with certain verbs that do not alternate and were used ungrammatically on the GJT. We proposed that these difficulties could be attributed to the differences between English and Jordanian Arabic (JA in terms of the semantically-based constraints that govern the causative-inchoative alternation in English and JA. The participants transferred the argument structure of verbs in JA into English without realising that the two languages are different in terms of the verbs that are allowed to alternate and those that are not. The study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: C

  7. The p53HMM algorithm: using profile hidden markov models to detect p53-responsive genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A computational method (called p53HMM is presented that utilizes Profile Hidden Markov Models (PHMMs to estimate the relative binding affinities of putative p53 response elements (REs, both p53 single-sites and cluster-sites. These models incorporate a novel "Corresponded Baum-Welch" training algorithm that provides increased predictive power by exploiting the redundancy of information found in the repeated, palindromic p53-binding motif. The predictive accuracy of these new models are compared against other predictive models, including position specific score matrices (PSSMs, or weight matrices. We also present a new dynamic acceptance threshold, dependent upon a putative binding site's distance from the Transcription Start Site (TSS and its estimated binding affinity. This new criteria for classifying putative p53-binding sites increases predictive accuracy by reducing the false positive rate. Results Training a Profile Hidden Markov Model with corresponding positions matching a combined-palindromic p53-binding motif creates the best p53-RE predictive model. The p53HMM algorithm is available on-line: http://tools.csb.ias.edu Conclusion Using Profile Hidden Markov Models with training methods that exploit the redundant information of the homotetramer p53 binding site provides better predictive models than weight matrices (PSSMs. These methods may also boost performance when applied to other transcription factor binding sites.

  8. Optimizing the Forward Algorithm for Hidden Markov Model on IBM Roadrunner clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOIMAN, S.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a parallel solution of the Forward Algorithm for Hidden Markov Models. The Forward algorithm compute a probability of a hidden state from Markov model at a certain time, this process being recursively. The whole process requires large computational resources for those models with a large number of states and long observation sequences. Our solution in order to reduce the computational time is a multilevel parallelization of Forward algorithm. Two types of cores were used in our implementation, for each level of parallelization, cores that are graved on the same chip of PowerXCell8i processor. This hybrid architecture of processors permitted us to obtain a speedup factor over 40 relative to the sequential algorithm for a model with 24 states and 25 millions of observable symbols. Experimental results showed that the parallel Forward algorithm can evaluate the probability of an observation sequence on a hidden Markov model 40 times faster than the classic one does. Based on the performance obtained, we demonstrate the applicability of this parallel implementation of Forward algorithm in complex problems such as large vocabulary speech recognition.

  9. Navigating the Hidden Curriculum of Higher Education for Postsecondary Students With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Lucretia A; Jirikowic, Tracy; Haerling, Katie; MacDonald, Ginger

    Students with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD) increasingly pursue postsecondary education (PSE). Navigating the hidden curriculum-including meeting prerequisites for PSE and employment, using support systems and community transportation, and carrying out adulthood expectations-is an area of challenge. This exploratory case study examined experiences of students with IDD attending a PSE program and stakeholder perspectives. Thirty-two participants (10 students with IDD, 5 parents or guardians, 4 college administrators, 8 college instructors, 4 occupational therapists, and a transition specialist) were interviewed. Conventional content analysis revealed navigating the hidden curriculum as a key theme and three subthemes: (1) adult-based system navigation, (2) persisting challenges with adaptive behaviors, and (3) disability awareness and disclosure. Limited awareness of disability and supports and services needed for a successful PSE outcome were contributing factors. Occupational therapists have the skills to support students with IDD in skill acquisition to successfully transition to and navigate PSE and the hidden curriculum. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Prediction of Cascading Collapse Occurrence due to the Effect of Hidden Failure of a Protection System using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hazwani Idris

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line act as a medium of transportation for electrical energy from a power station to the consumer. There are many factors that could cause the cascading collapse such as instability of voltage and frequency, the change of environment and weather, the software and operator error and also the failure in protection system. Protection system plays an important function in maintaining the stability and reliability of the power grid. Hidden failures in relay protection systems are the primary factors for triggering the cascading collapse. This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model for prediction of cascading collapse occurrence due to the effect of hidden failure of protection system. The ANN model has been developed through the normalized training and testing data process with optimum number of hidden layer, the momentum rate and the learning rate. The ANN model employs probability of hidden failure, random number of line limit power flow and exposed line as its input while trip index of cascading collapse occurrence as its output. IEEE 14 bus system is used in this study to illustrate the proposed approach. The performance of the results is analysed in terms of its Mean Square Error (MSE and Correlation Coefficient (R. The results show the ANN model produce reliable prediction of cascading collapse occurrence.

  11. Hidden-Sector Dynamics and the Supersymmetric Seesaw

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Bruce A; Maybury, David W

    2008-01-01

    In light of recent analyses that have shown that nontrivial hidden-sector dynamics in models of supersymmetry breaking can lead to a significant impact on the predicted low-energy supersymmetric spectrum, we extend these studies to consider hidden-sector effects in extensions of the MSSM to include a seesaw model for neutrino masses. A dynamical hidden sector in an interval of mass scales below the seesaw scale would yield renormalization-group running involving both the anomalous dimension from the hidden sector and the seesaw-extended MSSM renormalization group equations (RGEs). These effects interfere in general, altering the generational mixing of the sleptons, and allowing for a substantial change to the expected level of charged-lepton flavour violation in seesaw-extended MSSM models. These results provide further support for recent theoretical observations that knowledge of the hidden sector is required in order to make concrete low-energy predictions, if the hidden sector is strongly coupled. In parti...

  12. Religion, Spirituality, and the Hidden Curriculum: Medical Student and Faculty Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Michael J.; Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D.; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea C.; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Context Religion and spirituality play an important role in physicians’ medical practice, but little research has examined their influence within the socialization of medical trainees and the hidden curriculum. Objectives The objective is to explore the role of religion and spirituality as they intersect with aspects of medicine’s hidden curriculum. Methods Semiscripted, one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 33 respondents) were conducted to assess Harvard Medical School student and faculty experiences of religion/spirituality and the professionalization process during medical training. Using grounded theory, theme extraction was performed with interdisciplinary input (medicine, sociology, and theology), yielding a high inter-rater reliability score (kappa = 0.75). Results Three domains emerged where religion and spirituality appear as a factor in medical training. First, religion/spirituality may present unique challenges and benefits in relation to the hidden curriculum. Religious/spiritual respondents more often reported to struggle with issues of personal identity, increased self-doubt, and perceived medical knowledge inadequacy. However, religious/spiritual participants less often described relationship conflicts within the medical team, work-life imbalance, and emotional stress arising from patient suffering. Second, religion/spirituality may influence coping strategies during encounters with patient suffering. Religious/spiritual trainees described using prayer, faith, and compassion as means for coping whereas nonreligious/nonspiritual trainees discussed compartmentalization and emotional repression. Third, levels of religion/spirituality appear to fluctuate in relation to medical training, with many trainees experiencing an increase in religiousness/spirituality during training. Conclusion Religion/spirituality has a largely unstudied but possibly influential role in medical student socialization. Future study is needed to characterize its

  13. Kinetic mixing of the photon with hidden U(1)s in string phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, S.A.; Khoze, V.V. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Goodsell, M.D. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Paris (France); Jaeckel, J. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology]|[Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Embeddings of the standard model in type II string theory typically contain a variety of U(1) gauge factors arising from D-branes in the bulk. In general, there is no reason why only one of these - the one corresponding to weak hypercharge - should be massless. Observations require that standard model particles must be neutral (or have an extremely small charge) under additional massless U(1)s, i.e. the latter have to belong to a so called hidden sector. The exchange of heavy messengers, however, can lead to a kinetic mixing between the hypercharge and the hidden-sector U(1)s, that is testable with near future experiments. This provides a powerful probe of the hidden sectors and, as a consequence, of the string theory realisation itself. In the present paper, we show, using a variety of methods, how the kinetic mixing can be derived from the underlying type II string compactification, involving supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric configurations of D-branes, both in large volumes and in warped backgrounds with fluxes. We first demonstrate by explicit example that kinetic mixing occurs in a completely supersymmetric set-up where we can use conformal field theory techniques. We then develop a supergravity approach which allows us to examine the phenomenon in more general backgrounds, where we find that kinetic mixing is natural in the context of flux compactifications. We discuss the phenomenological consequences for experiments at the low-energy frontier, searching for signatures of light, sub-electronvolt or even massless hidden-sector U(1) gauge bosons and minicharged particles. (orig.)

  14. Religion, Spirituality, and the Hidden Curriculum: Medical Student and Faculty Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Michael J; Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Enzinger, Andrea C; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy

    2015-10-01

    Religion and spirituality play an important role in physicians' medical practice, but little research has examined their influence within the socialization of medical trainees and the hidden curriculum. The objective is to explore the role of religion and spirituality as they intersect with aspects of medicine's hidden curriculum. Semiscripted, one-on-one interviews and focus groups (n = 33 respondents) were conducted to assess Harvard Medical School student and faculty experiences of religion/spirituality and the professionalization process during medical training. Using grounded theory, theme extraction was performed with interdisciplinary input (medicine, sociology, and theology), yielding a high inter-rater reliability score (kappa = 0.75). Three domains emerged where religion and spirituality appear as a factor in medical training. First, religion/spirituality may present unique challenges and benefits in relation to the hidden curriculum. Religious/spiritual respondents more often reported to struggle with issues of personal identity, increased self-doubt, and perceived medical knowledge inadequacy. However, religious/spiritual participants less often described relationship conflicts within the medical team, work-life imbalance, and emotional stress arising from patient suffering. Second, religion/spirituality may influence coping strategies during encounters with patient suffering. Religious/spiritual trainees described using prayer, faith, and compassion as means for coping whereas nonreligious/nonspiritual trainees discussed compartmentalization and emotional repression. Third, levels of religion/spirituality appear to fluctuate in relation to medical training, with many trainees experiencing an increase in religiousness/spirituality during training. Religion/spirituality has a largely unstudied but possibly influential role in medical student socialization. Future study is needed to characterize its function within the hidden curriculum. Copyright

  15. Search algorithms, hidden labour and information control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paško Bilić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines some of the processes of the closely knit relationship between Google’s ideologies of neutrality and objectivity and global market dominance. Neutrality construction comprises an important element sustaining the company’s economic position and is reflected in constant updates, estimates and changes to utility and relevance of search results. Providing a purely technical solution to these issues proves to be increasingly difficult without a human hand in steering algorithmic solutions. Search relevance fluctuates and shifts through continuous tinkering and tweaking of the search algorithm. The company also uses third parties to hire human raters for performing quality assessments of algorithmic updates and adaptations in linguistically and culturally diverse global markets. The adaptation process contradicts the technical foundations of the company and calculations based on the initial Page Rank algorithm. Annual market reports, Google’s Search Quality Rating Guidelines, and reports from media specialising in search engine optimisation business are analysed. The Search Quality Rating Guidelines document provides a rare glimpse into the internal architecture of search algorithms and the notions of utility and relevance which are presented and structured as neutral and objective. Intertwined layers of ideology, hidden labour of human raters, advertising revenues, market dominance and control are discussed throughout the paper.

  16. Photoacoustic imaging reveals hidden underdrawings in paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserevelakis, George J; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Siozos, Panagiotis; Melessanaki, Krystallia; Hatzigiannakis, Kostas; Fotakis, Costas; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2017-04-07

    A novel, non-invasive, imaging methodology, based on the photoacoustic effect, is introduced in the context of artwork diagnostics with emphasis on the uncovering of hidden features such as underdrawings or original sketch lines in paintings. Photoacoustic microscopy, a rapidly growing imaging method widely employed in biomedical research, exploits the ultrasonic acoustic waves, generated by light from a pulsed or intensity modulated source interacting with a medium, to map the spatial distribution of absorbing components. Having over three orders of magnitude higher transmission through strongly scattering media, compared to light in the visible and near infrared, the photoacoustic signal offers substantially improved detection sensitivity and achieves excellent optical absorption contrast at high spatial resolution. Photoacoustic images, collected from miniature oil paintings on canvas, illuminated with a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm on their reverse side, reveal clearly the presence of pencil sketch lines coated over by several paint layers, exceeding 0.5 mm in thickness. By adjusting the detection bandwidth of the optically induced ultrasonic waves, photoacoustic imaging can be used for looking into a broad variety of artefacts having diverse optical properties and geometrical profiles, such as manuscripts, glass objects, plastic modern art or even stone sculpture.

  17. [Peanut anaphylaxis: the problem of hidden allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, S; Anliker, M D; Wüthrich, B

    1999-10-15

    Three patients developed recurrent anaphylactic reactions after ingestion of different kinds of food (Asian food, chocolate products, bakery products). In all three patients a severe peanut allergy was confirmed either by skin prick testing or serologically (specific IgE for peanut of CAP class 3,4 and 6 respectively). Peanut allergy in all patients explained the anaphylactic reactions due to ingestion of hidden peanut in the food. Patients were told to avoid the allergen. Because accidental ingestion is frequent in peanut allergy, they were equipped with a document stating the severity of the allergy and emergency medication (antihistamines, oral steroids, adrenaline injector). Peanuts can be concealed in different kinds of food because they are cheap, rich in protein and are often used to change the viscosity of other foods. Especially the American and Asian cuisines use peanuts in a wide variety of recipes. Furthermore accidental ingestion can occur due to false or lacking declaration of peanuts in processed food. Patients with peanut allergy should be informed about these possibilities.

  18. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  19. A Hidden Portrait by Edgar Degas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurrowgood, David; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D; Kirkham, Robin; Thurrowgood, Saul; Howard, Daryl L

    2016-08-04

    The preservation and understanding of cultural heritage depends increasingly on in-depth chemical studies. Rapid technological advances are forging connections between scientists and arts communities, enabling revolutionary new techniques for non-invasive technical study of culturally significant, highly prized artworks. We have applied a non-invasive, rapid, high definition X-ray fluorescence (XRF) elemental mapping technique to a French Impressionist painting using a synchrotron radiation source, and show how this technology can advance scholarly art interpretation and preservation. We have obtained detailed technical understanding of a painting which could not be resolved by conventional techniques. Here we show 31.6 megapixel scanning XRF derived elemental maps and report a novel image processing methodology utilising these maps to produce a false colour representation of a "hidden" portrait by Edgar Degas. This work provides a cohesive methodology for both imaging and understanding the chemical composition of artworks, and enables scholarly understandings of cultural heritage, many of which have eluded conventional technologies. We anticipate that the outcome from this work will encourage the reassessment of some of the world's great art treasures.

  20. Detecting hidden sources-STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to locate and to identify hidden sources in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and 5`x5` NaI system. The team found two sources in real-time and additional two sources after 24 h analysis time. After the locations and characteristics of the sources were announced it was found out that altogether six sources would have been possible to find using the measured data. The total number of sources was ten. The NaI detector was good at detecting and locating the sources and HPGe was most useful in identification and calculation of the activity estimates. The following development should be made: 1) larger detectors are needed, 2) the software has to be improved. (This has been performed after the exercise) and 3) the navigation must be based on DGPS. visual navigation causes easily gaps between the flight lines and some sources may not be detected. (au).

  1. Stochastic precipitation generator with hidden state covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongku; Lee, GyuWon

    2017-08-01

    Time series of daily weather such as precipitation, minimum temperature and maximum temperature are commonly required for various fields. Stochastic weather generators constitute one of the techniques to produce synthetic daily weather. The recently introduced approach for stochastic weather generators is based on generalized linear modeling (GLM) with covariates to account for seasonality and teleconnections (e.g., with the El Niño). In general, stochastic weather generators tend to underestimate the observed interannual variance of seasonally aggregated variables. To reduce this overdispersion, we incorporated time series of seasonal dry/wet indicators in the GLM weather generator as covariates. These seasonal time series were local (or global) decodings obtained by a hidden Markov model of seasonal total precipitation and implemented in the weather generator. The proposed method is applied to time series of daily weather from Seoul, Korea and Pergamino, Argentina. This method provides a straightforward translation of the uncertainty of the seasonal forecast to the corresponding conditional daily weather statistics.

  2. Natural inflation with hidden scale invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Barrie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new class of natural inflation models based on a hidden scale invariance. In a very generic Wilsonian effective field theory with an arbitrary number of scalar fields, which exhibits scale invariance via the dilaton, the potential necessarily contains a flat direction in the classical limit. This flat direction is lifted by small quantum corrections and inflation is realised without need for an unnatural fine-tuning. In the conformal limit, the effective potential becomes linear in the inflaton field, yielding to specific predictions for the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, being respectively: ns−1≈−0.025(N⋆60−1 and r≈0.0667(N⋆60−1, where N⋆≈30–65 is a number of efolds during observable inflation. This predictions are in reasonable agreement with cosmological measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy of these measurements may turn out to be critical in falsifying our scenario.

  3. Unveiling Hidden Phases of Solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Kwon, S.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, E.

    2010-03-01

    The discovery of non-classical rotational inertia fraction (NCRIF) of solid 4He in a torsional oscillator (TO) was immediately followed by various attempts to identify the underlying physics of the phenomenon. Despite the efforts the true nature of the non-classical response is still not fully understood. We have investigated dynamic response of solid 4He by changing oscillation rim velocity at fixed temperatures. Main discovery of our experiment is that there are hidden phases of solid 4He that are only accessible by cooling the sample down to some temperature with zero to small rim velocity first, and then subsequently raising the velocity at that temperature. The different phases are identified with two distinct features. One is that the amount of NCRIF is different from that of a typical high-velocity cooled 4He. The other is that the dynamics of the TO changes across these different phases. We believe these phases are distinguished by different pinning mechanisms of excitations present in 4He.

  4. Uncovering the hidden iceberg structure of the Galactic halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Vanessa A.; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Lockman, Felix; Pisano, D. J.; Price, Daniel; Rees, Glen

    2018-01-01

    How the Milky Way gets its gas and keeps its measured star formation rate going are both long-standing mysteries in Galactic studies, with important implications for galaxy evolution across the Universe. I will present our recent discovery of two populations of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the halo of the Milky Way: 1) a narrow line-width dense population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud (HVC) components, and 2) a fainter, broad line-width diffuse population that aligns well with the population found in very sensitive pointings such as in Lockman et al. (2002). From our existing data, we concluded that the diffuse population likely outweighs the dense HI by a factor of 3. This discovery of diffuse HI, which appears to be prevalent throughout the halo, takes us closer to solving the Galactic mystery of accretion and reveals a gaseous neutral halo hidden from the view of most large-scale surveys. We are currently carrying out deep Parkes observations to investigate these results further, in order to truly uncover the nature of the diffuse HI and determine whether our 3:1 ratio (based on the limited existing data) is consistent with what is seen when Parkes and the 140 ft Green Bank telescope are employed at comparable sensitivity. With these data, through a combination of both known and new sightline measurements, we aim to reveal the structure of the Galactic halo in more detail than ever before.

  5. Was ist das Hidden Web? Die Entstehung, Eigenschaften und gesellschaftliche Bedeutung von anonymer Kommunikation im Hidden Web.

    OpenAIRE

    Papsdorf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    More than two-and-a-half million people currently use the Tor network to communicate anonymously via the Internet and gain access to online media that are not accessible using standard Internet technology. This sphere of communication can be described as the hidden web. In part because this phenomenon is very recent, the subject has scarcely been studied in the social sciences. It is therefore the purpose of this paper to answer four fundamental questions: What is the hidden web? What charact...

  6. Beliefs about cancer causation and prevention as a function of personal and family history of cancer: a national, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Emily L B; Graue, Lili O; Brechting, Emily H; Roach, Abbey R; Gochett, Celestine G; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2008-10-01

    Research suggests individuals possess multifaceted cognitive representations of various diseases. These illness representations consist of various beliefs, including causal attributions for the disease, and are believed to motivate, guide, and shape health-related behavior. As little research has examined factors associated with beliefs about cancer causation, this study examined the relationship between personal and family history of cancer and beliefs about the causes and prevention of malignant disease. Data were obtained from 6369 adult respondents to the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey, a national population-based survey. Information about personal and family history of cancer and beliefs regarding cancer causation and prevention was obtained. Results showed both a personal and family history of cancer were associated with differences in beliefs about the causes of cancer. In general, a personal history of cancer was not significantly linked to causal attributions for cancer relative to those without a personal history. In contrast, a family history of cancer tended to increase the likelihood a respondent viewed a particular cause as increasing cancer risk. Thus, personal and vicarious experience with cancer had dramatically diverging influences on attributions of cancer causation, which may be due to differing self-protection motives. Results support the belief that illness representations, in this case the causal belief component, are influenced by both personal and vicarious experience with a disease and also suggest illness representations may influence receptivity to messages and interventions designed to increase appropriate cancer risk reduction behavior. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. THE DIFFERENCES IN THE TORUS GEOMETRY BETWEEN HIDDEN AND NON-HIDDEN BROAD LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Packham, Christopher; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Alsip, Crystal D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; González-Martín, Omaira [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elitzur, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Levenson, Nancy A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Rachel E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: ichikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results from the fitting of infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of 21 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with clumpy torus models. We compiled high spatial resolution (∼0.3–0.7 arcsec) mid-IR (MIR) N-band spectroscopy, Q-band imaging, and nuclear near- and MIR photometry from the literature. Combining these nuclear near- and MIR observations, far-IR photometry, and clumpy torus models enables us to put constraints on the torus properties and geometry. We divide the sample into three types according to the broad line region (BLR) properties: type-1s, type-2s with scattered or hidden broad line region (HBLR) previously observed, and type-2s without any published HBLR signature (NHBLR). Comparing the torus model parameters gives us the first quantitative torus geometrical view for each subgroup. We find that NHBLR AGNs have smaller torus opening angles and larger covering factors than HBLR AGNs. This suggests that the chance to observe scattered (polarized) flux from the BLR in NHBLR could be reduced by the dual effects of (a) less scattering medium due to the reduced scattering volume given the small torus opening angle and (b) the increased torus obscuration between the observer and the scattering region. These effects give a reasonable explanation for the lack of observed HBLR in some type-2 AGNs.

  8. Impact of an inpatient electronic prescribing system on prescribing error causation: a qualitative evaluation in an English hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puaar, Seetal Jheeta; Franklin, Bryony Dean

    2017-10-10

    Few studies have applied a systems approach to understanding the causes of specific prescribing errors in the context of hospital electronic prescribing (EP). A comprehensive understanding of underlying causes is essential for developing effective interventions to improve prescribing safety. Our objectives were to explore prescribers' perspectives of the causes of errors occurring with EP and to make recommendations to maximise benefits and minimise risks. We studied a large hospital using inpatient EP. From April to June 2016, semistructured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled prescribers involved with a prescribing error. Interviews explored prescribers' perceived causes of the error and views about EP; they were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were thematically analysed against a framework based on Reason's accident causation model, with a focus on identifying latent conditions. Twenty-five interviews explored causes of 32 errors. Slips and rule-based mistakes were the most common active failures. Error causation was multifactorial; environmental, individual, team, task and technology error-producing conditions were all influenced by EP. There were three broad groups of latent conditions: the EP system's functionality and design; the organisation's decisions around EP implementation and use; and prescribing behaviours in the context of EP. Errors were associated with the design of EP itself and its integration within the healthcare environment. Findings suggest that EP vendors should focus on revolutionising interface design and usability issues, bearing in mind the wider healthcare context in which such software is used. Healthcare organisations should draw upon human factors principles when implementing EP. Consideration of work environment, infrastructure, training, prescribing responsibilities and behaviours should be considered to address local issues identified. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated

  9. The hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2014-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated reduced hippocampal volume in trauma-exposed individuals without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the implications of such a deficit in this non-clinical population are still unclear. Animal and human models of PTSD suggest that hippocampal deficit may result in impaired learning and use of associations between contextual information and aversive events. Previous study has shown that individuals with PTSD have a selective impairment in reversing the negative outcome of context-related information. The aim of this study was to test whether non-PTSD individuals who are repeatedly exposed to traumatic events display similar impairment. To that end, we compared the performance of active-duty firefighters who are frequently exposed to traumatic events as part of their occupational routine and civilian matched-controls with no history of trauma-exposure. We used a novel cue-context reversal paradigm, which separately evaluates reversal of negative and positive outcomes of cue and context-related information. As predicted, we found that while both trauma-exposed firefighters and unexposed matched-controls were able to acquire and retain stimulus-outcome associations, firefighters struggled to learn that a previously negative context is later associated with a positive outcome. This impairment did not correlate with levels of PTSD, anxiety or depressive symptoms. The results suggest that similar to individuals with PTSD, highly exposed individuals fail to associate traumatic outcomes with their appropriate context. This impairment may reflect a possible hidden price of repeated traumatic exposure, which is not necessarily associated with PTSD diagnosis, and may affect the way highly exposed individuals interpret and react to their environment.

  10. Foundational Forces & Hidden Variables in Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Brandon

    2011-03-01

    The science of physics seems vastly different from the process of technology commercialization. Physics strives to understand our world through the experimental deduction of immutable laws and dependent variables and the resulting macro-scale phenomenon. In comparison, the~goal of business is to make a profit by addressing the needs, preferences, and whims of individuals in a market. It may seem that this environment is too dynamic to identify all the hidden variables and deduct the foundational forces that impact a business's ability to commercialize innovative technologies. One example of a business ``force'' is found in the semiconductor industry. In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months. Known as Moore's Law, this prediction has become the guiding principle for the semiconductor industry for the last 40 years. Of course, Moore's Law is not really a law of nature; rather it is the result of efforts by Intel and the entire semiconductor industry. A closer examination suggests that there are foundational principles of business that underlie the macro-scale phenomenon of Moore's Law. Principles of profitability, incentive, and strategic alignment have resulted in a coordinated influx of resources that has driven technologies to market, increasing the profitability of the semiconductor industry and optimizing the fitness of its participants. New innovations in technology are subject to these same principles. So, in addition to traditional market forces, these often unrecognized forces and variables create challenges for new technology commercialization. In this talk, I will draw from ethnographic research, complex adaptive theory, and industry data to suggest a framework with which to think about new technology commercialization. Intel's bio-silicon initiative provides a case study.

  11. 'Hidden messages' emerging from Afrocentric management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Van den Heuvel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper aims to examine how 'African management' discourse has emerged in South Africa. Altogether, it has stimulated debates - sometimes in controversial ways - on 'taboo issues', e.g. relating to 'cultural diversity' and 'ethnicity'. The stimulation of such debates within organisations is probably a more valuable contribution than a static, essentialised 'African identity' that it proclaims. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper draws on a qualitative research project conducted in South Africa in 2003-2004. Its relevance lies in gaining in-depth insights into ('non-western' local management discourse. It seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge on political and cultural contexts in which South African organizations operate, and how they impact on local management perspectives, and vice versa. Findings: The research findings make clear how and under what circumstances 'African management' discourse has come about in South Africa, and how it could be interpreted. Implications: 'African management' advocates allegedly attempt to revise dominant management thinking and promote 'humane-ness' and participatory decision-making in South African organisations, in search of a contextualised management approach. Amongst others, it has produced new meanings of 'Africanness' and has opened up space for 'hidden messages', resentments and aspirations to become openly articulated. This throws another light on phenomena such as cultural diversity and ethnicity that usually tend to be 'neutralised'. This may turn out to be far healthier for blooming organisational cultures in South Africa than relentlessly hammering on prescribed 'corporate values'. Originality/Value: This paper informs the reader in detail about the emergence and evolvement of 'African management' discourse in South Africa. It is a unique attempt to develop an interpretative viewpoint on this intriguing phenomenon that offers a potentially valuable contribution in reading

  12. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  13. Probability of causation for radiation-induced diseases: Part: assessment by IREP; Verursacherwahrscheinlichkeit fuer Strahlenbedingte Erkrankungen, Teil: Pruefung von IREP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The computer program IREP calculates the probability of causation for cancer and leukemia due to ionizing radiation in the form of a conditional probability distribution. It is based on model assumptions for relative risks of various forms of radiation-induced cancer. These in turn are estimated on the basis of outstanding epidemiological data and a multitude of well-founded assumptions on relevant factors, which modify the risk. IREP has undergone a thorough reviewing process in the USA. Presently it has not yet reached its final form, but will be improved after the publication of new incidence data of the atomic bomb survivors, and of the new dosimetry system DS02 for this cohort. A transfer of IREP to the German population could in principle be done by adjusting the spontaneous incidence rates based on the cancer registers of the Saarland, and of the new federal states. However this report discusses weaknesses of IREP which suggest the following recommendations: 1) New German radio-epidemiological tables should be provided. 2) The models and the relevant parameters should be presented to German committees, e.g. the SSK (German radiation protection committee) and occupational and environmental health committees. 3) The computer code should be published, so that all interested parties can follow the details of the calculation. 4) An authorized version should be made available in the Internet. 5) The tables should use point estimates (possibly the median of the probability distribution), as this provides a larger degree of transparency. 6) The result should be justified in detail, and all relevant parameters and models should be within easy reach of the user. 7) If the lawmakers wish to compensate more generously than at present, they should lower the required value for the causation probability. 8) The estimates of uncertainties should be included in the selection of the relevant parameters and models. 9) A wide international cooperation (USA, Europe and Japan

  14. Depression and poverty among rural women: a relationship of social causation or social selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh A; Braun, Bonnie; Charnigo, Richard; Havens, Jennifer R; Wright, David W

    2008-01-01

    Depression among rural women is a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to test the competing theories of social causation and social selection to assess the relationship between depression and economic status for a sample of rural, low-income women in the United States. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from Rural Families Speak, a US Department of Agriculture-funded multi-state, longitudinal study of rural low-income families (N = 413). Results indicated that the social causation theory yielded a better approximation of the relationship between economic status and depression (RMSEA = 0.50 for a model based on this theory) than the social selection theory (RMSEA = 0.067). The association between lesser economic status and depressive symptoms is pressing in rural areas, given the high prevalence of both depression and poverty. These findings further emphasize the need for improved mental health services in this vulnerable population.

  15. Simultaneous social causation and social drift: Longitudinal analysis of depression and poverty in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Crick; Cois, Annibale

    2018-03-15

    Two theories have been proposed to explain the observed association between depression and poverty, namely social causation and social drift. Little is known regarding the relative importance of social causation and social drift in low and middle-income countries, where poverty is more severe and where most of the world's depressed individuals live. We analysed nationally representative longitudinal data from the National Income Dynamics Study in South Africa and simultaneously tested social causation and social drift hypotheses using structural equation modelling across three waves. Worse individual economic status at time 1 and 2 was independently associated with worse depression two years later at time 2 (standardised linear regression coefficient β = -0.110, Standard Error (SE): 0.024) and four years later at time 3 (β = -0.113, SE: 0.025) respectively. Conversely worse depression at time 1 and time 2 was independently associated with worse economic status at time 2 (β = -0.037, SE: 0.016) and time 3 (β = -0.028, SE: 0.012) respectively. In addition, the "effect" of depression on future assets was stronger among people with less baseline assets. The time span between data rounds is relatively short (four years); response rates are unequal across ethnic, age and sex groups; and the measure of depression is based on self-report. Social causation and social drift act simultaneously in this population, reinforcing poverty/depression cycles. Multi-sectoral policies are required that both prevent depression by addressing its economic determinants, and provide evidence-based treatment to mitigate the economic impact of depression. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A double face view on mind-brain relationship: the problem of mental causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gonçalves Coelho

    Full Text Available Abstract: Interpreting results of contemporary neuroscientif studies, I present a non-reductive physicalist account of mind-brain relationship from which the criticism of unintelligibility ascribed to the notion of mental causation is considered. Assuming that a paradigmatic criticism addressed to the notion of mental causation is that presented by Jaegwon Kim’s analysis on the theory of mind-body supervenience, I present his argument arguing that it encompasses a formulation of the problem of mental causation, which leads to difficulties by him pointed. To ask "how mental events, being a non-physical property of the brain, could act causally on brain structure and functioning?", is not to treat the mind as a property of the brain, but as a Cartesian substance. I argue that, rather than asking "how does mind could act causally on the brain?", as if the mind were something apart and independent of the brain, it would be more in line with a non-reductive physicalist view to ask "how the brain, guided by its mind, could act causally on itself?". To justify this last formulation of the problem of mental causation, I propose a "double face view", which consists in considering the consciousness as the essential property of the mind, and mind and brain as inseparable, dependent and irreducible faces. It means, in general terms, that the conscious mind is the result of brain structure and activity - "conscious mind as brain" - and that the brain, using its conscious mind as a guide to its actions, interacts with its body, and with the physical and sociocultural environment, constructing and being constructed by both - "brain as conscious mind".

  17. First Draft Genome Sequence of the Dourine Causative Agent: Trypanosoma Equiperdum Strain OVI

    OpenAIRE

    H?bert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Madeline, Anthony; Steinbiss, Sascha; Lakhdar, Latifa; Van Reet, Nick; B?scher, Philippe; Laugier, Claire; Cauchard, Julien; Petry, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum is the causative agent of dourine, a sexually-transmitted infection of horses. This parasite belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon that also includes the agent of sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and surra (Trypanosoma evansi). We herein report the genome sequence of a T. equiperdum strain OVI, isolated from a horse in South-Africa in 1976. This is the first genome sequence of the T. equiperdum species, and its availability will provide important insights for future...

  18. The Phosphoproteome of Bloodstream Form Trypanosoma brucei, Causative Agent of African Sleeping Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Isabelle R. E.; Martin, David M. A.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Lamont, Douglas; Barber, Jonathan D.; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and related animal diseases, and it has over 170 predicted protein kinases. Protein phosphorylation is a key regulatory mechanism for cellular function that, thus far, has been studied in T.brucei principally through putative kinase mRNA knockdown and observation of the resulting phenotype. However, despite the relatively large kinome of this organism and the demonstrated essentiality of severa...

  19. Hidden Statistics Approach to Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information theory have inspired an explosion of interest in new quantum algorithms for solving hard computational (quantum and non-quantum) problems. The basic principle of quantum computation is that the quantum properties can be used to represent structure data, and that quantum mechanisms can be devised and built to perform operations with this data. Three basic non-classical properties of quantum mechanics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability were main reasons for optimism about capabilities of quantum computers that promised simultaneous processing of large massifs of highly correlated data. Unfortunately, these advantages of quantum mechanics came with a high price. One major problem is keeping the components of the computer in a coherent state, as the slightest interaction with the external world would cause the system to decohere. That is why the hardware implementation of a quantum computer is still unsolved. The basic idea of this work is to create a new kind of dynamical system that would preserve the main three properties of quantum physics superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. In other words, such a system would reinforce the advantages and minimize limitations of both quantum and classical aspects. Based upon a concept of hidden statistics, a new kind of dynamical system for simulation of Schroedinger equation is proposed. The system represents a modified Madelung version of Schroedinger equation. It preserves superposition, entanglement, and direct-product decomposability while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for simulating quantum systems. The model includes a transitional component of quantum potential (that has been overlooked in previous treatment of the Madelung equation). The role of the

  20. Possible strange hidden-charm pentaquarks from and interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; He, Jun; Liu, Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Using the one-boson-exchange model, we investigate the , , , , , and interactions by considering the one-eta-exchange and/or one-pion-exchange contributions. We further predict the existence of hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks. Promising candidates for hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks include a state with and the states with and . Experimental searches for these predicted hidden-charm molecular pentaquarks are an interesting future research topic for experiments like LHCb. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222547, 11175073, 11675228), Major State Basic Research Development Program in China (2014CB845405) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. Xiang Liu is also supported by the National Program for Support of Top-notch Young Professionals

  1. The 'worthy' patient: rethinking the 'hidden curriculum' in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Robin T; Tillack, Allison; Steinman, Michael A; Johnston, C Bree; Harper, G Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper examines how physicians determine the quality and quantity of time to devote to each patient, and how these decisions are taught to physicians-in-training as part of the 'hidden curriculum' in medical education. The notion of moral economy is used to analyze how judgments of patient worth come to guide and influence interactions among physicians and physicians-in-training and patients, and how these interactions impact medical care. However, this paper also questions the notion of the hidden curriculum as a static or reified concept. Instead, the paper uses participant narratives to show how physicians-in-training are not simply passive recipients of the hidden curriculum but also actively resist judging patients based on perceptions of worth, even as they learn to operate within a moral economy of care.

  2. Using the hidden curriculum to teach professionalism in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zohreh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Easa; Abedi, Heidar Ali

    2014-03-01

    Professionalism in nursing is critical for creating credibility and a positive image. This study was carried out to explain the use of hidden curriculum in teaching professionalism in nursing students. This qualitative study was conducted through purposeful sampling strategy by the participation of 32 nursing students. The data were collected by using semi-structured interviews, and this process was continued until achieving data saturation and themes' emergence. Content analysis method was used for data analysis. DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THREE MAIN THEMES: Development of understanding the professionalism elements, Variety of influenceability strategies, and Influenceability to various resources. Each theme consisted of some subthemes. The nursing students learnt the professionalism elements by different methods from different resources through the hidden curriculum. Therefore, exploration of the currently administered hidden curricula is suggested.

  3. Reconstruction of hidden 3D shapes using diffuse reflections

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Otkrist; Willwacher, Thomas; Veeraraghavan, Ashok; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    We analyze multi-bounce propagation of light in an unknown hidden volume and demonstrate that the reflected light contains sufficient information to recover the 3D structure of the hidden scene. We formulate the forward and inverse theory of secondary and tertiary scattering reflection using ideas from energy front propagation and tomography. We show that using careful choice of approximations, such as Fresnel approximation, greatly simplifies this problem and the inversion can be achieved via a backpropagation process. We provide a theoretical analysis of the invertibility, uniqueness and choices of space-time-angle dimensions using synthetic examples. We show that a 2D streak camera can be used to discover and reconstruct hidden geometry. Using a 1D high speed time of flight camera, we show that our method can be used recover 3D shapes of objects "around the corner".

  4. Multivariate longitudinal data analysis with mixed effects hidden Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Jesse D; Dubin, Joel A

    2015-09-01

    Multiple longitudinal responses are often collected as a means to capture relevant features of the true outcome of interest, which is often hidden and not directly measurable. We outline an approach which models these multivariate longitudinal responses as generated from a hidden disease process. We propose a class of models which uses a hidden Markov model with separate but correlated random effects between multiple longitudinal responses. This approach was motivated by a smoking cessation clinical trial, where a bivariate longitudinal response involving both a continuous and a binomial response was collected for each participant to monitor smoking behavior. A Bayesian method using Markov chain Monte Carlo is used. Comparison of separate univariate response models to the bivariate response models was undertaken. Our methods are demonstrated on the smoking cessation clinical trial dataset, and properties of our approach are examined through extensive simulation studies. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  5. QCD sum rule study of hidden-charm pentaquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Cui, Er-Liang [Beihang University, School of Physics and Beijing Key Laboratory of Advanced Nuclear Materials and Physics, Beijing (China); Chen, Wei; Steele, T.G. [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Peking University, Center of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    We study the mass spectra of hidden-charm pentaquarks having spin J = (1)/(2)/(3)/(2)/(5)/(2) and quark contents uudc anti c. We systematically construct all the relevant local hidden-charm pentaquark currents, and we select some of them to perform QCD sum rule analyses. We find that the P{sub c}(4380) and P{sub c}(4450) can be identified as hidden-charm pentaquark states composed of an anti-charmed meson and a charmed baryon. Besides them, we also find (a) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup -} has the mass 4.33{sup +0.17}{sub -0.13} GeV, while the one of J{sup P} = 1/2{sup +} is significantly higher, that is, around 4.7-4.9 GeV; (b) the lowest-lying hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -} has the mass 4.37{sup +0.18}{sub -0.13} GeV, consistent with the P{sub c}(4380) of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup -}, while the one of J{sup P} = 3/2{sup +} is also significantly higher, that is, above 4.6 GeV; (c) the hidden-charm pentaquark state of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup -} has a mass around 4.5-4.6 GeV, slightly larger than the P{sub c}(4450) of J{sup P} = 5/2{sup +}. (orig.)

  6. A systematic approach to clinical determinations of causation in symptomatic spinal disk injury following motor vehicle crash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Centeno, Christopher J; Kohles, Sean S

    2009-10-01

    Clinical determinations of causation in cases of intervertebral disk (IVD) injury after a motor vehicle crash (MVC) are often disputed in medicolegal settings. No published systematic guidelines exist for making such determinations, which has resulted in infringement by nonclinical personnel into injury causation evaluations, a traditionally clinical activity. The result is causal determinations that are potentially disconnected from clinical observations of injury. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the current literature on causation, causal determinations after trauma and IVD injury after MVC, and to develop a practicable, logical, and literature-based approach to causation determinations of symptomatic IVD injury after MVC. The results of the review indicate IVD injury can result from any MVC regardless of magnitude, thus meeting the first criteria of causation, biologic plausibility. Individual determinations of causation depend entirely on the temporal association between the collision and the symptom onset (the second criterion) and a lack of a more probable explanation for the symptoms (the third). When these causal elements are met, clinicians can assert causation on a "more probable than not" or "reasonable probability" basis. Because of a lack of an established or reliable relationship between collision force and the probability of IVD injury the investigation of collision parameters is not a useful adjunct to causal determinations.

  7. The form of causation in health, disease and intervention: biopsychosocial dispositionalism, conserved quantity transfers and dualist mechanistic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David W; Lucas, Nicholas; Kerry, Roger

    2017-01-25

    Causation is important when considering: how an organism maintains health; why disease arises in a healthy person; and, how one may intervene to change the course of a disease. This paper explores the form of causative relationships in health, disease and intervention, with particular regard to the pathological and biopsychosocial models. Consistent with the philosophical view of dispositionalism, we believe that objects are the fundamental relata of causation. By accepting the broad scope of the biopsychosocial model, we argue that psychological and social constructs be considered objects. We think that this 'biopsychosocial dispositionalism' offers the flexibility required to describe causation throughout health, disease and intervention pathways. When constructing mechanistic chains to describe causative pathways, we argue that an object will causally connect with others through actions; transfers of energy from one object to another, initiated by the manifestation of one or more dispositional property. Finally, our analysis of causative interactions utilises the concept that a common form of interaction exists between disease and intervention pathways. This common form will always be an object, but the mode of interaction will vary with each disease. We describe how intervention may act through objects being shared between converging mechanistic chains, or through the removal and/or insertion of objects in such chains. We believe that this analysis provides novel insight to the forms of causative transactions that can occur. In addition, we hope that the findings of this analysis represent the first step towards developing a framework for appraising the composition of mechanistic theories.

  8. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    KAUST Repository

    Balk, Melike

    2015-03-02

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  9. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: A hidden source of nitrite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike eBalk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests.The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils.

  10. Hidden Markov models for evolution and comparative genomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, Nadezda A; Favorov, Alexander V; Mironov, Andrey A

    2013-01-01

    The problem of reconstruction of ancestral states given a phylogeny and data from extant species arises in a wide range of biological studies. The continuous-time Markov model for the discrete states evolution is generally used for the reconstruction of ancestral states. We modify this model to account for a case when the states of the extant species are uncertain. This situation appears, for example, if the states for extant species are predicted by some program and thus are known only with some level of reliability; it is common for bioinformatics field. The main idea is formulation of the problem as a hidden Markov model on a tree (tree HMM, tHMM), where the basic continuous-time Markov model is expanded with the introduction of emission probabilities of observed data (e.g. prediction scores) for each underlying discrete state. Our tHMM decoding algorithm allows us to predict states at the ancestral nodes as well as to refine states at the leaves on the basis of quantitative comparative genomics. The test on the simulated data shows that the tHMM approach applied to the continuous variable reflecting the probabilities of the states (i.e. prediction score) appears to be more accurate then the reconstruction from the discrete states assignment defined by the best score threshold. We provide examples of applying our model to the evolutionary analysis of N-terminal signal peptides and transcription factor binding sites in bacteria. The program is freely available at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/~nadya/tHMM and via web-service at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/treehmmweb.

  11. Hidden Markov models for evolution and comparative genomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda A Bykova

    Full Text Available The problem of reconstruction of ancestral states given a phylogeny and data from extant species arises in a wide range of biological studies. The continuous-time Markov model for the discrete states evolution is generally used for the reconstruction of ancestral states. We modify this model to account for a case when the states of the extant species are uncertain. This situation appears, for example, if the states for extant species are predicted by some program and thus are known only with some level of reliability; it is common for bioinformatics field. The main idea is formulation of the problem as a hidden Markov model on a tree (tree HMM, tHMM, where the basic continuous-time Markov model is expanded with the introduction of emission probabilities of observed data (e.g. prediction scores for each underlying discrete state. Our tHMM decoding algorithm allows us to predict states at the ancestral nodes as well as to refine states at the leaves on the basis of quantitative comparative genomics. The test on the simulated data shows that the tHMM approach applied to the continuous variable reflecting the probabilities of the states (i.e. prediction score appears to be more accurate then the reconstruction from the discrete states assignment defined by the best score threshold. We provide examples of applying our model to the evolutionary analysis of N-terminal signal peptides and transcription factor binding sites in bacteria. The program is freely available at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/~nadya/tHMM and via web-service at http://bioinf.fbb.msu.ru/treehmmweb.

  12. Image Coding using Markov Models with Hidden States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto

    1999-01-01

    The Cylinder Partially Hidden Markov Model (CPH-MM) is applied to lossless coding of bi-level images. The original CPH-MM is relaxed for the purpose of coding by not imposing stationarity, but otherwise the model description is the same.......The Cylinder Partially Hidden Markov Model (CPH-MM) is applied to lossless coding of bi-level images. The original CPH-MM is relaxed for the purpose of coding by not imposing stationarity, but otherwise the model description is the same....

  13. The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Xia eZhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An interesting phenomenon called hidden opportunity cost of time effect was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS option to the larger but later (LL option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the ‘obvious’ opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals.

  14. Hidden Symmetries of M-Theory and Its Dynamical Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei J. Nurmagambetov

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss hidden symmetries of M-theory, its feedback on the construction of the M-theory effective action, and a response of the effective action when locality is preserved. In particular, the locality of special symmetries of the duality-symmetric linearized gravity constraints the index structure of the dual to graviton field in the same manner as it is required to separate the levels 0 and 1 generators subalgebra from the infinite-dimensional hidden symmetry algebra of gravitational theory. This conclusion fails once matter fields are taken into account and we give arguments for that. We end up outlining current problems and development perspectives.

  15. How to Find a Hidden World at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, James D

    2008-01-01

    I discuss how the Large Hadron Collider era should broaden our view of particle physics research, and apply this thinking to the case of Hidden Worlds. I focus on one of the simplest representative cases of a Hidden World, and detail the rich implications it has for LHC physics, including universal suppression of Higgs boson production, trans-TeV heavy Higgs boson signatures, heavy-to-light Higgs boson decays, weakly coupled exotic gauge bosons, and Higgs boson decays to four fermions via light exotic gauge bosons. Some signatures may be accessible in the very early stages of collider operation, whereas others motivate a later high-lumonosity upgrade.

  16. Hidden Neural Networks: A Framework for HMM/NN Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren Kamaric; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMM) and neural networks (NN). In the new framework called hidden neural networks (HNN) the usual HMM probability parameters are replaced by neural network outputs. To ensure a probabilistic interpretation the HNN...... HMMs on TIMIT continuous speech recognition benchmarks. On the task of recognizing five broad phoneme classes an accuracy of 84% is obtained compared to 76% for a standard HMM. Additionally, we report a preliminary result of 69% accuracy on the TIMIT 39 phoneme task...

  17. Online mixted sampling: An application in hidden populations Muestreo mixto online: Una aplicación en poblaciones ocultas Online mixted sampling: An application in hidden populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tatiana Gorjup

    2012-04-01

    inmigrante argentino y utilizando como fuentes de información los grupos virtuales.Purpose: The objective of the article is to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies and virtual social networks for the recruitment of sampling units in hidden populations and as a support of the use of mixed methods.Design/methodology: The objective was to identify Argentinean entrepreneurs who start their business in Spain. The observation unit has the characteristics of a hidden population: 1 high geographic dispersion which makes it difficult to localize them; 2 underestimation of the size of Argentinean residents in the official statistics; 3 Argentinean residents in illegal situation; and, 4 in some cases, the factors that led the emigration were negative, making them reluctant to answer. In this context, the researchers used (1 an online virtual sampling and, (2 the traditional snowball sampling. The online virtual sampling was carried out by using a social network (Facebook through which 52 virtual groups of ‘Argentinean living in Spain’ were identified. Subsequently, each member was contacted by an individual message which explained the aim of the research and invited them to participate in the study. Findings: Through the development of this study, it was possible to prove that the use of virtual groups in social networks led to detect observation units that are not registered officially (administrative register, census, etc.. This finding contributed to increase the scope and size of the sample, it favoured the design of the qualitative sample and the triangulation of the results. Therefore, it increased the validity of the hidden population.Originality/value: The article presents an experience of application of virtual sampling and mixed methods in the study of hidden populations. In particular, it analysed Argentinean immigrant entrepreneurs by using virtual groups as a source of information.Purpose: The objective of the article is to explore the possibilities

  18. The reliability of serogroup determination in the detection of Escherichia coli as a causative agent of sporadic and epidemic occurrence of enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Valentina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of virulence factors (heat-labile, heat-stable enterotoxin, verotoxin, invasiveness, localized, aggregative and diffuse adherence among E. coli strains isolated from sporadic cases and outbreaks of enterocolitis, which belonged to serogroups characteristic for enteropathogenic E. coli. Serogroup was determined in 57.2% of 622 strains isolated from sporadic cases, and among them virulence factors were detected in 23.6%. Serogroup was also determined in 73.3% of 90 outbreaks isolates tested and virulence factors were detected in 97% of them. The detection rate of virulence factors rarely exceeded 50% among strains belonging to any of serogroup that was determined. The obtained data suggested that the identification of E. coli as a causative agent of enterocolitis by serogroup determination was a reliable method in outbreaks, but not in sporadic cases of this disease.

  19. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  20. B-graph sampling to estimate the size of a hidden population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreen, M.; Bogaerts, S.

    2015-01-01

    Link-tracing designs are often used to estimate the size of hidden populations by utilizing the relational links between their members. A major problem in studies of hidden populations is the lack of a convenient sampling frame. The most frequently applied design in studies of hidden populations is

  1. Deep-hidden anastomoses in monochorionic twin placentae are harmless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P. H. M.; Lopriore, Enrico; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Schaap, Arty H. P.; Vandenbussche, Frank P. H. A.; Deruiter, Marco C.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to identify the clinical consequences of deep-hidden anastomoses that occur underneath the placental surface. METHODS: Twelve placentae that underwent intrauterine laser ablation of placental anastomoses for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and 14 non-TTTS controls

  2. On the hidden maxwell superalgebra underlying D = 4 supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penafiel, D.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy); Ravera, L. [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    In this work, we expand the hidden AdS-Lorentz superalgebra underlying D = 4 supergravity, reaching a (hidden) Maxwell superalgebra. The latter can be viewed as an extension involving cosmological constant of the superalgebra underlying D = 4 supergravity in flat spacetime. We write the Maurer-Cartan equations in this context and we find some interesting extensions of the antisymmetric 3-form A{sup (3)} appearing in the Free Differential Algebra in Minkowski space. The structure of Free Differential Algebras is obtained by considering the zero curvature equations. We write the parametrization of A{sup (3)} in terms of 1-forms and we rend the topological features of its extensions manifest. We interestingly find out that the structure of these extensions, and consequently the structure of the corresponding boundary contribution dA{sup (3)}, strongly depends on the form of the extra fermionic generator appearing in the hidden Maxwell superalgebra. The model we develop in this work is defined in an enlarged superspace with respect to the ordinary one, and the extra bosonic and fermionic 1-forms required for the closure of the hidden Maxwell superalgebra must be considered as physical fields in this enlarged superspace. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  4. Education as Text: The Varieties of Educational Hiddenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David

    1988-01-01

    Using the ideas of Paul Ricoeur and Clifford Geertz, this article develops the notion of education as a "text" and analyzes the "hidden curriculum" of that text as it is read by all members of the society. The hypothesis is proposed that education becomes a text about society's myths and sacred beliefs. (TE)

  5. Is There Hidden Potential for Rural Population Growth in Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedomysl, Thomas; Amcoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rural depopulation is a concern in many countries, and various policy initiatives have been taken to combat such trends. This article examines whether hidden potential for rural population growth can be found in Sweden. If such potential exists, it implies that the development prospects for many rural areas are not as unpromising as they may seem…

  6. A new 'hidden colour hypothesis' in hadron physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new `hidden colour hypothesis' within the framework of QCD, as an extension of and in keeping with the spirit of the `colour singlet hypothesis' is hereby proposed. As such it should play a role in a consistent description of exotic hadrons, such as diquonia, pentaquarks, dibaryons etc. How these exotic hadrons are ...

  7. Zero Hidden Hunger: From Nariño to Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Zero Hidden Hunger: From Nariño to Colombia. Did you know that in Nariño...? • Children under five have twice the nutritional deficiencies in zinc and iron than the rest of the country (ENSIN 2010). • The menus in government meal programmes include yellow potatoes twice a week and white potatoes three times a week.

  8. The hidden agenda of postmodernism and the search for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ideals, to say the least, would only enhance underdevelopment It is in this understanding that I attempt to examine the hidden agenda of postmodernism. Since the prefix, 'post' combines with 'modernism' to produce 'against modernism' or 'after modernism' it will be useful to begin this discussion with the analysis of the ...

  9. Unpacking the Hidden Efficacies of Learning in Productive Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David; Chen, Victor; Lim, Seo Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for learning where learners undergo experimentations with the phenomena at hand according to progressive and staged goals. Bowling is used as a case study in this paper. The premise for experimentations is that learners can experience hidden efficacies, including the formation of "bad habits." A distinction is made…

  10. Thermoelectric generator hidden in a shirt with a fabric radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leonov, V.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Hoof, C.V.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of thermopiles in garments has been performed in this work in different ways. It is shown that textile has a minor effect on power generation, which enables completely hidden and unobtrusive energy harvester. A one-milliwatt thermoelectric generator is then integrated between two layers

  11. On local-hidden-variable no-go theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methot, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    The strongest attack against quantum mechanics came in 1935 in the form of a paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. It was argued that the theory of quantum mechanics could not be called a complete theory of Nature, for every element of reality is not represented in the formalism as such. The authors then put forth a proposition: we must search for a theory where, upon knowing everything about the system, including possible hidden variables, one could make precise predictions concerning elements of reality. This project was ultimately doomed in 1964 with the work of Bell, who showed that the most general local hidden variable theory could not reproduce correlations that arise in quantum mechanics. There exist mainly three forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories. Although almost every physicist knows the consequences of these no-go theorems, not every physicist is aware of the distinctions between the three or even their exact definitions. Thus, we will discuss here the three principal forms of no-go theorems for local hidden variable theories of Nature. We will define Bell theorems, Bell theorems without inequalities, and pseudo-telepathy. A discussion of the similarities and differences will follow.

  12. A novel design of hidden web crawler using ontology

    OpenAIRE

    Manvi,; Bhatia, Komal Kumar; Dixit, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Deep Web is content hidden behind HTML forms. Since it represents a large portion of the structured, unstructured and dynamic data on the Web, accessing Deep-Web content has been a long challenge for the database community. This paper describes a crawler for accessing Deep-Web using Ontologies. Performance evaluation of the proposed work showed that this new approach has promising results.

  13. Discriminative training of self-structuring hidden control neural models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...

  14. Is the Hidden Curriculum a Relevant Issue in Educational Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarroyo Esther

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some ideas about the hidden curriculum as an amount of ideas and beliefs which are implicit in an indirect way into the scholar life. Those ideas are regarding to gender equality, social status and racial difference, among others. We consider teachers are able to integrate the hidden curriculum as a pedagogical strategy in the classroom. Examples of integration include activities such as observation techniques, role-plays, peer modeling and particularly, the portfolio as a useful tool for reflection which reveals the hidden curriculum. Key words: Hidden Curriculum, Pedagogical Strategy, Portfolio, ELT Processes, Stereotypes Este documento explora algunas ideas acerca del currículo oculto como una suma de ideas y creencias que están implícitos de una forma indirecta dentro de la vida escolar. Estas ideas están relacionadas con la equidad de género, diferencias sociales y raciales, entre otros. Consideramos que es posible para los docentes integrar el currículo como estrategia pedagógica en el aula. Ejemplos de esta integración incluyen técnicas de observación, juegos de roles, modelamiento en parejas y particularmente, el portafolio como herramienta de reflexión que permita hacer evidente el currículo oculto. Palabras claves: Currículo Oculto, Estrategia Pedagógica, Estereotipos, Enseñanza de Inglés, Portafolio

  15. Student and Faculty Reflections of the Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, Julia; Mitchell, Christine; Epstein-Peterson, Zachary D; Amobi, Ada; Cahill, Jonathan; Peteet, John; Balboni, Tracy; Balboni, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The hidden curriculum, or the socialization process of medical training, plays a crucial role in the development of physicians, as they navigate the clinical learning environment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine medical faculty and students' perceptions of psychological, moral, and spiritual challenges during medical training in caring for critically ill patients. Focus groups were conducted with 25 Harvard Medical School (HMS) students, and interviews were conducted with 8 HMS faculty members. Five major themes emerged as important in shaping students' medical training experiences. First, students and faculty discussed the overall significance of the hidden curriculum in terms of the hierarchy of medicine, behavioral modeling, and the value placed on research versus clinical work. Second, respondents articulated values modeled in medicine. Third, students and faculty reflected on changes in student development during their training, particularly in terms of changes in empathy and compassion. Fourth, respondents discussed challenges faced in medical school including professional clinical education and the psychosocial aspects of medical training. Finally, students and faculty articulated a number of coping mechanisms to mitigate these challenges including reflection, prayer, repression, support systems, creative outlets, exercise, and separation from one's work. The results from this study suggest the significance of the hidden curriculum on medical students throughout their training, as they learn to navigate challenging and emotional experiences. Furthermore, these results emphasize an increased focus toward the effect of the hidden curriculum on students' development in medical school, particularly noting the ways in which self-reflection may benefit students.

  16. Student portfolios and the hidden curriculum on gender: mapping exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B

    2009-09-01

    The hidden curriculum - the norms, values and practices that are transmitted to students through modelling by preceptors and teachers, and decisions about curricular exclusions and inclusions - can be profoundly important in the socialising of trainee doctors. However, tracking the hidden curriculum as it evolves can be challenging for medical schools. This study aimed to explore the content of student e-portfolios on gender issues, a key perspective often taught through a hidden curriculum. Online posts for a gender and medicine e-portfolio task completed by two cohorts of students in Year 3 of a 4-year medical course (n = 167, 66% female) were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A process of gendered 'othering' was applied to both men and women in the medical school using different pedagogical strategies. Curricular emphases on women's health and lack of support for male students to acquire gynaecological examination skills were seen as explicit ways of excluding males. For female medical students, exclusion tended to be implicit, operating through modelling and aphoristic comments about so-called 'female-friendly' career choices and the negative impact of motherhood on career. E-portfolios can be a useful way of tracking the hidden curriculum as it evolves. Responses to gendered exclusion may be developed more readily for the explicit processes impacting on male students than for the implicit processes impacting on female students, which often reflect structural issues related to training and employment.

  17. Resources of learning through hidden curriculum: Iranian nursing students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zohreh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abedi, Heidarali; Zarea, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Students tend to internalize and perpetuate the patterns of behavior and the values surrounding them. Review of literature showed that there are several student learning sources through the hidden curriculum, but they have not been identified in nursing yet. Hence, the purpose of this study is explanation of learning resources in the hidden curriculum in the view of baccalaureate nursing students. This qualitative study was carried out in 2012 with the participation of 32 baccalaureate nursing students in Nursing and Midwifery College of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran by purposeful sampling strategies. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and continued to the level of data saturation and themes' emergence. Data analysis was performed through inductive content analysis method. "Instructor as the unique learning element," "various learning resources in the clinical setting," and "instructive nature of the education environment" were extracted as the main themes, each of which incorporated some categories. Baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students learnt the hidden curriculum by the resources such as instructors, resources existing in the clinical setting, and the university campus. Therefore, more research is recommended for the identification of other resources. In order to promote positive messages and reduce the negative messages of the hidden curricula running at academic and clinical settings, nursing educators and nurses need to learn more about this issue in the nursing profession.

  18. The Hidden Curriculum of Performance-Based Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert-Ariev, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objective/Research question/Focus of study: This study describes and analyzes the student and faculty experiences of a "performance-based" preservice teacher education program at a large comprehensive university in the mid-Atlantic region. The aim is to understand the "hidden" curricular messages within the program and the ways that these…

  19. Doing School Time: The Hidden Curriculum Goes to Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, José; De Lissovoy, Noah

    2013-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is generally understood as the process by which daily exposure to school expectations and routines transmits norms and values of the dominant society to students. In the present, through the regimentation of thought, control of bodies and movement, and proliferation of punishment, contemporary accountability and testing…

  20. From epistemology to hidden curriculum: Critical vs. 'commercial' pedagogic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojević Jovana C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge or, more precisely, its power is one of central themes in critical pedagogy. Since they are interested in school as the site of social critique, aimed at social transformations, critically oriented pedagogues pay special attention to the relation of knowledge and power or, to simplify it, the function of knowledge in the reproduction of the existing (often oppressive social relations. Not recognizing school as a mere site of social, economic or cultural preservation, they often study epistemology on which modern school is founded (positivistic epistemology and its hidden curriculum who function so that they legitimate social reproductive function of the school in a continuous cycle of self-justification. Since a certain understanding of knowledge and its function reveals the hidden curriculum of a certain educational philosophy, and since this consequently changes school into a site of social transformation or social transmission, viewed from the critical position this is the subject of the analysis of our paper. By final sublimation and contrasting the opposite positivistic and critical positions we conclude that the hidden curriculum of the first is the curriculum of the soliloquies while the curriculum of the second, critical tendency is entirely of a dialogue nature. It is clear that uni-directedness of the hidden curriculum formed according the postulates of positivistic epistemology can contribute only to positivistic transmission and regeneration of the existing social order, while the discursivity of critically oriented school defines the relation towards society as two-way, transformational, active and emancipatory.

  1. Resources of learning through hidden curriculum: Iranian nursing students’ perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zohreh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Abedi, Heidarali; Zarea, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students tend to internalize and perpetuate the patterns of behavior and the values surrounding them. Review of literature showed that there are several student learning sources through the hidden curriculum, but they have not been identified in nursing yet. Hence, the purpose of this study is explanation of learning resources in the hidden curriculum in the view of baccalaureate nursing students. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was carried out in 2012 with the participation of 32 baccalaureate nursing students in Nursing and Midwifery College of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran by purposeful sampling strategies. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and continued to the level of data saturation and themes’ emergence. Data analysis was performed through inductive content analysis method. Result: “Instructor as the unique learning element,” “various learning resources in the clinical setting,” and “instructive nature of the education environment” were extracted as the main themes, each of which incorporated some categories. Conclusion: Baccalaureate undergraduate nursing students learnt the hidden curriculum by the resources such as instructors, resources existing in the clinical setting, and the university campus. Therefore, more research is recommended for the identification of other resources. In order to promote positive messages and reduce the negative messages of the hidden curricula running at academic and clinical settings, nursing educators and nurses need to learn more about this issue in the nursing profession. PMID:26430684

  2. Hidden Mathematics Curriculum of Teacher Education: An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the author's experience in teaching courses in mathematics content and methods in teacher preparation programs. It shows how technology-enhanced inquiry into a seemingly mundane task on situated addition found in a popular textbook for prospective elementary teachers, can reveal hidden properties of integers associated…

  3. The Hidden Curriculum of Youth Policy: A Dutch Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314013377; De Winter, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072153849; Koops, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069037744

    2014-01-01

    Youth policy is more than a mere response to the actual behavior of children, but it is equally influenced by values and beliefs of policy makers. These values are however rarely made explicit and, therefore, the authors refer to them as “the hidden curriculum” of youth policy. The study

  4. Psychosocial aspects of PKU: hidden disabilities - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentile, J. K.; ten Hoedt, A. E.; Bosch, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism, and its detrimental effects on neurocognitive functioning have been well studied. Early detection and treatment of PKU prevent the severe consequences of this disorder. However, even early- and well-treated patients experience hidden

  5. Discovering the Hidden Treasures of Physical Best and Fitnessgram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patti

    2011-01-01

    Physical Best and Fitnessgram have a 25-year history, yet many physical educators have yet to be exposed to their full potential. Exploring the Physical Best Activity Guide worksheets and the "Reports" section of Fitnessgram is like finding buried treasure in one's own back yard. These hidden treasures can help physical educators incorporate the…

  6. K­MEANS CLUSTERING FOR HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrone, M.P.; Connell, S.D.

    2004-01-01

    An unsupervised k­means clustering algorithm for hidden Markov models is described and applied to the task of generating subclass models for individual handwritten character classes. The algorithm is compared to a related clustering method and shown to give a relative change in the error rate of as

  7. Hidden Item Variance in Multiple Mini-Interview Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki L.; Swoboda, Christopher M.; Kelcey, Benjamin M.; Manuel, R. Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The extant literature has largely ignored a potentially significant source of variance in multiple mini-interview (MMI) scores by "hiding" the variance attributable to the sample of attributes used on an evaluation form. This potential source of hidden variance can be defined as rating items, which typically comprise an MMI evaluation…

  8. Hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzentsov, Vadim b

    1996-01-01

    The hidden symmetry of the quantum Calogero-Moser system with an inverse-square potential is algebraically demonstrated making use of Dunkl's operators. We find the underlying algebra explaining the super-integrability phenomenon for this system. Applications to related multi-variable Bessel...

  9. Mapping hidden wall structures by quantitative IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosina, Elisabetta; Grinzato, Ermanno G.; Robison, Elwin C.

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of an historic monument can be substantially improved by locating hidden structures, openings and the wall bonding beneath the plaster. When restoring buildings, the physical connection between the walls must be known in order to predict the risk areas for structural weakness. IR Thermography produces remarkable results, especially by means of the quantitative approach. The temperature pattern detected by thermography and analyzed in space and time maps the hidden structure of the wall. Thick walls exposed to the weather represent a challenge in detecting hidden structures by means of thermography. Frequently output is very poor because testing conditions are not optimized. Hence, appropriate testing requires careful analysis of the wall system before and after taking the thermograms. Otherwise, false alarms render the images useless. This paper describes a general procedure applied to see the hidden wall structure. It works in three steps: a) a mathematical simulation of the real test by a dedicated software, implementing the 3D thermal problem; b) a transient thermographic test, delivering a suitable heating flux on the surface for the proper time; c) processing test data, including a thermogram sequence and air temperature analysis. Here, are reported tests achieved on a XV-XVIIth century Palace at Cremona (Italy; in the Westcott House in Springfield (OH).

  10. Multistability and hidden attractors in a relay system with hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Rubanov, Vasily G.

    2015-01-01

    of the supply voltage. By investigating a four-dimensional model of the experimental relay system we finally show how a variety of hidden periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic attractors arise, transform and disappear through different bifurcations. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. Optimal Number of States in Hidden Markov Models and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... then trained to construct several Hidden Markov models for the two people. The problem is to get a good representation of the data in terms of the number of states of the HMM. Standard general methods used for training pose some drawbacks i.e. the computational burden and initialisation process for the model estimate.

  12. Recognizing Strokes in Tennis Videos Using Hidden Markov Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, Willem; Zivkovic, Z.

    This paper addresses content-based video retrieval with an emphasis on recognizing events in tennis game videos. In particular, we aim at recognizing different classes of tennis strokes using automatic learning capability of Hidden Markov Models. Driven by our domain knowledge, a robust player

  13. Simple yet Hidden Counterexamples in Undergraduate Real Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Barbara A.; Shipman, Patrick D.

    2013-01-01

    We study situations in introductory analysis in which students affirmed false statements as true, despite simple counterexamples that they easily recognized afterwards. The study draws attention to how simple counterexamples can become hidden in plain sight, even in an active learning atmosphere where students proposed simple (as well as more…

  14. Searching for a hidden sector in multiparticle production at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchis-Lozano Miguel-Angel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A hidden sector beyond the Standard Model can show up in multiparticle production altering inclusive correlations and factorial cumulants of multiplicity distributions. In this report such a study is advocated with a special emphasis on the searches at LHC.

  15. Exposing the Hidden-Web Induced by Ajax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.

    2008-01-01

    AJAX is a very promising approach for improving rich interactivity and responsiveness of web applications. At the same time, AJAX techniques increase the totality of the hidden web by shattering the metaphor of a web ‘page’ upon which general search engines are based. This paper describes a

  16. The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I discuss in detail the result that the Bell's inequalities derived in the context of local hidden variable theories for discrete quantized observables can be satisfied only if a fundamental conservation law is violated on the average. This result shows that such theories are physically nonviable, and makes the demarcating criteria ...

  17. The incompatibility between local hidden variable theories and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I discuss in detail the result that the Bell's inequalities derived in the context of local hidden variable theories for discrete quantized observables can be satisfied only if a fundamental conservation law is violated on the average. This result shows that such theories are physically nonviable, and makes the ...

  18. The Hidden Costs of Outdoor Education/Recreation Academic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Christian

    Academic training programs in the field of outdoor education and recreation have increased considerably in the past few decades, but their true costs are often hidden. A survey of 15 outdoor college programs in the United States and Canada examined special fees associated with outdoor courses. The cost of necessary personal equipment and clothing…

  19. Hidden Markov Models for Protein Domain Homology Identification and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Protein domain identification and analysis are cornerstones of modern proteomics. The tools available to protein domain researchers avail a variety of approaches to understanding large protein domain families. Hidden Markov Models (HMM) form the basis for identifying and categorizing evolutionarily linked protein domains. Here I describe the use of HMM models for predicting and identifying Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the proteome.

  20. Evaluating the Security Risks of System Using Hidden Markov Models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the Security Risks of System Using Hidden Markov Models. ... tool to an existing multifactor authentication model. The results of the analysis and the empirical study provide insights into the authentication model design problem and establish a foundation for future research in system authentication application.

  1. A Bayesian Infinite Hidden Markov Vector Autoregressive Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Nibbering (Didier); R. Paap (Richard); M. van der Wel (Michel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a Bayesian infinite hidden Markov model to estimate time-varying parameters in a vector autoregressive model. The Markov structure allows for heterogeneity over time while accounting for state-persistence. By modelling the transition distribution as a Dirichlet process mixture

  2. A Constraint Model for Constrained Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Lassen, Ole Torp

    2009-01-01

    A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is a common statistical model which is widely used for analysis of biological sequence data and other sequential phenomena. In the present paper we extend HMMs with constraints and show how the familiar Viterbi algorithm can be generalized, based on constraint solving...

  3. Geolocating fish using Hidden Markov Models and Data Storage Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Pedersen, Martin Wæver; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Geolocation of fish based on data from archival tags typically requires a statistical analysis to reduce the effect of measurement errors. In this paper we present a novel technique for this analysis, one based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM's). We assume that the actual path of the fish is generated...

  4. The College Completion Puzzle: A Hidden Markov Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Dirk; Attewell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Higher education in America is characterized by widespread access to college but low rates of completion, especially among undergraduates at less selective institutions. We analyze longitudinal transcript data to examine processes leading to graduation, using Hidden Markov modeling. We identify several latent states that are associated with…

  5. New Caledonian crows reason about hidden causal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex H; Miller, Rachael; Gray, Russell D

    2012-10-02

    The ability to make inferences about hidden causal mechanisms underpins scientific and religious thought. It also facilitates the understanding of social interactions and the production of sophisticated tool-using behaviors. However, although animals can reason about the outcomes of accidental interventions, only humans have been shown to make inferences about hidden causal mechanisms. Here, we show that tool-making New Caledonian crows react differently to an observable event when it is caused by a hidden causal agent. Eight crows watched two series of events in which a stick moved. In the first set of events, the crows observed a human enter a hide, a stick move, and the human then leave the hide. In the second, the stick moved without a human entering or exiting the hide. The crows inspected the hide and abandoned probing with a tool for food more often after the second, unexplained series of events. This difference shows that the crows can reason about a hidden causal agent. Comparative studies with the methodology outlined here could aid in elucidating the selective pressures that led to the evolution of this cognitive ability.

  6. Hunting for exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop a moment QCD sum rule method augmented by fundamental inequalities to study the existence of exotic doubly hidden-charm/bottom tetraquark states made of four heavy quarks. Using the compact diquark–antidiquark configuration, we calculate the mass spectra of these tetraquark states. There are 18 hidden-charm ccc¯c¯ tetraquark currents with JPC=0++, 0−+, 0−−, 1++, 1+−, 1−+, 1−−, and 2++. We use them to perform QCD sum rule analyses, and the obtained masses are all higher than the spontaneous dissociation thresholds of two charmonium mesons, which are thus their dominant decay modes. The masses of the corresponding hidden-bottom bbb¯b¯ tetraquarks are all below or very close to the thresholds of the ϒ(1Sϒ(1S and ηb(1Sηb(1S, except one current of JPC=0++. Hence, we suggest to search for the doubly hidden-charm states in the J/ψJ/ψ and ηc(1Sηc(1S channels.

  7. Proposal for Observation of a Hidden Nuclear Population Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agee, F. J. [Air Force Office of Scientific Research, NE (United States); Carroll, J. J. [Youngstown State University, Center for Photon-Induced Processes (United States); Rivlin, L. A. [MIREA Technical University (Russian Federation); Vuletic, V. [Stanford University, Varian Building (United States)

    2002-11-15

    Observation of a hidden nuclear population inversion, as a precursive experimental proof of the concept of recoil-assisted gamma-ray lasing, can be accomplished by pure optical methods due to spectral shift of atomic transitions. This paper presents numerical estimates and a proposal for such a proof-of-principle experiment.

  8. Signature verification: A comprehensive study of the hidden signature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putz-Leszczyńska Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many handwritten signature verification algorithms have been developed in order to distinguish between genuine signatures and forgeries. An important group of these methods is based on dynamic time warping (DTW. Traditional use of DTW for signature verification consists in forming a misalignment score between the verified signature and a set of template signatures. The right selection of template signatures has a big impact on that verification. In this article, we describe our proposition for replacing the template signatures with the hidden signature-an artificial signature which is created by minimizing the mean misalignment between itself and the signatures from the enrollment set. We present a few hidden signature estimation methods together with their comprehensive comparison. The hidden signature opens a number of new possibilities for signature analysis. We apply statistical properties of the hidden signature to normalize the error signal of the verified signature and to use the misalignment on the normalized errors as a verification basis. A result, we achieve satisfying error rates that allow creating an on-line system, ready for operating in a real-world environment

  9. [Study of sensitivity of laboratory animals to a causative agent of argentine hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromiatnikova, S I; Pantiukhov, V B; Shatokhina, I V; Timofeev, M A; Sizikova, T E; Borisevich, S V

    2014-01-01

    Study sensitivity of laboratory animals to a causative agent ofArgentine hemorrhagic fever. Junin virus strain XJ P37 was obtained from the State Collection of Causative Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers of the Pathogenicity Group I of Scientific Research Center of the 33rd Central Scientific Research Test Institute (SRC of the 33rd CSRTI). Junin virus strain XJ P37 culture with biological activity of 5.2 1g PFU x ml was used in the experiments. Mice (2 - 4 and 7 - 14 days old), guinea pigs (250 - 300 g), 1.8 - 2.5 kg shinshilla breed rabbits, 2.0 - 3.0 kg javanese macaque monkeys were obtained from vivarium of the SRC of the 33rd CSRTI. Vero (B) and GMK-AH-1 (D) cell cultures were obtained from cell culture collection of the SRC of the 33rd CSRTI. Biological activity calculation of Junin virus was carried out by Kerber in I.P. Amsharin modification. Lethality in animals was from 12.5 to 50% after intranasal and intraperitoneal infection of guinea pigs, intramuscular, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous infection of rabbits, intracerebral and intranasal infection of mice at the doses from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10(5) PFU. Death of infected monkeys after intramuscular administration of the virus at 1.0 x 10(4) PFU dose was not observed. In 100% of surviving animals formation of virus-neutralizing antibodies was registered. Evaluation of sensitivity of laboratory animals to Junin virus has shown that intracerebrally infected mice may be used to maintain causative agent culture, infected guinea pigs - to prepare virus-containing cultures and modelling infection exacerbation in humans. Intramuscularly infected rabbits may be used to obtain hyper-immune sera.

  10. [Intrahospital mortality after discharge from the ICU (hidden mortality) in patients who required mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Federico; Núñez, Antonio; Calvo, Enrique; Algora, Alejandro

    2003-09-06

    Our goal was to determine the hidden mortality (HM) in patients who underwent an episode of mechanical ventilation (MV). We also analyzed the factors associated with an increase in the risk of hidden mortality. Prospective cohort study. Patients admitted to an ICU who required MV and who were monitored until their discharge from hospital. We performed a multivariate study with a logistic regression model including all the variables that were present in a univariate analysis p 74 years 1.15 (1.01 to 1.26) (p = 0.02); APACHE II > 29 1.14 (1.01 to 1.27) (p = 0.04); reason for MV being coma 1.21 (1.07 to 1.37) (p = 0.002); reason for MV being cardiopulmonary arrest 1.28 (1.18 to 1.68) (p < 0.001); tracheotomy in ICU 1.31 (1.19 to 1.68) (p < 0.001) and stay in the ICU longer than 16 days 1.35 (1.01 to1.70) (p = 0.04). An important number of patients discharged from the ICU after an episode of MV die in hospital. Risk factors associated with an increased risk of death in hospital identify a group of patients who, after excluding those with non-cardiopulmonary resuscitation orders, would possibly benefit from high surveillance or intermediate care units.

  11. Text-analytic Measurement of Effectuation and Causation Orientations among Small and Global Business Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Helmersson, Helge

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate how one can measure overall quality in texts gathered from interviews by means of PERTEX text analytic method. We compare text analytic measures and content for locally active Scandinavian small business managers and globally operating Indian IT managers when recapitulating......-components we are also able to display the degree of fragmentation, focus and integration in the text. We show how AFFI measures differ between managers with a causation or effectuation orientation irrespective of their role as small business manager or as an established global manager. Hence, we posit...

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF HOLMIUM TO CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF SUPPURATIVE -INFLAMMATORY COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubnaya H. N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Article denotes to determination of antibacterial action of polyoxometalate holmium to causative agents of suppurative-inflammatory process in wounds of patients, which were suffered from trauma. Method of serial dilutions was used for determination of minimal inhibiting concentration (MIC of holmium to staphylococci, enterococci and E. coli. Registration of holmium action shows the strong antibacterial influence to staphylococci and enterococci (MIC of holmium action to staphylococcal and enterococcal strains same 1 10 M, to strains of E.coli – 2,5 10 M. Solutions of holmium don’t have antibacterial action to strains of E.coli.

  13. First Draft Genome Sequence of the Dourine Causative Agent: Trypanosoma Equiperdum Strain OVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Madeline, Anthony; Steinbiss, Sascha; Lakhdar, Latifa; Van Reet, Nick; Büscher, Philippe; Laugier, Claire; Cauchard, Julien; Petry, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum is the causative agent of dourine, a sexually-transmitted infection of horses. This parasite belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon that also includes the agent of sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and surra (Trypanosoma evansi). We herein report the genome sequence of a T. equiperdum strain OVI, isolated from a horse in South-Africa in 1976. This is the first genome sequence of the T. equiperdum species, and its availability will provide important insights for future studies on genetic classification of the subgenus Trypanozoon. PMID:28138343

  14. First Draft Genome Sequence of the Dourine Causative Agent:Trypanosoma EquiperdumStrain OVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Madeline, Anthony; Steinbiss, Sascha; Lakhdar, Latifa; Van Reet, Nick; Büscher, Philippe; Laugier, Claire; Cauchard, Julien; Petry, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum is the causative agent of dourine, a sexually-transmitted infection of horses. This parasite belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon that also includes the agent of sleeping sickness ( Trypanosoma brucei ) and surra ( Trypanosoma evansi ). We herein report the genome sequence of a T. equiperdum strain OVI, isolated from a horse in South-Africa in 1976. This is the first genome sequence of the T. equiperdum species, and its availability will provide important insights for future studies on genetic classification of the subgenus Trypanozoon.

  15. Nocardia harenae, an uncommon causative organism of mycetoma: report on two patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresch-Tronik, Nicole S; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Arenas, Roberto; Atoche, Carlos; Ochoa-Carrera, Luis A; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Manjarrez-Hernández, Angel H; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2012-08-01

    Mycetoma is the most frequently diagnosed deep mycosis in Mexico and is caused, in 86% of cases, by Nocardia brasiliensis. Worldwide, Nocardia harenae has not been previously reported as a causative agent of human mycetoma. Herein we report, to our knowledge, the first two human cases of mycetoma due to N. harenae in a clinical setting. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular techniques. Both cases were characterized by long-lasting mycetoma that had previously been failed to be cured and had shown resistance to therapy. However, in our hospital, a multidrug therapy proved to be effective in these cases.

  16. Odds of Hospitalization Among Marine Corps Personnel by Military Occupational Specialty and Causative Agends During OEF and OIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    OEF and OIF N. N. Gronroos J. M. Zouris A. L. Wade Report No. 08-29 . Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited...Specialty and Causative Agents During OEF and OIF Noelle N. Gronroos , MA * † ; James M. Zouris, BS † ; Amber L. Wade, MPH † ABSTRACT...Military Occupational Specialty and Causative Agends During OEF and OIF 6. AUTHORS Noelle Gronroos , James M. Zouris, Amber L. Wade 5a. Contract

  17. A hidden Ising model for ChIP-chip data analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Mo, Q.

    2010-01-28

    Motivation: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with tiling microarray (chip) experiments have been used in a wide range of biological studies such as identification of transcription factor binding sites and investigation of DNA methylation and histone modification. Hidden Markov models are widely used to model the spatial dependency of ChIP-chip data. However, parameter estimation for these models is typically either heuristic or suboptimal, leading to inconsistencies in their applications. To overcome this limitation and to develop an efficient software, we propose a hidden ferromagnetic Ising model for ChIP-chip data analysis. Results: We have developed a simple, but powerful Bayesian hierarchical model for ChIP-chip data via a hidden Ising model. Metropolis within Gibbs sampling algorithm is used to simulate from the posterior distribution of the model parameters. The proposed model naturally incorporates the spatial dependency of the data, and can be used to analyze data with various genomic resolutions and sample sizes. We illustrate the method using three publicly available datasets and various simulated datasets, and compare it with three closely related methods, namely TileMap HMM, tileHMM and BAC. We find that our method performs as well as TileMap HMM and BAC for the high-resolution data from Affymetrix platform, but significantly outperforms the other three methods for the low-resolution data from Agilent platform. Compared with the BAC method which also involves MCMC simulations, our method is computationally much more efficient. Availability: A software called iChip is freely available at http://www.bioconductor.org/. Contact: moq@mskcc.org. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

  18. Learning about gender on campus: an analysis of the hidden curriculum for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ling-Fang; Yang, Hsing-Chen

    2015-03-01

    Gender sensitivity is a crucial factor in the provision of quality health care. This paper explores acquired gendered values and attitudes among medical students through an analysis of the hidden curriculum that exists within formal medical classes and informal learning. Discourse analysis was adopted as the research method. Data were collected from the Bulletin Board System (BBS), which represented an essential communication platform among students in Taiwan before the era of Facebook. The study examined 197 gender-related postings on the BBS boards of nine of 11 universities with a medical department in Taiwan, over a period of 10 years from 2000 to 2010. The five distinctive characteristics of the hidden curriculum were as follows: (i) gendered stereotypes of physiological knowledge; (ii) biased treatment of women; (iii) stereotyped gender-based division of labour; (iv) sexual harassment and a hostile environment, and (v) ridiculing of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people. Both teachers and students co-produced a heterosexual masculine culture and sexism, including 'benevolent sexism' and 'hostile sexism'. As a result, the self-esteem and learning opportunities of female and LGBT students have been eroded. The paper explores gender dynamics in the context of a hidden curriculum in which heterosexual masculinity and stereotyped sexism are prevalent as norms. Both teachers and students, whether through formal medical classes or informal extracurricular interactive activities, are noted to contribute to the consolidation of such norms. The study tentatively suggests three strategies for integrating gender into medical education: (i) by separating physiological knowledge from gender stereotyping in teaching; (ii) by highlighting the importance of gender sensitivity in the language used within and outside the classroom by teachers and students, and (iii) by broadening the horizons of both teachers and students by recounting examples of the lived

  19. How are information seeking, scanning, and processing related to beliefs about the roles of genetics and behavior in cancer causation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A.; Wheeler, Courtney; Hamilton, Jada G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding that cancer is caused by both genetic and behavioral risk factors is an important component of genomic literacy. However, a considerable percentage of people in the U.S. do not endorse such multifactorial beliefs. Methods Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (N=2,529), we examined how information seeking, information scanning, and key information processing characteristics were associated with endorsing a multifactorial model of cancer causation. Results Multifactorial beliefs about cancer were more common among respondents who engaged in cancer information scanning (p=.001), were motivated to process health information (p=.005), and who reported a family history of cancer (p=.0002). Respondents who reported having previous negative information seeking experiences had lower odds of endorsing multifactorial beliefs (p=.01). Multifactorial beliefs were not associated with cancer information seeking, trusting cancer information obtained from the Internet, trusting cancer information from a physician, self-efficacy for obtaining cancer information, numeracy, or being aware of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (ps>.05). Conclusion Gaining additional understanding of how people access, process, and use health information will be critical for the continued development and dissemination of effective health communication interventions and for the further translation of genomics research to public health and clinical practice. PMID:27661291

  20. Hidden photons in beam dump experiments and in connection with dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-12-15

    Hidden sectors with light extra U(1) gauge bosons, so-called hidden photons, recently received much interest as natural feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and because of their possible connection to dark matter. This paper presents limits on hidden photons from past electron beam dump experiments including two new limits from experiments at KEK and Orsay. Additionally, various hidden sector models containing both a hidden photon and a dark matter candidate are discussed with respect to their viability and potential signatures in direct detection.

  1. Through the Veil of Language: Exploring the Hidden Curriculum for the Care of Patients With Limited English Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenison, Tiffany C; Madu, Andrea; Krupat, Edward; Ticona, Luis; Vargas, Iris M; Green, Alexander R

    2017-01-01

    Patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) experience lower-quality health care and are at higher risk of experiencing adverse events than fluent English speakers. Despite some formal training for health professions students on caring for patients with LEP, the hidden curriculum may have a greater influence on learning. The authors designed this study to characterize the hidden curriculum that medical and nursing students experience regarding the care of patients with LEP. In 2014, the authors invited students from one medical school and one nursing school, who had completed an interprofessional pilot curriculum on caring for patients with LEP 6 to 10 months earlier, to participate in semistructured interviews about their clinical training experiences with LEP patients. The authors independently coded the interview transcripts, compared them for agreement, and performed content analysis to identify major themes. Thirteen students (7 medical and 6 nursing students) participated. Four major themes emerged: role modeling, systems factors, learning environment, and organizational culture. All 13 students described negative role modeling experiences, and most described role modeling that the authors coded as "indifferent." Students felt that the current system and learning environment did not support or emphasize high-quality care for patients with LEP. The hidden curriculum that health professional students experience regarding the care of patients with LEP is influenced by systems limitations and a learning environment and organizational culture that value efficiency over effective communication. Role modeling seems strongly linked to these factors as supervisors struggle with these same challenges.

  2. Stepping towards causation: do built environments or neighborhood and travel preferences explain physical activity, driving, and obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Saelens, Brian E; Powell, Ken E; Chapman, James E

    2007-11-01

    Evidence documents associations between neighborhood design and active and sedentary forms of travel. Most studies compare travel patterns for people located in different types of neighborhoods at one point in time adjusting for demographics. Most fail to account for either underlying neighborhood selection factors (reasons for choosing a neighborhood) or preferences (neighborhoods that are preferred) that impact neighborhood selection and behavior. Known as self-selection, this issue makes it difficult to evaluate causation among built form, behavior, and associated outcomes and to know how much more walking and less driving could occur through creating environments conducive to active transport. The current study controls for neighborhood selection and preference and isolates the effect of the built environment on walking, car use, and obesity. Separate analyses were conducted among 2056 persons in the Atlanta, USA based Strategies for Metropolitan Atlanta's Regional Transportation and Air Quality (SMARTRAQ) travel survey on selection factors and 1466 persons in the SMARTRAQ community preference sub-survey. A significant proportion of the population are "mismatched" and do not live in their preferred neighborhood type. Factors influencing neighborhood selection and individual preferences, and current neighborhood walkability explained vehicle travel distance after controlling for demographic variables. Individuals who preferred and lived in a walkable neighborhood walked most (33.9% walked) and drove 25.8 miles per day on average. Individuals that preferred and lived in car dependent neighborhoods drove the most (43 miles per day) and walked the least (3.3%). Individuals that do not prefer a walkable environment walked little and show no change in obesity prevalence regardless of where they live. About half as many participants were obese (11.7%) who prefer and live in walkable environments than participants who prefer car dependent environments (21.6%). Findings

  3. Assessing statistical views of natural selection: Room for non-local causation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneman, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Recently some philosophers (the "statisticalists") have emphasized a potentially irreconcilable conceptual antagonism between the statistical characterization of natural selection (derived from population genetics) and the standard scientific discussion of natural selection in terms of forces and causes. Other philosophers have developed an account of the causal character of selectionist statements represented in terms of counterfactuals. I examine the compatibility between such statisticalism and counterfactually based causal accounts of natural selection (and related arguments about counterfactuals and causality) by distinguishing two distinct statisticalist claims: firstly the suggested impossibility for natural selection to be a cause acting upon populations and secondly the conceptualization that all evolutionary causes occur at the level of interactions between individual organisms. I argue that deriving the latter from the former involves supplementary assumptions concerning precisely what causation is. I critically examine two of these assumptions purportedly preventing natural selection being regarded as a cause: the locality claim and the modularity claim. I conclude that justifying the strongest version of statisticalism-i.e. evolutionary causation only occurs at the level of individual interactions between organisms-would require further metaphysical arguments that are likely to be deemed highly problematic. Additionally, I argue that such a metaphysical position would be considered incongruous with both our scientific and ordinary use of the concepts of causality and explanation as employed within our everyday epistemological framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social mobility and psychiatric disabilities: an assessment of the social causation and social selection hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Uk; Han, Chang-Wan; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families and groups from one social position to another. Researchers indicate that people with psychiatric disabilities tend to come from lower socioeconomic status groups, and that the causal relationship between lower socioeconomic status and mental illness occurs through social mobility process. The purpose of this study was to examine the occupational social mobility process of a sample of self-identified psychiatrically disabled individuals who have been active members of the labor force for most of their adult lives. A total of 200 participants were recruited from the customers of a One-Stop Career Center in Gloucester County, New Jersey. The social mobility pattern of persons with psychiatric disabilities was compared to that of persons without psychiatric disabilities (n = 100 for each group). That is, the social selection and the social causation hypotheses were applied to the social mobility patterns of people with psychiatric disabilities. It was revealed that the social class distribution for fathers of people with psychiatric disabilities was not different from that of people without psychiatric disabilities and also there was no significant social mobility difference between the two groups. These findings do not support the social causation and the social selection hypotheses. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that occupational capabilities and skills of people with psychiatric disabilities have been stabilized and are similar to those of people without psychiatric disabilities. Furthermore, these results may dispute several biases and prejudices with regard to social mobility process of persons with psychiatric disabilities.

  5. Attribution of intentional causation influences the perception of observed movements: Behavioural evidence and neural correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on human agency suggests that intentional causation is associated with a subjective compression in the temporal interval between actions and their effects. That is, intentional movements and their causal effects are perceived as closer together in time than equivalent unintentional movements and their causal effects. This so-called intentional binding effect is consistently found for one’s own self-generated actions. It has also been suggested that intentional binding occurs when observing intentional movements of others. However, this evidence is undermined by limitations of the paradigm used. In the current study we aimed to overcome these limitations using a more rigorous design in combination with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI to explore the neural underpinnings of intentional binding of observed movements. In particular, we aimed to identify brain areas sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causality attributed to the observed action. Our behavioural results confirmed the occurrence of intentional binding for observed movements using this more rigorous paradigm. Our fMRI results highlighted a collection of brain regions whose activity was sensitive to the interaction between intentionality and causation. Intriguingly, these brain regions have previously been implicated in the sense of agency over one’s own movements. We discuss the implications of these results for intentional binding specifically, and the sense of agency more generally.

  6. Cow's milk exposure and asthma in a newborn cohort: repeated ascertainment indicates reverse causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussman, Chris; Todem, David; Forster, Johannes; Arshad, Hassan; Urbanek, Radvan; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2007-03-01

    The effect of cow's milk consumption on childhood asthma has been debated for several years. This study attempts to provide further insight into this association through the use of a longitudinal study design. Newborns from parents with atopic history were recruited from Germany, Austria, and England (n = 696). For five repeated ascertainments, information was collected on cow's milk exposure, incidence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, and confounders. Generalized estimation equations, incorporating different models (concurrent, delayed, combined, and reverse causation), were used to determine this association. No association between cow's milk consumption and childhood asthma was found for the concurrent effects model (OR = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55, 1.20). In the delayed effects model, the direction of the association varied with time of follow-up. Thus, we stratified by period, which resulted in a significant protective delayed effect at 36 months (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.49). However, reverse causation negated this finding since the presence of asthma in prior months led to a reduction in further exposure to cow's milk (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.99). Hence, cow's milk consumption does not protect against childhood asthma. The apparent protection of cow's milk against asthma may result from parents of asthmatic children avoiding cow's milk, rather than actual prophylaxis.

  7. Moral Evaluations of Organ Transplantation Influence Judgments of Death and Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Collins, Michael; Gerend, Mary A

    Two experiments investigated whether moral evaluations of organ transplantation influence judgments of death and causation. Participants' beliefs about whether an unconscious organ donor was dead and whether organ removal caused death in a hypothetical vignette varied depending on the moral valence of the vignette. Those who were randomly assigned to the good condition (vs. bad) were more likely to believe that the donor was dead prior to organ removal and that organ removal did not cause death. Furthermore, attitudes toward euthanasia and organ donation independently predicted judgments of death and causation, regardless of experimental condition. The results are discussed in light of the framework of motivated reasoning, in which motivation influences the selection of cognitive processes and representations applied to a given domain, as well as Knobe's person-as-moralist model, in which many basic concepts are appropriately imbued with moral features. On either explanatory framework, these data cast doubt on the psychological legitimacy of the mainstream justification for vital organ procurement from heart-beating donors, which holds that neurological criteria for death are scientifically justified, independently of concerns about organ transplantation. These data suggest that, rather than concluding that organ removal is permissible because the donor is dead, people may believe that the donor is dead because they believe organ removal to be permissible.

  8. Community acquired pneumonia in diabetic and non-diabetic hospitalized patients: presentation, causative pathogens and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibal, M A A; Rahman, S H Z; Nishat, L; Sikder, N H; Begum, S A; Islam, M J; Uddin, K N

    2012-12-01

    Both community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and diabetes mellitus are common in Bangladesh. Though hospitalization of diabetic patients with CAP is increasing, data regarding their clinical presentation, microbial characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcome are lacking. This study was aimed at finding any difference in clinical presentation, bacterial causes, antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolated bacteria and outcome in diabetic and non-diabetic hospitalized patients with CAP. In this study total 47 diabetic and 43 non-diabetic adult hospitalized patients with CAP were enrolled. Clinical presentation of CAP differed in diabetics and non-diabetics. Frequency of atypical presentation and CURB-65 score were significantly higher in diabetics. Pleural effusion with multilobar infiltration was also common feature for CAP in diabetic patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent causative pathogen for CAP in diabetic patients, whereas Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent causative agent for non-diabetic patients. Bacteria isolated from sputum sample of diabetic patients with CAP were resistant to almost all recommended antibiotics used for CAP but 100% of isolates were sensitive to Carbapenems. Pulmonary complications were relatively more in diabetics than in non-diabetics. Hospitalized diabetics with CAP required referral to intensive care unit more than that of non-diabetics. So, diabetic patients with CAP need extra attention.

  9. How Can God Act in the World? Modern Science and the Problem of Divine Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juuso Loikkanen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The belief that God actively acts in the world has been fundamental to orthodox Christian theology throughout the history of Christianity. Since the rise of modern science, however, this traditional understanding of God’s actions has attracted more and more critique. Firstly, it has been argued God cannot act in the world without violating the allegedly all-encompassing laws of nature, and, consequently, because the laws of nature cannot presumably ever be broken, it is considered totally impossible for God to influence the physical world in any way. Secondly, it is claimed that even if breaking the laws of nature was not, in theory, impossible, it would still be, in practice, impossible for an immaterial entity such as God to influence the material world. In this article, I argue that the first objection, i.e., that God cannot act in the world, holds partly true. I maintain that God cannot act without interfering with the processes of nature (although some recent attempts of building noninterventionist theories of God’ actions have been made. Nevertheless, I do not see how God’s intervention would constitute a problem for modern physics, as has often been proposed. Moreover, the second claim, i.e., that immaterial entities cannot affect material entities, is not based on evidence but on an unfounded assumption that because we do not know the mechanism of causation between immaterial and material entities, this causation is not possible.

  10. GPR41 and GPR43¬ in obesity and inflammation – protective or causative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei eAng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available GPR41 and GPR43 are a pair of mammalian G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs expressed in human adipocytes, colon epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These receptors are activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs such as acetate, propionate and butyrate– which are produced during dietary fiber fermentation by resident gut bacteria. This unique ligand specificity suggests that GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the interaction between the human host and the gut microbiome. Indeed, studies on knockout mice implicate GPR41 and GPR43 in chronic inflammatory disorders such as obesity, colitis, asthma and arthritis. However, whether GPR41 and GPR43 are protective or causative is inconsistent between studies. This discrepancy may be due to differences in the disease models used, the inbred mouse strains or non-specific knockout effects. Here, we review the latest findings on GPR41 and GPR43, highlighting contradictory observations. With GPR41 and GPR43 being considered as drug targets, it is pertinent that their role is fully elucidated. We propose that future studies on human tissues, ex vivo, may allow us to confirm the role of GPR41 and GPR43 in humans, be it protective or causative.

  11. Hidden branches: developments in root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmont, Karen S; Sibout, Richard; Hardtke, Christian S

    2007-01-01

    The root system is fundamentally important for plant growth and survival because of its role in water and nutrient uptake. Therefore, plants rely on modulation of root system architecture (RSA) to respond to a changing soil environment. Although RSA is a highly plastic trait and varies both between and among species, the basic root system morphology and its plasticity are controlled by inherent genetic factors. These mediate the modification of RSA, mostly at the level of root branching, in response to a suite of biotic and abiotic factors. Recent progress in the understanding of the molecular basis of these responses suggests that they largely feed through hormone homeostasis and signaling pathways. Novel factors implicated in the regulation of RSA in response to the myriad endogenous and exogenous signals are also increasingly isolated through alternative approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis.

  12. Ciliate communities and hidden biodiversity in freshwater biotopes of the Pistoia province (Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alessia; Boscaro, Vittorio; Carducci, Daniela; Serra, Valentina; Modeo, Letizia; Verni, Franco; Fokin, Sergei I; Petroni, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    Ciliates are essential components of aquatic environments, playing a pivotal role in microbial loops. Thus, the composition and dynamics of ciliate communities have been subjected to intense studying. Morphological methods have been traditionally employed, until the development of next-generation sequencing recently allowed to explore the topic with exclusively molecular techniques. However, the results of the two approaches are hardly comparable, and the pictures they offer can be quite different. This may be due, among other reasons, to two factors: (1) morphological descriptions may miss a large portion of "hidden biodiversity" (including rare species and resistance forms) that is detected instead by molecular methods; (2) identification errors may arise due to difficulties in recognizing microbial taxa without in-depth analyses. In this survey of freshwater systems of the Pistoia province (Tuscany, Italy) we address both issues, trying to quantify the hidden diversity through prolonged observations of differentially treated sample aliquots, combining morphological identification with Sanger sequencing. We provide the first insights into the ciliate fauna of this area presenting results that are suitable for future comparisons thanks to their multidisciplinary origin, and supply the first molecular data on well-known taxa such as Linostomella and Disematostoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Revised computational metagenomic processing uncovers hidden and biologically meaningful functional variation in the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Ohad; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2017-02-08

    Recent metagenomic analyses of the human gut microbiome identified striking variability in its taxonomic composition across individuals. Notably, however, these studies often reported marked functional uniformity, with relatively little variation in the microbiome's gene composition or in its overall metabolic capacity. Here, we address this surprising discrepancy between taxonomic and functional variations and set out to track its origins. Specifically, we demonstrate that the functional uniformity observed in microbiome studies can be attributed, at least partly, to common computational metagenomic processing procedures that mask true functional variation across microbiome samples. We identify several such procedures, including commonly used practices for gene abundance normalization, mapping of gene families to functional pathways, and gene family aggregation. We show that accounting for these factors and using revised metagenomic processing procedures uncovers such hidden functional variation, significantly increasing observed variation in the abundance of functional elements across samples. Importantly, we find that this uncovered variation is biologically meaningful and that it is associated with both host identity and health. Accurate characterization of functional variation in the microbiome is essential for comparative metagenomic analyses in health and disease. Our finding that metagenomic processing procedures mask underlying and biologically meaningful functional variation therefore highlights an important challenge such studies may face. Alternative schemes for metagenomic processing that uncover this hidden functional variation can facilitate improved metagenomic analysis and help pinpoint disease- and host-associated shifts in the microbiome's functional capacity.

  14. Two charges on a plane in a magnetic field: hidden algebra, (particular) integrability, polynomial eigenfunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbiner, A. V.; Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The quantum mechanics of two Coulomb charges on a plane (e1, m1) and (e2, m2) subject to a constant magnetic field B perpendicular to the plane is considered. Four integrals of motion are explicitly indicated. It is shown that for two physically important particular cases, namely that of two particles of equal Larmor frequencies, {e_c} \\propto \\frac{e_1}{m_1}-\\frac{e_2}{m_2}=0 (e.g. two electrons) and one of a neutral system (e.g. the electron-positron pair, hydrogen atom) at rest (the center-of-mass momentum is zero) some outstanding properties occur. They are the most visible in double polar coordinates in CMS (R, ϕ) and relative (ρ, φ) coordinate systems: (i) eigenfunctions are factorizable, all factors except one with the explicit ρ-dependence are found analytically, they have definite relative angular momentum, (ii) dynamics in the ρ-direction is the same for both systems, it corresponds to a funnel-type potential and it has hidden sl(2) algebra, at some discrete values of dimensionless magnetic fields b ⩽ 1, (iii) particular integral(s) occur, (iv) the hidden sl(2) algebra emerges in finite-dimensional representation, thus, the system becomes quasi-exactly-solvable and (v) a finite number of polynomial eigenfunctions in ρ appear. Nine families of eigenfunctions are presented explicitly.

  15. Cyberbullying: The hidden side of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,Maria José D.; Francisco, Sofia Mateus; Simão,Ana Margarida Veiga; Ferreira, Paula Costa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how university students perceive their involvement in the cyberbullying phenomenon, and its impact on their well-being. Thus, this study presents a preliminary approach of how college students’ perceived involvement in acts of cyberbullying can be measured. Firstly, Exploratory Factor Analysis (N = 349) revealed a unidimensional structure of the four scales included in the Cyberbullying Inventory for College Students. Then, Item Respons...

  16. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with formation of sporangia by fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    Full Text Available Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised from U. prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1.00 mm in diameter were optimal for the formation of sporangia, but there was a small amount of spore release in these. The highest percentage of area of spore release occurred in disks that were 2.50 mm in diameter. In contrast, sporangia were formed only at the cut edges of larger disks (3.00 mm, 3.50 mm, and 4.00 mm in diameter. Additionally, the majority of spores liberated from the disks appeared vigorous and developed successfully into new individuals. These results implied that fragments of the appropriate size from the U. prolifera thalli broken by a variety of factors via producing spores gave rise to the rapid proliferation of the seaweed under field conditions, which may be one of the most important factors to the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of U. prolifera in the green tide that occurred in Qingdao, 2008.

  17. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with formation of sporangia by fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yi, Qianqian; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Lin, Apeng; Peng, Guang

    2010-01-05

    Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised from U. prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1.00 mm in diameter were optimal for the formation of sporangia, but there was a small amount of spore release in these. The highest percentage of area of spore release occurred in disks that were 2.50 mm in diameter. In contrast, sporangia were formed only at the cut edges of larger disks (3.00 mm, 3.50 mm, and 4.00 mm in diameter). Additionally, the majority of spores liberated from the disks appeared vigorous and developed successfully into new individuals. These results implied that fragments of the appropriate size from the U. prolifera thalli broken by a variety of factors via producing spores gave rise to the rapid proliferation of the seaweed under field conditions, which may be one of the most important factors to the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of U. prolifera in the green tide that occurred in Qingdao, 2008.

  18. How are multifactorial beliefs about the role of genetics and behavior in cancer causation associated with cancer risk cognitions and emotions in the US population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jada G; Waters, Erika A

    2017-10-10

    People who believe that cancer has both genetic and behavioral risk factors have more accurate mental models of cancer causation and may be more likely to engage in cancer screening behaviors than people who do not hold such multifactorial causal beliefs. This research explored possible health cognitions and emotions that might produce such differences. Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the US Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 2719), we examined whether endorsing a multifactorial model of cancer causation was associated with perceptions of risk and other cancer-related cognitions and affect. Data were analyzed using linear regression with jackknife variance estimation and procedures to account for the complex survey design and weightings. Bivariate and multivariable analyses indicated that people who endorsed multifactorial beliefs about cancer had higher absolute risk perceptions, lower pessimism about cancer prevention, and higher worry about harm from environmental toxins that could be ingested or that emanate from consumer products (Ps  .05). Holding multifactorial causal beliefs about cancer are associated with a constellation of risk perceptions, health cognitions, and affect that may motivate cancer prevention and detection behavior. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Engineering of Algorithms for Hidden Markov models and Tree Distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Andreas

    of the algorithms to exploit the parallel architecture of modern computers. In this PhD dissertation, I present my work with algorithmic optimizations and parallelizations in primarily two areas in algorithmic bioinformatics: algorithms for analyzing hidden Markov models and algorithms for computing distance...... measures between phylogenetic trees. Hidden Markov models is a class of probabilistic models that is used in a number of core applications in bioinformatics such as modeling of proteins, gene finding and reconstruction of species and population histories. I show how a relatively simple parallelization can...... reconstruction methods or different data sets will often suggest slightly different trees. Distance measures for pairs of trees are therefore useful to measure the incongruence between two inferred trees quantitatively and to evaluate the predictive power of different tree reconstruction methods. I present my...

  20. Penta-Quark States with Strangeness, Hidden Charm and Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Jun; Zou, Bing-Song

    The classical quenched quark models with three constituent quarks provide a good description for the baryon spatial ground states, but fail to reproduce the spectrum of baryon excited states. More and more evidences suggest that unquenched effects with multi-quark dynamics are necessary ingredients to solve the problem. Several new hyperon resonances reported recently could fit in the picture of penta-quark states. Based on this picture, some new hyperon excited states were predicted to exist; meanwhile with extension from strangeness to charm and beauty, super-heavy narrow N* and Λ* resonances with hidden charm or beauty were predicted to be around 4.3 and 11 GeV, respectively. Recently, two of such N* with hidden charm might have been observed by the LHCb experiment. More of those states are expected to be observed in near future. This opens a new window in order to study hadronic dynamics for the multi-quark states.