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Sample records for hickory carya cathayensis

  1. Development of SSR Markers in Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) and Their Transferability to Other Species of Carya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zeng, Yanru; Shen, Dengfeng; Xia, Guohua; Huang, Yinzhi; Huang, Youjun; Chang, Jun; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia

    2014-10-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), an important nut-producing species in Southeastern China, has high economic value, but so far there has been no cultivar bred under species although it is mostly propagated by seeding and some elite individuals have been found. It has been found recently that this species has a certain rate of apomixis and poor knowledge of its genetic background has influenced development of a feasible breeding strategy. Here in this paper we first release SSR (Simple sequence repeat) markers developed in this species and their transferability to other three species of the same genus, Carya. A total of 311 pairs of SSR primers in hickory were developed based on sequenced cDNAs of a fruit development-associated cDNA library and RNA-seq data of developing female floral buds and could be used to distinguish hickory, C. hunanensis Cheng et R. H. Chang ex R. H. Chang et Lu, C. illinoensis K. Koch (pecan) and C. dabieshanensis M. C. Liu et Z. J. Li, but they were monomorphic in both hickory and C. hunanensis although multi-alleles have been identified in all the four species. There is a transferability rate of 63.02% observed between hickory and pecan and the markers can be applied to study genetic diversity of accessions in pecan. When used in C. dabieshanensis, it was revealed that C. dabieshanensis had the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 4, observed heterozygosity from 0 to 0.6667 and expected heterozygosity from 0.333 to 0.8667, respectively, which supports the existence of C. dabieshanensis as a separate species different from hickory and indicates that there is potential for selection and breeding in this species.

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Graft Unions in Hickory (Carya cathayensis Provides Insights into Response Mechanisms to Grafting Process

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    Daoliang Yan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hickory (Carya cathayensis, a tree with high nutritional and economic value, is widely cultivated in China. Grafting greatly reduces the juvenile phase length and makes the large scale cultivation of hickory possible. To reveal the response mechanisms of this species to grafting, we employed a proteomics-based approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in the graft unions during the grafting process. Our study identified 3723 proteins, of which 2518 were quantified. A total of 710 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were quantified and these were involved in various molecular functional and biological processes. Among these DEPs, 341 were up-regulated and 369 were down-regulated at 7 days after grafting compared with the control. Four auxin-related proteins were down-regulated, which was in agreement with the transcription levels of their encoding genes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the ‘Flavonoid biosynthesis’ pathway and ‘starch and sucrose metabolism’ were both significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, five flavonoid biosynthesis-related proteins, a flavanone 3-hyfroxylase, a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, a dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, a chalcone synthase, and a chalcone isomerase, were significantly up-regulated. Further experiments verified a significant increase in the total flavonoid contents in scions, which suggests that graft union formation may activate flavonoid biosynthesis to increase the content of a series of downstream secondary metabolites. This comprehensive analysis provides fundamental information on the candidate proteins and secondary metabolism pathways involved in the grafting process for hickory.

  3. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of CcPILS gene of Hickory (Carya cathayensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Yuan, Huwei; Gao, Liuxiao; Guo, Haipeng; Qiu, Lingling; Xu, Dongbin; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    PILS is a key auxin efflux carrier protein in the auxin signal transduction. A CcPILS gene related to hickory (Carya carthayensis) grafting process was obtained by RACE techniques. The full length of CcPILS gene was1541bp contained a 1263bp length open reading flame (ORF). The CcPILS encoded 294 amino acids with molecular weight of 46 kDa, PI 5.38 and localized at endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The gene contained a central hydrophilic loop separating two hydrophobic domains of about five transmembrane regions each. The gene of CcPILS belonged to Clade III sub-family of PILS and its sequence had high homology with Arabidopsis. Real Time RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressions were weakly induced in bud, inflorescence, fruit, leaf and stem, while strongly in root. The expression levels were strongly induced and reached a peak at the third day of grafting in scion and rootstock of hickory, which were 1.45 and 3.45 times higher, respectively, compared to that of control. The results indicated that CcPILS may be involved in regulating the expression of genes related to auxin signal transduction during hickory graft process.

  4. Hot-air drying characteristics and technical parameters optimization of kernel hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.)%山核桃坚果热风干燥特性及其工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德泉; 曹成茂; 丁正耀; 刘伟伟; 张念生; 王继先

    2011-01-01

    针对山核桃坚果热风干燥质量难以控制、干后品质差等问题,采用单因素试验方法,研究了热风温度、装载量及风速对山核桃坚果干燥特性的影响.通过3因素5水平的二次回归正交试验,分析了热风温度、装载量及风速与干燥过程单位时间干燥速率、单位质量干燥能耗以及干后物料蛋白质保存率、不饱和脂肪酸保存率、感官品质指标综合分值的关系,建立了二次同归数学模型,分析了3因素对各指标影响的显著性;利用多目标非线性优化方法,确定了山核桃坚果热风干燥的最佳工艺参数组合,即热风温度为72℃,装载量为0.08 kg,风速为65 m/min.在此条件下,单位时间干燥速率为0.458%/min、单位质量干燥能耗为5.986 kWh/kg、蛋白质保存率为92.12%、不饱和脂肪酸保存率为90.65%、感官品质指标综合分值为32.89分,综合评分为0.802.研究结果为山核桃坚果的干燥和工业化生产提供一定的理论依据.%According to the proplems of difficult control for hot-air drying process and poor quality of dried hickory kernels (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), the effects of drying temperature, material load and airflow rate on hot-air drying characteristics of kernels were investigated by the single factor experimental method. The quadratic regression orthogonal experimental method with three factors and five levels for each factor was employed. Drying temperature, material load and airflow rate were the influence factors, and dehydration rate, energy consumption of drying process, protein retention ratio, unsaturated fatty acid retention ratio and synthetic score of sensory quality indicator of dried kernels were the experimental indices. The relationships between the experimental indices and the influence factors were analyzed. The regression mathematical models describing the relations between the experimental indices and the influence factors were established to analyze the

  5. Antioxidation effect of Carya cathayensis sarg oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhule; Xu Yingbi; Chen Honghong

    2007-01-01

    [Objective] The antioxidation effect of Carya cathayensis sarg (CCS) Oil was qualitatively and quantitatively detected.[Method] 50 male mice were divided into 5 groups equally and randomly and among them,the three groups were either negative, or model control, or positive control (ginseng saponins), respectively.Two remaining groups were orally fed with low and high dosages of CCS oil ((9 ml/(kg·d) and (33 ml/(kg·d)), respectively.All groups were injected D galactose through hypodermic except the negative control ones which were only treated with equals amount of distilled water.The superoxide dismutase (SOD), maleic dialdehyde(MDA) and monoamine oxidase(MAO) were analyzed with blood sample and brain tissue 42 days post treatment.[Result] It was showed that the activity of SOD enzyme was increased in the CCS oil groups, while MDA and MAO content were decreased in the CCS oil groups compared with that of other groups with significance observed in the group fed with high dose of CCS oil.[Conclusion] The result indicated that the CCS oil has the ability of antioxidation and is useful to human health.

  6. Effect of 26 years of intensively managed Carya cathayensis stands on soil organic carbon and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiasen; Huang, Jianqin; Liu, Dan; Li, Jianwu; Zhang, Jinchi; Wang, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis), a popular nut food tree species, is mainly distributed in southeastern China. A field study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term intensive management on fertility of soils under a C. cathayensis forest. Results showed that after 26 years' intensive management, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content of the A and B horizons reduced by 19% and 14%, respectively. The reduced components of SOC are mainly the alkyl C and O-alkyl C, whereas the aromatic C and carbonyl C remain unchanged. The reduction of active organic matter could result in degradation of soil fertility. The pH value of soil in the A horizon had dropped by 0.7 units on average. The concentrations of the major nutrients also showed a decreasing trend. On average the concentrations of total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) of tested soils dropped by 21.8%, 7.6%, and 13.6%, respectively, in the A horizon. To sustain the soil fertility and C. cathayensis production, it is recommended that more organic fertilizers (manures) should be used together with chemical fertilizers. Lime should also be applied to reduce soil acidity.

  7. Effect of 26 Years of Intensively Managed Carya cathayensis Stands on Soil Organic Carbon and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiasen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese hickory (Carya cathayensis, a popular nut food tree species, is mainly distributed in southeastern China. A field study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term intensive management on fertility of soils under a C. cathayensis forest. Results showed that after 26 years’ intensive management, the soil organic carbon (SOC content of the A and B horizons reduced by 19% and 14%, respectively. The reduced components of SOC are mainly the alkyl C and O-alkyl C, whereas the aromatic C and carbonyl C remain unchanged. The reduction of active organic matter could result in degradation of soil fertility. The pH value of soil in the A horizon had dropped by 0.7 units on average. The concentrations of the major nutrients also showed a decreasing trend. On average the concentrations of total nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K of tested soils dropped by 21.8%, 7.6%, and 13.6%, respectively, in the A horizon. To sustain the soil fertility and C. cathayensis production, it is recommended that more organic fertilizers (manures should be used together with chemical fertilizers. Lime should also be applied to reduce soil acidity.

  8. [Changes in soil organic carbon and soil microbial functional diversity of Carya cathayensis plantations under intensive managements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Sen; Qian, Jin-Fang; Tong, Zhi-Peng; Huang, Jian-Qin; Zhao, Ke-Li

    2014-09-01

    The change characteristics of soil organic carbon and microbial function diversity in Chinese hickory Carya cathayensis stands with different intensive-management durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 years) were studied. The results showed that soil total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) decreased significantly, while the stability of soil C pool increased significantly after the conversion from evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest to intensively-managed forest (IMF). TOC, MBC and WSOC in the hickory forest soil decreased by 28.4%, 34.1% and 53.3% with 5-year intensive management, and by 38.6%, 48.9% and 64.1% with 20-year intensive management, respectively. The proportions of carboxyl C, phenolic C and aromatic C in the hickory forest soil all increased significantly, and the aromaticity of soil organic C increased by 23.0%. Soil microbial functional diversity decreased greatly af- ter intensive management of Chinese hickory forest. Significant differences in average well color development (AWCD) were found between the 0- and 5-year treatments and the 10-, 15- and 20- year treatments. The microbial diversity indexes (H) and evenness indexes (E) in the 0- and 5-year treatments were much greater than in the 10- and 20-year treatments. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations among soil TOC, WSOC, MBC, AWCD, H and E.

  9. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  10. Means-End Chain Based Brand Positioning Strategy for Lin’an Carya Cathayensis Sarg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingyan; GAO; Yueli; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theory of Means-End Chain,this paper surveyed value cognition structure of 36 member consumers through the laddering interview. According to the survey,it made an in-depth analysis on brand positioning strategy for Lin’an Carya Cathayensis Sarg,and obtained the existing brand operating model. It is hoped to explore effective strategy of brand positioning for agricultural product enterprises in Zhejiang Province,and accordingly lift core competitiveness of agricultural products of Zhejiang Province.

  11. Phytotoxicity of 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone isolated from Carya cathayensis Sarg. to various plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xian; Yu, Min-Feng; Ruan, Xiao; Zhang, Yu-Zhu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-26

    The aqueous extract from Carya cathayensis Sarg. exocarp was centrifuged, filtered, and separated into 11 elution fractions by X-5 macroporous resin chromatography. A phenolic compound, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT) was isolated from the fractions with the strongest phytotoxicity by bioassy-guided fractionation, and investigated for phytotoxicity on lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), onion (Allium cepa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The testing results showed that the treatment with 0.6 mM 4,8-DHT could significantly depress the germination vigor of lettuce and wheat, reduce the germination rate of lettuce and cucumber, and also inhibit radicle length, plumule length, and fresh weight of seedlings of lettuce and onion, but could significantly promote plumule length and fresh weight of seedlings of cucumber (p seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT had the selectivity of dosage, action target (plant type) and content (seed germination or seedling growth).

  12. Phytotoxicity of 4,8-Dihydroxy-1-tetralone Isolated from Carya cathayensis Sarg. to Various Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Xian Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract from Carya cathayensis Sarg. exocarp was centrifuged, filtered, and separated into 11 elution fractions by X-5 macroporous resin chromatography. A phenolic compound, 4,8-dihydroxy-1-tetralone (4,8-DHT was isolated from the fractions with the strongest phytotoxicity by bioassy-guided fractionation, and investigated for phytotoxicity on lettuce (Latuca sativa L., radish (Raphanus sativus L., cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., onion (Allium cepa L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The testing results showed that the treatment with 0.6 mM 4,8-DHT could significantly depress the germination vigor of lettuce and wheat, reduce the germination rate of lettuce and cucumber, and also inhibit radicle length, plumule length, and fresh weight of seedlings of lettuce and onion, but could significantly promote plumule length and fresh weight of seedlings of cucumber (p < 0.05. For the tested five plants, the 4,8-DHT was the most active to the seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, indicating that the phytotoxicity of 4,8-DHT had the selectivity of dosage, action target (plant type and content (seed germination or seedling growth.

  13. Mapping of Carya cathayensis Spatial Distribution with Linear Spectral Mixture Model%基于线性混合像元分解技术提取山核桃空间分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚祯苑; 刘丽娟; 陆灯盛; 葛宏立; 陈耀亮

    2015-01-01

    【目的】利用混合像元分解技术研究一种快速、准确提取山核桃空间分布信息的新方法,为亚热带经济林资源及其动态变化的快速检测提供新手段。【方法】以浙江省临安市西部为研究区,首先,采用线性混合像元分解技术获取植被(GV)、阴影(shade)和土壤(soil)3个分量图,据实地考察,基于山核桃的 GV,shade 和 soil分量与其他植被的区分性较大的特征,构建植被-土壤指数、植被-阴影指数和归一化多分量指数3种新的指数;然后,基于归一化植被指数和新的指数建立决策树模型提取山核桃;最后,将研究区的土地覆盖类型分为山核桃和其他地类,并通过地面调查收集的样地数据和 Google Earth高分辨率影像对分类结果进行验证。【结果】归一化多分量指数可最大限度地扩大山核桃与其他在光谱上易混淆的植被之间的差距,与其他植被的可分离性最好,因此,将归一化多分量指数作为提取山核桃的最优指数。基于该指数提取山核桃的总体精度达88.67%,Kappa系数为0.76,成功实现临安西部区域的山核桃信息提取,证明使用线性混合像元分解模型提取山核桃的潜力。【结论】针对山核桃经济林提取而提出的归一化多分量指数,物理意义明确,实现简单,易于理解和分析,尽可能地降低由于步骤复杂、样本类数多而造成的系统误差和人为误差,其结果还可为今后其他地区山核桃的提取或具有相似生长条件的经济林空间分布信息的提取提供参考,具有较高的应用潜力和推广价值。%Objective]Hickory( Carya cathayensis) ,one of the most important cash forests in Zhejiang province,plays an important role in improving economic conditions for local people and government. Currently,the hickory plantation area is mainly calculated from the estimation of hickory owners,but this area

  14. Establishment of a SRAP analysis protocol in Carya cathayensis and a comparison among SRAP,RAPD,ISSR analysis protocols%山核桃SRAP体系的建立及与RAPD和ISSR标记的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元春; 沈林; 曾燕如

    2011-01-01

    In order to have a good molecular marker to reflect inherent genetic characteristics of Lin'an hickory (Carya cathayensis), the genomic DNA extracted from hickory leaves was used to optimize parameters (constituents) included in a sequence-related amplified polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SRAP-PCR) protocol run under the following conditions: pre-denaturing at 94 ℃ for 5 min; 5 cycles, each of which denatured at 94 ℃ for 30 s and annealed at 35 ℃ for 30 s with an extension at 72 ℃ for 2 min; 30 cycles,each of which denatured at 94 ℃ for 30 s and annealed at 50 ℃ for 30 s with an extension at 72 ℃ for 2 min;and a final extension at 72 ℃ for 8 min.Then, 15 pairs of primers out of 100 pairs were screened for SRAP analysis and a comparison was made among SRAP, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and intersimple sequence repeat(ISSR).The optimized(SRAP-PCR)protocol was as follows: a total volume of 25.00 μL containing 1 × buffer, 0.20 mmol· L-1 dNTPs ( deoxynucleotide triphosphates ), 0.20 μ mol· L-1 p rimers,2.00 mmol· L-1 Mg2+, 33.34 nkat Taq DNA polymerase, and 0.80 mg·L-1 genomic DNA(all at a final concentration).On the average, SRAP, compared to RAPD and ISSR, had the most loci and polymorphic loci amplified by each pair of primers, but SRAP percentages for both polymorphic primer pairs and polymorphic loci were between RAPD and ISSR.The optimized SRAP-PCR reduced the reaction time by half compared with the former protocols.It has been shown that both SRAP and RAPD should be considered when studying hickory.%以山核桃Carya cathayensis 基因组DNA为模板,对聚合酶链式反应(PCR)体系各组分进行了梯度实验,优化出条带清晰、重复性好的相关序列扩增多态性聚合酶链式反应(SRAP-PCR)扩增体系,并筛选了引物.该体系(25.00μL)为:1×缓冲液0.20 mmol·L-1,脱氧核糖核苷酸(dNTPs),0.20μmol·L-1引物,2.00mmol·L-1镁离子(Mg2+),33.34 nkat Taq DNA聚合酶,0.80 mg·L-1基因组DNA

  15. Effect of simulated different types of acid rain on physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis%模拟不同类型酸雨胁迫对山核桃生理特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶欣桐; 江洪; 郭凯

    2013-01-01

    随着经济的发展,中国酸雨污染类型由硫酸型向硫酸、硝酸复合型转变,为了解转变对我国陆地植物生态系统的影响,以山核桃(Carya cathayensis)为试验对象,研究模拟硫酸型酸雨(SAR)、硝酸型酸雨(NAR)及混合型酸雨(MAR)对山核桃的生理特征影响.试验测定了山核桃在不同酸雨类型下,生长量,叶绿素含量和光合反应参数在pH值为5.6,4.0,2.5时的数据.结果表明:SAR处理下,山核桃的株高、基径在pH 5.6时高于另两个梯度,NAR处理下,生长量的大小为pH5.6处理<pH 2.5处理<pH 4.0处理;MAR处理下,对株高的胁迫明显高于SAR和NAR;在相同pH值下对叶绿素的胁迫影响表现为NAR> MAR> SAR,有显著差异,但三种酸雨类型各梯度间的叶绿素含量差异不显著;三种酸雨对山核桃的光合作用都产生抑制,净光合速率在pH2.5处理下小于pH5.6处理,对表观量子效率(AQE)、最大净光合速率(Pnmax)、光饱和点(LSP)都表现为MAR< NAR.@@研究结果表明NAR和MAR对植物的生理特征影响较SAR更复杂,混合型酸雨对植物的株高和叶绿素含量的胁迫都大于硫酸型酸雨.%With economic development,the type of acid rain pollution in China changed from the sulfuric acid to sulfuric acid and nitric acid complex,due to the increase of nitrogen content in the acid rain,which may lead to the change of terrestrial plant ecosystem.In this paper,Carya cathayensis was used as the experimental material to study the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain (SAR),nitric acid rain (NAR) and the mixed acid rain (MAR) on physiological characteristics in Carya cathayensis.In experimental design,in addition to three types of acid rain,three gradients of pH value as pH 2.5 (severe acid rain stress),pH 4.0 (moderately acid rain stress),pH 5.6 (acid rain control treatment) were also designed.The growth parameters,chlorophyll content and photosynthetic reaction paameters of Carya cathayensis under three

  16. 天牛危害与机械损伤对山核桃挥发物的诱导差异%Comparison of Volatiles fromCarya cathayensis under Different Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩星; 徐华潮; 李俊

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles were collected by dynamic headspace from healthy, mechanical damaged and insect damagedCarya cathayensis. Analysis on composition of volatiles by GC-MS. The result demonstrated that 10 types of components were detected both from healthy and mechanical damaged trees, but among them, 5 types were different. While 17 types of components were detected from insect damaged tree, among them, 10 components were different with that from mechanical damaged tree.%对健康、受机械损伤及具有天牛幼虫新鲜排粪孔的山核桃树进行顶空吸附采样,研究山核桃在不同条件处理下的挥发物差异。结果表明,不同处理山核桃之间挥发物种类有明显差异,健康山核桃释放的挥发物种类10种,机械损伤植株10种,但二者间有5种成分不同,而天牛幼虫蛀干的植株有17种,与机械损伤的相比有10种成分不同。

  17. 山核桃外蒲壳多酚物质提取及抗氧化研究%Study on the Extraction and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from Walnuts (Carya Cathayensis) Exoearp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴飞; 陈杭君; 郜海燕; 房祥军; 陶菲

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the extraction efficiency of polyphenols from Carya cathayensis exoearp,two new methods based on the existing organic solvent extraction method,ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction methods,were developed.With 60% aqueous ethanol as extraction agent,the yield of the ultrasonic assisted extraction method and the microwave-assisted extraction method were 19.87% and 15.39% respectively.The conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods were:solid-liquid ratio of 1∶20 (g/mL),40 ℃,200 W,30m in,single extraction.The conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction were:solid-liquid ratio of 1∶20 (g/mL),40 ℃,600 W,4 min.The polyphenols extracted using the ultrasonic method was investigated for its antioxidant activities in vitro.The results showed that the polyphenols extracted exhibited high levels of DPPH and Hydroxyl radical scavenging capacities.%为了优化山核桃外蒲壳多酚的提取工艺,在乙醇提取方法的基础上,探讨超声波及微波辅助处理对多酚提取率的影响.研究结果表明,超声波辅助提取蒲多酚工艺条件是:60%乙醇,料液比1∶20(g/mL),40℃,200 W,30 min,提取1次,在此条件下多酚得率19.87%;微波辅助提取蒲多酚工艺条件是:60%乙醇,料液比1∶20(g/mL),40℃,600W,4 min,提取1次,在此条件下多酚得率为15.39%.将超声提取的多酚进行体外抗氧化分析,结果山核桃蒲多酚对DPPH自由基和超氧阴离子具有较高的清除率.

  18. 山核桃幼胚不定芽的诱导%Adventitious bud induction with immature embryo of Carya cathayensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万俊丽; 黄坚钦; 夏国华; 张启香; 黄丽春

    2009-01-01

    以山核桃Carya cathayensis花后60,75和100 d的幼胚为外植体,金属硫蛋白(MT)复合维生素+20 g·L-1葡萄糖+10 mg·L-1腺嘌呤+500 mg·L-1水解酪蛋白作为基本培养条件,研究山核桃幼胚的不同发育时期,不同植物生长调节物质及基本培养基对山核桃不定芽诱导的影响.结果表明,山核桃花后60 d的幼胚培养56 d后未形成不定芽,花后100 d的幼胚比花后75 d的幼胚诱导产生的不定芽多而且长;植物生长调节物质对山核桃不定芽诱导以0.010 0 mg·L-14-氨基-3,5,6-三氯吡啶羧-酸(Picloram)+3.0 mg·L-116-苄氨基腺嘌呤(6-BA)为启动培养基较佳;当6-BA质量浓度一定时,随Picloram质量浓度增加不定芽数量差异不显著;当Picloram质量浓度一定时,随6-BA质量浓度增加,产生不定芽数逐渐上升,但当6-BA达10 mg·L-1时,不定芽出现明显玻璃化现象;2,4-D的添加不利于外植体不定芽产生;MS(Murashige and Skoog)是最佳基本培养基.图1表2参16

  19. Effects of fertilization on soil N2 O flux in Chinese Carya cathayensis stands%施肥对山核桃林地土壤N2O排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪双; 刘娟; 姜培坤; 周国模; 李永夫; 吴家森

    2014-01-01

    有机碳含量和微生物量碳呈显著相关关系(P<0.05),而单施化肥和对照则无显著相关性。土壤N2O排放通量与地下5 cm处土壤温度均显著相关(P<0.05),而土壤N2O排放与土壤含水量间没有显著相关性。结论施肥显著促进了山核桃林地土壤N2 O排放,不同施肥处理之间山核桃林地土壤N2 O排放无显著差异。添加有机肥引起土壤水溶性有机碳和微生物碳的增加可能是有机肥增加山核桃林地土壤N2 O排放速率的主要原因之一。%Objectives]N2 O is a potent greenhouse gas with global warming potentials ( GWP) 298 times greater than that of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) on a 100-year horizon.Moreover, increasing atmospheric N2 O is an important factor in stratospheric ozone depletion.As an important component of terrestrial ecosystems, forest ecosystems constitute about 33% of the global land surface, emitting between N2 O-N 2.4-5.7 Tg/yr into the atmosphere. Carya cathayensis is one of the popular nut food tree species in subtropical China.To achieve maximum yield and economic return, chemical and organic fertilizers have been applied in recent years.However, there is little information on the effects of management practices on soil N2 O emissions.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fertilizer application ( OF, OIF, IF, CK ) on soil N2 O emission from Carya cathayensis orchards in subtropical China.[Methods]A close-chamber method and gas chromatography techniques were used to determine effluxes of N2 O in the four replicate plots of each plot.The static chamber consisted of a permanently installed base box (0.3 m ×0.3 m ×0.1 m) with a U-shaped groove (50 mm wide and 50 mm deep) at the top of edge to hold a removable cover box (0.3 m ×0.3 m ×0.3 m) .Both the base and cover boxes were made of dark polyvinyl chloride ( PVC) panels, as thick as 5 mm.Prior to gas sampling, the cover box was placed on the base and the groove was filled

  20. Characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of the endangered species Carya sinensis (Juglandaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiheng Hu; Xi Chen; Xiaojia Feng; Keith E. Woeste; Peng Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Carya sinensis (Chinese Hickory, beaked walnut, or beaked hickory) is an endangered species that needs urgent conservation action. Here, we reported the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the genomic features of the C. sinensis cp, which is the first complete cp genome of any member of Carya. The...

  1. Analysis on the Regional Brand Operation Mode for Carya Cathayensis——A Case Study of Lin’an in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling; TU; Yueli; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Lin’an City has a long history of growing,processing and selling Carya Cathayensis,a traditional special local product for which the city is well known.In recent years,Lin’an Carya Cathayensis gives full play to the industry cluster advantages and gains the reputation of"regional name brand of Zhejiang".However,it faces the predicament of regional brand operation,so industry transformation and upgrading as well as intensive farming for this brand are inevitable and necessary.This paper analyzes the current regional brand operation mode of Carya Cathayensis in Lin’an to find out that the growth of this brand is constrained by messy business entities,weak brand protection effect,significant lemon market effect,insufficient industry association efforts and wanting brand culture construction,thus it puts forward the conception of a business alliance based regional brand operation mode for the Carya Cathayensis in Lin’an.The results of this study shall provide theoretical guidance and empirical basis for the marketing practice of the regional brand of Carya Cathayensis in Lin’an.

  2. 山核桃与薄壳山核桃种间杂交F1代果实及苗木性状变异分析%Genetic analysis on fruits and seedlings characters variation of F1 between Carya cathayensis and C. illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王年金; 陈军; 姜俊马; 刘荣昌; 姚小华; 王开良; 王国财

    2011-01-01

    The main characters of fruits and seedlings of F1 obtained by hybridization between male parent Corya illinoensis and female parent Carya cathayensis were examined. The results showed that characters of F1 were significantly different from that of control in terms of weight and size of fruit and seed, height and diameter of seedlings growth. The weight, height and diameter of fruits were higher than the control by 29. 1%, 7.2 %, 11.0 %, respectively. And the weight, height and diameter of seed were higher than the control by 30. 9 % ,8. 13 % ,12.4 %, respectively. The average height and diameter of 3 years old seedlings were higher than the control by 18. 1% and 19. 7 %. And it could achieve 29. 2 % and 32. 81% after having planted for2 years. Therefore, It was effective to increase fruit size and improve characters through interspecific hybridization. Seedlings with double embryos in F1 generation accounted for 10 % which was 5 times higher than the control.%以薄壳山核桃为父本,山核桃为母本,进行种间杂交,对F1代果实及苗木主要性状进行测定,结果表明:杂交F1代果实与果核(种子)的大小、质量以及苗木的高、径生长与对照之间都存在显著水平或极显著水平的差异.其中单果质量、果高、果径分别比对照高29.1%、7.2%、11.0%;单核质量、核高、核径分别比对照高30.9%、8.13%、12.4%;3年生苗木平均高和地径比对照分别高18.1%和19.7%;造林2 a后苗木平均高和平均地径比对照分别高29.2%和32.81%.另外,杂交F1代双胚苗所占比率为10%,是对照的5倍.研究表明,种间杂交对增大山核桃果体、改良山核桃性状是有意义的.

  3. Study on Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenol in Exocarp of Carya Cathayensis and its Antioxidant Activities%山核桃外果皮总酚的微波辅助提取工艺优化及其抗氧化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峰华; 罗自生; 何志平; 庞林江

    2011-01-01

    Based on the single -factor experiment,the method of response surface analysis with 3 factors including ethanol concentration, solvent - material ratio and microwave power on the yield of total phenol was adopted. The antioxidant of extract was studied in three different systems ( reducing power ,1,1- diphenyl - 2 - picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and p - Carotene bleaching). The optimal conditions of microwave - assisted extraction were as follows: ethanol concentration 56.0% , solvent - material ratio 1:50, microwave power 502.4 W and time 100 s;the actual value of total phenol was 123. 41 mg/g,in close agreement with the value predicted by the mathematical model. The exocarp of Carya cathayensis extract obtained at the optimal conditions exhibited a strong scavenging DPPH ability comparable to BHT.%在单因素试验的基础上以乙醇浓度、液料比和微波功率为试验因素,以总酚得率为响应值,采用三因素三水平的响应面分析法进行试验.并通过还原力、DPPH清除能力和β胡萝卜素亚油酸三个体系来评价提取物的抗氧化能力.结果表明,山核桃外果皮中总酚提取的最佳工艺条件为:乙醇体积分数56.0%,料液比1:50,微波功率502.4W提取时间100 s;实际测得总酚得率为123.41mg/g,与模型预测值基本相符.山核桃外果皮提取物有很强的抗氧化活性,清除DPPH自由基的能力与BHT相当.

  4. Radioprotective effects of extract from Carya cathayensis nut exocarp on mice%山核桃外果皮提取液对小鼠的辐射防护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼霞; 殷舒; 申屠垠; 高欣; 孙益; 胡军祥

    2006-01-01

    观察山核桃Carya cathayensis外果皮提取液对小鼠Mus musculus经γ射线辐照所致氧化损伤的防护作用.将小鼠随机分为阴性对照组、单纯辐射组和3种不同剂量提取液给药组.除阴性对照组外其余各组实验动物均用60Coγ射线全身照射,至照射后第5天,处死实验动物,分别测定体质量、血象、丙二醛(MDA)浓度和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性.实验结果表明:单纯辐射组动物外周血白细胞、红细胞、血小板的数量,血红蛋白以及红细胞压积与阴性对照组相比较显著降低(P<0.05),而不同剂量的提取液给药组相应指标均有不同程度的升高.单纯辐射组血清和肝组织MDA浓度较阴性对照组显著升高(P<0.05),各提取液给药组的血清和肝脏的MDA较单纯辐射组均有不同程度的降低,并随着提取液剂量的增加而降低显著(P<0.05).单纯辐射组血清和肝脏SOD活性较阴性对照组显著降低(P<0.05),各提取液给药组血清和肝脏的SOD活性与单纯辐射组比较有不同程度的升高,并且存在着一定的剂量效应关系,提示提取液对于辐射引起的氧化损伤有较好的防护作用.表2参7

  5. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... pumila; Filbert (hazelnut), Corylus spp.; Hickory nut, Carya spp.; Macadamia nut (bush nut), Macadamia spp.; Pecan, Carya illinoensis; Walnut, black and English (Persian), Juglans spp. EPA proposes to... (Makino) Rehder, J. ailantifolia Carri re) Hickory nut (Carya cathayensis Sarg., C. glabra (Mill.)...

  6. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, Richard G.; Nations, Brenda K.; Benn, David W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ± 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan.

  7. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, R.G.; Nations, B.K.; Benn, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ?? 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan. ?? 1990.

  8. After 25 years, what does the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study tell us about oak/hickory forests under stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; James A. Westfall; Patrick H. Brose; Shawn L. Lehman; Randall S. Morin; Todd E. Ristau; Alejandro A. Royo; Susan L. Stout

    2017-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study was initiated in 1989 because of concerns about a long history of stress on oak/hickory (Quercus/Carya) forests from herbivory and other factors. The study, which addresses the need for landscape-level information about regeneration quality and abundance, comprises a suite of regeneration indicator measurements...

  9. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Chinese Hickory (Carya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... therapeutic component and has been claimed to have ... the residue was then extracted with two additional portions (100 mL ..... Reactive Oxygen Species as Mediators of Signal. Transduction in Cardiovascular Disease.

  10. Cottonwoods of the Midwest: A Community Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis X X Pignut hickory Carya glabra X Pecan Carya illinoensis X Shellbark hickory Carya lacinios X Shagbark...rugosa X Pawpaw Asimina triloba X River birch Betula nigra X American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana X Water hickory Carya aquatica X...hickory Carya ovata X Mockernut hickory Carya tomentosa X Sugarberry Celtis laevigata X Hackberry Celtis occidentalis X X Eastern redbud

  11. Cytotoxic Diarylheptanoids from Pericarps of Juglans Cathayensis Dode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-xiu; RUAN Han-li; ZHOU Xue-feng; ZHANG Yong-hui; PI Hui-fang; WU Jizhou

    2008-01-01

    A novel diarylheptanoid,named Jugcathanin(1),along with two known diarylheptanoids(2,3),were isolated from the fresh pericarps of Juglans Cathayensis Dode,A known triterpene(4) and a known aphthaoquinone(5) were also isolated from the plant,Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies,All the compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against human Hela,HepG2,and HL-60 cell lines.

  12. Three new naphthalenyl glycosides from the root bark of Juglans cathayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Fu, Xiao-Fang; Yu, Heng-Yi; Li, Xue; Li, Shu-Ming; Ruan, Han-Li

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the root bark of Juglans cathayensis DODE. led to the isolation of three new naphthalenyl glycosides, Jugnaphthalenoside A-C (1-3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicities of the three new compounds were also evaluated.

  13. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  14. 四种山核桃种仁含油率及脂肪酸组成比较分析%Oil Yield and Fatty Acid Composition of Nuts of Four Species in Carya Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 钟海雁; 姚小华; 王开良; 王亚萍; 常君

    2012-01-01

    Oil content and fatty acid composition were analysised using nuts of four species in Carya family from Yuhang, Jiande, Fuyang, Ningguo, Jinzhai and Hunan as materials. The results showed that the oil content in nut was the highest in C. hunanensis, 63.88%, followed by that in C. cathayensis, 62.72%, and that in C. dabieshanensis was the lowest, 51.00%.There was significant difference in oil content among the above four species (P<0.05%) .The main fatty acids in these nut oil were palmitic acid, patmitoleic acidt stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. The saturated fatty acid content was the highest in C. hunanensis, while that in Carya cathayensis was the lowest; the monounsaturated fatty acid content was the highest in C. dabieshanensis, and that in C. illinoensis was the lowest; polyunsaturated fatty acids level in C. illinoensis was the highest and that in C. dabieshanensis was the lowest.%分析测定采集自浙江省余杭、建德、富阳,以及安徽省宁国、金寨,湖南省的4种山核桃果实含油率及其脂肪酸组成和含量.结果表明,山核桃种仁含油率为以湖南山核桃为最高,达63.88%;浙江山核桃次之,为62.72%;最低的是大别山山核桃,为51.00%.经一元方差分析得出4种山核桃含油率存在极显著差异(p<0.05%).山核桃脂肪酸主要由棕榈酸、硬脂酸、棕榈烯酸、油酸、亚油酸和顺-1 1-二十碳烯酸组成,饱和脂肪酸含量最高的是湖南山核桃,最低的是浙江山核桃;单不饱和脂肪酸含量最高的是大别山山核桃,最低的是美国山核桃;不饱和脂肪酸含量最高的是美国山核桃,最低的是大别山山核桃.

  15. Anti-tumor Active Fraction of Carya cathayensis Exocarp%山核桃外果皮提取物抗肿瘤活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小红; 刘秀飞; 王国夫; 杜轶君; 葛建

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究山核桃外果皮抗肿瘤活性部位.方法 利用系统溶剂分离法,对山核桃外果皮进行部位分离,采用MTT法分别检测水提取物、甲醇提取物、石油醚提取物、醋酸乙酯提取物对小鼠肺癌细胞3LL、人乳腺癌细胞MCF -7、人肝癌细胞QGY - 7701、人胃癌细胞BGC - 823等4种肿瘤细胞株的生长抑制情况.结果 水提取物对上述肿瘤细胞抑制作用均不明显,甲醇和石油醚提取物对4种肿瘤细胞有抑制作用,醋酸乙酯提取物对4种肿瘤细胞有明显的抑制效果,且呈一定的浓度-效应关系.结论 山核桃外果皮的甲醇提取物、石油醚提取物及醋酸乙酯提取物具有一定的体外抗肿瘤作用.

  16. The Buffalo Creek Archaeological Project. Volume 1: Background and Testing at 3MS346 and 3CG847 Mississippi and Craighead Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shagbark hickory ( Carya ovata), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). These trees dominate the vegetation on well-drained elevated land such as tho-se areas...strongly acidic soil (Steyermark 1959:95, 120). Chinquapin (Castanea ozarkensis), black or sourgum (Nyssa sylvatica), black hickory ( Carya texana...white oak, mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), black hickory, white hickory ( Carya alba), flowering dogwoo-T-,whiT𔃻eFash(Fraxinus americana

  17. The Input-output Status and Farmers’Willingness to Choose Ecological Operation of Hickory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qiang; LI Shi-yong; WU Wei-guang

    2012-01-01

    This study takes Lin’an City which early carries out the experiment of ecological operation of hickory as the study site.On the basis of the input-output data on hickory and farmers’ land,we analyze the input-output status of hickory land which practises ecological operation,the operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation and the influencing factors.The results show that in the short term,ecological operation of hickory will have a certain negative impact on the economic benefits;within the experimental area,the degree of operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation of hickory is high,and the operators have a clear understanding of long-term comprehensive benefits which may be brought by ecological operation;the ecological experiment and demonstration of hickory have achieved certain results;family income level,characteristics of householders,education and training,and so on,are the main factors that affect the operators’ willingness to choose ecological operation.Finally,for how to further improve the promotion efficiency of ecological operation of hickory,we put forth some constructive recommendations.

  18. Outcrossing rates and relatedness estimates in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüter, B; Hamrick, J L; Wood, B W

    2000-01-01

    Estimates of single and multilocus outcrossing rates as well as relatedness among progeny of individual seed trees were obtained for 14 populations of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Mean outcrossing estimates were not significantly different from 1.0 and relatedness values indicate that most progeny within families are half sibs. Biparental inbreeding was insignificant in all study sites, and inbreeding coefficients indicated that populations were close to inbreeding equilibrium.

  19. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  20. Cultural Resources of the Ohio River Floodplain in Illinois,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-15

    americana), hickories, .nd sweet gum, with occasional black walnut (Juailapns _igrij), butternut (Iluglans cinerea), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) on better...Quercius velutina), shingle oak (Quercus imbricaria), and various hickories, particularly the more xeric species such as black hickory ( Carya texana...where soil is thin or exposure hazardous. Stands of various hickories ( Carya ) are interspersed. Smaller trees might include dogwood (Cornus spp.) and

  1. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 2. A Physical Description of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits along the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Table BI (Continued) Scientific Name Common Name Carya cordiformis Bitternut hickoryCarya illinoensis PecanCarya laciniosa Shagbark hickoryCassia...Carex spp. Sedges Carex stipata Awl-fruited sedge Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam Carya aquatica Water hickory (Continued) (Sheet 1 of 6) B2

  2. Effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cipangopaludina cathayensis on Pollutant Removal and Microbial Community in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals play an important role in the energy flow and matter cycling in the wetland ecosystem. However, little is known about their effects on pollutant removal performance and microbial community in constructed wetlands. This work presents an initial attempt to investigate the effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (loach and Cipangopaludina cathayensis (snail on nutrient removal performance and microbial community of constructed wetlands (CWs. Compared with a control group, CW microcosms with aquatic animals exhibited better pollutant removal performance. The removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP in the loach group were 13.1% higher than in the control group, and snails increased the ammonium removal most effectively. Moreover, the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC and TP in sediment significantly reduced with the addition of loaches and snails (p < 0.05, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen (TN showed an obvious increase with the addition of loaches. High-throughput sequencing showed a microbial community structure change. Loaches and snails in wetlands changed the microbial diversity, especially in the Proteobacteria and denitrifying community. Results suggested that benthic aquatic animals might play an important role in CW ecosystems.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-03-01

    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans.

  4. Multiple Ceratocystis smalleyi infections associated with reduced stem water transport in bitternut hickory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-H; Juzwik, J; Cavender-Bares, J

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of cankers caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are associated with hickory bark beetle-attacked bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline in the north-central and northeastern United States. Discolored sapwood colonized by the fungus commonly underlies the cankers. Field studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that C. smalleyi infections cause vascular system dysfunction in infected trees. Fifty C. smalleyi inoculations made at 1.8 to 3.8 m in height on stems of healthy bitternut hickory trees (13 to 28 cm in diameter at 1.4 m in height) resulted in extensive canker formation and sapwood discoloration 12 to 14 months after treatment compared with water-inoculated and noninoculated controls. Sap flow velocity (midday) was significantly lower in the infected trees compared with that in the controls. Sap flow velocity also was inversely correlated with the proportion of bark area with cankered tissues and with tylose abundance in the youngest two growth rings. Tylose formation in current-year vessels associated with C. smalleyi infections is likely responsible for much of the water transport disruption. It is hypothesized that multiple stem infections of C. smalleyi and the resulting xylem dysfunction contribute to crown wilt development in bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline.

  5. Hickory, N.C., Receives $200,000 EPA Brownfield Grants to Revitalize, Strengthen Local Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - At a press conference in Huntington, W.Va., today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a $200,000 Brownfields Area-Wide Planning (AWP) grant to the City of Hickory, N.C., for reuse planning that includes residential an

  6. An Archaeological Survey of the Shoreline at Public Use Areas Pomme de Terre Lake, Hickory and Polk Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    O 1C A II Copy Pomme de Terre Lake US Army Corps Missouri of Engineers Kansas City District Fischer-Stein Associates, Inc. Carbondale, Illinois An...Archaeological Survey of Ou The Shoreline at Public Use Areas Pomme de Terre Lake, Hickory and Polk Counties, Missouri I’I DISRIBU11ON STA7EMIENIT DT!C...of shore- line at nine Corps of Engineer Public Use Areas at Pomme de Terre Lake, Hickory and Polk counties, Missouri, is presented. Previous

  7. Laboratory mortality and mycosis of adult Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) following application of Metarhizium anisopliae in the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, is a key pest of pecans. Our objective was to determine the potential of Metarhizium anisopliae to control emerging C. caryae adults. First, a laboratory test was conducted to compare four Beauveria bassiana strains (Bb GA2, BbLA3, BbMS1, and GHA) and three M. an...

  8. Detection of Drought-Induced Hickory Disturbances in Western Lin An County, China, Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyuan Xi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hickory plantations play an important role in improving local farmers’ economic conditions, but extreme drought in July–August 2013 seriously influenced hickory nut production. It is necessary to understand the extent and magnitude of this drought-induced hickory disturbance through mapping its spatial distribution using remote sensing data. This paper proposes a new approach to examine hickory disturbance based on multitemporal Landsat imagery. Ratios of green vegetation to soil fractions were calculated, in which the green vegetation and soil fractions were extracted from Landsat multispectral imagery using the linear spectral mixture analysis approach. We used the differences between before-drought and after-drought ratios to detect hickory disturbances. Four disturbance levels—non-disturbance, light, medium, and severe—were grouped according to the field survey data. The spatial distribution of these four levels was developed using the ratio-based approach. The result indicates that this approach is effective to detect drought-induced hickory disturbance and may be transferred to detect other kinds of disturbances, such as forest disease and selective logging. Cautions should be taken to properly select image acquisition dates and the change detection period, in addition to the approach itself.

  9. Natural and Human-Induced Dynamics on Big Hickory Island, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M. Roberts Briggs

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Big Hickory Island, located in Lee County along the mixed-energy west Florida coast, experiences high long-term rates of shoreline recession, with much of the erosion concentrated along the central and southern portions of the island. In 2013, approximately 86,300 cubic meters of sand from an adjacent tidal inlet to the north were placed along 457 m to restore the beach and dune system. In an effort to combat erosion, seven concrete king-pile groins with adjustable panels were constructed subsequent to the completion of the beach nourishment. Natural and human-induced dynamics of Big Hickory Island are discussed through analysis of shoreline and morphologic change using historic aerial photographs and topographic and bathymetric field surveys of the recent beach erosion mitigation project. Although much of the long-term anomalously high rates of erosion for the area are related to natural interchanges between the sand resources of the barrier islands and adjacent ebb tidal shoals, additional reduction in sand supply is a result of human-interventions updrift of Big Hickory over the last several decades. The coupled natural and anthropogenic influences are driving the coastal processes toward a different morphodynamic state than would have occurred under natural processes alone.

  10. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  11. Impacts of Flooding Regime Modification on Wildlife Habitats of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Lower Mississippi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    styraciflua), shellbark hickory ( Carya laciniosa), and shagbark hickory (C. ovata) dominating in the control while American hornbeam and silver maple (Acer...Trees and Shrubs in the Lower Mississippi Valley (After Whitlow and Harris 1979) Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant* Water hickory Carya ...aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Swamp privet Forestiera acuminata Green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Water locust Gleditsia

  12. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .6 4.2 Carya spp. Hickory 1.1 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm Zanthoxylum clava-heralis L...Cercis canadensis L. Redbud .6 Juglans spp. Walnut 1.6 Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .9 4.8 1.6 4.8 Carya spp. Hickory Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash...Walnut 3.4 2.1 Carya illinoenis Wangh. Pecan 1.2 10.2 3.6 4.2 5.7 1.4 7.1 Carya spp. Hickory 2.2 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl

  13. The Summary and Developmental Trend of Carya illinoensis%薄壳山核桃研究进展概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉栓; 韩应彬

    2013-01-01

    简要介绍了薄壳山核桃生物学与地理生态学特性特性,阐述了薄壳山核桃引种驯化、种苗繁育、栽培技术等方面当前研究进展概况,指出薄壳山核桃研究的发展趋势,以期为六安市的林农经济结构调整和农民致富做出贡献。%The paper introduces biology characteristics and geographic ecological characteristics of Carya illinoensis, it elaborates Carya illinoensis’many aspects of introduced cultivation;the seedling breeding, cultivation techniques, and etc. It also indicates research trend for Carya illinoensis’cultivation and plantation. which becomes make a contribution to the structure adjustment of the agricultural e-conomy and the farmer's well-off.

  14. INTERACCIONES NUTRIMENTALES Y NORMAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO DE NUTRIMENTO COMPUESTO EN NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoensis)

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. García-Hernández; I. Orona-Castillo; G. González-Cervantes; R. D. Valdez-Cepeda; B. Murillo-Amador; E. Troyo-Diéguez; M. Fortis-Hernández; M. A. Segura-Castruita

    2009-01-01

    El cultivo de nogal pecanero (Carya illinoensis) es actualmente uno de los de mayor rentabilidad en el norte de México. En la región conocida como la Comarca Lagunera que comprende parte de los estados de Coahuila y Durango se han reportado diversos desbalances nutrimentales que afectan el rendimiento y productividad de este cultivo. Este estudio fue desarrollado para determinar las normas de diagnóstico de nutrimento compuesto (DNC) y para estudiar las interacciones entre nutrimentos de dich...

  15. Sequencing and characterizing odorant receptors of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Robert F.; Hughes, David T.; Luetje, Charles W.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Soriano-Agatón, Flor; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Robertson, Hugh M.

    2012-01-01

    Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine components, and we functionally characterized Ors tuned to three of these chemicals: receptor McOr3 is sensitive to (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol; McOr20 is sensitive to (2S,3R)-2,3-...

  16. Extraction and Purification of Flavone in C.cathayensis Exocarp%山核桃外果皮黄酮提取与纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向明; 徐涛; 查甫本

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the extraction and purification of flavonein C. Cathayensis exocarp, organic solvent extraction was used to extrat flavone compound in C. Cathayensis exocarp. Through single fraction experiments and orthogonal experiments, the optimal technological parameters were determined. The result showed the maximum extraction ration of flavone compound was 1. 14% under the condition of 70% ethanol, time of 4 h, temperature of 60℃ , liquid-solid ratio of 15 mL/g. Silica gel chromatography was used to purify falconoid, liquid-solid ratio of 3 mL/g, gradient eluted by 70% ethanol at the speed of 2 mL/min, the purity of flavone was improved by 34. 6% , and its recovery reached to 89. 46% .%采用有机溶剂萃取法提取山核桃外果皮黄酮化合物,通过单因素和正交试验确定了最佳工艺参数.结果表明,提取溶剂为体积分数70%乙醇、提取时间4h、提取温度60℃、液料比15 mL/g条件下得黄酮化合物最高提取率为1.14%.采用硅胶色谱柱层析法纯化黄酮化合物,在液固比3 mL/g的条件下,体积分数70%乙醇以2 mL/min的流速进行洗脱,黄酮纯度提高了34.6%,总黄酮回收率达89.46%.

  17. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    tuberculatus WM Amorpha A. fruiticosa WMS Betula B. nigra FF, LF Bidens B. cernua, B. frondosa SMA Carex C. spp.1 SM Carya C. cordiformis, C. illinoensis LF...include pecan ( Carya ), hickory ( Carya ), river birch (Betula), sycamore (Platanus), and red/black oak (Quercus). This general class is most com- mon...near the edge of the floodplain, or out of the floodplain. This general class typi- cally consists of red or white oak (Quercus), hickory ( Carya

  18. (Z)-9-nonacosene-major component of the contact sex pheromone of the beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Moreira, Jardel A; Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2006-02-01

    Male Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) respond to females only after touching them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of whole-body solvent extracts of male and female M. caryae revealed substantial differences in hydrocarbon profiles, with nearly half of the compounds in the extracts from females being absent from those of males. Biological activities of fractions of crude extracts of females, and reconstructed blends of the most abundant straight-chain (nC(27), nC(28), nC(29)), methyl-branched (2Me-C(26), 9Me-C(29), 11, 13, 15Me-C(29)), and unsaturated (Z9:C(29), Z13:C(29), Z14:C(29), Z13:C(31), Z14:C(31), Z15:C(31)) compounds in extracts of females were tested in arena bioassays, assessing four steps in the mating behavior sequence of males (orientation, arrestment, body alignment, mounting and attempting to couple the genitalia). Males showed limited response to dead females treated with fractions of the crude extract or blends of synthetic straight-chain and methyl-branched alkanes, but responded strongly to the blend of synthetic monoenes. Further trials determined that the complete sequence of mating behaviors, up to and including coupling the genitalia, was elicited by Z9:C(29) alone. Z9:C(29) is a homolog of the contact pheromone (Z9:C(25)) of the congener M. robiniae (Förster). Previous work with M. robiniae suggested that wipe sampling of cuticular hydrocarbons of females by solid phase microextraction yielded a more representative profile of components actually encountered by a male's antennae, and so provided a more readily interpretable profile of potential semiochemicals present in the wax layer than does solvent extraction. We tested this hypothesis by comparing hydrocarbon profiles of female M. caryae by the two sampling methods. Z9:C(29) was the only compound among the dominant hydrocarbons that was present in higher

  19. Effects of fluidized bed combustion residue on pecan seedling growth and nutrient content. [Carya illinoensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue from a calcitic limestone source (FBCRC), a by-product of scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from fossil fuel fired boilers using the FBC technique was evaluated as a source of calcium for pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) seedlings. Fluidized bed combustion residue produced following injection of calcitic limestone into the combustion chamber was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca levels than agricultural calcitic limestone. The Ca concentration in the pecan leaves was increased linearly by Ca rates for both 12- and 24-week growth periods, but stem and petiole Ca concentration was increased linearly for the second 12-week growth period. Macronutrient concentrations were affected by Ca rates for both 12- and 24-week growth periods, but no effect was observed with Ca source. The primary difference was between the control and all other Ca rates.

  20. Characterization of Carya illinoiensis and Juglans regia oils obtained by different extraction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara Costa-Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to evaluate the extraction processes of vegetable oils used in food, considering that the nuts are rich sources of triacylglycerols. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing the methods of solvent extraction and extraction by pressing of the lipid fractions of walnut (Juglans regia and pecan nut (Carya illinoensis, in order to elucidate their influence on the content of bioactive substances. The samples were analyzed regarding fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, presenting relevant quantities of these bioactive substances. It was found that the extraction of oils by pressing minimized degradation of tocopherol when compared to solvent extraction. However, solvent extraction is more efficient to extract bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

  1. Sequencing and characterizing odorant receptors of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Hughes, David T; Luetje, Charles W; Millar, Jocelyn G; Soriano-Agatón, Flor; Hanks, Lawrence M; Robertson, Hugh M

    2012-07-01

    Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine compovnents, and we functionally characterized Ors tuned to three of these chemicals: receptor McOr3 is sensitive to (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol; McOr20 is sensitive to (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol; and McOr5 is sensitive to 2-phenylethanol. McOr3 and McOr20 are also sensitive to structurally-related chemicals that are pheromones of other cerambycid beetles, suggesting that orthologous receptors may be present across many cerambycid species. These Ors are the first to be functionally characterized from any species of beetle and lay the groundwork for understanding the evolution of pheromones within the Cerambycidae.

  2. Compositional changes of Australia-grown Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singanusong, Riantong; Mason, Richard L; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Nottingham, Stephen M

    2003-01-15

    Changes in composition during the maturation of Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis(Wangenh.) K. Koch] grown in Australia were investigated. Pecans of different maturity levels were collected at monthly intervals between March and June in 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for the concentrations of moisture, total lipid, sucrose, raffinose, protein, and the minerals aluminum, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc. Moisture, total lipid, and calcium contents changed significantly (p < 0.05) with harvest time and maturity, whereas the other components did not. Western Schley pecans grown in Australia should be harvested after the shuck has opened and it is either green or brown in color to maximize total lipid content and quality. This occurred after May 11 in 1999 and after May 17 in 2000.

  3. Elaboration and sensory evaluation of pecan nut butter (Carya Illinoensis K suitable for people with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to elaborate two butters with pecan nut (Carya Illinoensis K, suitable for people with chronic degenerative diseases and with cardio vascular risk. Because are these diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the world. The pecan nut (Carya Illinoensis K is a food rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs such as oleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs such as linoleic acid, which have been shown to be effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels. A sensorial test was also carried out to see the grade level of this product, finding that it was well accepted by potential consumers. The parameters that most influenced the choice and acceptability of butter were the appearance and consistency.

  4. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    OpenAIRE

    McMeans, J L

    1983-01-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  5. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeans, J L

    1983-02-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  6. 山核桃属部分种的核型分析%Karyotypes of Three Carya Nutt. Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕芳德; 杨帆; 张日清

    2002-01-01

    对山核桃属中的美国山核桃Carya illinoensis、浙江山核桃Carya cathayensis、云南山核桃Carya tonkinensis的核型进行了研究.结果表明:浙江山核桃和云南山核桃染色体数目为32,核型类型为2A,浙江山核桃核型公式为K(2n)=8sm+22m+2T,云南山核桃核型公式K(2n)=8sm+22m(SAT)+2T;美国山核桃染色体数目为32,核型类型为2B,核型公式为K(2n)=10sm+20m+2T.根据分析结果,讨论了它们的亲缘关系、进化地位及分类等问题.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Luehea divaricata, Carya illinoinensis AND Platanus x acerifolia WHEN SUBMITTED TO BENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted with the purpose of investigating bending characteristics of the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc and Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch. Such species were collected from non-managed forests located in Depressão Central and Encosta Superior do Nordeste, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five representative adult trees from each species per studied area were cut down, corresponding to a total of thirty trees. From the trunk, a 2.5 m long log was taken and, afterwards, transported to a sawmill for processing. A central 8 cm thick plank was sawn, from which samples for bending were manufactured. The samples were conditioned in standard room to a moisture content of approximately 14%. Then, the samples were placed in boiling water during 35 minutes and bended in rays of 16 and 21cm. For the qualification of the bending defects, the methodology presented by Vorreiter (1958 was used. Results showed that the wood of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch had the best bending characteristics when compared to the other two species, independently of the ray bending tested. It seems that the ring porosity, characteristic of the Carya illinoinensis wood, contributed to the result. On the other hand, the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd. and Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc, with diffuse porosity and larger parenchyma proportion, presented more defective pieces.

  8. Physically (CO2) activated hydrochars from hickory and peanut hull: preparation, characterization, and sorption of methylene blue, lead, copper, and cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of carbon dioxide activation temperature (600-900 degree Celsius °C) and time (1 and 2 h) on the physicochemical and sorptive characteristics of hickory and peanut hull hydrochars were investigated. The extent of burn-off increased with increasing activation times and temperatures, and r...

  9. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren

    2005-01-01

    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  10. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett, Roseane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% ± 0.06, the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 μmol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction. The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion.La composición nutricional de la cáscara de nuez Pecana [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] y los contenidos de fenoles totales y de taninos condensados de la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana se determinaron en este trabajo. La actividad antioxidante de la infusión se evaluó a través de los sistemas ABTS, DPPH y β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. La cáscara presentó un contenido elevado de fibras (48% ± 0,06, el contenido de fenoles totales varió de 116 a 167 mg GAE/g y el de taninos condensados se encontró entre 35 y 48 mg CE/g. La actividad antioxidante varió entre 1112 y 1763 μmol TEAC/g en el sistema ABTS. Por el método DPPH, la actividad antioxidante fue de 305 a 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutos de reacción y de 482 a 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h de reacción. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación que se obtuvo en el sistema β -caroteno/ácido linoleico varió de 70 a 96%. Los resultados indicaron un elevado contenido de fenoles y una elevada actividad antioxidante para la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana.

  11. A Novel Four-step Approach for Systematic Identification of Naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis Dode using Various Scan Functions of Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry along with Data Mining Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Li, Aiqian; Song, Chengwu; Chen, Chang; Xu, Yong; Ruan, Hanli; Jiang, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    Systematic analyses of naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis have not yet been reported. It is very challenging to identify naphthoquinones with various structural diversities, especially those at trace levels. To develop an efficient analytical approach for systematic discovery and identification of naphthoquinones in Juglans cathayensis. A novel four-step approach was evaluated by utilizing various scan functions of liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS) along with data mining strategies. First, MS/MS fragmentation behaviors of naphthoquinones were investigated. Second, multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI) with specified ions was conducted to identify targeted naphthoquinones. Third, other scan functions of QTRAP-MS/MS and data mining strategies were explored to identify untargeted naphthoquinones. Fourth, structural rationalization and confirmation of naphthoquinones were performed using QTOF-MS/MS via its accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation functions. Optimal scan methods and data mining strategies using QTRAP-MS/MS were obtained for identification of targeted and untargeted naphthoquinones. Consequently, 48 naphthoquinones including 24 novel ones were identified or tentatively identified from Juglans cathayensis. A novel four-step approach for efficient discovery and identification of naphthoquinones was developed by exploring various scan functions of current LC-MS/MS technologies and data mining strategies, providing an example for systematic characterization of certain classes of phytochemicals, especially trace analytes in complex samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Antimycobacterial activity of Juglans regia, Juglans mollis, Carya illinoensis and Bocconia frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva; Verde-Star, María Julia; Salinas-González, Noé; Rosales-Hernández, Bibiana; Estrada-García, Iris; Mendez-Aragón, Patricia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; González-Garza, María Teresa; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2008-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 2 million people per year. Alternative antimycobacterial drugs are urgently needed; studies have shown that medicinal plants traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases are a potential source of compounds to treat tuberculosis. This paper studied the antimycobacterial activity of 28 extracts from four different plant species that have been used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat tuberculosis. Bark and leaf crude extracts of Juglans regia L., Juglans mollis Engelm., Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch and Bocconia frutescens showed in vitro anti-M. tuberculosis activity. Hexane bark extracts from C. illinoensis, J. mollis and J. regia were the most active with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31, 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Ethanol bark extracts from C. illinoensis and J. mollis showed activity at 100 and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts had the lowest activity. Methanol and hexane leaves extracts from B. frutescens had a MIC of 125 microg/mL. None of the aqueous extracts showed antimycobacterial activity.

  13. Prehistory of the Little Blue River Valley, Western Missouri: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Components Carya cordiformis, bitternut hickory fall Carya ovata, shagbark hickory fall Celtis occidentalis, hackberry fall Ouercus alba, white oak...plantain) summer Dalea multiflora (many-flowered prairie clover) summer Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover) summer Desmanthus illinoensis ...include Illinois bundleflow,_r (Desmanthus illinoensis ), prairie clover (Dalea tenuiflora) and blacke :d susan (Rudbeckia hirta). By August many of the

  14. Milan Army Ammunition Plant. Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 4. Appendices M - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    oak Quercus alba Willow oak Quercus phellos Osage orange Maclura pomifera Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Loblolly pine Pinus...Sweet gum Liquidambar styraciflua Pignut hickory Carya glabra Shagbark hickory Ca,’ya ovata Holly h1ex opaca Black locust Acer rubrum Black oak Quercus

  15. Archaeological Testing of the Bauman Site (23STG158) Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    with exception of the absence of black walnut, hazelnut and acorn remains. Identified remains include those of Carya illinoensis (pecan), Carya spp...spp.), black walnut (Juglans nigra), hickory nut ( Carya spp.), maize (Zea mays), knotweed (Polygonum erectum), and morning glory (Convolvulaceae). While...shagbark group), Carya spp. (kingnut group), and Juglandaceae (Table 24). Differen- " tiations among Carya taxa were made employing Lopinot’s (1983

  16. 美国山核桃光合作用初探%Preliminary study of photosynthesis in Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄菁; 吕芳德; 和红晓

    2011-01-01

    利用Li-6400便携式光合作用测定仪,研究了美国山核桃田间条件下的光合特性,结果表明:净光合速率为双峰曲线,首峰值大于次峰值,有明显的"午休"现象,日最大峰值出现在10:00前后;其蒸腾速率的日变化为单峰曲线,最高值出现在中午12:00前后;通过光合速率与生理、环境因子进行分析得出,影响日变化的主要因子为气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度和光合有效辐射.%With the international advance Li-6400 portable photosynthesis, the photosynthetic characteristics of Carya illinoensis were studied.The main results were obtained as follows:Diurnal change in net photosynthetic rate(Pn) in Carya illinoensis was a "none-drop" bimodal curve.The first peak was higher more than the secondary peak.There was obvious "midday rest".The peak appeared at 10:00.Diurnal change of transpiration rate (Tr) showed only one peak.The peak appeared at 12:00.Analysis results in net photosynthetic rate, physical factors and environmental factors show that main influencing factors of net photosynthetic rate in Carya illinoensis were cond,Ci,PAR.

  17. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts ( Carya illinoensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C. A.; Rodas, Maria A. B.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2009-07-01

    Pecan nuts ( Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as α-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  18. Production Situation of Carya illinoensis in USA%美国薄壳山核桃生产概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿国民; 周久亚

    2009-01-01

    The natural distribution,cultivation history,cultivation types,cultivars,field management,yield and sales status of Carya illinoensis in USA were summarized so as to provide references and be help for the research and development of C.illinoensis in China.%概述了薄壳山核桃在美国的自然分布、栽培历史、生产栽培类型、品种、田间管理以及产量和销售状况,以期为我国的薄壳山核桃生产发展提供借鉴与帮助.

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. L. Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Rodas, Maria A.B. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355, 01246-902 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. L. Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as {alpha}-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  20. Composition of pecan cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.)K. Koch] grown in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, L T; Mason, R L; D'Arcy, B R; Caffin, N A

    2001-03-01

    Pecans from the cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] collected over three years were analyzed for the following constituents: total lipid content; fatty acid profiles; sucrose content; protein; total dietary fiber; the minerals magnesium, calcium, potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, boron, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, and aluminum; vitamin C; and lipase and lipoxygenase activities. Year of harvest and cultivar had little effect on the composition of the pecans. Overall, protein content was the only constituent that differed between pecans grown in Australia and those grown in the United States. This difference is probably related to differences in growing location and horticultural practices between the two countries.

  1. Propagation techniques of Carya illinoensis%薄壳山核桃繁殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟海英; 吴文龙; 闾连飞; 李维林

    2005-01-01

    薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis k.koch)又名长山核桃、美国山核桃,是世界著名的干果之一。其果实营养丰富,适于生食、炒食或制作糕点。种仁是炸油的好原料,油中的脂肪酸主要为不饱和脂肪酸,是一种高级食用油。薄壳山核桃树干通直,木材坚固强韧,纹理致密,富有弹性,不易翘裂,也是优良的用材树种。薄壳山核桃生长迅速,树体高大,枝叶茂密,树姿优美,又是很好的城乡绿化树种。薄壳山核桃于1900年左右引入我国,先后在江苏的江阴、南京,浙江的杭州,福建的莆田等地栽植。目前引种范围较广,北至北京,南至海南岛都有引种,但以江苏、浙江、福建和安徽等地较多。

  2. Archeological Survey of Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri Contract No. DACW41-81-C...Jackson _________________________56 1989 907 0J) O . ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF SELECTED FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREAS AT POMME DE TERRE AND...NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Securrty Classification) Archeological Survey of Selected Fish and Wildlife Management Areas at Pomme de Terre

  3. Archaeological Investigations of the Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 2 - Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Swanton 1946). Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ): Pecan shell was recovered from 32 features; the features also yielded the remains of other nut foods. 111-10...Scientific Common Acer sp. Maple Arundinaria gigantea Cane Asteraceae Composite Family Carya sp. Hickory Celtis sp. Hackberry or Sugarberry...presented below. 111-9 Hickory ( Carya sp.): Table 111-4 presents a summary of all nut remains recovered from various features and proveniences. It will be

  4. Tradition and Culture Change in the Oklahoma Delaware Big House Community: 1867-1924.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Viburnum prunifolium), pecans ( Carya adult Delaware settlers. Nor is their use of the illinoensis ), persimmon (Diospyro virginiana), cabin divergent from...preparations Sycamore Platanus occidentails xaxakw "tree" Chips of heartwood boiled to make a tea Pecans Carya illinoensis KIT:m Nuts eaten in fall I...Bark used to sweeten and preserve fat; inner bark used to repair baskets Hickory Carya hickori t~tpan%.ma;i "bitter nut tree" Used in basketry and for

  5. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  6. Archeological Survey of Undeveloped Portions of Eaker Air Force Base, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    Swamp (Quercus bicolor) T I White (Quercus alba)11 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw...Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Sheilbark ( Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeamn (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica

  7. A Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Report of the Elk Chute West Ditch Channel Cleanout Project, Dunklin and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    T Red (Quercus rubra) 1 1 Spanish (Quercus falcata) I Swamp (Quercus bicolor) T I White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon...Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) I Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark ( Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya

  8. Monitoring oak-hickory forest change during an unprecedented red oak borer outbreak in the Ozark Mountains: 1990 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua S.; Tullis, Jason A.; Haavik, Laurel J.; Guldin, James M.; Stephen, Fred M.

    2014-01-01

    Upland oak-hickory forests in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma experienced oak decline in the late 1990s and early 2000s during an unprecedented outbreak of a native beetle, the red oak borer (ROB), Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman). Although remote sensing supports frequent monitoring of continuously changing forests, comparable in situ observations are critical for developing an understanding of past and potential ROB damage in the Ozark Mountains. We categorized forest change using a normalized difference water index (NDWI) applied to multitemporal Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery (1990, 2001, and 2006). Levels of decline or growth were categorized using simple statistical thresholds of change in the NDWI over time. Corresponding decline and growth areas were then observed in situ where tree diameter, age, crown condition, and species composition were measured within variable radius plots. Using a machine learning decision tree classifier, remote sensing-derived decline and growth was characterized in terms of in situ observation. Plots with tree quadratic mean diameter at breast height ≥21.5 cm were categorized remotely as in severe decline. Landsat TM/ETM+-based NDWI derivatives reveal forest decline and regrowth in post-ROB outbreak surveys. Historical and future Landsat-based canopy change detection should be incorporated with existing landscape-based prediction of ROB hazard.

  9. 温度和盐度对中华圆田螺和铜锈环棱螺标准代谢的影响%Influence of water temperature and salinity on standard metabolism of Cipangopaludina cathayensis and Bellamya aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙陆宇; 温晓蔓; 禹娜; 陈立侨

    2012-01-01

    利用室内模拟实验研究了环境因子(温度和盐度)对中华圆田螺(Cipangopaludina cathayensis)和铜锈环棱螺(Bellamya aeruginosa)标准代谢的影响.结果表明,在10~35℃范围内,两种螺的耗氧率、CO2排放率和排氨率均随温度的升高而升高,至30℃达到最大值.从Q10值来看,铜锈环棱螺的代谢水平对水温的响应较中华圆田螺更为敏感.呼吸熵和氧氮比结果表明,25℃时两种螺体内的蛋白质消耗最少,由此初步判断二者的最适温度在25℃左右.盐度升高至1.8时两种螺的耗氧率等代谢指标显著提高,同时二者对温度变化的敏感性降低.但从动物呼吸熵和氧氮比的测定结果来看,该盐度下机体仍维持在相对正常的代谢水平.温度和盐度对中华圆田螺代谢活动的影响有显著的交互作用,但对铜锈环棱螺的影响不显著.此外,两种螺的代谢率都存在明显的昼夜变化规律,夜晚的代谢率要显著高于白天.%Little is known about the biogenetics of gastropods. To address this, we measured the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of C. cathayensis and B. aeruginosa at different water temperatures, salinities, and time regimes. We measured SMR every 6 h using the bottle-incubation method. Individuals were incubated at six temperatures (from 10 to 35t) and two salinity levels (0.3 and 1.8), to simulate saltwater intrusion. The O2 consumption rate,ammonia excretion rate, and CO2 emission rate of the two gastropods were significantly affected by water temperature (P<0.0l). The body temperature of C. cathayensis and B. aeruginosa varied significantly with changes in temperature and salinity, causing changes in enzyme activity. We calculated the Ql0, O:N, and the respiratory using the O2 consumption rate, ammonia excretion rate, and CO2 emission rate. These indices can be used to indicate energy sources in vivo and provide insight into how individuals cope with environmental changes. The ratio of O:N and the

  10. Introduction and Development of Carya illinoensis in Honghe Prefecture%红河州薄壳山核桃引种及产业发展分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣贵

    2013-01-01

    Through 20 years of introduction observation,growing status of Carya illinoensis was normal in Honghe prefecture,and had better cultivation benefit.Third year grafted seedlings began to fruit,ten year grafted seedlings teemed with fruits; eight year grafted seedling produced 13 kg per strains maximum.The average yield per crown projected area was up to 0.17 kg.The seed is full,with the kernel easy to take,in pure flavor,and good quality.Carya illinoensis was suitable to be planted in area of altitude 800 ~ 1600 m.The favorable conditions and constraints of Carya illinoensis planting were analyzed.It was esteemed that as long as planning,planting and managing were carried out scientifically,the prospects of Carya illinoensis industry is promising.%通过20年的引种观察认为,薄壳山核桃在红河州生长结果正常,栽培效益好,嫁接苗种植第三年开始挂果,10年进入盛果初期,8 a生最高株产达13 kg,每树冠投影面积平均产量0.17 kg,种实饱满,取仁容易,味道香纯,品质优良,适宜在红河州海拔800 ~1 600 m的区域栽培.对红河州种植该树种的有利条件及制约因素进行分析,认为只要科学规划、种植、管理,发展薄壳山核桃产业前景广阔.

  11. 薄壳山核桃无性繁殖技术研究进展%Research Progress of Asexual Propagation Techniques of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊南; 李莲芳; 熊新武; 陈宏伟; 习学良

    2012-01-01

    综述了薄壳山核桃无性繁殖技术的研究进展,指出薄壳山核桃是国外引进的高档干果树种和特色新产业.薄壳山核桃无性繁殖技术研究现状包括砧木培育,嫁接技术及影响嫁接成活的因素,扦插繁殖,分株繁殖等栽培研究现状,提出目前薄壳山核桃无性繁殖存在的问题,旨在为薄壳山核桃的良种繁育提供参考.%The research progress of Carya illinoensis asexual propagation technology was summarized. The research status of asexual propagation technique Of Carya illinoensis include rootstock cultivation, grafting techniques and influencing factors, cutting propagation, division propagation. The main existing problems were put forward, so as to provide reference for fine variety breeding of Carya illinoensis.

  12. Características tecnológicas das madeiras de Luehea divaricata, Carya illinoinensis e Platanus x acerifolia quando submetidas ao vergamento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted with the purpose of investigating bending characteristics of the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd., Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc and Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch. Such species were collected from non-managed forests located in Depressão Central and Encosta Superior do Nordeste, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Five representative adult trees from each species per studied area were cut down, corresponding to a total of thirty trees. From the trunk, a 2.5 m long log was taken and, afterwards, transported to a sawmill for processing. A central 8 cm thick plank was sawn, from which samples for bending were manufactured. The samples were conditioned in standard room to a moisture content of approximately 14%. Then, the samples were placed in boiling water during 35 minutes and bended in rays of 16 and 21cm. For the qualification of the bending defects, the methodology presented by Vorreiter (1958 was used. Results showed that the wood of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch had the best bending characteristics when compared to the other two species, independently of the ray bending tested. It seems that the ring porosity, characteristic of the Carya illinoinensis wood, contributed to the result. On the other hand, the wood of Platanus x acerifolia (Ait. Willd. and Luehea divaricata Mart. et Zucc, with diffuse porosity and larger parenchyma proportion, presented more defective pieces

  13. Analysis of Carya illinoensis main diseases occurrence and control%薄壳山核桃主要病害发生规律及防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨云为; 赵盼盼; 黄麟; 曹霞; 梁艳; 叶健; 高瑾

    2015-01-01

    The domestic and overseas literatures about diseases in Carya illinoensis were collected, and the species, pathogen, damage characteristics and bio⁃control of diseases in Carya illinoensis were summarized. There are 21 species diseases in Carya illinoensis, including 16 fungal diseases, 3 bacterial diseases and 2 nematode diseases. There are 8 main diseases and in which scab, powdery mildew and melasma have the most serious harm. Nowadays leaf scorch,crown gall,bunch,root knot nematode and dagger nematode have not been found yet at home.But the harm in foreign countries was serious, it should be got attention as quarantine disease. In recent years, the domestic pathogenesis trend of increased significantly. It caused serious harm to the trunk of many kinds of Carya illinoensis whose age were over 5⁃year⁃old and it often lead to the death of the whole tree. Zonate spot and maldel secco mostly belonged to weak parasitic fungal diseases;the harm of it was slight. The paper aims at providing theoretical guidance for control of the disease of Carya illinoensis.%对薄壳山核桃病害的种类、病原菌、发生规律及防治措施进行了总结,统计可知,已见报道的薄壳山核桃病害总计21种,其中真菌性病害16种、细菌性病害3种、线虫病害2种;主要的病害有8种,以疮痂病、白粉病、黑斑病危害最为严重。目前叶焦病、冠瘿病、丛枝病、根结线虫和剑线虫等危害薄壳山核桃现象在国内尚未被发现,但在国外危害情况比较严重,应作为我国检疫性病害重点关注对象;薄壳山核桃干腐病近几年在国内发病的趋势上升显著,尤其是对5年生以上多个品种的树干危害比较严重,经常导致整株死亡;轮斑病和干枯病等大多为弱寄生性真菌病害,其危害较轻。

  14. Protective effects of a by-product of the pecan nut industry (Carya illinoensis) on the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rats Carya illinoensis protects against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnú, D; Barcelos, R C S; Boufleur, N; Reckziegel, P; Pase, C S; Müller, L G; Martins, N M B; Vareli, C; Bürger, M E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant effects of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in the heart, kidney, liver, bladder, plasma and erythrocytes of rats. Rats were treated with water or pecan shell AE (5%) ad libitum, replacing drinking water for 37 days up to the end of the experiment. On day 30, half of each group received a single administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg-ip. After 7 days, the organs were removed. Rats treated with CP showed an increase in lipid peroxidation (LP) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in all structures. Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in the heart and decreased in liver and kidney. Besides, CP treatment decreased plasmatic vitamin C (VIT C) levels and induced bladder macroscopical and microscopical damages. In contrast, co-treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the LP development and the GSH depletion in all structures, except in the heart and plasma, respectively. CAT activity in the heart and liver as well as the plasmatic VIT C levels remained unchanged. Finally, AE prevented CP-induced bladder injury. These findings revealed the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced multiple organ toxicity.

  15. A statistical design for testing apomictic diversification through linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yanru; Hou, Wei; Song, Shuang; Feng, Sisi; Shen, Lin; Xia, Guohua; Wu, Rongling

    2014-03-01

    The capacity of apomixis to generate maternal clones through seed reproduction has made it a useful characteristic for the fixation of heterosis in plant breeding. It has been observed that apomixis displays pronounced intra- and interspecific diversification, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this diversification remains elusive, obstructing the exploitation of this phenomenon in practical breeding programs. By capitalizing on molecular information in mapping populations, we describe and assess a statistical design that deploys linkage analysis to estimate and test the pattern and extent of apomictic differences at various levels from genotypes to species. The design is based on two reciprocal crosses between two individuals each chosen from a hermaphrodite or monoecious species. A multinomial distribution likelihood is constructed by combining marker information from two crosses. The EM algorithm is implemented to estimate the rate of apomixis and test its difference between two plant populations or species as the parents. The design is validated by computer simulation. A real data analysis of two reciprocal crosses between hickory (Carya cathayensis) and pecan (C. illinoensis) demonstrates the utilization and usefulness of the design in practice. The design provides a tool to address fundamental and applied questions related to the evolution and breeding of apomixis.

  16. Analysis of the Infrared Spectrum of Oil Samples of 5 Pecan nut Varieties (Carya Illinoensis K and their Comparison with Other Vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Chacón-Garza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the stability of pecan nut oil (Carya Illinoensis K from 5 different varieties, by chemical analysis of peroxides and saponification index, as well as an analysis of infrared spectroscopy in order to compare the spectra of the oils, and determine the degree of similarity they have with other vegetable oils rich in oleic and linolenic acid. The oil samples had a good stability over 3 months and no significant differences were found in the composition of the same, and they were very similar to other oils of vegetable origin.

  17. RESPUESTAS MORFOGÉNICAS EN LA PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín A. Ávila-Treviño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las respuestas embriogénicas y organogénicas en nogal (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch se observaron bajo el cultivo in vitro de segmentos de hojas, yemas axilares y embriones cigóti- cos. El necrosamiento se controló empleando carbón activado (CA: 1 %, polivinilpirrolidona (0.1 %, nitrato de plata (AgNO3: 1 %, ácido cítrico (150 mg·L-1 y ácido ascórbico (100 mg·L-1, con presencia de luz y en oscuridad. Se utilizó el medio básico de Murashige y Skoog suplementado con 0.40 mg·L-1 de tiamina, 100 mg·L-1 de myo-inositol, 3 % de sacarosa, incorporando 2,4-D para hojas, tidiazurón (TDZ para embriones, y las combinaciones de benciladenina (BA, kinetina (KIN, ácido naftalenacético (ANA y ácido indolbutírico (AIB para yemas axilares. El necrosamiento de tejidos se redujo en 75 % y 83 % adicionando CA y AgNO3, respectivamente. El 33 % y 66 % de los callos embriogénicos se indujeron a partir de hojas, utilizando 1 y 3 mg·L-1 de 2,4-D. La mayor producción de callos (58 % a partir de embriones se obtuvo con la concentración de 3 mg·L-1 de TDZ. En yemas axilares, la combinación de KIN (3.0 μM, BA (1.0 μM y AIB (0.3 μM incrementó el número de hojas y plántulas, y longitud de brotes.

  18. National Program of Inspection of Non-Federal Dams, Tennessee. Spring Lake Dam (Candlewood II) Old Hickory Dam (Candlewood III) (Inventory Numbers TN 06930 & TN 06926), Hatchie River Basin, near Saulsbury, Hardeman County, Tennessee. Phase I Investigation Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    20314. 1.3 Past Inspections - Past inspections of Spring Lake and Old Hickory Lake Dams include cursory inspections by George Moore and Troy Wedekind of...aertificate Cursory Preliminary Site Review Damage Potential Category:One Two Three Undetermined Inspection by: George Moore and Troy Wedekind Inspection...Cursory Preliminary Site Review Damage Potential Category:One Two Three __ Undetermined Inspection by: George Moore and Troy Wedekind Inspection Results

  19. Study on Qingfeng Carya illinoensis Base Construction in Anhui Province%安徽青峰薄壳山核桃基地建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁胜; 杨兰菊

    2013-01-01

    通过建设项目实例阐述薄壳山核桃基地建设方案、品种选择、工艺流程等,为基地建设提供技术理论参考。基地建设对周边区域的薄壳山核桃推广种植有辐射带动和示范作用,下一步就新品种引进及企业市场经营管理等需要更进一步研究。%This article described the construction project of Carya illinoensis base-building plan,species selection, technical process,etc.,to provide technical theoretical reference for construction. Based on the surrounding region through the promotion of planting Carya illinoensis radiation and exemplary role,the next step is to take further study about the introduction of new varieties and business market management.

  20. Analysis on the Planting of Carya Illinoensis in Lianyungang Regions%连云港地区种植薄壳山核桃的研究价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤成文; 郭斌

    2012-01-01

    Carya illinoensis, with straight trunk, widely ovate crowns and developed root system, is tolerant of moisture and can be isolated planted or mass planted beside the lake or on the lawns., etc. It is suitable for the shade trees and roadside trees, as well as the afforestations along the rivers or in the plain areas. It can be used as good urban greening tree species and fruit timber tree species. Carya illinoensis can be planted on both sides of the Yangtze River and build large economic forest. Its kernel is edible and delicious and the extracted oil can be used as food. Because of its resilience, it is good military materials. The kernel contains more than 70% oils.%薄壳山核桃树干端直,树冠近广卵形,根系发达,耐水湿,可孤植、丛植于湖畔、草坪等,宜作庭荫树,行道树,亦适于河流沿岸及平原地区绿化造林,为很好的城乡绿化树种和果材兼用树种,江苏省长江两岸可大片营造经济林.核仁可食,味美榨油供食用;材质坚韧,为优良的军工用材.种仁含油量达70%以上.

  1. A male-produced aggregation pheromone blend consisting of alkanediols, terpenoids, and an aromatic alcohol from the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Emerson S; Moreira, Jardel A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2008-03-01

    Bioassays conducted with a Y-tube olfactometer provided evidence that both sexes of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) were attracted to odor produced by males. Odor collected from male M. caryae contained eight male-specific compounds: a 10:1 blend of (2S,3R)- and (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediols (representing 3.2 +/- 1.3% of the total male-specific compounds), (S)-(-)-limonene (3.1 +/- 1.7%), 2-phenylethanol (8.0 +/- 2.4%), (-)-alpha-terpineol (10.0 +/- 2.8%), nerol (2.1 +/- 1.5%), neral (63.3 +/- 7.3%), and geranial (8.8 +/- 2.4%). Initial field bioassays determined that none of these compounds was attractive as a single component. Further field trials that used a subtractive bioassay strategy determined that both sexes were attracted to the complete blend of synthetic components, but the elimination of any one component resulted in a decline in trap captures. Blends that were missing (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol, or citral (a 1:1 mixture of neral and geranial) attracted no more beetles than did controls. A pheromone blend of this complexity, composed of alkanediols, terpenoids, and aromatic alcohols, is unprecedented for cerambycid species.

  2. Litter Species Composition and Topographic Effects on Fuels and Modeled Fire Behavior in an Oak-Hickory Forest in the Eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Matthew B; Hutchinson, Todd F; Dietenberger, Mark; Matt, Frederick; Peters, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Mesophytic species (esp. Acer rubrum) are increasingly replacing oaks (Quercus spp.) in fire-suppressed, deciduous oak-hickory forests of the eastern US. A pivotal hypothesis is that fuel beds derived from mesophytic litter are less likely than beds derived from oak litter to carry a fire and, if they do, are more likely to burn at lower intensities. Species effects, however, are confounded by topographic gradients that affect overstory composition and fuel bed decomposition. To examine the separate and combined effects of litter species composition and topography on surface fuel beds, we conducted a common garden experiment in oak-hickory forests of the Ohio Hills. Each common garden included beds composed of mostly oak and mostly maple litter, representative of oak- and maple-dominated stands, respectively, and a mixture of the two. Beds were replenished each fall for four years. Common gardens (N = 16) were established at four topographic positions (ridges, benches on south- and northeast-facing slopes, and stream terraces) at each of four sites. Litter source and topographic position had largely independent effects on fuel beds and modeled fire dynamics after four years of development. Loading (kg m-2) of the upper litter layer (L), the layer that primarily supports flaming spread, was least in more mesic landscape positions and for maple beds, implying greater decomposition rates for those situations. Bulk density in the L layer (kg m-3) was least for oak beds which, along with higher loading, would promote fire spread and fireline intensity. Loading and bulk density of the combined fermentation and humic (FH) layers were least on stream terrace positions but were not related to species. Litter- and FH-layer moistures during a 5-day dry-down period after a rain event were affected by time and topographic effects while litter source effects were not evident. Characteristics of flaming combustion determined with a cone calorimeter pointed to greater fireline

  3. ESTIMATION OF AGE OF SEGREGATION OF JUVENILE AND MATURE Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch WOOD USING ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the demarcation of juvenile and mature wood is essential both for wood technology and forest management. Thinning, in most cases, must take into account this parameter, as the juvenile wood has inferior characteristics compared to mature wood, and different proportions of each type of wood will affect the quality and the use of the wood. Thus, this study aimed to determine the age of maturation of the wood using anatomical characteristics of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch wood, through the segregation of juvenile and mature wood. Three adult trees, of good trunk, with diameter greater than 30 cm DBH, were chosen from the region Encosta Superior do Nordeste in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul. From each tree, one disc was removed, with approximately 2 cm in thickness, at 0.10 m in height of the trunk. From each disc was removed a central portion of 2 cm in width, well oriented in the radial direction, including the pith in the center, and this central portion was divided into samples “A” and “B”. One of these two samples was selected for separation of the initial wood of each growth ring for maceration (Jeffrey method . First, the length, width and diameter of the lumen of one hundred fibers were measured in the first ring (next to the bark and later, thirty fibers were defined per growth ring as statistically sufficient for the assay. The thickness of the walls of the fiber was taken as the half of the difference of the diameter of the fiber and the lumen. The segregation of the two types of wood was defined by the radial variation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers, through two simple linear regressions. The results indicate that the fiber length is the best characteristic for the definition of the year of segregation. The age of segregation of juvenile-mature wood was defined as 16 years. In their turn, the anatomical parameters

  4. Environmental and Cultural Impact. Proposed Tennessee Colony Reservoir, Trinity River, Texas. Volume IV. Appendix F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Some other species in this area are hackberry (Celtis laevigata), water oak (Quercus nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), and American elm (Ulmus...Some upland hickory species ( Carya ) will also be encountered. These areas should be maintained as such in order to prevent erosion of the future

  5. La Farge Lake, Kickapoo River, Vernon County, Wisconsin, Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-18

    alternifolia (Wingstem), Asimina. triloba (Paw Paw), Aster vimineus, Buchloe dactylodes (Buffalo Grass), Carya glabra (Sweet Pg-ut), illinoensis (Pecan...black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Quercus alba), and hickory ( Carya cordiformes) generally occupy the drier uplands and slopes with south and

  6. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing for Davis Pond Freshwater Diversion, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    virginiana, Q. alba, Q. nigra), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), hackberry (Celtis laevigata ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styaciflua), pecan (Carya illinoiensis...Subdominants include the sweet gum (Liquidambar stryaciflua), hackberry (Celtis laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other forest species...common shrub species are palmetto (Sabal minor) and green haw ( Crataegus viridis), but thickets of possum-haw (Ilex decidua) also occur. Within

  7. Removal of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by biochar derived from KMnO4 treated hickory wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Gao, Bin; Wang, Shenseng; Fang, June; Xue, Yingwen; Yang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a novel approach was developed to prepare an engineered biochar from KMnO4 treated hickory wood through slow pyrolysis (600°C). Characterization experiments with various tools showed that the engineered biochar surface was covered with MnOx ultrafine particles. In comparison to the pristine biochar, the engineered biochar also had more surface oxygen-containing functional groups and much larger surface area. Batch sorption experiments showed that the engineered biochar had strong sorption ability to Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) with maximum sorption capacities of 153.1, 34.2, and 28.1mg/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the pristine biochar. Batch sorption experiments also showed that the dosage, initial solution pH, and ionic strength affected the removal of the heavy metals by the biochars. The removal of the metals by the engineered biochar was mainly through surface adsorption mechanisms involving both the surface MnOx particles and oxygen-containing groups.

  8. Moisture changes in oak and hickory fuel chips on roofed and unroofed Louisiana air-drying grounds as affected by pile depth and turning of chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P.

    1983-06-01

    Freshly cut whole-tree hickory chips had lower moisture content (MC) initially and dried more rapidly than those of southern red oak. Such chips spread during April, 1981 in roofed trays did not dry to 20 percent MC, ovendry-weight basis, faster than those spread in October, 1980. In roofed trays, unturned chips spread 4 inches deep generally dried more rapidly than if spread 8 or 12 inches deep. Times to 20 percent average MC for layers 4, 8, and 12 inches deep were 78 to 94, 79 to 136, and 81 to 150 days, respectively. Twelve-inch-thick layers of southern red oak chips in unroofed trays increased in MC with time, but less so if turned weekly. Twelve-inch-thick layers of southern red oak chips in roofed trays dried considerably faster if turned. Even when in roofed trays and turned weekly, however, 87 days of drying were required to reach 31 percent average MC, and 151 days to reach 29 percent MC.

  9. Sterling C. Robertson Dam and Limestone Lake on the Navasota River, Texas (Leon, Limestone and Robertson Counties).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    flatsedge (Cyperus s p.) , and Spanish mulberry (Callicarpa americana). Common bottomland forest species included pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), post...ona-wiibT Bull Briar Smilax glauca Cat Greenbriar Salix nigra Black Willow Carya illinoensis Pecan Carya texana Black Hickory Q-erustlefata Post Oak... illinoensis ), post oak (Quercus stellata). hackberry (Ce/is sp.), elm (Ulmus sp.), and holly. Species common in the prairie site included Croton sp., prairie

  10. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  11. Market analysis of food products for detection of allergenic walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2015-06-15

    Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) traces in a wide range of processed foods are described here. The method consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the ITS1 region, using a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labeled with FAM and BBQ. The method was positive for walnut and pecan respectively, and negative for all other heterologous plants and animals tested. Using a series of model samples with defined raw walnut in wheat flour and heat-treated walnut in wheat flour with a range of concentrations of 0.1-100,000 mg kg(-1), a practical detection limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of walnut content was estimated. Identical binary mixtures were done for pecan, reaching the same limit of detection of 0.1 mg kg(-1). The assay was successfully trialed on a total of 232 commercial foodstuffs.

  12. 不同处理对美国山核桃种子发芽的影响%Treatments for germination of Carya illinoinensis seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芳; 杨建华; 范志远; 习学良; 陈宏伟

    2011-01-01

    A germination test of Carya illinoinensis seeds was conducted with different storage times and methods as well as various soaking methods using phytohormones, and differing seed stratification procedures. Results showed that seeds of C. illinoinensis should not be sown immediately after harvest. For seeds stored for more than 2 months, a 3-5 ℃ cold storage was best; and as storage time increased, germination rate decreased. The germination rate improved remarkably with phytohormones and stratification. Among stratification methods, soaking the seeds in phytohormone for 8 d and then stratifying them indoors for 35 d, produced seed germination rates as high as 91%.%对美国山核桃Carya illinoensis,种子分别进行了不同储藏时间、不同储藏方式和不同植物生长调节物质浸种,结合层积处理的种子发芽试验.结果表明:美国山核桃种子不宜即采即播,种子储藏在2个月以上用3~5℃冷库保存效果较好,随着储藏时间的推移,发芽率会降低;植物生长调节物质浸种和层积催芽可显著地提高美国山核桃种子的发芽率.层积催芽前最好用植物生长调节物质浸种8 d,然后在室内层积催芽35 d,发芽速度最快,田间发芽率可达91%.

  13. 美国山核桃叶的抗菌作用%Antimicrobial activity of Carya illinoensis leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶申怡; 阮夏云; 樊莹; 张欢帅; 井长怡; 毛胜凤; 张爱莲

    2014-01-01

    对美国山核桃Carya illinoensis叶进行体外抗菌作用研究,以期开发出一种新型的天然杀菌剂.美国山核桃叶经体积分数为75%乙醇提取后,采用系统溶剂法将抽提物分为石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水等5个不同极性的提取物.采用滤纸片法,检测以上提取物对黄曲霉菌Aspe rgillus flay us,根霉菌Rhzopus oryzae,青霉菌Penicillium sp.,酵母菌Saccharomyces cerevisiae,大肠埃希菌Escherichia coli和枯草杆菌Bacillus subtilis等的抑菌效果,并计算各提取物对真菌的半数抑菌质量浓度(CE50).结果表明:乙酸乙酯提取物对青霉菌、根霉菌、黄曲霉菌和枯草杆菌均表现出明显的抑菌效果且差异显著(P<0.05,P<0.01),抑菌圈直径均值分别为9.18,10.86,8.26,10.18mm,但对于黄曲霉菌石油醚提取物(CE50 0.91 g·L-1)的抑菌效果优于乙酸乙酯提取物(CE50>200 g·L-1);而正丁醇提取物对酵母菌和大肠埃希菌表现出明显的抑菌效果且差异显著(P<0.05,P<0.01),其抑菌圈直径均值分别为11.13,8.83 mm,但对于大肠埃希菌水提物的抑菌效果优于正丁醇提取物,其抑菌圈直径均值为9.13 mm.综上,美国山核桃叶的正丁醇提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物抑菌效果最佳.针对这一实验结果,可以根据防治对象不同,采用不同的提取方法和工艺,研发专菌专治的天然杀菌剂,以提升杀菌剂的作用效果.

  14. 云南省薄壳山核桃良种基地建设工艺设计探讨%Technological Design of Carya Illinoensis Fine Variety Bases Construction in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盼盼; 李云

    2012-01-01

    指出了云南省薄壳山核桃良种基地建设是发展薄壳山核桃种植的基础性工作,分析了生态环境建设和林业可持续发展趋势。从品种选择、生产规模、技术路线、工艺流程和技术特点及优势等5个方面提出了薄壳山核桃良种基地建设工艺设计中的采穗圃和采种园的具体工艺设计。%The construction of Carya illinoensis fine variety bases in Yunnan Province is a basic work for developing Carya illinoensis planting. It is beneficial to improve the environment and forestry sustainable development. The key points in the technological design of Carya illinoensis fine variety bases construction including technological designs for cutting orchards and seeds collection plots are scale of production, technical route, technological process, technical features and advantages.

  15. 湖南山核桃油的提取工艺及其特性研究%Study on Extracting Technology and Properties of Carya hunanensis Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭湘莲; 付红军; 杨超梅

    2012-01-01

    采用索氏提取法从湖南山核桃( Carya hunarensis)仁中提取山核桃油,设计单因素试验和正交试验考察各因素对山核桃油提取率的影响.优化的工艺条件为以石油醚为提取溶剂,料液比1:9(m:V,g/mL)、提取温度55℃、提取时间5h,在该条件下湖南山核桃油的提取率为68.5%.提取所得山核桃油呈浅金黄色,酸值 (KOH)0.400 mg/g、碘值(I2)105.5 g/100、皂皂化值(KOH) 185 mg/g,折光指数n20d 1.4704.采用气相色谱对山核桃油的脂肪酸组成进行了测定,结果显示山核桃油中总不饱和脂肪酸的质量分数为92.16%,其中油酸的质量分数为68.03%.%Oil was extracted from Carya hurumensis by soxhlel extracting method. Single factor tests and orthogonal experiment were obtained to study the effects of several extracting factors on the yield of oil. The optimum extracting conditions were petroleum ether as extraction soivenl; solid to liquid ratio, 1=9 (m'-V, g/mL); extraction temperature 55 'C and extraction time S h. The yield of C. hunanensis oil was 68.5% under these conditions. Extracted oil was light golden brown, with acid value(KOH) of 0.400 mg/g. iodine value(I2) of 105.5 g/100 g, saponification value(KOH) of 185 mg/g and refractive index rif of 1.470 4. According to GC test, the total unsaturated fatty acid contributed for 92.16%(mass fraction) of the obtained oil, among which oleic acid accounted for 58.03%.

  16. Aqueous extract of pecan nut shell (Carya illinoensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) exerts protection against oxidative damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnu, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Roversi, Katiane; Boufleur, Nardelli; Pase, Camila S; Trevizol, Fabiola; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Reckziegel, Patricia; Lima, Fernanda; de Lima, Luiz A R; de Carvalho, Leandro M; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro A; Burger, Marilise E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on the oxidative and morphological status of rat testis treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Wistar rats received water or AE (5%) ad libitum for 37 days. On day 30, half of each group received a single intraperitoneal administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg. After 7 days, the animals were killed and their testis removed. Rats treated with CP presented reduced levels of lactate dehydrogenase, vitamin C, and gluthatione, as well as decreased catalase activity, increased lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity, no alteration in carbonyl protein levels, and a loss of morphological testicular integrity. In contrast, cotreatment with pecan shell AE totally prevented the decrease of lactate dehydrogenase and vitamin C levels and catalase activity and partially prevented the depletion of gluthatione levels. Moreover, it totally prevented the increase in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxidation levels and maintained testicular integrity. These findings show the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced testicular toxicity. The use of this phytotherapy may be considered to minimize deleterious effects related to this chemotherapy.

  17. 山核桃果皮胡桃醌对夏季牡丹叶片光合抑制的影响%Effect of Juglone from C. cathayensis Exocarp on Summer Peony Photoinhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向明

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the Juglone on improving the photosynthesis of the peony growing in the summer field, and alleviating the photosynthesis inhibition in the two months of July and August, by using the 0. 06mg/L Juglone extracted from the C. cathayensis exocarp, one kind of the forestry waste, to insufflate the peony leaf surface. The research results show that ,by comparing the peony leaf after procession with the control group, the Pn summit values of the photosynthetic rate improve by 10. 5% and 12. 8% respectively, and the photosynthesis noon-break is greatly shortened;the stomatal conductance variance of the leaf is not big, but the Ci content decreases significantly;the PSII photochemical efficiency of Fv/Fm reduces by 20% and 26% respectively; ΦPSII decreases by 18. 1% and 19. 9% respectively;between the time period 10 am and 1 pm, when the sunlight is the most sufficient, the contents of the chlorophyll qP decrease by 10% and 11. 6% respectively,and the contents of the NPQ increase by 17. 3% and 14. 3% respectively. The research results show that Juglone could greatly reduce the summer sunlight harm on the photosynthetic system of the peony leaf chloroplast, and improve the light utilization rate of the peony leaf.%以林业废弃物山核桃果皮中提取的胡桃醌0.06mg/L喷洒牡丹叶面为处理,探讨7-8月份胡桃醌对改善夏季大田生长的牡丹叶片光合性能和减轻光合抑制的效应.结果显示:处理后的牡丹叶片与对照相比,光合速率的Pn最高值分别提高10.5%和12.8%,8月份的Pn最高值比对照推迟1h在10∶00出现,光合午休大大减轻;叶片的气孔导度变化不大、但Ci明显下降;PSⅡ光化学效率Fv/Fm降低20%和26%;ΦPSⅡ下降18.1%和19.9%;在10∶00-13∶00点光照最强阶段,叶绿素qP分别下降10%和11.6%,NPQ分别上升17.3%和14.3%.结果表明,胡桃醌减轻了夏季强光对牡丹叶片叶绿体光合机构的伤害,提高了牡丹叶片对光能的利用率.

  18. ChemicalP roperties of Plantatoi n Wood in Carya illinoensis%薄壳山核桃人工林木材的化学性质1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米沛; 徐斌; 潘新建

    2014-01-01

    Three 30-year Carya illinoensis plantation woods were studied on the chemical components and their variation pattern. The cellulose crystallinity was determined by X-ray diffraction spectrum.In Carya illin oenis s, the contentsof the benzene-alcohol extracts, 1%NaOH extracts, klason lignin, holocellulose,α-cellulose, nitric acid-ethanol cellulose and ash were 1.92%, 16.14%, 23.80%, 82.77%, 45.2%, 48.83%and 0.74%, respectively.The cellulose crystallinity was 38.64%. Besides,the variationtrend of chemical components along axial direction among different sampleskept consistent, where the contents of benzene-alcohol extracts, ash, 1%NaOH extracts and lignin increased progressively, while those ofα-cel-lulose, nitric acid-ethanol cellulose, and holocellulose decreased progressively.The cellulose crystallinity increased firstly and then declined.The sequence of cellulose crystallinity from great o small was middle part, stem base and tip.%以30年生薄壳山核桃人工林木材为对象,对其化学成分及其变异规律进行研究,并运用X射线衍射法对纤维素结晶度进行测定分析。结果表明:薄壳山核桃木材中,苯醇抽提物质量分数为1.92%,1%NaOH抽提物质量分数为16.14%,Klason木质素质量分数为23.80%,综纤维素质量分数为82.77%,α-纤维素质量分数为45.20%,硝酸乙醇纤维素质量分数为48.83%,灰分质量分数为0.74%,纤维素结晶度为38.64%。薄壳山核桃木材的化学组分轴向变化株间保持一致,其中,苯醇抽提物、1%NaOH抽提物、灰分、木质素的质量分数轴向递增,α-纤维素、硝酸乙醇纤维素、综纤维素的质量分数轴向递减;纤维素结晶度在轴向上呈先增后减趋势,从大到小依次为中部、基部、梢部。

  19. 美国山核桃根段育苗试验%Experiment on Seedling Cultivation by Root of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常君; 姚小华; 王开良; 夏根清; 徐永星; 倪德良

    2009-01-01

    对美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis)进行不同粗度根段和不同ABT6浓度浸泡处理育苗试验,结果表明,各处理苗木高度、地径、出苗率均与实生苗对照表现出显著性差异,种根粗度减小,各指标均呈现下降趋势.>1.2~1.6 cm径级根段的出苗率和苗木地径最大,分别达到67.5%和0.52 cm,苗木高度则以>0.8~1.2 cm粗度径级根段最大,为14.98 cm,但无论苗木地径还是苗木高度均小于同期播种的实生苗,苗高仅为对照(31.40cm)的47.73%,地径仅为对照(0.72 cm)的71.68%.采用根段育苗虽可节省种子成本,但苗木生长相对较为纤弱,需培育多年才能达到当年实生苗的平均水平,且取根不易,不适于规模化扩繁.因此,从工效、成本和生长情况综合考虑,美国山核桃育苗应优先选择种子繁殖而非根段育苗.%Experiment was conducted on seedling cultivation by root of Carya illinoensis with different size of root and treated by different concentration of ABT6 in the demonstration bases of Jiande city, Zhejiang province. The results showed that the seedling height, basal diameter, seedling rate of treated by ABT6 had significant difference with the control, and had positive relation with diameter of mother root. Seedling rate and basal diameter from mother root of 0.8-1.2cm could top to 67.5% and 0.52cm. Seedling height reached 14.98 from mother root of 0.8-1.2. But basal diameter and seedling height form mother root was only 71.68% and 47.73% of that from seed. Compared to seedling cultivation by seed, that by root had disadvantages such as weak growth and difficult to get mother root. Therefore, seedling cultivation from seed was recommended.

  20. Experiment on Grafting of 17 Carya illinoensis Clones%薄壳山核桃17个无性系嫁接试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁春余; 邵慰忠; 叶浩然; 洪旗; 张浦山; 常君; 徐奎源

    2012-01-01

    对薄壳山核桃17个无性系进行同一无性系2年生播种苗砧木嫁接试验,结果表明,各无性系间嫁接成活率差异显著(P<0.05),成活率最高的是YLJ23,达88.17%,最低的是YLJ6仅为24.20%;嫁接苗新梢当年生长量差异也极显著,新梢最长的是YLJ6,为87cm,最短的是YLJ27,为42cm;嫁接苗接穗基部直径最粗的是ⅥJ6和YLJ35,为1.21cm,最细的是YLJ27,为0.94cm.%Experiments were carried out on grafting of 17 Carya illinoensis clones on 2-year seedlings (same cultivar) as stock in Jiande, Zhejiang province. The results showed that the survival and conservation rate among clones was significantly different(P < 0.05 ), the highest was 88.17%, and the lowest 24.20%. It had great difference of new shoot growth among 17 clones, with the longest of 87cm, the shortest of 42cm. Scion base diameter growth topped 1.21cm, with 0.94cm the smallest.

  1. Effects of Fertilization on Growth Performance of Carya illinoensis%配方施肥对美国山核桃树体生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖良俊; 王曼; 宁德鲁; 张雨; 李勇杰; 毛云玲

    2012-01-01

    以云南新平县4年生美国山核桃为研究对象,采用了3个因素3个水平的iF交试验设计,分析施肥对地径、树高、冠幅的影响.结果表明,地径增粗的最佳施肥比例为N100P100K200,增粗最快的处理为最慢的1.77倍;树高增长的最佳施肥比例为N200P100K200,增长最快的处理为最慢的2.32倍;冠幅增大的最佳施肥比例为N400P200K200,增量最快的为最慢的1.83倍.%Taking the 4 years old Carya illinoensis trees planted in Xinping county of Yunnan province as the study materials,adopting the orthogonal test design of three factors and three levels,the effects of fertilization on growth of basal diameter,tree height and crown width were studied and analyzed.The results showed that the optimum fertilizer combination for basal diameter and height growth were N100P100K200 and N200P100R200 respectively,the growth were 1.77 times of the worst fertilization treatment; the optimum fertilizer combination for crown width growth was N400P200K200,the growth were 1.8 times of the worst fertilization treatment.

  2. Absorption of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) and its effect on net photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisson, W.B.; Booth, J.A.; Throneberry, G.O.

    1981-06-01

    Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) leaflets exposed to 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ were measured over a 2 h period. SO/sub 2/ was rapidly absorbed by the leaflets in all treatments during the initial 30-50 min; the rate of uptake decreased to a rather constant level thereafter. Total SO/sub 2/ absorbed during the 2 h period was 15.6, 25.6, and 38.9 nmol cm/sup -2/ for the low, medium, and high SO/sub 2/ concentrations, respectively. Reductions in net photosynthetic rates were proportional to ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations and total SO/sub 2/ absorbed. Partial photosynthetic recovery occurred in all treatments during a 2 hr post-treatment period and full recovery occurred during a 12 h dark period. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ resulted in slight increases in stomatal and boundary layer resistances to CO/sub 2/ and substantial increases in residual resistances. Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) exposed to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ for 1 h were approximately double those of pecan exposed to the same ambient SO/sub 2/ concentration. Alfalfa net photosynthetic rates were reduced 74% after 1 h exposure to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ while a depression of 42% occurred in pecan.

  3. Effects of different fertilization treatments on Carya illinoesis growth%不同施肥配方对美国山核桃生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜洋文; 曾博; 邓先珍; 徐永杰; 陈春芳; 聂明

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide technical support for high-yield cultivation of Carya illinoensis, effects of different fertilization treatments on growth of C. illinoensis, taking chicken manure, pig manure and compound fertilizer as basis fertilizers. The results showed that applying 5 kg pig manure per plant had the most signiifcant effects on tree height, ground diameter, first-order branch length and diameter in C. illinoensis. And then the treatments of applying 5 kg chicken manure and applying 2.5 kg chicken manure + 2.5 kg pig manure had better effects, and CK had the worst effects. All treatments had no signiifcant effects on clear length, grafting incision diameter and ifrst-order branch number.%为给美国山核桃丰产栽培提供技术支持,以鸡粪、猪粪、复合肥为肥料,研究不同施肥配方对美国山核桃生长的影响。结果表明,施用猪粪5 kg/株对美国山核桃树高、地径和一级枝条长度和粗度增长效果最为明显,其次为鸡粪5 kg/株和鸡粪2.5 kg/株+猪粪2.5 kg/株2个处理,对照处理效果最差。各处理对枝下高、嫁接口径粗和一级分枝数无显著影响。

  4. 10个美国山核桃品种的引种研究初报%Introduction of ten Carya illionoensis cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习学良; 范志远; 邹伟烈; 廖永坚; 董润泉

    2006-01-01

    美国山核桃Carya illinoensis是世界重要的干果油料树种.为丰富国内良种资源,1999年从美国引种10个品种接穗.通过系统观测分析,以丰产性、坚果质量和叶片抗黑斑病Xanthomonas juglandis能力等3方面加权评分,初步筛选出7个丰产、优质和抗病的品种.5年生树上高接第3年全部结果,第5年产坚果3.8~6.2 kg·株-1,坚果易取整仁,出仁率为55%~60%,仁含脂肪719.4~761.3 g·kg-1、氨基酸(有17种)69.4~106.8 g·kg-1及丰富的矿质元素等;脂肪中不饱和脂肪酸≥90%,其中单不饱和脂肪酸比多不饱和脂肪酸高3.0~5.3倍(与油橄榄Olea europaea油相似),优于核桃Juglans sigillata油.筛选出的7个品种,可在云南中亚热带气候区域低海拔山地推广种植.表6参13

  5. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.

  6. 薄壳山核桃嫩枝扦插技术%A study on softwood cutting technique for Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董筱昀; 黄利斌

    2013-01-01

    Experiments on seedling cultivation of Carya illinoensis were carried out with different treatments including ages of ortet,dates of cutting and IBA concentration.The results showed that all the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the cutting rooting rate.The experiment data indicated that under the test condition of natural illumination and automatic intermittent spraying,the rooting rate were higher than others when the cuttings were propagated after sprouted for 70 days and the softwood cuttings were collected from 1 or 2 aged seedlings.The rooting rate was up to 78.34%-82.17% by 4 000 mg/L IBA tachy-dipped and the rooting index was up to 1.5 by 8 000 mg/L IBA.%以薄壳山核桃嫩枝为试验材料,分别比较了1、2年生实生苗,3、5年生嫁接苗等4种母树材料、5种不同扦插时间和6种IBA浓度处理的扦插生根效果.结果表明:在全光喷雾试验条件下,树龄、扦插时间、IBA浓度对扦插生根均有显著影响,以1~2年生实生苗上部生长70 d的嫩枝作插穗,使用4 000 mg/L浓度的IBA速蘸处理,扦插生根率最高,为78.34%~82.17%;使用8 000 mg/L浓度的IBA速蘸处理生根效果指数最高,为1.50.

  7. Cultivation Actualities of Carya illinoensis in Anhui Province And Its Development Strategies%安徽省长山核桃栽培现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王陆军; 周米生; 龚明; 肖正东

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on a complete survey and analysis of the cultivation actualities of Carya illinoensis in Anhui Province and focused on the existing problem s in its cultivation and developm ent, som e developm ent strategies were put forward from the aspects of scientific planning,technical support, fine cultivars and strong plantlets, dem onstration of high-yield plantations and technical training in order to provide reference for the sound and rapid developm ent of Carya illinoensis throughout A nhui Province.%在对安徽省长山核桃栽培现状全面调查分析的基础上,针对目前栽培发展过程中存在的问题,从科学规划、科技支撑、良种壮苗、丰产示范、技术培训等方面提出了发展对策,为全省长山核桃健康快速的发展提供参考。

  8. 不同育苗容器和规格对长山核桃苗木生长的影响%Effects of Seedling Containers of Different Materials and Dimensions on the Growth of Carya illinoensis Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金继良

    2015-01-01

    本试验通过测量苗高和地径来研究不同材质、不同规格容器对长山核桃育苗的影响。结果表明:不同材质、不同大小的育苗容器对长山核桃的苗高和地径均有影响。其中,白色无纺布材质营养钵最适合长山核桃苗高和地径的生长。%In the experiment the effects of seedling containers of different materials and dimensions on the growth of Carya illinoensis seedlings were studied by measuring the seedling heights and basal diameters. The results showed that the seedling containers of different materials and dimensions had effects on the seedling heights and basal diameters, of which the non-woven fabric nutrition pots were the most suitable for the height and basal growth of Carya illinoensis seedlings.

  9. 薄壳山核桃无性系开花物候特性观测%A Study on the Flowering Phenology of Clone Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常君; 李川; 王开良; 姚小华; 辜夕容; 任华东

    2012-01-01

    The flowering phenology, period of flowering phase, quantity of pistillate flowers, and the a-mount of staminate flowers were observed. The results showed that different clone Carya illinoensis had different flowering phenology. As to the flowering phase, the largest difference among the 6 clone pistillate flowers reached 10 days, and 9 days among the 6 clone staminate flowers. The smallest difference among the pistillate flowers was 2 days, and 1 day among the staminate flowers. There were significant differences among the quantity of pistillate flowers, as well as the amount of staminate flowers (P <0. 01 ) , clone No. 21, 28 and 104 had large quantity of pistillate flowers, which can be used as the main high yield breeds for planting. Clone No. 5, 27 and 35 had large amount of staminate flowers, which can be used as pollination breeds.%通过对6个薄壳山核桃无性系开花物候、花期长短、雌花开花数量以及雄花序数量等进行观测.结果表明,不同薄壳山核桃无性系雌雄花开花物候差异明显,6个无性系间雌花差异最长为10 d,差异最短为2 d;6个无性系间雄花差异最长为9d,差异最短为1d.6个薄壳山核桃无性系雌花、雄花序数量差异极显著(P<0.01),无性系21号、28号和104号雌花开放数量大,可以将其定为高产、丰产的主栽品种;无性系5号、27号、35号雄花序数量大,可以将其定为授粉品种,为其它花期相遇的无性系授粉用.根据试验的研究结果,无性系5号、27号、35号可以作为无性系21号、28号和104号的授粉品种.

  10. Flood Tolerance in Plants: A State-of-the-Art Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    however, that seedlings of species that typically leaf out late in the season (e.g., green ash (Fraxinus pennyslvanica), water hickory ( Carya ...Tolerant* Water hickory Cyar uqua4lea Pecan C. illinoensis Butt onbush Cephalan~thus occidentali s SweP-11 privet Foresticra acuminata (Ireen as’h Fra~xinus...rtegundo C’i lVeT, Inapi e A. auechariinuin PLerlil Carya ilinino’ntci tI-cuel UAcI Fnr lI iru:ý £imrx :;y .vardsiei. Cottonwood. I [ulpi~ d..oitO~dtc

  11. Little Blue Prehistory: Archaeological Investigations at Blue Springs and Longview Lakes, Jackson County, Missouri. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    cottonwood Juglans nigra black walnut Carya spp. hickory Quercus alba white oak _. macrocarpa bur oak Q. stellate post oak Q. bicolor swamp white oak Q...velutina black oak _. palustris pin oak Q. rubra red oak Q. marilandica black jack oak Ulmus spp. elm Celtis occidentalis hackberry Morus spp. mulberry... nigra ), and hickory in dense and open stands of timber in this zone along with hazel, and plum and cherry scrub brush. Primary plant foods were

  12. Community structure and floristic composition of Quercus fusiformis and Carya illinoinensis forests of the Northeastern Coastal Plain, Coahuila, Mexico Estructura y composición florística de los bosques de Quercus fusiformis y Carya illinoinensis de la planicie costera del noreste, Coahuila, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Encina-Domínguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe community structure and richness in oak and walnut forests occurring along the San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido and Arroyo de las Vacas rivers on the Northeastern Coastal Plain (NE Coahuila, Mexico, we established 30 1 000-m² circular plots, where we measured diameter at breast height (DBH and tree heights. Tree regeneration and herb and shrub stratum were assessed in 5 2-m² quadrats per site. A total of 48 species distributed in 29 families were recorded. Families with the largest richness were Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Malvaceae. For the oak forest, tree stratum density and basal area values were 386 stems/ha and 24.36 m²/ha, respectively, whereas for the walnut forest the corresponding values were 302 stems/ha and 21.26 m²/ha. The species with the highest relative importance values were Quercus fusiformis (59.48% and Carya illinoinensis (57.58%. Total tree richness was 14 species, the most common ones being Celtis reticulata and Diospyros texana, followed closely by C. illinoinensis and Q. fusiformis. Anthropogenic impact appears to result in a poor regeneration reflected as a low sapling density, as well as in the reduction and fragmentation of these communities; in turn, this process has led to intrusions of species typical of the xerophytic Tamaulipan Thorn Scrub. Further studies are needed on the regeneration of the dominant species of these forests in order to describe their dynamics and to promote their preservation.Con la finalidad de conocer la estructura y la composición florística de los bosques de encino y nogal situados a lo largo de los ríos San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido y Arroyo de las Vacas en la planicie costera nororiental (NE de Coahuila, México, se establecieron 30 parcelas circulares de 1 000 m² en las que se midió el DAP y la altura de las especies arbóreas; además, se evaluó la regeneración de las especies arbóreas y el estrato herbáceo y arbustivo en 5 cuadros de 2 m² por sitio

  13. Preliminary Study on Seedling Production of Introduced Carya iUinoensis in Yangtze-Huaihe Hilly Region of Anhui%江淮丘陵地区薄壳山核桃引种育苗研究初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宰步龙; 孙刚

    2011-01-01

    In the process of seedling production of massively introduced Carya illinoensis in Yangtze-Huaihe hilly region of Anhui for the first time, different technical measures regarding the seed treatment, soil improvement and seedling tending etc., were taken to ensure the successful introduction and improve the seedling growth. The effects of different treatment factors on seedling growth in height, basal diameter and crown and seedling survival rates were analyzed. Preliminary results showed that in Yangtze-Huaihe hilly region of Anhui with sticky yellow-brown soil as its zonal soil, Carya illinoensis could be introduced and grown. Soft improvement helped improve the seedling growth. Different sowing times with short intervals did not affect the seedling growth significantly. In the same batch of seeds, larger ones grew better than smaller ones.%在江淮丘陵地区首次较大规模引进薄壳山核桃的育苗过程中,为提高引种成功率和苗木生长量,在种子处理、土壤改良和苗期管理等方面采取了不同的技术措施,并分析不同处理因素对苗高、地径、树冠生长及成苗率的影响。初步研究结果表明:在粘盘黄棕壤为主的江淮丘陵地区,可以进行薄壳山核桃引种育苗;土壤改良有利于提高苗木生长量;间隔不长的不同播种时间对苗木生长没有显著影响;同批次的大粒种子生长量比小粒种子大。

  14. 薄壳山核桃优质砧木的培育技术%Cultivation techniques of fine rootstock in Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵慰忠; 李川; 常君; 张浦山; 王开良; 任华东; 倪德良

    2011-01-01

    In order to shorten the cultivation time of rootstock in Carya illinoensis, and to improve the survival rate of grafting, effects of some factors on height and ground diameter of C. Illinoensis seedlings were analyzed, for example, the seed size, seed storage, seed treatment before sowing and concentration of fertilizer. The results showed that seed size had great effect on ground diameter and height of seedling. In the processing of seedling culture, plump seeds should be choosed in preference. Germination rate of seed storaged in wet sand was 8.4% higher than in dry sand. Different containers and concentrations of fertilizer had significant effect on increment of seedling. Different treatments of radicle had not any insignificant effect on increment of seedling. Different treatments of cutting main root had insignificant effect on increment of seedling. Height and ground diameter of the seedlings with main roots was 97.68% and 26.32% higher than that with main roots, respectively. The cultivation techniques of fine rootstock in C. Illinoemis were summarized based on the results and production experience.%为了缩短薄壳山核桃砧木的出圃时间,提高其嫁接成活率,就薄壳山核桃大颗粒种子与小颗粒种子、种子的不同贮藏方法、不同胚根尖与容器处理、不同截根处理与施肥浓度对1年生薄壳山核桃实生苗的高度与地径生长的影响情况进行了对比试验.结果表明:种子大小对苗木的地径和高度均有较大的影响,在育苗过程中,应优先选择颗粒饱满的大粒种子进行育苗;用湿沙贮藏的种子其发芽率比干藏的高8.4%;不同育苗容器、不同施肥浓度对苗木生长量有明显的影响;不同胚根处理方法对苗木生长量也有影响,但影响不明显;不同截主根措施对苗木生长量的影响很大,不截主根苗的苗高和地径比截主根苗分别高97.68%与26.32%.并结合试验结果与生产经验总结提出了薄壳山

  15. 山核桃果皮黄酮提取液对四种作物苗期光合性能的影响%Effect of Flavone Extract from C.cathayensis Exocarp on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Four Different Kinds of Crop Seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向明; 金鑫

    2012-01-01

    Using six kinds of concentration(ranged from 0.1 to 2.0mg·L^-1) of flavone extract from C.cathayensis Exocarp treated corn,soybean,wheat and mung bean seedlings,in order to study the photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate,intercellular CO2 on the seedling leaf.Results showed that within the range of concentration in the experiment,the effects of flavone extract(0.1 to 0.5mg·L^-1) increased content of the chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll,promoted photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate,proper increased cell gap inside the CO2 concentration.0.1mg·L^-1 treatment effect was the most obvious compared with the control,reached the significant point(P〈0.05 or P〈0.01),the total chlorophyll and photosynthetic rate were increased 20.9% and 21%;more than 0.5mg·L^-1,the chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,transpiration rate decreased,the intercellular CO2 rapid increased.Research shows that,the appropriate concentration of flavone extract from C.cathayensis exocarp can increase the chlorophyll content in the leaf,promote stomatal opening,increase of intracellular CO2 supply,improve leaf photosynthesis efficiency.%采用6种浓度山核桃果皮黄酮提取液(0.1~2.0mg·L^-1)处理盆栽小麦、玉米、大豆和绿豆幼苗,研究对苗期叶片光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率、细胞间隙CO2等光合性能的影响.结果显示:在试验浓度范围内,黄酮提取液对四种作物苗期的光合性能具有低浓度促进、高浓度抑制影响;0.1、0.5mg·L^-1黄酮提取液提高了叶绿素a、叶绿素b和叶绿素总量,促进光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率,适当增加细胞间隙内部的CO2浓度,以0.1mg·L^-1处理效果最明显,与对照相比,四种作物的叶绿素总量和光合速率最高增加了20.9%和21%,处理的影响达显著或极显著水平((P〈0.05或P〈0.01);超过0.5mg·L^-1叶绿素含量、光合

  16. Effects of Forestry Waste C .Cathayensis Exocarp Flavone on Nutritive Absorptionof Different Kinds of Crops Seedling%林业废弃物山核桃果皮黄酮对作物苗期营养吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向明; 方雷; 王珍丽; 崔军; 赵华胜

    2014-01-01

    Using potted wheat ,corn ,soybean and mung bean as the materials ,studied the effects of different treatments with six kinds of concentration (0.1 ~ 2.0 mg · L -1 ) of flavone extract from C .cathayensis exocarp on the relative electrical conductivity ,root activity ,nitrate reductase activity , nutritive absorption of four kinds of crop seedlings new roots , on the influence of biomass .The results showed that within the range of concentrations of 0.1~ 0.5 mg · L -1 flavone extract promoted the nutrition grow th on the four kinds of crop at seedling stage .The root activity of the wheat and mung bean seedlings were 0.29 and 0.35ug .dg -1 . h-1 ,higher than CK , 40% ~ 24% , the nitrate reductase activity of the corn and soybean seedlings were 49.9 and 53.1mg .L -1 ,increased 54% ~24% .The effects of flavone extract on the four kinds of crop reached the significant or extremely significant level ( P< 0.01 ,P<0.05);A suitable concentration of flavone extract can significantly increase the seedling fresh weight and dry weight ;promote the root absorption on N ,K ,Ca ,Mg ,Fe ,Mn ,Cu and Zn , but on four kinds of crop improvement effect concentrations vary .Research showed that the appropriate concentration of flavone extract from C .cathayensis exocarp could promote the grow th of four kinds of crop seedlings ;improve the effect of the mineral nutrient absorption on seedling new born roots .%以盆栽小麦、玉米、大豆和绿豆幼苗为材料,研究了6个浓度山核桃黄酮提取液(0.1~2.0 mg·L -1)处理对四种作物幼苗新生根系的电导率、根系活力、硝酸还原酶活性、营养元素吸收、生物量的影响.结果显示:0.1~0.5 mg·L -1黄酮提取液对四种作物的苗期营养生长具有良好的促进效应,小麦和绿豆的根系活力分别为0.29、0.35ug .dg -1.h-1,比对照提高40%~24%,大豆和玉米的硝酸还原酶活性分别是49.9、53.1mg .L -1,比对照增加54%~24

  17. 改性山核桃外果皮/竹刨花板制造工艺研究%Preparation Technology of Bamboo Particleboard Using Laccase Treated Exocarp of Cathay Hickory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 张飞英; 韩素芳; 刘亚群

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo particleboards were prepared and the performances were measured with laccase treating exocarp of Cathay Hickory and adding modifi ed exocarp powder to reduce the glue content for bamboo particles bonding. The manufacturing technology was studied and the optimum parameters were: 10% of exocarp dosage, 60 U/g of laccase dosage, 6% of adhesive content, 1% of waterproof agent dosage, 27% of mat moisture content, 200℃ of hot pressing temperature, 3 MPa of pressing pressure, and 16 min of pressing time.%以漆酶改性处理的山核桃外果皮,代替部分胶黏剂添加到竹刨花中,研究山核桃外果皮粉用量、胶黏剂用量、漆酶用量、防水剂用量,板坯含水率、热压温度、热压压力、热压时间对山核桃外果皮/竹刨花板性能的影响;确定最优化的制板工艺参数:山核桃外果皮添加量10%、漆酶用量60 U/g、施胶量6%、防水剂用量1%,板坯含水率27%、热压温度200℃、热压压力3 MPa、热压时间为16 min。

  18. Mycorrhizal inoculation of pecan seedlings with some marketable truffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian M. Benucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pecan is the common name of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, an ectomycorrhizal tree native to North America, also frequently known as hickory. Mycorrhizal inoculations of pecan seedlings with: Tuber aestivum Vittad., T. borchii Vittad., T. indicum Cooke & Massee, and T. lyonii Butters are described and discussed.

  19. Ecological Investigation of a Greentree Reservoir in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    mature, dominant forest trees such as oaks (Quercus spp.), bitter pecan (Carya aquatica), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), and green ash (Fraxinus...Water hickory Celtis laevigata Sugarberry Cephalanthus occidentalis Common buttonbush Cocculus carolin, Carolina snailseed Commelina diffusa Dayflower 0...Cornus foemina Southern swamp dogwood Crataegus viridus Green hawthorn Diodia virginiana Buttonweed Diospyros virginiana Common persimmon Eupatorium

  20. Phase 1 Cultural Resources Inventory of Public Access Lands in the Atchafalaya Basin, Vicinity of the Sherburne Wildlife Management Area, Pointe Coupee, St. Martin and Iberville Parishes, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-16

    Quercus virginiana, Q. alba, Q. nigra, Q. lyrata), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), hackberry (Celtie laevigata ), sweetgum and blackgum 51...aquatica), boxelder (Acer negur’ o), rough-leaf dogwood (Cornus drummondili), mayhaw ( Crataegus opaca), and waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera) (Gibson 1978...Celtis laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other forest species include the box-elder (Acer negundo), honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos

  1. Prescribed burning effects on soil enzyme activity in a southern Ohio hardwood forest: A landscape-scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Kelly L. M. Decker; Elaine K. Sutherland

    2000-01-01

    We assessed the effect of a single, dormant season prescribed fire on soil enzyme activity in oak-hickory (Quercus-Carya) forests in southern Ohio, USA. Four enzymes specific for different C sources were chosen for monitoring: acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, chitinase and phenol oxidase. Postfire acid phosphatase activity was generally reduced by burning and...

  2. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, St. Croix River Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Shrubs (Cont’d.) JUGLANDACEAE I Carya cordifo2ViS Bitternut hickory P P LEGUMINOSAE : see FABACEAE MORACEAE i Morus rubra Red mulberry P OLEACEAE... LEGUMINOSAE Amorpha canescens (Prairie Lead Plant) Astragalus crassicarpus (Ground Plum) Melilotus alba (White Sweet Clover) Petalosternum candidum

  3. Grounds Conservation Management Plan (1982-1991), Fish and Wildlife Management Plan (1982-1991), Forest Resource Management Plan (1979-1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    NSWVC 14P Ř-147 TABLE B-3-1. RECOMMENUE) TREE SPECIES (CONTINUED) Species Other Characteristics Thornless Honey Locust ( Gleditsia ornamental; fruits...eaten by rabbit, squirrel, triacanthos var. inermis) and quail *Live Oak (Quercas virginiana) Ornamental S .. Hickory (Carya spp.) ornamental; provide

  4. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    cut grass), Acorus americanus (sweetflag), Carex aquatilis (leafy tussock sedge ), and Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac). FACW (Facultative Wetland...where water saturates the soils or floods the soil surface at least seasonally. Examples include Carex scoparia (broom sedge ), Aconitum columbianum...Ambrosia artemisifolia (annual ragweed), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Carex eburnea (bristle-leaf sedge ), Carya ovata (shag-bark hickory), Elymus

  5. Shaw Air Force Base Capital Improvement Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    condensate Piedmont three-awned grass ─ SC Sandridges Carex decomposita Cypress-knee sedge ─ SC Swamps and lake margins on floating logs Carya...Cypress-knee Sedge G3 Corya myrlstlciformis Nutmeg Hickory G4 Chomaedophne colyculato leatherleaf GS Cyperus Ieconte/ Leccnte Flatsedge G4

  6. 美国山核桃穗条含水率对嫁接成活率的影响%Effects of Cutting Wood Moisture Content on Grafting Survival Rate of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仙兰; 杨新; 杨云广; 冯丽娜; 苏嗣杰

    2013-01-01

    在大理州林业科学研究所试验基地分别对采集后贮藏8h、24 h、48 h、72 h的美国山核桃穗条进行含水率测定,并用不同含水率的穗条进行嫁接试验.结果表明,穗条含水率对美国山核桃嫁接成活率有显著影响.穗条采集后贮藏8h含水率为33.45%,嫁接成活率为28.8%;贮藏24 h含水率为32.65%,嫁接成活率最高,为61.3%;贮藏48 h含水率为31.44%,嫁接成活率为43.8%;贮藏72 h含水率为31.07%,嫁接成活率最低,为25.0%.穗条蜡封最佳时间为采集后1~2d.%Cutting wood moisture content of Carya illinoensis stored for 8 h,24 h,48 h,72 h were determined respectively in test base of Forest Research Institute of Dali,and grafting tests by using those cutting wood also have been conducted.The results showed that the effects of cutting wood moisture content on grafting survival rate of Carya illinoensis were significant.Moisture content of cutting wood stored for 8 h was 33.45%,graft survival rate was 28.8% ; Stored for 24 h was 32.65%,graft survival rate was 61.3% ; Stored for 48 h was 31.44%,graft survival rate was 43.8 % ; Stored for 72 h was 31.07%,graft survival rate was 25.0%.one or two days after collection was the best time to wax seal for cutting wood.

  7. Principal component analysis for major economic characteristics of Carya illinoensis and selection of superior cultivars%美国山核桃主要经济性状的主成分分析及良种选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建华; 李淑芳; 范志远; 习学良; 邹伟烈; 刘娇; 潘莉

    2011-01-01

    Based on a specimen correlation matrix, eight major economic characteristics, including fruit shape coefficient, average nut weight, shell thickness of the nut, kernel ratio, kernel weight, kernel fat content, protein content, and fruit yield per square meter of projected tree crown area, for 12 cultivars of Carya illinoensis were determined using a principal component analysis. Results according to more than 83.99% of the cumulative variance, showed that the three principal components and their functional equations were: kernel ratio, average nut weight, kernel fat content. Key principal component values of various cultivars were: kernel ratio(43.329%). Superior cultivars were determined as average nut weight with the results being similar to a practical phenotype. [Ch, 1 fig. 4 tab. 6 ref.]%应用主成分分析法,由样本相关矩阵出发,时12个美国山核桃Carya illinoensis样本的8个主要经济性状[坚果果形系数、平均坚果质量、坚果壳厚、坚果出仁率、核仁质量、核仁脂肪、蛋白质、单位面积(m2)树冠投影面积产果量]进行分析,以性状的累积方差贡献率达到83.99%为标准,确定了3个反映美国山核桃主要经济性状的主成分及其主成分的函数式,并通过计算样本的重要主成分值,对供试样本进行比较,进而选择综合经济性状优良的样本,其结果与品种的实际表现相符.表明用主成分分析法可以对美国山核桃主要经济性状进行综合评选.

  8. Experimental analysis on photosynthesis of different ages Carya illinoensis%不同树龄美国山核桃光合作用的试验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕芳德; 黄菁; 和红晓

    2011-01-01

    The photosynthetic rates of various tree ages Carya illinoensis were investigated from aspects of light response and CO2 response.Meanwhile, the comparisons between bearing branch and unfruitfulness branch were conduced of photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular concentration and transpiration rate.The results show that the middle-aged trees developed fully, had high and stable photosynthetic rate, and better photosynthetic capacity; the comparative results of leaves photosynthetic rate between fruiting branch and unfruitfulness branch indicated that the presence of fruit can promote the photosynthesis rate.%从光响应和CO2响应两个方面研究不同年龄阶段的美国山核桃的光合速率,同时对美国山核桃结果枝和未结果枝的净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间浓度、蒸腾速率进行了比较研究.结果表明:-中龄树发育充分,光合速率大且稳定,光合能力强;果实的生长能促进叶片的光合作用.

  9. Comparison of Leaf Photosynthetic Physiological Characteristics in Vive Carya illinoensis Varieties%5种美国山核桃苗叶片光合生理特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌骅; 黄坚钦; 温国胜; 王正加; 杨先裕; 袁紫倩; 郑超超; 沈一凡

    2014-01-01

    In this study,a field experiment was conducted to compare photosynthetic physiological characteristics and the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves among five Carya illinoensis varieties, including Farley, Colby, Shoshoni,Cheyenne and Mandan. The results showed that there were significant (P<0. 05) or highly significant (P<0. 01)differences in minimal fluorescence (Fo),maximum fluorescence (Fm),PSⅡ potential activity (Fv/Fo)and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) among the five varieties. The Fo and Fm of Shoshoni were higher than that of the other cultivars. The PSⅡ primary energy conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm) and PSⅡ potential activity (Fv/Fo) of Mandan were higher than those of the others,while the value of NPQ was lower. The light compensation point (LCP)of Mandan was significantly lower than that of the other varieties,indicating that it had a strong ability of using low light. Mandan and Shoshoni had higher maximum net photosynthetic rate (Amax)and relative chlorophyll content (SPAD). Results of the correlation analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations between Fv and Fv/Fm,Amax and SPAD. A significantly negative correlation was found between NPQ and Fv/Fo.

  10. 薄壳山核桃良种‘肖肖尼'引种及栽培要点%Introduction and Culture Technique of Carya illinoensis Fine Variety 'Shoshoni'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生静雅; 朱海军; 张普娟; 陈亚辉; 刘广勤

    2013-01-01

    ‘肖肖尼'由美国农业部农业研究中心L.D.Romberg 1972年育成发布,‘Odom'בEvers'.‘肖肖尼'为雌先型品种(Ⅱ型).文章从植物学特征、物候期、生长性状、果实品质、抗逆性等方面介绍了‘肖肖尼'的引种表现,并概括了其早果、丰产等重要措施.%'Shoshoni' ('Odom' × 'Evers') is a Carya illinoensis cultivar that was bred and released by the Agricultural Research Service,U.S.Department of Agriculture(USDA) in 1972.It is protogynous (type Ⅱ).The introduction performance of 'Sboshoni' was introduced from aspects of botanical characteristics,phenological phase,growth traits,fruit quality,resistance,and important measures of abundant production,early fruit setting were summarized.

  11. 三峡库区兴山县引种美国山核桃试验初报∗�%Preliminary Report on Introduction Experiment of Carya illinoensis in Xingshan County in Three Gorges Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春芳; 王长斌; 邓先珍; 徐永杰; 鲁黎; 袁裕胜

    2014-01-01

    美国山核桃是著名优良干果油料树种。从浙江、云南等省引进性状表现优良的6个美国山核桃品种在长江三峡库区兴山县栽培试验,观测其引种表现,并对树体生长物候期、生长结果习性及丰产性抗性等进行了初步分析,结果表明:在良好的管理条件下产量和质量与原产地基本相同,适宜于三峡库区兴山县栽培。%Carya illionoensis is a famous species used for dry fruits and oil.Six varieties with super characteristics,which were introduced from Yunnan and Jiangsu Province and were planted in Xingshan County in Three Gorges Reservoir.A primary investigation was conducted on the adaptation growth,fruiting habit,fertility and resistance of the six verities. The result showed that the six varieties had the same yield and quality as that in good conditions in their origin and were suitable cultivated in Xingshan County in Three Gorges Reservoir.

  12. 不同施肥处理对核桃幼苗光合特性的影响%Effects of Different Fertilization on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程乾斗; 肖志东

    2016-01-01

    One-year-old pecan seedlings were adopted as materials to investigate the influences of different fertilization treatments on the photosynthetic characteristics. The results showed that under the different fertilization levels the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (Gs) would increase with the increase of the fertilization dose. However, the internal CO 2 concentration (Ci) was reduced with the increase of fertilization dose. Therefore, within a certain range the treatments of increased fertilization dose could improve the ability of photosynthesis of Carya illinoensis leaves.%通过测定不同施肥剂量对1年生核桃实生苗光合特性的影响可知:核桃叶片的净光合速率(Pn)、蒸腾速率(Tr)和气孔导度(Gs)均随着施肥剂量的增加而增加,而胞间CO2浓度(Ci)则随着施肥剂量的增加而减少,证明在一定范围内增加施肥剂量水平可以提高核桃叶片的光合作用能力。

  13. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  14. 进口美国山核桃种子性状及其发芽调控的研究%Traits and Germination Test of ImportedCarya illinoinensis Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐翠霞; 谭鹏鹏; 兖攀; 彭方仁; 陈文静; 李健

    2016-01-01

    Traits of imported wildCarya illinoinensis seeds were determined and germination experiments were conducted with L9 (34) orthogonal design. The results demonstrate that mean single nut weight was 2.68g, vertical and transverse diameter was 2.7 and 1.4cm with 42.8% kernel. Water content of seeds was about 13% with 99.9% of purity and 96% of quality seed percentage, but open field germination rate had only 41.3%. The experiment showed that different treatments had significant effect on germination rate and force. Treatment A2B1C2 (3 days treatment with 100mg/L of GA3) topped to 86.00% and 79.86% of germination rate and force. Range analysis indicated that treatment of 3 days with 200 mg/L of GA3 would have the best effect of germination rate.%以野生美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis)引进种子为试材,对其种子特性进行研究,并采用L9(34)正交试验方法进行催芽试验。结果表明,该种批果实较小,单果重平均值为2.68 g,纵径和横径分别为2.7、1.4 cm,出仁率42.8%;该种批含水率在13%左右,净度和优良度分别为99.9%和96%,但该种批发芽率仅41.3%。催芽试验结果表明,不同催芽处理对发芽率和发芽势的影响均存在显著性差异(p<0.05),在已知组合中,A2B1C2(100 mg/L的GA3处理3 d)的发芽率和发芽势最好,分别达86.00%和79.86%。极差分析优化可知,用200 mg/L的GA3浸种3 d催芽的发芽率效果最好。用于砧木的进口野生美国山核桃种源,在前一年秋季就应准备好种子,冬季进行低温沙藏层积,春季在播种前用200 mg/L的GA3进行浸种3 d催芽,可以获得高出芽率,并生长迅速。

  15. 薄壳山核桃八角主要害虫的天敌类群及其分布%Natural Enemies and Their Distribution of Main Pest Insects of Carya illinoensis and Illicium verum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晓旭; 陈鹏; 苏一; 杨建华; 段兆尧; 泽桑梓

    2011-01-01

    Natural enemies of main pest insects of Carya illinoensis and Illicium verum were investigated at the main plantation regions of the two economic tree species in Yunnan. Twenty-five parasitoids and forty-five predatory natural enemies of the main pest insects of the two tree species were collected. Distribution features of these natural enemies were analyzed in the paper. The results provided basis data for utilizing natural enemies to control pest insects of the two economic tree species.%在云南省薄壳山核桃和八角主要种植区进行这2种干果经济林主要害虫的天敌类群调查,共获得主要害虫寄生性天敌25种,捕食性天敌45种,对天敌类群的分布规律进行了分析.研究结果表明,云南省薄壳山核桃和八角林内主要害虫的天敌资源比较丰富,天敌的类群及数量与棘木受病虫的危害程度有一定的相关性,即在危害严重的种植园中,天敌的数量也相对较多.利用天敌资源控制主要害虫应是可行的.

  16. Preliminary report of leader branch cutting trails in Carya illinoensis cutting orchard%美国山核桃采穗圃定干修剪试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊新武; 李俊南; 陈宏伟; 习学良; 刘恒鹏; 陈勤; 杨素琼

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand and improve the germination and growth abilities of the Carya illinoensis cutting orchard, pruning trials were carried out at stem of 40, 60, 80 cm height, taking no pruning as CK. The results showed that leader branch cutting height of 60 cm could significantly improve grown branch rate and scion utilization rate in fine clone cutting orchard of C. Illinoensis, which were respectively 61. 05% and 56. 54%. Based on the results of the trails, some technical measures were summaried to improve C. Illinoensis scion utilization rate.%为了解和提高美国山核桃良种无性系采穗圃植株定干修剪后的萌芽能力和抽枝能力,对采穗圃植株分别进行了定干40、60、80 cm的修剪试验,以不定干处理的为对照.结果表明:定干60 cm修剪,能明显提高美国山核桃良种无性系采穗圃内植株的成枝率和接穗利用率,其成枝率和接穗利用率分别为61.05%和56.54%.并在试验基础上总结出了提高美国山核桃接穗利用率的定干修剪技术措施.

  17. 10个不同品种的薄壳山核桃脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成分析%Fat content and fatty acid composition of ten Carya illinoensis cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞春莲; 王正加; 夏国华; 黄坚钦; 刘力

    2013-01-01

    以10个不同品种薄壳山核桃Carya illinoensis为试材,采用气相色谱法,测定不同品种的薄壳山核桃的脂肪相对含量及脂肪酸组成成分.测定结果表明:核桃仁中的脂肪相对含量为69.11%~78.19%,出仁率为36.79%~59.47%,脂肪中不饱和脂肪酸>90.00%,其中以油酸最高,其次是亚油酸、棕榈酸、硬脂酸、亚麻酸、花生酸,且油酸和亚油酸存在极显著负相关关系(P<0.01),不同品种的薄壳山核桃油脂肪酸组成相同,但脂肪酸相对含量有显著差异(P<0.05),其单不饱和脂肪酸(油酸)相对含量为73.01%~58.76%;多不饱和脂肪酸以亚油酸为主,相对含量为32.20%~19.69%,且出油率与出仁率呈极显著的正相关关系(P<0.01),同出籽率和果皮厚度没有明显的关系.

  18. Correlation Between Pruning of Maternal Carya illinoensis Plants and Sprouting in the Maternal-Scion Plots%山核桃采穗圃母树修剪与成枝的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺娜; 马婷; 郎南军; 肖良俊; 熊新武; 王高升; 李甜江

    2012-01-01

    对山核桃母树枝条进行不同程度的修剪,比较不同修剪程度下萌芽、抽枝、出穗的数量及质量,并对其相关性进行分析.结果表明:存芽数与修剪程度呈显著负相关,修剪越轻存芽数量越多;成枝数和有效枝条数与修剪程度呈正相关,重度修剪的成枝数量最多,有效穗条亦越多.美国山核桃采穗圃母树修剪中,建议采用重度修剪方式.%Different intensities of pruning were conducted to the branches of maternal-scion Carya illinoensis trees to compare the quantity and quality of its bud germination, sprouts and the cuttings obtained, and to conduct the correlation analysis so as to study the influence of pruning on the important indexes of C. illinoensis. The results showed that the number of deposit buds was significantly and negatively correlated with the pruning intensity, i. e. , the lighter the pruning was, the more deposit buds would be. There was positive correlation between the number of branches and the effective scions to be formed and the pruning intensity, i. e. , the heavier the pruning was, the more branches would be formed and more effective scions might be prepared. Heavy pruning was recommended for maternal C. illinoensis trees in the maternal-scion plots.

  19. Aqueous extract from Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] shell show activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb-C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Josiane; Policarpi, Priscila de Britto; de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Santos Mota, Nádia Sandrine Ramos; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Block, Jane Mara

    2017-08-11

    In Brazil, use of teas are common for the treatment of many health disorders. Shell extracts of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) are popularly taken as tea to prevent diverse pathologies due to their phytochemical composition presenting significant amounts of phenolic substances. Phenolic compounds from pecan nut shell extract have been associated with diverse biological effects but the effect on tumor cells has not been reported yet. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by pecan nut shell extract and its antitumor activity. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell death and cell cycle were evaluated in MCF-7 cells by MTT, colony, differential coloring and flow cytometry assays, respectively. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA and plasmid DNA cleavage.Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed in Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb/C mice. In this work citotoxic effect of pecan nut shell extracts, the induction of cell death by apoptosis and also the cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells have been showed. Also an increase in 67% on the survival time in mice with Ehrlich ascites tumor was observed. DNA damage was shown in the CT-DNA, plasmid DNA and comet assays. The mechanism involved in the antitumor effect of pecan nut shell extracts may involve the activation of key proteins involved in apoptosis cell death (Bcl-XL, Bax and p53) and on the cell cycle regulation (cyclin A, cyclin B and CDK2). These results were attributed to the phenolic profile of the extract, which presented compounds such as gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic and ellagic acid, and catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate. The results indicated that pecan nut shell extracts are effective against tumor cells development and may be an alternative to the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017

  20. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Porto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200–2,000 mg kg−1. The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg−1. However, PSAE (50–200 mg·kg−1 and the phenolic compounds (10–100 mg·kg−1 did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10–100 mg·kg−1 decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  1. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the North American clade of the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jason A; Harrington, Thomas C; Engelbrecht, C J B

    2005-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata is a widely distributed, plant pathogenic fungus that causes wilts and cankers on many woody hosts. Earlier phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences revealed three geographic clades within the C. fimbriata complex that are centered respectively in North America, Latin America and Asia. This study looked for cryptic species within the North American clade. The internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS) of the rDNA were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that most isolates from the North American clade group into four host-associated lineages, referred to as the aspen, hickory, oak and cherry lineages, which were isolated primarily from wounds or diseased trees of Populus, Carya, Quercus and Prunus, respectively. A single isolate collected from P. serotina in Wisconsin had a unique ITS sequence. Allozyme electromorphs also were highly polymorphic within the North American clade, and the inferred phylogenies from these data were congruent with the ITS-rDNA analyses. In pairing experiments isolates from the aspen, hickory, oak and cherry lineages were interfertile only with other isolates from their respective lineages. Inoculation experiments with isolates of the four host-associated groupings showed strong host specialization by isolates from the aspen and hickory lineages on Populus tremuloides and Carya illinoensis, respectively, but isolates from the oak and cherry lineages did not consistently reveal host specialization. Morphological features distinguish isolates in the North American clade from those of the Latin American clade (including C. fimbriata sensu stricto). Based on the phylogenetic evidence, interfertility, host specialization and morphology, the oak and cherry lineages are recognized as the earlier described C. variospora, the poplar lineage as C. populicola sp. nov., and the hickory lineage as C. caryae sp. nov. A new species associated with the bark beetle Scolytus quadrispinosus on Carya is closely related to C

  2. 不同嫁接时间和砧木处理对薄壳山核桃嫁接成活率的影响%Effects of Grafting Time and Grafting Methods on the Survival Rate of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟明; 张海军; 施娟娟; 杨先裕; 袁紫倩; 王正加

    2014-01-01

    Choose 1-year-old Carya illinoensis seedling as rootstock and applied cut-grafting method,to study the effects of the grafting time and 3 treatments (transplanting grafts,root pruning cut grafts and not root pruning cut grafts)on survival rate and the growth of shoots.The results showed that:after grafting,the survival rate of 3 treatments appeared a peak at April 8 th .Among of them,the survival rate of transplanting grafts was the highest which was 86.8%.From 28 th May to 28 th July,the survival rate of the three treatments was basically equal (33%-48.6%).The crude and high growth of new branchs was positive correlated to the rootstock’s diameter.%以薄壳核桃1年生大小均匀的实生苗作为砧木,通过移栽、断根和不断根3种处理方式,采用切接法,在不同时间对薄壳山核桃进行嫁接,研究嫁接时间和砧木不同处理方式对嫁接成活率及新梢生长状况的影响。结果表明:4月8号3种砧木处理方式嫁接成活率均出现峰值,其中移栽切接的成活率最高,为86.8%,5月28号到7月28号3种砧木处理方法嫁接成活率基本相同,为33.0%~46.7%。砧木的粗度与新梢的粗生长与高生长之间存在正相关关系。

  3. 贮藏条件对薄壳山核桃4个品系花粉活力影响%Effect of different storage condition on pollen viability of four varieties of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 徐迎春; 李永荣; 李晓储

    2011-01-01

    通过TTC染色法测定4个薄壳山核桃品系Mahan(‘马汉')、Western(‘威斯登')、Shoshoni(‘肖肖尼')、‘钟山25'的花粉分别在室温、4℃和-20℃等不同贮藏条件下活力的变化.研究结果表明,-20℃条件下花粉活力贮藏时间最长,到140天时花粉活力仍在50%左右.以花粉活力保持在50%为标准,室温条件下Western和‘钟山25'贮藏时间最长(8天);4℃下Western花粉贮藏时间最长(21天);-20℃下,4个品系贮藏天数都在84天以上,其中Western、'钟山25'贮藏时间最长,达140天.%The dynamics of pollen viability under different storage condition of four Carya illinoensis varieties were assayed by TIC so as to provide technical support for the artificial pollination. The dynamics of pollen viability under room temperature, 4℃and -20℃ storage condition of four varieties were assayed. Results showed that with the storage prolonging, pollen viability gradually decreased. -20℃ storage had the longest pollen viability, which could reach 50% at 140th day. With the pollen viability at 50% as a standard, under room temperature, Western and ' Zhongshan 25' had longest storage time of 8 days; Under 4℃ pollen storage time Western was the longest storage time of 21 days; When storage under -20℃, the storage time of the 4 viabilities were mere than 84 days, in which Western, ‘Zhongshan 25' had longest storage time, up to 140 days.

  4. Analysis on nut quality characters of Carya illinoensis introduced early in Nanjing%南京早期引种的薄壳山核桃不同单株果实品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱灿灿; 耿国民; 周久亚; 史锋厚

    2012-01-01

    为给薄壳山核桃良种选育、品种改良及果实分类提供参考依据,采用化学分析法,以南京地区早期引种的薄壳山核桃优良单株为研究对象,在对其外部形态指标分析的基础上,就其果实中的粗脂肪、可溶性糖、淀粉、蛋白质含量等品质特征指标进行了测定与分析.测定分析结果表明:不同单株果实中的粗脂肪含量和可溶性蛋白质含量的差异均达到极显著水平,其可溶性糖和淀粉含量的差异显著;薄壳山核桃果实形态特征指标与相关营养物质指标之间不存在显著相关性.主成分分析结果表明:可将反映果实外部形态和品质特征的12个指标划分为果实大小、果仁出油率、果仁碳水化合物这3个主成分,其累积贡献率达83.19%.%In order to provide reference base for fine cultivar breeding, cultivar improvement and nut classify in Carya illinoensis, taking superior individual plant in C. illinoensis introduced early in Nanjing Area, as subject investigated, based on analyzing morphological indexes, some quality character indexes were determined and analyzed by chemical analysis method. The results of determination and analysis showed that the difference of crude fat and soluble protein contents in nuts reached extremely significant level, soluble sugar and starch content in nuts were significantly different, and there was no significant correlation between the indexes of morphology and quality characters. The results of principal component analysis showed that the 12 characters were integrated into 3 principal components, and the accumulated contributing raite came up to 83.19%.

  5. Introduction performance of the fine Annong series varieties of Carya illinoensis in Anhui%安农系列薄壳山核桃良种在安徽的引种表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小艳; 殷巧; 马平; 阮学龙; 傅松玲

    2013-01-01

    为掌握安农1号~5号美国山核桃优良品种的特性,并对其规模化栽培提供理论依据,在合肥农业示范园区,对5个美国山核桃优良品种的经济性状进行了调查测定,系统地总结出5个品种的树体特征、生长结实习性、果实性状等特性.观测结果表明,5个优良品种果实大,种仁饱满,种皮及果皮较薄,出仁率均在40%以上,单果质量平均达7.61 g.5个优良品种的种仁经济性状表现优良,种仁油酸含量均超过70%,仁油率均在40%以上.%In order to learn characters of the fine varieties of Annong No.1-No.5 Carya illinoensis,and to provide a theoretical basis for large-scale cultivation,the economic characters of the five superior varieties of C.illinoensis were investigated and determined in agricultural demonstration park of Hefei,and tree characteristics,growth and fruiting habits,nut characters and other characters of the five varieties were systematically summed up.The results of observation and determination show that the fine varieties have big nuts,full kernels,thin seed coats and peels,their kernel percentage are more than 40%,and their average masses of single nuts are up to 7.61 g.The kernel economic characters of the fine varieties are excellent,the contents of oleic acid in kernels are more than 70%,and oil contents in kernels are more than 40%.

  6. ESTIMATIVA DA IDADE DE SEGREGAÇÃO DO LENHO JUVENIL E ADULTO DE Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch POR MEIO DE PARÂMETROS ANATÔMICOS DA MADEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the demarcation of juvenile and mature wood is essential both for wood technology and forest management. Thinning, in most cases, must take into account this parameter, as the juvenile wood has inferior characteristics compared to mature wood, and different proportions of each type of wood will affect the quality and the use of the wood. Thus, this study aimed to determine the age of maturation of the wood using anatomical characteristics of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh K. Koch wood, through the segregation of juvenile and mature wood. Three adult trees, of good trunk, with diameter greater than 30 cm DBH, were chosen from the region Encosta Superior do Nordeste in the State of the Rio Grande do Sul. From each tree, one disc was removed, with approximately 2 cm in thickness, at 0.10 m in height of the trunk. From each disc was removed a central portion of 2 cm in width, well oriented in the radial direction, including the pith in the center, and this central portion was divided into samples "A" and "B". One of these two samples was selected for separation of the initial wood of each growth ring for maceration (Jeffrey method . First, the length, width and diameter of the lumen of one hundred fibers were measured in the first ring (next to the bark and later, thirty fibers were defined per growth ring as statistically sufficient for the assay. The thickness of the walls of the fiber was taken as the half of the difference of the diameter of the fiber and the lumen. The segregation of the two types of wood was defined by the radial variation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and thickness of the wall of fibers, through two simple linear regressions. The results indicate that the fiber length is the best characteristic for the definition of the year of segregation. The age of segregation of juvenile-mature wood was defined as 16 years. In their turn, the anatomical parameters, diameter

  7. A study on pollen germination and viability in different varieties of Carya illinoensis%不同美国山核桃品种花粉萌发与活力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱雪晨; 王改萍; 彭方仁; 吕昕

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze effects of different culture conditions on pollen vitality , influences of culture time,culture temperature, pH value of culture medium,sugar,boric acid and PEG-4000 concentration on pollen germination were studied by in vitro culture of four different Carya illinoensis cultivars.The results showed that culture time had extremely significant effect on the pollen germination and the pollen length of C. illinoensis. The suitable culture time was 24 h. The culture temperature,pH value,sugar boric acid and PEG-4000 concentrations in liquid medium had obvious influence on pollen viability of the four varieties.The optimum culture temperature for all varieties was 25-30℃. The weak acidic en⁃vironment was favorable for germination and growth of pollens, and the suitable pH value of liquid medium was 5.6.The pollen germination rate and pollen tube length reached their peaks when the sugar concentration was 20%-25%, the concentration of boric acid was over 0.03%;and the concentration of PEG-4000 was over 15%.%为了分析不同培养条件对美国山核桃花粉生活力的影响,以4个不同品种美国山核桃花粉为试验材料,研究了培养时间、培养温度、培养基pH、蔗糖、硼酸和PEG-4000浓度等对花粉离体萌发的影响。结果表明:不同培养时间对美国山核桃花粉的生活力有显著影响,适宜的培养时间为24 h;适宜的培养温度为25~30℃,温度过高或者过低均会抑制花粉萌发和花粉管生长;适宜的液体培养基pH为5.5,超过此范围均表现为抑制萌发。在一定浓度范围内,蔗糖、硼酸和PEG-4000对美国山核桃4个品种的花粉萌发和花粉管生长起促进作用,而超过阈值后起抑制作用;培养基组分中以含20%~25%的蔗糖、0.03%的硼酸和15%的PEG-4000为宜。

  8. Observation and comparison of flowering phenology of Carya illinoensis in Nanjing%薄壳山核桃在南京的开花物候期观察和比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫正海; 张计育; 翟敏; 宣继萍; 贾晓东; 郭忠仁

    2013-01-01

    对种植于南京的薄壳山核桃[Carya illinoensis (Wangench.)K.Koch] 18个品种(系)的开花物候期(包括雌花和雄花的单花开花过程和花期以及雄花散粉期和雌花可授期)进行了观察和比较.结果表明:供试的18个品种(系)雄花单花的开放过程包括花被裂开、雄花变黄、花药散粉、花药变黑和小花脱落5个时期,其开放过程持续天数为13~22 d;各品种(系)雄花集中在4月下旬进入初花期,5月中下旬进入落花末期,雄花的整个花期持续天数为16~24 d.雌花单花的开放过程包括子房显露、柱头裂开、柱头倒“八”字形、柱头枯萎和子房膨大5个时期,其开放过程持续14 ~ 22 d;雌花集中在4月下旬进入初花期,末花期集中在5月中旬,雌花的整个花期持续天数为12 ~23 d.18个品种(系)的雌花可授期天数为3~10d、雄花散粉期天数为4~9d,多数品种(系)的雄花散粉期与雌花可授期天数为7d.依据雌花和雄花开放的先后顺序可以确定其中的12个品种(系)为雌先型,5个品种为雄先型,仅1个品种为同时型;并根据观察结果确定了22个可行的授粉组合.适宜的品种配置方案为‘马罕’(‘Mahan’)、‘西奥克斯’(‘Sioux’)、‘金华’(‘Jinhua’)、‘卡多’(‘Caddo’)和‘波尼’(‘Pawnee’).

  9. 插穗母树年龄和粗度对薄壳山核桃硬枝扦插的影响%Effects of Parent Tree Age and the Thickness of Cuttings on Rooting Capability of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊南; 李莲芳; 熊新武; 王高升; 刘恒鹏; 习学良

    2013-01-01

    探讨薄壳山核桃不同母树年龄和不同粗度对插穗生根能力的影响,采用1年生硬枝进行扦插试验.母树选择2、5、16年生和25年生,采用IBA-0.2 g· L-1处理插穗.插穗粗度设为≤0.5、0.5~0.8、≥0.8 cm3个径级,插穗用不同浓度的IBA、NAA进行处理.结果表明,2年生母树穗条的愈伤组织产生率和生根率分别为87.7%、14.4%,明显高于其他年龄母树.插穗粗度≥0.8cm穗条的效果最好,其平均愈伤组织产生率和生根率分别达33.1%和9.7%.≥0.8 cm穗条的IBA1.0 g·L-1+NAA0.25 g·L-1混合液处理效果最佳,2个指标分别达43.0%和14.6%.相同母树年龄的插穗其愈伤组织产生率和生根率与粗度成正相关.%Effects of parent tree age and the thickness of cuttings on rooting capability of Carya illinoensis were investigated.One year old cuttings with the thicknesses of 0.5 cm,0.5~0.8 cm,≥ 0.8 cm were collected from parent trees with the ages of 2,5,16,and 25 a.Cuttings were treated with different concentrations or combinations of IBA,and NAA.The results indicated the callus formation rate (CFR) and rooting rate (RR) of the cuttings from 2-year-old parent tree were 87.7% and 14.4%,significantly higher than others.The best results were observed from the cuttings with the thickness of≥0.8 cm,the CFR and RR were 33.1% and 9.7%.The treatment of IBA1.0 g · L-1+NAA0.25 g · L-1 exhibited the best results after treating the cuttings with the thickness of≥0.8 cm,and the CFR and RR were 43.0% and 14.6%.Under the same ages of parent tree,the CFR and RR of the cuttings were positively correlated to thickness.

  10. 控释肥对薄壳山核桃容器苗营养生长的影响%Vegetative growth of containerizedCarya illinoensis seedlings with controlled release fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海军; 生静雅; 刘广勤; 曹福亮

    2015-01-01

    研究了2种控释肥(APEX 19-6-12和APEX 14-14-14)在低、中、高(2、6、10 g/L)质量浓度下对薄壳山核桃容器苗营养生长的影响。结果表明:控释肥对苗木生长具有促进作用,但因肥料配方和施用质量浓度不同而异;10 g/L APEX 14-14-14和6 g/L APEX 19-6-12的处理下,苗木品质指数最高,分别为0.26和0.30;除10 g/L APEX 19-6-12处理外,所有的控释肥处理均显著促进了苗木生长停滞期的营养生长,茎体积日增量在7月中旬和8月下旬达到两个高峰,分别是32.6 mm3/d(6 g/L APEX 14-14-14)和20.7 mm3/d(6 g/L APEX19-6-12);N、Ca含量均与肥料配方和施肥质量浓度相关,相同质量浓度下APEX19-6-12处理的苗木营养元素含量高于APEX 14-14-14处理;K含量仅受控释肥配方影响,Mg含量则既不受配方影响也不受施用质量浓度的影响;除了K外,其它3种元素在植株各器官中的分配均不受控释肥配方的影响。%The effects of two kinds of controlled release fertilizer(APEX 19-6-12 andAPEX 14-14-14)with low, moderate and high mass concentrations (2, 6 and 10 g/L, respectively) on were evaluated for their effects on the vegetative growth of containerizedCarya illinoensisseedlings were investigated. The results show that the controlled release fertilizer had promoter action on the seedling growth of containerized C. illinoensisseedlings, and promoter actions varied with the changes of prescription and concentration of fertilizer applied; With the treatments of 10 g/L APEX 14-14-14 and 6 g/L APEX 19-6-12, the quality indexes of nursery stock reached the highest, the values were 0.26 and 0.30; The vegetative growth (stem volume current increment) of pecan seedlings during stagnated period were obviously improved, the stem volume daily increment had two high peaks in mid-July and late August, being 32.6 mm3/d (6 g/L APEX 14-14-14) and 20.7 mm3/d (6 g/L APEX19-6-12), respectively; The N and Ca

  11. Development and characterization of new microsatellites for walnut (Juglans regia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Y; Han, J W; Jin, Q; Wang, Y; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2013-01-01

    The expressed sequence tag (EST) database represents a potentially valuable resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for use in evolutionary studies. EST-SSRs reveal polymorphisms not only within the source taxon, but in related taxa as well. In this paper, we describe a case study in which the publicly available walnut (Juglans regia) EST database was used to develop SSR markers for use in the genetic analysis of the widespread Juglans nigra and Carya cathayensis and an endangered species Annamocarya sinensis. A total of 7262 unigenes, including 1911 contigs and 5351 singletons, were obtained from 13,559 ESTs retrieved from the NCBI database. The 7262 unigenes were further reduced to 706 EST-SSR sequences containing 805 SSR loci. Then, 309 EST-SSR primers were randomly designed, and 77 were identified with five high across-species transferability cross-species: namely, J. regia, J. nigra, C. cathayensis, Carya dabieshanensis, and A. sinensis. Thirteen highly polymorphic EST-SSRs were further used for genetic analyses in these above five species.

  12. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  13. 不同修剪措施对薄壳山核桃枝条生长及枝条和叶片碳氮代谢物积累的影响%Effect of different pruning measures on branch growth and carbon-nitrogen metabolite accumulation in branch and leaf of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 翟敏; 徐迎春; 李永荣

    2014-01-01

    Taking 5-year-old grafted seedling of Carya illinoensis ‘ Mahan’ as experimental materials, effects of short-cutting (1 / 4, 1 / 3 and 1 / 2 short-cuttings), girdling and ringing of branch and trunk on branch growth and carbon-nitrogen metabolite accumulation in branch and leaf were researched. The results show that after short-cutting treatment with different degrees, sprouting rate of branch is significantly higher than that of the control (no pruning), number, length and diameter of new branch are higher than those of the control with different degrees, while there is generally no significant difference in specific leaf weight and chlorophyll content between short-cutting treatment and the control. After 1 / 2 and 1 / 3 short-cuttings, proportion of new branch with length of 0 -10 cm and over 30 cm obviously increases, soluble sugar content and C / N ratio in branch and leaf are higher and total N content is lower than those of the control, and starch content in branch is lower and that in leaf is higher than that of the control. After girdling and ringing treatments of branch, sprouting rate of branch and specific leaf weight are higher than those of the control with no significant difference, average length increment of branch and chlorophyll content are significantly lower and average diameter increment of branch is significantly higher than those of the control, soluble sugar and starch contents and C / N ratio in branch and leaf are higher and total N content is lower than those of the control. After girdling and ringing treatments of trunk, sprouting rate and average diameter increment of branch and specific leaf weight are significantly higher while average length increment of branch and chlorophyll content are significantly lower than those of the control, soluble sugar and starch contents and C / N ratio in branch and leaf are higher than those of the control, and total N content in branch is higher while that in leaf is lower than that of the

  14. Expression, purification and crystallization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) vicilin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree nuts are responsible for many cases of severe food allergies. Vicilin, the 7S seed storage protein, has been identified as a food allergen in many typss of tree nuts. The vicilin protein consists of an N-terminal low-complexity region with antimicrobial activities and a C-terminal domain that f...

  15. The pollen of No. 5 , No. 27 and No. 35 of clones of Carya illinoensis was chosen as the experimental material to study the pollen viability and pollen morphology with SEM in different processing modes, plucking time and powder numbers. The results indica%3个薄壳山核桃无性系花粉活力与显微结构比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 辜夕容; 姚小华; 王开良; 常君; 余裕龙

    2012-01-01

    The pollen of No. 5 , No. 27 and No. 35 of clones of Carya illinoensis was chosen as the experimental material to study the pollen viability and pollen morphology with SEM in different processing modes, plucking time and powder numbers. The results indicated that there are significant differences in the pollen viability in different processing modes, plucking time and powder numbers, also in the Polar axis and equatorial axis of the pollen of these three clones. The form of pollen is ellipsoid and has three apertures which are evenly disposed on the equatorial plane. The equatorial plane of the pollen of these three clones is oval in shape, while the polar planes of clones No. 5 and No. 27 are nearly round and that of No. 35 nearly triangular. There are indifferent granular veins on the surface of the pollen with granular risings equally distributed. This paper provides palynology basis for the origin, evolution and phylogenetic relationship of Carya illinoensis, and foundation of the selection and breeding of new varieties, and cross-hybrid breeding.%以薄壳山核桃无性系5号、27号、35号花粉为试验材料,测定了不同处理方式、不同采摘时期和不同出粉次数下的花粉活力,同时利用扫描电子显微镜对其花粉形态进行了观测.结果表明,不同处理方式、不同采摘时间和不同出粉次数下收集的同一薄壳山核桃无性系花粉,其活力存在显著性差异(P<0.05).3个无性系花粉极轴长(P)和赤道轴长(E)存在显著性差异(P<0.05),花粉粒形状均为扁球形,具有3个萌发孔,均匀分布在赤道面上;3个无性系花粉赤道面观均呈椭圆形,无性系5号和27号极面观呈近圆形,而无性系35号极面观呈近三角形;3个无性系花粉表面呈颗粒状纹饰,均匀分布着颗粒状的突起,表面纹饰差异不明显.通过研究薄壳山核桃花粉的超显微结构,可为薄壳山核桃品种的起源、演化以及种类间亲缘关系等提供孢粉

  16. Oaks were the historical foundation genus of the east-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanberry, Brice B.; Nowacki, Gregory J.

    2016-08-01

    Foundation tree species are dominant and define ecosystems. Because of the historical importance of oaks (Quercus) in east-central United States, it was unlikely that oak associates, such as pines (Pinus), hickories (Carya) and chestnut (Castanea), rose to this status. We used 46 historical tree studies or databases (ca. 1620-1900) covering 28 states, 1.7 million trees, and 50% of the area of the eastern United States to examine importance of oaks compared to pines, hickories, and chestnuts. Oak was the most abundant genus, ranging from 40% to 70% of total tree composition at the ecological province scale and generally increasing in dominance from east to west across this area. Pines, hickories, and chestnuts were co-dominant (ratio of oak composition to other genera of <2) in no more than five of 70 ecological subsections and two of 20 ecological sections in east-central United States, and thus by definition, were not foundational. Although other genera may be called foundational because of localized abundance or perceptions resulting from inherited viewpoints, they decline from consideration when compared to overwhelming oak abundance across this spatial extent. The open structure and high-light conditions of oak ecosystems uniquely supported species-rich understories. Loss of oak as a foundation genus has occurred with loss of open forest ecosystems at landscape scales.

  17. Evaporation of a Thickened Agent Simulant from Oak and Hickory Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    330M0 2.53934 .404272 3.697723 .59573 2.45098 .394869 .3793 1.34055 360.0 2.33976 .376951 3.86T303 . 62305 2.25244 .362883 .4138 1.46242 390.0 2.19000...RSTE 09’ 2 MH OR9PS DEPO-31’W ON LERF SURFACE FOR 3 HR AT 561 .6 F AND 42% RH APPENDIX IK 3S56 K ESTIMATE, OF AVERAC!.,’ El.,’ iECS ANt SUk oJP SQUARES

  18. Selected soil enzyme activities in an oak-hickory forest following long-term prescribed burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Bayan; F. Eivazi

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical reactions within the soil are mediated by soil flora and fauna, and are catalyzed by enzymes. Therefore, enzymes play a significant role in nutrient cycling. Enzymes are specific for the type of chemical reactions in which they participate. Arylsulfatase is the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an arylsulfate anion by fission of the oxygen-sulfur...

  19. Old Hickory Lake Appendix M To Park Management Shoreline Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    17. Vegetation Alteration 18. Private Floating Dock Facilities 19. Shoreline Erosion Control...for moorage of floating docks because of steep bluffs, narrow coves, shallow water, or impacts to navigation. 15. Environmental Restoration and...components of the lake such as fish, wildlife, forests, wetlands , grasslands, soil, air and water with public access and use. These areas are

  20. DOE ZERH Case Study: Glastonbury Housesmith, Hickory Drive, South Glastonbury, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 29 without PV -23 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with 5.5 blown fiberglass and 2.75” rigid mineral wool; basement with 4” XPS exterior, 4” under slab; sealed attic with 5” ccsf and R-58 blown fiberglass; ground source heat pump COP 4.4.

  1. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G

    1996-12-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

  2. Contact dermatitis following sustained exposure to pecans (Carya illinoensis): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kathleen M; Boyd, Jason; Viernes, Jay L

    2006-04-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions following ingestion of peanuts and tree nuts are well characterized. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are less well characterized, yet they remain the second most common reaction pattern to contact with or ingestion of such nuts. We present a case of a patient who experienced an acute vesicular cutaneous reaction after prolonged contact with pecans. This case illustrates the salient features of contact dermatitis and serves as a reminder that contact with allergenic foods can lead to hypersensitivity reactions.

  3. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  4. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  5. Lippia graveolens and Carya illinoensis Organic Extracts and there in vitro Effect Against Rhizoctonia Solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco D. Hernandez-Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant extracts with polyphenolic compounds obtained with different solvents have been evaluated against plant pathogens. However, most of these extract have been obtained using solvents no allowed under an organic production context. Approach: In the present research was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of polyphenolic extracts from L. graveolens and C. illinoensis, obtained with alternative organic solvents (lanolin and cocoa butter, water and ethanol against R. solani in order to determine the Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 of each extract. Results: The results showed that extracts of both L. graveolens and C. illinoensis obtained with lanolin and ethanol (200 and 3000 ppm of total tannins, respectively inhibited at 100% growth of R. solani. The IC50 for each extract was highly variable, low IC50 values were obtained with L. graveolens (4.50×101 and C. illinoensis (4.33×102 extract using lanolin and ethanol respectively. Tannins extraction was strongly dependent on plant species and in the solvent used. Conclusion: The alternative organic solvents lanolin and cocoa butter allowed the recovery of polyphenols compounds with antifungal activity against R. solani.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a New Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Allergen, Car i 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Lee, BoRam; Du, Wen-Xian; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Grauke, Larry J; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; McHugh, Tara H

    2016-05-25

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods from the "big eight" food allergen groups. Here, for the first time, pecan vicilin was found to be a food allergen. Western blot experiments revealed that 30% of 27 sera used in this study and 24% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo controlled clinical pecan allergy contained IgE antibodies specific to pecan vicilin. This allergen consists of a low-complexity region at its N-terminal and a structured domain at the C-terminal that contains two cupin motifs and forms homotrimers. The crystal structure of recombinant pecan vicilin was determined. The refined structure gave R/Rfree values of 0.218/0.262 for all data to 2.65 Å. There were two trimeric biological units in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Pecan vicilin is also a copper protein. These data may facilitate the understanding of the nutritional value and the allergenicity relevance of the copper binding property of seed storage proteins in tree nuts.

  7. Biochemical composition and immunological comparison of select pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Seeram, Navindra P; Heber, David; Thompson, Tommy E; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2007-11-28

    On an edible portion basis, pecan moisture, protein, lipid, total soluble sugars, and ash contents ranged from 2.1% to 6.4%, 6.0% to 11.3%, 65.9% to 78.0%, 3.3% to 5.3%, and 1.2% to 1.8%, respectively. With the exception of a high tannin (2.7%) Texas seedling, pecan tannin content was in a narrow range (0.6-1.85%). Unsaturated fatty acids (>90%) dominated pecan lipid composition with oleic (52.52-74.09%) and linoleic (17.69-37.52%) acids as the predominant unsaturated fatty acids. Location significantly influenced pecan biochemical composition. Pecan lipid content was negatively correlated with protein (r = -0.663) and total sugar (r = -0.625). Among the samples tested using SDS-PAGE a common pattern, with minor differences, in subunit polypeptide profiles was revealed. Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based immunoblotting experiments (Western blot) also illustrated the similarity in polypeptide profiles with respect to immunoreactivity. All tested cultivars registered similar immunoreactivity when their protein extracts (each at 1 mg/mL) were assessed using inhibition ELISAs (mean +/- standard deviation = 0.89 +/- 0.20; n = 27) with the USDA "Desirable" cultivar as the reference standard (immunoreactivity designated as 1.0).

  8. Biochemical characterization of soluble proteins in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2008-09-10

    Pecans (cv. Desirable) contained approximately 10% protein on a dry weight basis. The minimum nitrogen solubility (5.9-7.5%) at 0.25-0.75 M trichloroacetic acid represented the nonprotein nitrogen. Among the solvents assessed for protein solubilization, 0.1 M NaOH was the most effective, while borate saline buffer (pH 8.45) was judged to be optimal for protein solubilization. The protein solubility was minimal in the pH range of 3-7 and significantly increased on either side of this pH range. Increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4 M significantly improved ( approximately 8-fold increase) protein solubilization. Following Osborne protein fractionation, the alkali-soluble glutelin fraction (60.1%) accounted for a major portion of pecan proteins followed by globulin (31.5%), prolamin (3.4%), and albumin (1.5%), respectively. The majority of pecan polypeptides were in the molecular mass range of 12-66 kDa and in the pI range of 4.0-8.3. The pecan globulin fraction was characterized by the presence of several glycoprotein polypeptides. Lysine was the first limiting essential amino acid in the defatted flour, globulin, prolamin, and alkaline glutelin fractions. Leucine and tryptophan were the first limiting essential amino acids in albumin and acid glutelin fractions, respectively. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies detected a range of pecan polypeptides in the 12-60 kDa range, of which the globulin fraction contained the most reactive polypeptides.

  9. 菌肥对香榧等控根容器苗生长的影响%Effect of Microbial Fertilizers on Growth of Root-pruning Container Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁永发; 康志雄; 陈友吾; 许利群; 程诗明; 张乃华; 方建华

    2011-01-01

    在香榧、山核桃、杨梅等控根容器苗培育过程中,选用固氮菌、解磷菌及其混合菌进行菌肥试验.结果表明:施菌肥3a后,香榧容器苗解磷菌、混合菌处理苗高生长量比对照分别增加18.26%和18.06%,差异显著(P<0.05);山核桃容器苗固氮菌、混合菌处理高生长量比对照分别增加46.25%和47.23%,差异显著(P<0.05);杨梅容器苗混合菌处理苗高生长量与对照相比差异显著(P<0.05),明显优于它们单独使用效果;此外,不同菌肥对香榧等3种苗木地径生长也有一定的促进作用.由于不同的菌肥对各树种的苗木生长促进效果有明显差异,在苗木培育过程中,应根据不同的苗木合理选用菌肥.%Experiments were conducted on application of microbial fertilizers like nitrogen fixing bacteria, phosphate-dissolving bacteria and mixed bacteria on root-pruning container seedling cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii, Carya cathayensis, Myrica rubra. The result showed that after 3 years test, height growth of container T. grandis cv. Meirrillii seedlings treated by phosphate-dissolving bacteria and mixed one increased 18.26% and 18.06% than that of the control, with great difference(P<0.05). Height growth of container C. cathayensis seedlings treated by nitrogen fixing bacteria and mixed one increased 46.25% and 47.23% than that of the control, with great difference(P<0.05). Height growth of container Myrica rubra seedlings treated by mixed bacteria had significant different with that of the control and was better than that treated by the other two fertilizers.

  10. Detection of Drought-Induced Hickory Disturbances in Western Lin An County, China, Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi, Zhenyuan; Lu, Dengsheng; Liu, Lijuan; Ge, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    .... Ratios of green vegetation to soil fractions were calculated, in which the green vegetation and soil fractions were extracted from Landsat multispectral imagery using the linear spectral mixture analysis approach...

  11. 2006 United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Post Hurricane Wilma Lidar: Hurricane Pass to Big Hickory Pass, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in these files contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the CHARTS system along the west coast of Florida from Hurricane Pass to Big...

  12. Archeological Survey and Testing at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes, Cedar, Dade, Hickory, and Polk Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    were rare in prior to Anglo-American settlement because red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is extremely susceptible to fire dam- age . Other frequently...common fish remains from Rodgers Shelter are catfish (Ictaluridae) and suckers ( Catostomidae ) (Parmalee et al. 1976:157). Gravels of the stream bottoms and...terrace, but this occupation was not investigated ade- quately for interpretation (Kay 1982c:736). Radiocarbon ages pertaining to this period are 3530 1

  13. 75 FR 24943 - Millennium Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... York to an interconnection with the facilities of Southern Tier Transmission Company (STT) near Hickory... with STT at Hickory Grove in Horseheads, New York. The Hickory Grove Lateral was constructed in 1993 by...

  14. 泡核桃抗旱造林技术%Drought Resistant Afforestation Techniques of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜贵勇

    2010-01-01

    分析影响泡核桃造林成活的因素主要有立地条件,苗木质量,造林技术,温度、水分条件以及管护等方面.阐述了按适地适树原则进行造林地块的选择,做好造林整地,合理确定造林密度,起苗、截干、包装运输等种苗处理技术措施,定植时间、方法、覆膜、遮阳等定植技术以及补水和管护等技术措施和方法.在景东县6个地点进行试验,结果表明,可提高13.6%的造林成活率.

  15. 薄壳山核桃研究概况%The Survey Research and Development Trends of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 宁德鲁; 李贤忠; 张雨; 李勇杰

    2010-01-01

    通过对薄壳山核桃的经济性状、原产地及其分布、引种栽培、生物学特性、生态要求、品种类型、繁育研究等研究现状进行剖析,提出薄壳山核桃的发展趋势,以期能为我国林农在选择发展薄壳山核桃时提供一些参考.

  16. Antigenic stability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] proteins: effects of thermal treatments and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Teuber, Suzanne S; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-02-22

    Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA as well as immunoblotting analyses of proteins extracted from variously processed pecans (cv. Desirable) indicate that pecan proteins are antigenically stable. Pecan antigens were more sensitive to moist heat than dry heat processing treatments. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the native and heat-denatured proteins that were previously subjected to in vitro simulated gastric fluid digestions indicate that stable antigenic peptides were produced. Both enzyme-to-substrate ratio and digestion time were influential in determining the stability of pecan polypeptides. The stable antigenic polypeptides may serve as useful markers in developing assays suitable for the detection of trace amounts of pecans in foods.

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jane Mara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema ß-caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h, fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05 con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema ß-caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.

  18. Analysis of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) unsaponifiable fraction. Effect of ripening stage on phytosterols and phytostanols composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Intidhar; Trabelsi, Hajer; Herchi, Wahid; Martine, Lucy; Albouchi, Ali; Bouzaien, Ghaith; Sifi, Samira; Boukhchina, Sadok; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Changes in 4-desmethylsterol, 4-monomethylsterol, 4,4-dimethylsterol and phytostanol composition were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated during the ripening of three varieties of Tunisian-grown pecan nuts (Mahan, Moore and Burkett). These components have many health benefits, especially in lowering LDL-cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The phytosterol composition of whole pecan kernel was quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection (GC-FID) and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen phytosterols and one phytostanol were quantified. The greatest amount of phytosterols (2852.5mg/100g of oil) was detected in Mahan variety at 20 weeks after the flowering date (WAFD). Moore had the highest level of phytostanols (7.3mg/100g of oil) at 20 WAFD. Phytosterol and phytostanol contents showed a steep decrease during pecan nut development. Results from the quantitative characterisation of pecan nut oils revealed that β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and campesterol were the most abundant phytosterol compounds at all ripening stages.

  19. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Boehmeria cylindrica - + + + + + - - - - Brunnchia cirrhosa - + + + - + + + + + Campsisradicans - - + + - + + + + - Carya illinoensis ...erythrorhizos - - - + + + + + + - Desmanthus illinoensis + + + - - - - Digitaria ischaemum - - - - + - + + + + Digitaria sanguinalis

  20. A Survey of Attitudes, Values, Impressions and Feelings towards Extension Specialization and Programs in the Kaysinger Program Area (Bates, Benton, Cedar, Hickory, St. Clair and Vernon Counties.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, R. D.

    To provide a bench mark or base-line study from which future measurements of the effectiveness of area programming and area staff specialization in Extension programs of the University of Missouri, a questionnaire was mailed to 913 people in six counties. The number of usable questionnaires returned was 516. The data from the questionnaire are…

  1. 美国山核桃主要栽培品种的RAPD鉴定%Identification of Main Varieties of American Hickory by RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张日清; 吕芳德; 谭晓风; 何方; 谢碧霞

    2004-01-01

    以叶片为材料,采用改良CTAB法和16种Operon引物对从原产地美国引进的30个美国山核桃主要栽培品种进行RAPD分子分析.结果表明:参试品种间存在明显的基因带型差异,多态型比率高达78.1%;根据RAPD特异分离谱带确定了各品种的标记基因型,以此可实现对美国山核桃无性系品种DNA水平上的鉴别;以标记基因型对30个美国山核桃品种进行系统聚类,结果与传统形态学及Marquard等人的同工酶分类基本吻合.

  2. 美国山核桃组培中材料灭菌的研究%Sterilization of Carya illinoensis Explants in Tissue Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅玉兰; 谷凤; 吴炜

    2004-01-01

    采用不同的灭菌措施,包括不同的灭菌剂、浓度和处理顺序,对美国山核桃带芽茎段进行灭菌处理,研究其污染率和污染速率的变化,寻找建立无菌培养系最适宜的方法.结果表明,外植体材料最适宜的灭菌处理方法为:先将外植体在70%酒精中浸30 s,再将其用0.2%升汞液(加数滴吐温80)浸15 min,无菌水冲洗10次,最后接种.培养基中添加适量活性炭,且前期暗培养是提高材料无菌率的有利保障.另外,培养基中加入青霉素、链霉素各100mg·L-1可明显提高材料的无菌率.

  3. Overview of Cultivation and Management Techniques of Carya Illinoensis%薄壳山核桃栽培管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建江; 张建平

    2010-01-01

    薄壳山核桃具有高度的营养价值、经济价值、生态价值,从19世纪引入中国以来,受到高度重视,各地都积极引进推广.从林地的选择、林地整地、苗木栽植、树园管理、果实采摘贮藏对核桃的栽培管理技术做了简要的介绍,并对薄壳山核桃的发展前景做出评估.

  4. Suitability and Development Perspectives of Carya illinoensis in Sichuan%美国山核桃在四川的适应性及其开发前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷国兰; 杨金亮; 辜云杰; 陈宇; 杜林

    2016-01-01

    将四川地区主要气候因子与美国山核桃现实生态位宽进行了比较,表明美国山核桃在四川的适生区域较广,前景广阔.建议四川省引种美国山核桃首先考虑四川的东部及南部地区.

  5. Cultivation of Carya illinoensis(Wangenn.)K.Koch as an exotic species%薄壳山核桃的引种栽培

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文龙; 闾连飞

    2003-01-01

    薄壳山核桃果实营养丰富,是世界著名的干果之一.其木质质地坚固强韧,是优良的用材树种;由于其树姿优美,还可作为绿化树种.该树种于20世纪初引入我国,在本地生长、结果良好,表现出了较强的适应性,值得大面积推广栽培.

  6. The Research Summary and Developmental Trend of Carya illinoensis%薄壳山核桃研究概况及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王曼; 李贤忠; 宁德鲁; 张雨; 李勇杰

    2009-01-01

    介绍薄壳山核桃优良的经济性状、在原产地美国的栽培情况以及在我国的引种栽培等情况,阐述其生物学特性、生态要求、品种类型及有性繁殖、无性繁殖、杂交育种等方面研究概况,指出薄壳山核桃的栽培与种植发展趋势.

  7. The survey research of Carya illinoensis in China%我国薄壳山核桃研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯冬培; 习学良; 石卓功

    2007-01-01

    中国自19世纪末引种薄壳山核桃以来,通过对其原产地及其分布、生态要求、生物学特性、品种类型、繁殖培育、病虫害防治、栽培技术的研究分析,展现这些技术研究的成果,表明薄壳山核桃在我国的发展潜力和趋势,为我国的林农经济结构调整和农民致富做出贡献.

  8. 美国山核桃的研究栽培与利用%Research Culture and Development of Carya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦倩

    2010-01-01

    介绍了美国山核桃的分布发展状况,阐述了它的形态和生物学特性及适宜的环境生长条件,同时提出了较为合理的栽培技术措施,以期为今后发展我国干果生产,促进其优质、稳产、丰产提供依据.

  9. DISPONIBILIDAD DE LUZ Y PRODUCCIÓN DE NUEZ DESPUÉS DEL ACLAREO DE ÁRBOLES DE NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Arreola Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El volumen de la copa bien iluminada es uno de los factores clave en la productividad de árboles de nogal pecanero. Cuando las huertas de nogal pecanero con densidades de plantación al menos de 100 árboles por hectárea presentan problemas de sombreo, la penetración de luz dentro de la copa del árbol y entre árboles, el crecimiento y la producción son negativamente afectadas. La investigación realizada para estudiar el efecto del aclareo de árboles de nogal pecanero sobre la disponibilidad de la luz y productividad de la huerta es limitada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del aclareo de árboles sobre la disponibilidad de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA dentro de árboles permanentes, crecimiento del brote, producción y calidad de la nuez. Este estudio se llevó a cabo en una huerta madura de nogal pecanero con aclareo de árboles de 25 a 50 % durante el periodo 2004-2008. La disponibilidad de RFA dentro de árboles, longitud de brotes y la producción de nuez fueron afectadas por los tratamientos de aclareo; sin embargo, la calidad (porcentaje de almendra por árbol durante el periodo de tres años de estudio no fue significativamente afectada. Los resultados de este estudio indican que un gradual aclareo en huertas con problemas de sombreo debe realizarse para recuperar el crecimiento y componentes de producción.

  10. Evaluación de la calidad durante el almacenamiento de nueces Pecán [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] acondicionadas en diferentes envases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jana Mara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the quality changes of pecan nuts stored in nylon-polyethylene plastic film under vacuum and in polypropylene plastic recipients at ambient temperature for 150 days were evaluated. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of the pecan nuts reveal interesting nutritional characteristics and an oil with high contents of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and γ-tocopherol. During storage, moisture content did not suffer significant changes, but a gradual and significant darkening of the surface of the nuts occurred. The changes in acid value, peroxide value and specific extinction of the extracted oil were significant. The microbiological quality was excellent and the presence of Salmonella sp. was not detected. Through sensory analysis, the shelf-life of the product was determined as 120 days, without significant differences between the two types of packaging used.En el presente trabajo, fueron evaluadas las alteraciones en la calidad de nueces Pecán almacenadas en película plástica de nilón-polietileno al vacío y en recipientes plásticos de polipropileno, en temperatura ambiente, durante 150 días. La composición nutricional, en ácidos grasos (62,5 % de ácido oleico y el contenido de tocoferoles (30 mg/kg de γ-tocoferol de las nueces Pecán, indican características nutricionales interesantes. Durante el almacenamiento de las nueces, el contenido de humedad no sufrió cambios significativos, mas ocurrió un oscurecimiento gradual y significativo de la superficie de las nueces. Las alteraciones en los índices de acidez (0,17 - 0,37 y 0,19 - 0,57 inicial y final para los envases de película plástica y polipropileno, respectivamente, peróxido (1,0 - 2,7 y 1,1 - 4,7 y extinción específica a 232 nm (0,98 - 1,99 y 0,96 - 2,16 y 270 nm (0,11 - 0,33 y 0,04 - 0,15 en el aceite extraído fueron significativas. La calidad microbiológica fue excelente y no fue detectada la presencia de Salmonella sp. A través del análisis sensorial se determinó la vida de anaquel del producto como 120 días, sin diferencias significativas entre los dos tipos de envases utilizados.

  11. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity and mutagenic activity of the aqueous extract of pecan shells [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos Santos; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; dos Santos, Marcela Silva; Porto, Caroline Dalla Lana; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    The infusion of pecan shells has been used to prevent and control hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and toxicological diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and mutagenic effects of pecan shells aqueous extract (PSAE). Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of 300 or 2000 mg/kg of PSAE in the acute toxicity test. For the subacute test, the animals received 10 or 100 mg/kg of PSAE for 28 days. The mutagenicity was evaluated using Salmonella/microsome assay in TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and TA102 S. typhimurium strains in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) and micronucleus test in bone marrow. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, gallic and ellagic acids. Except for triglycerides, all treated groups presented normal hematological and biochemical parameters. Lower levels of triglycerides and weight loss were observed in the 100 mg/kg group. Mutagenic activities were not detected in S. typhimurium strains and by the micronucleus test. Based on these results, PSAE was not able to induce chromosomal or point mutations, under the conditions tested. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant antihyperlipidemic action, with no severe toxic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh C. Koch] shell aqueous extract on minimally processed lettuce leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina CAXAMBÚ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pecan nutshell is a residue from food industry that has potential to be used as biopreservative in foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pecan nutshell aqueous extract in vitro and its effectiveness to inhibit spoilage microorganisms on lettuce leaves. The results indicate that the aqueous extract presents inhibitory activity against important foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity was not observed against Corynebacterium fimi, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and the phytopathogenic fungi tested. When applied onto lettuce leaves, pecan nutshell extract reduced the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in 2 and 4 log CFU/g, respectively, during storage of leafy for 5 days at refrigeration temperature (5 °C. The extract was not effective to inhibit yeast on lettuce leaves. Thus, the aqueous extract of pecan shell showed great potential to be used as a natural preservative in foods, acting mainly in the inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Electron-beam irradiation effects on phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Lozoya, Jose E; Lombardini, Leonardo; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-11-25

    Pecans kernels (Kanza and Desirable cultivars) were irradiated with 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy using electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation and stored under accelerated conditions [40 degrees C and 55-60% relative humidity (RH)] for 134 days. Antioxidant capacity (AC) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, phenolic (TP) and condensed tannin (CT) content, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) phenolic profile, tocopherol content, peroxide value (PV), and fatty acid profiles were determined during storage. Irradiation decreased TP and CT with no major detrimental effects in AC. Phenolic profiles after hydrolysis were similar among treatments (e.g., gallic and ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin). Tocopherol content decreased with irradiation (>21 days), and PV increased at later stages (>55 days), with no change in fatty acid composition among treatments. Color lightness decreased, and a reddish brown hue developed during storage. A proposed mechanism of kernel oxidation is presented, describing the events taking place. In general, E-beam irradiation had slight effects on phytochemical constituents and could be considered a potential tool for pecan kernel decontamination.

  14. MÉTODOS DE SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DA SEMENTE DE NOGUEIRA-PECÃ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da nogueira-pecã tem grande importância para a economia de vários municípios do Sul do Brasil. Entretanto, problemas como baixa porcentagem de germinação das sementes e irregularidade na emergência das plântulas trazem dificuldades no processo de propagação, decorrentes da influência do fenômeno da dormência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes técnicas de superação da dormência de sementes de nogueira-pecã e o posterior desenvolvimento das plântulas. Para tanto, foram testados quatro diferentes métodos de superação de dormência, em que, nos tratamentos testemunhas, as sementes permaneceram em ambiente protegido sem qualquer tratamento; no método com escarificação, as sementes foram lixadas na parte apical no momento da semeadura e na estratificação, acomodadas em caixas com areia úmida e mantidas na temperatura de 4 ºC. Também foi testada a combinação escarificação e estratificação, simultaneamente. Os tratamentos foram compostos por 10 repetições de três sementes cada. Após cada período (30, 60 e 90 dias, as sementes foram semeadas em bandeja contendo substrato Mecplant® e mantidas a 25 ºC ± 2 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de 12 h. Avaliaram-se a altura da parte aérea, o diâmetro do colo, o número de folhas, a emergência total, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a biomassa seca, a área foliar e o comprimento da raiz pivotante. O melhor desenvolvimento de plântulas de nogueira-pecã, bem como sua emergência, foi observado no tratamento com estratificação por 90 dias e, quando combinadas escarificação mais estratificação, por 90 dias.

  15. Patterns of forest succession and impacts of flood in the Upper Mississippi River floodplain ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, Y.; Bartell, S.M.; Cosgriff, R.

    2009-01-01

    The widespread loss of oak-hickory forests and the impacts of flood have been major issues of ecological interest concerning forest succession in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) floodplain. The data analysis from two comprehensive field surveys indicated that Quercus was one of the dominant genera in the UMR floodplain ecosystem prior to the 1993 flood and constituted 14% of the total number of trees and 28% of the total basal area. During the post-flood recovery period through 2006, Quercus demonstrated slower recovery rates in both the number of trees (4%) and basal area (17%). In the same period, Carya recovered greatly from the 1993 flood in terms of the number of trees (11%) and basal area (2%), compared to its minor status before the flood. Further analyses suggested that different species responded to the 1993 flood with varying tolerance and different succession strategies. In this study, the relation of flood-caused mortality rates and DBH, fm(d), can be expressed in negative exponential functions for each species. The results of this research also indicate that the growth functions are different for each species and might also be different between pre- and post-flood time periods. These functions indicate different survival strategies and emergent properties in responding to flood impacts. This research enhances our understanding of forest succession patterns in space and time in the UPR floodplain. And such understanding might be used to predict long-term impacts of floods on UMR floodplain forest dynamics in support of management and restoration. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, antennal and behavioral responses to nonhost leaf and bark volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William P; Sullivan, Brian T

    2013-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that bark beetles detect and avoid release points of volatile compounds associated with nonhost species, and thus such nonhost volatiles may have potential utility in the management of bark beetles. We used a coupled gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector (GC-EAD) to assay the olfactory sensitivity of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to volatiles from leaves and bark of eight species of nonhost angiosperm trees that are common in the range of D. frontalis. Tree species sampled were red maple (Acer rubrum L.), mockernut hickory [Carya alba (L.) Nutt. ex Ell.], sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx.), blackjack oak [Quercus marilandica (L.) Muenchh.], and water oak (Quercus nigra L.). Beetle antennae responded to a total of 28 identifiable compounds in these samples. The relative olfactory responsiveness to 14 of these, as well as to nonanoic acid and four additional volatiles reported to be associated with nonhost angiosperms, was assessed in GC-EAD analyses of synthetic dilutions spanning six orders of magnitude. The largest response voltage amplitudes were obtained with trans-conophthorin, nonanoic acid, terpinen-4-ol, phenylethyl alcohol, and eucalyptol, whereas the lowest response thresholds were to nonanoic acid, nonanal, linalool, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and phenylethyl alcohol. Funnel traps baited with various combinations of eleven antennally-active angiosperm volatiles along with a standard attractant captured significantly fewer male and female D. frontalis than traps baited with the standard attractant alone. Our data suggest that a diversity of semiochemicals may be involved in host species discrimination by D. frontalis, and several may have utility in their management.

  17. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  18. A Study of Vegetation Development in Relation to Age of River Stabilization Structures Along a Channelized Segment of the Missouri River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-25

    Featherly (1941) both concluded that riparian woodlands develop into Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak) - Quercus borealis (red oak) - Carya illinoensis (pecan...dominated communit4 es .. ........ .. 47 Quercus- Carya -dominated communities .. ........ .. 49 Diversity ......... ....................... .. 59 Similarity...Tilia-Quercus-dominated, and Quercus- Carya -dominated vegetation. The construction dates of the stabilization structures adjacent to the sites studied

  19. A Cultural Resources Survey of Steele, New Franklin, and Main Ditches, and National Register of Historic Places Significance Testing of Sites 2PM574, 575, 577, and 23PM578, Pemiscot County Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-15

    White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red... Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark (Car.ya laciniosa) T Hornbeam ( Ostrya virgin/iana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica)T "Locust, ? T Black (Robinia

  20. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Hartwell Drainage and Levee District Greene County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Carya illinoensis ...Sambucus canadensis ə Ilex decidua ᝺ Cornus drummondii ə Quercus alba ə Overstory 40% Celtis occidentalis ញ Acer saccharinum 10 Carya illinoensis ...seedling) ə Carex sp. ə Saururus cernuus ə Understory 40% Ulmus americana 25 Quercus palustrus ə Carya illinoensis ə Acer saccharinum 10 flex

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12512-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ome... 46 5.1 1 ( AM425166 ) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X047503.4, whole genome... 46 5.1 1 ( AF303771 ) Carya... illinoinensis atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer, ... 46 5.1 1 ( AF303770 ) Carya tomentosa atpB-rbcL intergenic ...spacer, chlo... 46 5.1 1 ( AF303769 ) Carya glabra atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer, c...hlorop... 46 5.1 1 ( AF303768 ) Carya ovata atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer, chloropl... 46 5.1 1 ( AF303767 ) Carya... myristiciformis atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer... 46 5.1 1 ( AF303766 ) Carya cordiformis atpB-rbcL interg

  2. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey. For this study, we have focused on pollen studies for the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. For most samples, the pollen assemblages were not highly diverse. The most abundant taxa through all samples were Quercus (oak) and Carya (hickory). Typical wetland elements like Cyperaceae, Taxodium (cypress), Nyssa (tupelo tree) and taxa today growing in the tropics and subtropics like Sapotaceae, Symplocaceae, Arecaceae (palm trees) and Alangium, which indicate particularly warm climate conditions, were only sporadically found, but indicate warmer phases during the second half of the MMCO. Herbal pollen was generally rare, but members of the Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Ericaceae families, together with infrequent occurences of Poaceae pollen indicate the presence of areas with open vegetation. The Mid-Miocene pollen assemblages reflect a vegetation in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf

  3. Operation and Maintenance Pools 24, 25, and 26 Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    Acer saccharinum), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), deciduous holly (ilex decidua), sugarberry (Celtis leavigata), ash (Fraxinus -p.), American elm (Ulmus...ivy (Rhus radicans) 13.5 American elm (Ulmus americana) 11.0 Ash (Fraxinus spp.) 10.5 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 9.5 Sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) 7.3...Acer saccharinum) 60 69 Pin oak (Ouercus palustris) 31 36 Willow (Salix spp.) 12 27 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 11 17 Cottonwood (Populus deltoides) 7

  4. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida: Chapter B, Apalachicola River quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen

  5. Impact factors of the callus inducement and growth of Carya illinoensis in vitro culture%薄壳山核桃愈伤组织诱导的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕运舟; 窦全琴; 蒋泽平

    2015-01-01

    以薄壳山核桃品种马罕×波尼的杂交种子为材料,研究不同外植体来源、不同培养基成分及不同质量浓度的植物生长调节剂对愈伤组织诱导效率的影响.结果表明,MS较1/2 MS和WPM培养基更加有利于薄壳山核桃愈伤组织的诱导和继代培养;最佳植物生长调节剂组合为2.0mg/LNAA+ 0.1 mg/L6-BA;种子苗幼茎较胚根、胚轴、幼叶更适于作为愈伤组织诱导的起始外植体,愈伤诱导率为72.79%.

  6. Adventitious bud induction and proliferation of Carya illinoensis in vitro culture%薄壳山核桃试管离体培养中不定芽诱导及增殖技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董筱昀; 蒋泽平; 蒋春; 李永荣

    2013-01-01

    以薄壳山核桃实生幼苗具腋芽茎段为外植体,进行试管离体培养,以期研究其不定芽诱导及增殖技术.试验结果表明,在温度为28℃,光照度1 500 lx,光照时间为14 h/d的培养条件下,以MS+ 6-BA 4.0 mg/L+ IBA 0.01mg/L为组成的培养基较适宜诱导供试外植体上不定芽的发生,诱导率达87%;以1/2MS+ 6-BA 2.0 mg/L+ IBA0.1 mg/L为组成的培养基较适宜进行芽苗增殖培养,增殖系数为5.1.

  7. 美国山核桃在云南的引种研究进展及发展前景%Introduction and Research Progress of Carya illinoensis and Its Developmental Prospects in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习学良; 范志远; 董润泉; 张雨

    2001-01-01

    总结了云南53a来对美国山核桃引种、选种、生物学特性、生态适应性、苗木繁殖、丰产栽培、虫害防治的研究进展和示范推广情况.认为美国山核桃市场潜力大,在云南栽培效益高、适栽区域广、符合该省经济林树种结构调整需要,将来定会得到大力推广发展.

  8. Introduction and Analysation of Carya illinoensis in Hubei Province%湖北省薄壳山核桃引种栽培及发展对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐春永; 徐永杰; 杜洋文; 邓先珍; 胡琦; 周席华

    2016-01-01

    简述了国内薄壳山核桃引种栽培概况,对湖北省近年来有关薄壳山核桃引种栽培情况进行了总结,并在分析薄壳山核桃引种栽培效果和存在问题的基础上,提出了发展对策建议.

  9. Discussion on Present Situation,Problems of Seedlings Production of Carya illinoensis and Countermeasures in Yunnan Province%云南美国山核桃种苗生产现状、存在的问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建华; 李淑芳; 习学良; 范志远

    2010-01-01

    对近几年美国山核桃种苗生产现状的分析表明,美国山核桃种子供应不足、苗木成本高,良种接穗供应不足以及苗木生产格局混乱是当前美国山核桃种苗大面积生产存在的主要问题.针对当前生产中存在的主要问题提出对策建议.

  10. On the Feasibility of Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch Introduction in Hubei Province%美国山核桃在湖北省引种可行性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永杰; 徐春永; 杜洋文; 杜拾平; 马林江; 程军勇

    2012-01-01

    Comparing Caryan illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Koch niche breadth with geography,climate,soil physical and chemical properties of Hubei province new habitat was presented by authors.It concluded that Caryan illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Koch is suitable for growth in Hubei province and it's development prospects will be broad.Also it proposed that enshi,yichang area should be considered in the introduction of Caryan illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Kochin Hubei Province,after that Wuhan and Jingzhou.And in introduction process,it required to choose deep and fertile soil,consider the micro climate factors in its entirety,at the same time.%笔者通过比较美国山核桃生态位宽与湖北省新生境的地理位置、气候、土壤理化性质,得出了湖北省基本适宜美国山核桃生长且发展前景广阔的结论,同时建议湖北省引种美国山核桃首先考虑恩施、宜昌地区,其次考虑武汉、荆州地区。引种过程中需选择土层深厚、土壤肥沃的地块建园,同时要充分考虑微气候因素。

  11. Study on Breeding Technology by Seedlings to Seedlings of Carya illinoensis%美国山核桃以苗繁苗快速扩繁技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国荣; 张伟; 字全忠

    2009-01-01

    为解决美国山核桃苗木供不应求的问题,2007年3月在漾濞县进行了美国山核桃以苗繁苗快速扩繁技术试验研究.试验设2组处理1个对照.试验结果:插穗蜡封、生根粉溶液浸泡,苗床覆盖地膜、苗床上设塑料小拱棚,再覆60%~70%遮荫网的处理效果最佳,其成活率达75%.

  12. 建水县薄壳山核桃栽培管理技术浅析%Discussion on the Cultivation and Management Techniques of Carya illinoensis in Jianshui County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 张清

    2015-01-01

    介绍建水县薄壳山核桃栽培现状,分析薄壳山核桃栽培中,园地选择、种植时间、种植要点,以及栽后土肥水管理、间作、整形修剪等管理技术,总结薄壳山核桃的主要病虫害及其防治方法.

  13. The Introducing Achievement of Carya illinoensis and the Visions forits Industrialization Development%美国山核桃在云南引种研究成果及产业化发展前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习学良

    2006-01-01

    从良种选育、适栽区域探索、苗木繁殖技术、丰产栽培技术及示范基地建设和人才培养等方面简述了云南32年来对美国山核桃研究取得的成果,从坚果品质、市场潜力、栽培效益、适栽范围等方面分析了美国山核桃在云南产业化开发前景,同时提出了对产业化发展的几点思考.

  14. Relación entre Condiciones de Suelo y Manejo de Huertas de Nogal Pecanero Carya illinoensis Koch con la Dinámica de la Pudrición Texana, causada por Phymatotrichum omnivorum Duggar

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfredo Samaniego Gaxiola; Teodoro Herrera Pérez; Aurelio Pedroza Sandoval; Jesús Santamaría César

    2001-01-01

    De 1995 a 1998, 26 lotes de tres ha cada uno fueron seleccionadas en huertas comerciales de nogal pecanero. El objetivo del muestreo fue relacionar la dinámica de la Pudrición Texana con el manejo de las huertas y condición de suelo. Las variables en el manejo del cultivo fueron: edad de los árboles, distancia de plantación, árboles por hectárea, manejo de plagas, número de riegos e incidencia de árboles enfermos (en 1995); para el factor suelo se consideraron tres profundidades (0-30, 30-60 ...

  15. Allelopathy of Flavonoid Extract from Carya catha yensis Exocarp on Wheat and Mung Bean Seedlings%山核桃外果皮黄酮提取液对小麦和绿豆幼苗的化感效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向明; 马云飞

    2010-01-01

    以盆栽小麦和绿豆幼苗为材料,研究了7个浓度山核桃外果皮黄酮提取液(0.02~0.14 mg·L-1)处理对小麦和绿豆幼苗生长及其叶片超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、氧自由基(O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量、相对电导率的影响.结果显示:在试验浓度范围内,各处理对小麦和绿豆生长具有促进作用;0.06~0.08 mg·L-1黄酮提取液对小麦苗高和根长的影响极显著(P<0.01),0.06 mg·L-1时根长和苗高的化感效应指数(RI)分别为0.136和0.120;0.12 mg·L-1黄酮提取液对绿豆胚根和胚轴具有极显著促进作用,对下胚轴和胚根的化感效应指数分别为0.147和0.123;适宜浓度黄酮提取液能显著提高小麦和绿豆幼苗叶片SOD、POD的活性,同时显著降低其O2产生速率、MDA含量和相对电导率.研究表明,适宜浓度的山核桃外果皮黄酮提取液具有促使小麦和绿豆幼苗生长、提高其叶片保护酶活性和增强细胞膜结构稳定性的作用.

  16. 林业废弃物山核桃果皮黄酮对高温干旱胁迫下的玉米叶片超微结构影响%Effects of Flavone from Forest Residue-C.cathayensis Exocarp on High Temperature Drought Intimidation of Corn Leaf Ultrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向明

    2013-01-01

    以玉米(黄糯1号)品种为实验材料,采用5个浓度山核桃黄酮提取液(0.00~0.5mg.L-1)处理盆栽玉米幼苗,研究在高温干旱胁迫下山核桃黄酮对玉米叶肉细胞叶绿体、线粒体和细胞膜超微结构的影响.试验结果显示,未经山核桃黄酮提取液处理的玉米叶片细胞叶绿体浓缩弯曲变形,被膜严重破损,内容物外渗,内部出现空洞,基粒片层排列混乱;线粒体外形及膜受破坏程度较小、内部嵴部分消失;细胞膜与叶绿体贴叠并有撕裂、突起呈小泡状等.经山核桃黄酮提取液处理的玉米叶片细胞叶绿体及线粒体损伤不明显,其中以0.05~0.1mg.L-1黄酮处理后的效果最好,叶绿体外形完好,被膜光滑,基粒片层清晰排列整齐,线粒体膜和嵴完整.研究表明,山核桃黄酮对提高玉米在高温干旱胁迫条件下的耐受性有良好的作用.

  17. Cultural Resources Inventory of the Montz Freshwater Diversion Project Corridor, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-23

    Ulmus) , and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) may occur at higher elevations, Predominant understory vegetation includes poison ivy, grape and trumpet...suggests that the trees surrounding the cemetery were not planted; all of the species identified, including pecan trees ( Carya illinoensis ), occur

  18. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Wetland and Riparian Forests in the Ouachita Mountains and Crowley’s Ridge Regions of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Nyssa sylvatica Carya tomentosa Cercis canadensis Pinus echinata Celtis laevigata Crataegus spp. Quercus alba...tomentosa Sugarberry Celtis laevigata Hackberry Celtis occidentalis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis Redbud Cercis canadensis Hawthorn Crataegus ...maple, sugarberry (Celtis laevigata ), American elm (Ulmus americana), and persimmon (Diospyros virginiana). Wetlands of higher terraces typically are

  19. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  20. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge's timber resource is largely black oak, black jack oak, hickory, elm, swamp maple, pecan, cottonwood, sycamore, and willow....

  1. 76 FR 18289 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00047

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ..., Carroll, Cass, Cedar, Chariton, Clark, Clinton, Cole, Cooper, Dade, Dallas, Dekalb, Grundy, Henry, Hickory, Howard, Johnson, Knox, Laclede, Lafayette, Lewis, Linn, Livingston, Macon, Madison, Maries, Marion, Mcdonald, Miller, Moniteau, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Osage, Pettis, Platte, Polk,...

  2. Final Environmental Assessment: Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    grasses characteristic of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States, and also include many wildflower and bird species associated with that...bluffs above streams. The Barrens of the EHR is linked to the karst topography and was once an area of tallgrass prairies . 3.4.2 Wildlife...Association. Oak-hickory forest, cedar glades, and a mosaic of bluestem prairie and oak- hickory forest dominate this association. The predominant

  3. Final Environmental Assessment, Conversion of Forest Land to Road Right-of-Way, Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    grasses characteristic of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States, and also include many wildflower and bird species associated with that...bluffs above streams. The Barrens of the EHR is linked to the karst topography and was once an area of tallgrass prairies . 3.4.2 Wildlife...Association. Oak-hickory forest, cedar glades, and a mosaic of bluestem prairie and oak- hickory forest dominate this association. The predominant

  4. Amended Ballistic Sand Studies to Provide Low Maintenance Lead Containment at Active Small Arms Firing Range Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Hickory Woods Drive Greenfield , IN 46140 Judith Wright UFA Ventures , Inc. 403 West Riverside Drive Carlsbad, NM 88220 Final report Approved...Suite 100, Somerset, NJ 08873; EnviroComp, Inc., 3240 Hickory Woods Drive, Greenfield , IN 46140; UFA Ventures , Inc., 403 West Riverside Drive...Judith Wright, UFA Ventures , Inc., Carlsbad, NM. We grate- fully acknowledge the technical assistance provided by Haley Parsons, ERDC-GSL; Chris

  5. Species of Juglandaceae at Peter the Great Botanic Garden at Apothecaries Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firsov Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first exotic species of Juglandaceae family at Peter the Great Botanic Garden of the Komarov Botanical Institute RAS in Saint-Petersburg was Juglans regia - mentioned at M. M. Terechovskij ‘s Catalogue in 1796. Twenty five taxa from 4 genera have been tested since then: Carya - 6, Juglans - 14, Platycarya - 1, Pterocarya - 4. There are 14 taxa from 3 genera in modern collection: Carya - 2, Juglans - 9, Pterocarya - 3. All species besides Carya cordiformis and Juglans nigra produce fruits. Four species of Juglans (J. ailanthifolia, J. cinerea, J. cordiformis, J. mandshurica and its hybrids produce self-sowing. There are 2 species, Juglans ailanthifolia and Pterocarya pterocarpa, which are included into the Red Data Book of Russian Federation (2008. They need In situ and Ex situ conservation and may be recommended for Saint-Petersburg’s city planting. There are considerable prospects for both repeated introduction (Carya illinoensis and primary introduction (Juglans sigillata.

  6. Cultural Resources Investigations of Larose to Golden Meadow Hurricane Protection Project Levee Section D, Lafourche Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Hardwoods that comprise the nonwetlands and the hardwood interarea include live oaks (Quercus virginiana), mayhaw ( Crataegus opaca), hackberry (Celtis... laevigata ), bitter pecan (Carya aquatica), pawpaw (Asimina triloba), and sweetgum (Liquidambar styriciflua). Plant understory includes palmetto (Sabal

  7. Archaeological Investigations at the San Gabriel Reservoir Districts, Central Texas. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    area include pecan (CaUa illinoensis ), hackberry (Celtis reticulata), walnut (Juglans ar, willow (Salix spp.), and elm (Ulmus alta). The most common...remains recovered from Feature 6 include acorn fragments and possibly some pecan nutshell ( Carya sp.). However, the identification of pecan is tentative...was used to roast acorns (Quercus sp.), walnuts (Juglans sp.), and pecans ( Carya sp.). Since these nuts are available at app-,1ximately the same time

  8. Assessing Installation Ethnobotanical Resources Using Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) Data: A Fort Riley, Kansas, Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    incarnata S F Carya illinoensis G L Asclepias stenophylla S B Ceanothus herbaceus S B Asclepias syriaca S B Ceanothus oliganthus S L Asclepias tuberosa S...cannabinum S B Carex retroflexa G F Argemone polyanthemos S F Carex vulpinoidea S F Artemisia ludoviciana S B Carya cordiformis S B Asclepias...longipilum G B Descurainia pinnata S F Hordeum pusillum G F Descurainia sophia S F Hymenopappus scabiosaeus G B Desmanthus illinoensis S B Hypericum

  9. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  10. Contrasts between the phylogeographic patterns of chloroplast and nuclear DNA highlight a role for pollen-mediated gene flow in preventing population divergence in an East Asian temperate tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wei-Ning; Wang, Wen-Ting; Zhang, Da-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Plant phylogeographic studies in East Asia have provided support for the biogeographic hypothesis that the complex landforms and climate of this region have provided substantial opportunities for allopatric speciation. However, most of these studies have been based on maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers and were therefore unable to reveal the role of pollen-mediated gene flow in preventing population divergence. Here, we investigate the phylogeography of the Chinese walnut Juglans cathayensis, a temperate deciduous tree widely distributed across disjunct montane sites in subtropical China. We genotyped 19 populations using seven cpDNA fragments and ten nuclear microsatellite loci and modeled the ecological niche of J. cathayensis. CpDNA analysis identified a total of nine haplotypes, and each of the 19 sampled populations was fixed for a single haplotype, displaying a prominent phylogeographic structure. The results of ecological niche modeling indicated that J. cathayensis populations survived the last glaciation in situ, although they were probably more fragmented than today. In contrast, we detected a much weaker, but nonetheless clear, genetic structure based on nuclear microsatellite data. Our study demonstrates how extensive pollen flow can erase the genetic imprint of long-term refugial isolation in maternal lineages, effectively preventing population differentiation in temperate, particularly wind-pollinated, forest trees in subtropical China.

  11. Actividad Antifúngica de Aceites Esenciales de Canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) y Orégano (Origanum vulgare L.) y su Efecto sobre la Producción de Aflatoxinas en Nuez Pecanera [Carya illinoensis (F.A. Wangenh) K. Koch

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Arturo García-Camarillo; Martha Yolanda Quezada-Viay; Josefina Moreno-Lara; Gabriela Sánchez-Hernández; Ernesto Moreno-Martínez; María Cristina Julia Pérez-Reyes

    2006-01-01

    Los aceites esenciales de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) y orégano (Origanum vulgare) fueron evaluados para determinar su actividad antifúngica contra Aspergillus flavus y la producción de aflatoxinas en nuez pecanera. Ambos aceites presentaron actividad fungicida in vitro contra A. flavus, el aceite esencial de orégano a partir de 1000 ppm y el de canela de 2000 ppm, en medio de cultivo de malta-salagar y un efecto fungistático en 100 ppm. Sin embargo, al evaluar el efecto inhibitorio en la ...

  12. 山核桃外果皮与桑枝屑不同配方组合栽培黑木耳试验%Experiment on Cultivation of Auricularia auricula with Different Ratio of Sawdust of Mulberry Branch and Exocarp of Carya cathyensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余琳; 蒋淑君; 程建斌; 王素彬; 余樟平

    2013-01-01

    连续3 a对山核桃外果皮与桑枝屑不同比例配方组合生产栽培黑木耳进行试验,结果表明:桑枝屑中添加30%~40%的山核桃外果皮栽培黑木耳,其产量、品质、出耳率均接近单纯桑枝屑配方栽培木耳,每袋干耳产量在74 ~ 74.5g,其中40%山核桃外果皮加12%麸皮其排田量、成品率和单袋产量与对照差异不显著;山核桃陈外果皮配制的菌棒其排田数、成品率、单袋重普遍优于新外果皮配制菌棒,并以40%陈山核桃外果皮+47%桑枝屑+12%麸皮+1%石膏配方组合为最优.

  13. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  14. Wetlands Research Program. Corps of Engineers Wetlands Delineation Manual. Appendix C. Sections 1 and 2. Region 2 - Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Michx. f.) Nutt. Water hickory OBL "’"~"?B(Wangenh. ) K. Koch Bitternut hickory FAC 7.i re~.ss(Wangenh.) K. Koch Pecan FAC+ a -_7.osa (Michx. f...leptcphyllwn ( Peru .) Ciclospermum FAC+ Sprague ex Britton Cicuta macuZata L. Common vaterhemlock OBL Cn’fexcana C. & R. Mexican vaterhemlock OBL,nna...dogwood FACW ran.ic;"is rmscosa Swartz Granichis 7rasszi~a aquat- ica (L.) Schoenl. Grassula. OBL DRA 7r-_:aegqus aestivais (Walter) Torr. May hawthorn OBL

  15. Evidence that Cerambycid Beetles Mimic Vespid Wasps in Odor as well as Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Curkovic, Tomislav; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Neuteboom, Lara; Galbrecht, Hans-Martin; Tröger, Armin; Bergmann, Jan; Francke, Wittko; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2017-01-01

    We present evidence that cerambycid species that are supposed mimics of vespid wasps also mimic their model's odor by producing spiroacetals, common constituents of vespid alarm pheromones. Adults of the North American cerambycids Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) and Megacyllene robiniae (Forster) are conspicuously patterned yellow and black, and are believed to be mimics of aculeate Hymenoptera, such as species of Vespula and Polistes. Adult males of M. caryae produce an aggregation-sex pheromone, but both sexes produce a pungent odor when handled, which has been assumed to be a defensive response. Headspace aerations of agitated females of M. caryae contained 16 compounds with mass spectra characteristic of spiroacetals of eight distinct chemical structures, with the dominant compound being (7E,2E)-7-ethyl-2-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane. Headspace samples of agitated males of M. caryae contained five of the same components, with the same dominant compound. Females of M. robiniae produced six different spiroacetals, one of which was not produced by M. caryae, (2E,7E)-2-ethyl-7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane, and five that were shared with M. caryae, including the dominant (2E,8E)-2,8-dimethyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane. The latter compound is the sole spiroacetal produced by both males and females of a South American cerambycid species, Callisphyris apicicornis (Fairmaire & Germain), which is also thought to be a wasp mimic. Preliminary work also identified spiroacetals of similar or identical structure released by vespid wasps that co-occur with the Megacyllene species.

  16. Cultural Resource Investigations in the L’Anguille River Basin, Lee, St. Francis, Cross and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    hornbeam (Carp inus / Ostrya), tuliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera), butternut (Juglans cinerea), and black walnut (Juglans nigra ). Trace...arrow wood (Viburnum acerifolium type), boxelder, cottonwood (Populus deltoides type), persimmon, mulberry ( Morus ), silver maple, and winged sumac...nuts and caps). Additional fossils were recovered for hickory, as well as for the swamp-bottomland trees of river birch (Betula nigra ), sycamore, water

  17. Activities of five enzymes following soil disturbance and weed control in a Missouri forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; Frieda Eivazi

    2008-01-01

    Forest disturbances associated with harvesting activities can affect soil properties including enzyme activity and overall soil quality. The activities of five enzymes (acid and alkaline phosphatases, betaglucosidase, aryl-sulfatase, and beta-glucosominidase) were measured after 8 years in soil from clearcut and uncut control plots of a Missouri oak-hickory (...

  18. Location and Description of Transects for Ecological Studies in Floodplain Forests of the Lower Suwannee River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Sweet pignut hickory cellae Celtis laevigata Nutt. hackberry cepocc Cephalanthus occidentalis L. buttonbush corfoe Cornus foemina Mill. stiffcornel...dogwood crafla Crataegus flava Ait. yellow haw cravir Crataegus viridis L. green haw cyrrac Cyrilla racemiflora L. titi diovir Diospyros virginiana L

  19. Climate change vulnerabilities within the forestry sector for the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Handler; Chris W. Swanston; Patricia R. Butler; Leslie A. Brandt; Maria K. Janowiak; Matthew D. Powers; P. Danielle. Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Forests are a defining landscape feature for much of the Midwest, from boreal forests surrounding the northern Great Lakes to oak-hickory forests blanketing the Ozarks. Savannas and open woodlands within this region mark a major transition zone between forest and grassland biomes within the U.S. Forests help sustain human communities in the region, ecologically,...

  20. Fire and Thinning in an Ohio Oak Forest: Grid-Based Analyses of Fire Behavior, Environmental Conditions, and Tree Regeneration Across a Topographic Moisture Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Todd Hutchinson; Joanne Rebbeck; Daniel A. Yaussy

    2004-01-01

    Prescribed fire alone and in combination with thinning were accomplished in late 2000 to spring 2001 at Zaleski State Forest in southern Ohio. Sites were monitored before and after the treatments were applied. Light was assessed via hemispherical photographs taken in July 2000 and 2001. Oak and hickory seedlings and saplings were sampled during those same time periods...

  1. Two North Carolina Sears Stores Among Top Finishers in EPA's Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - Sears Stores in Asheville and Hickory, N.C. were recognized this week by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of a top finishing team in the agency's fifth-annual Energy Star Battle of the Buildings Competition. These sto

  2. A comparison of forest dynamics at two sites in the Southeastern Ozark Mountains of Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; Stephen G. Pallardy

    1993-01-01

    Changes in tree species composition and regeneration patterns were studied in 53 permanent vegetation plots located at two sites (Pioneer Forest and University State Forest) in oak-hickory forests of southeastern Missouri where mortality and decline of red oak species have been identified. The two sites also exhibited differing levels of decline and mortality. Between...

  3. 76 FR 24537 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Worth, TX........ 04/11/11 04/11/11 Stop). 80103 HIRel Systems LLC (State/ Duluth, MN 04/12/11 04/11/11.... Hickory, NC 04/13/11 04/13/11 (Company). 80106 Delphi (Workers) El Paso, TX 04/14/11 04/05/11 80107...

  4. Environmental Assessment. Dredged Material Thalweg Placement Site Mississippi River Miles 561.0 - 561.4 Island 241, Pool 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    from the first run: two hickory nuts (Obovarla ollvarla); one pig toe (Fusconla flava); and one zebra mussel (Dreisvena polymorpha). The zebra mussel...AVENUE COURT ROCK ISLAND IL 61201 JOSEPH 0. STOFFREGEN 304 SUMMIT Dist/Copies GALENA, IL 61036 JUDY WEIGERT 406 PEACH Dist/Copies EAST DUBUQUE

  5. The genera Macroxyela Kirby and Megaxyela Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Xyelidae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Smith; Nathan M. Schiff

    1998-01-01

    Five species of Megaxyela, including Megaxyela alisonae, n. sp., and two species of Macroxyela occur in North America. Macroxyela bicolor MacGillivray is a new synonym of Macroxyela ferruginea (Say). The species are keyed, described, and illustrated, and biological information is summarized. Hosts include hickory, pecan, and elm.

  6. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  7. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  8. Microbial properties and litter and soil nutrients after two prescribed fires in developing savannas in an upland Missouri Ozark Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder; Mahasin Tadros; Edward F. Loewenstein

    2009-01-01

    On some landscapes periodic fire may be necessary to develop and maintain oak-dominated savannas. We studied the effects of two annual prescribed burns to determine their effect on microbial activity and soil and litter nutrients 1 year after the last burn. Surface litter and soil from the upper 0?5 cm soil layer in three developing savannas (oak-hickory, ...

  9. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to larvae and adults of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential virulence and entry routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hazel nut weevil, Curculio nucum, is a major pest of hazel nuts, particularly in Europe; hazel nut weevil is also closely related to other nut-attacking weevils such as pecan weevil (Curculio caryae). In this study, the basis for differential susceptibility of the hazelnut weevil (to entomopatho...

  10. Recreational Appendix Report, Elm Fork Flood Control Project, Dallas and Denton Counties, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    Juniperus virginiana 2. Willow Salix nigra 3. Cottonwood Populus deltoides 4. Black Walnut Juglans migra 5. Pecan Carya illinoensis 6. Bur Oak...Maclura pomifera 12. Red Mulberry Morus rubra 13. Sycamore Platanus occidentailis 14. Red Haw Crataegus, sps. 15. Wild Plum Prunus mexicana 16. Mesquite

  11. Status and Trend of Cottonwood Forests Along the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    Celtis occidentalis), box elder (Acer negundo), red and white mulberry ( Morus rubra and M. alba, respectively), pecan (Carya illinoinensis), American...or willow dominate the shrub layer of younger stands (Figure 22a,b). Willows (Salix exigua, S. nigra ) were particularly an important component of

  12. Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    characteristics of Carya illinoensis ," Acta Hortic. 179:287-8. Zar, J. H. (1974). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 58...3 M aterials and Methods .................................... 4 Plant cultures ...Procedures for Detecting Flurprimidol Residues in Water, Plant Tissues , and Soil ..................................... 30 Introduction

  13. Establishment and early development of 'Kanza', 'Peruque', and other pecan cultivars in northern U.S. growing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut production in the northern range of the species (Missouri, Kansas, Northern Arkansas) is from managed wild trees. Orchards of trees grafted to improved cultivars are slowly being established in the region as economic opportunities improve. Pecan cultivars that are ...

  14. Vertical distribution of scab in large pecan trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum) is a destructive disease of pecan (Carya illinoensis) grown in humid environments, such as the southeastern US. The disease can cause severe yield loss, and although much is known about the processes of dispersal and infection, there is no information on di...

  15. Distribution, hosts and identification of Meloidogyne partityla in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan, Carya illinoensis, is an economically important nut crop and member of the Juglandaceae native to the southern USA. Discovered in South Africa in 1986, Meloidogyne partityla was first found infecting pecan in USA in 1996 and currently occurs in Texas, New Mexico, Georgia, Arizona, Oklahoma a...

  16. 世界著名干果--薄壳山核桃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代邦元

    2005-01-01

    @@ 薄壳山核桃[Carya illinoensis(Wangenh.)k.Koch.]为胡桃科山核桃属落叶乔木.20世纪初从美国引种,现在我国江苏、浙江、湖南、四川、江西、福建等省均有种植.

  17. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    or shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Quercus laurifolia Acer rubrum Celtis laevigata Quercus...but may dominate in degraded systems Carya aquatica Acer rubrum Carpinus caroliniana Fraxinus pennsylvanica Diospyros virginiana Crataegus spp...Celtis laevigata Cretaegus spp Nyssa sylvatica Fraxinus pennsylvanica Diospyros americana Quercus pagoda Liquidambar styraciflua Ilex opaca

  18. Cultural Resources Survey of EABPL Off-Site Borrow Areas, Levee Items E- 64, E-76, and E-84A, Iberville, Iberia, and Assumption Parishes, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    ovata), hackberry (Celtis laevigata ), sweetgum and blackgum (Liqudambar styaciflua and Nyssa sylvatica), pecan (Carya illinoiensis), magnolia...mayhaw ( Crataegus opaca), and waxmyrtle (Myrica cerifera) (Gibson 1978:114-115). The bottomland forests are dominated by the water oak (Quercus nigra...Subdominants include the sweet gum (Liquidambar styacflua), hackberry (Celtis laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other forest species

  19. A new species of Phanerotoma Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Cheloninae) parasitoid of the carob moth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterberg, Cornelis VAN; Thackeray, Sean R; Hill, Martin P

    2017-01-31

    A new species, Phanerotoma carobivora van Achterberg & Thackeray, sp. nov. is described from South Africa. It is a common endoparasitoid of the carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Pyralidae) on pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) and citrus fruits in South Africa. Mean percentage of parasitism varied 2-30% between host plants and sampled localities.

  20. New insight into pecan boron nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternate bearing by individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees is problematic for nut producers and processors. There are many unknowns regarding alternate bearing physiology, such as the relationship between boron and fruit set, nutmeat quality, and kernel maladies. Evidence...

  1. Shoot dieback in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field evaluation found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining p...

  2. Relationship of shoot dieback in pecan to fungi and fruiting stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect tree canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field studies found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining...

  3. Effects of 1,1-Dimethylpiperidinium Chloride on the Pests and Allelochemicals of Cotton and Pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. A. Hedin; J. N. Jenkins; J. C. McCarty; J. E. Mulrooney; W. L. Parrott; A. Borazjani; C. H. Graves; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    The growth regulator, PIX (mepiquat chloride - 1,1-dimethyl-piperdinium chloride), when applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis Koch), caused internode shortening. PIX did not elicit an increase in resistance in cotton to the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens (Fab.)], or in pecan...

  4. Sustainable Application of Pecan Nutshell Waste: Greener Synthesis of Pd-based Nanocatalysts for Electro-oxidation of Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladium-based electrocatalysts are widely used in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells. Thesynthesis and characterization of carbon-supported bimetallic nanoparticles (NP) of AuPdand AgPd is described using pecan nutshell extract (Carya illinoinensis) which serves asboth, reducin...

  5. Growth and mortality of pin oak and pecan reforestation in a constructed wetland: analysis with management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Henderson; P. Botch; J. Cussimanio; D. Ryan; J. Kabrick; D. Dey

    2009-01-01

    Pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.) and pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) trees were planted on reforestation plots at Four Rivers Conservation Area in west-central Missouri. The study was conducted to determine survival and growth rates of the two species under different production methods and environmental variables....

  6. Suppression of pecan scab by nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic cost of scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum, can substantially limit the profitability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivation in humid environments. Field and greenhouse experiments assessed the influence of nickel (Ni) on scab severity on fruit and foliage of Ni...

  7. Influence of nickel on severity of pecan scab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan scab, caused by Fusicladium effusum, is a major factor limiting profitability of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) in humid environments. The effect of nickel (Ni) on the severity of pecan scab was examined in both field and lab studies in 2005 to 2010. Application of Ni sprays to foliage in tree ca...

  8. Nickel deficiency is influenced by the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Fe to Ni within tree organs and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nickel (Ni) deficiency of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] in orchards is an increasingly common problem. There is uncertainty regarding the primary cause of the problem, as orchard soils have plenty of Ni. The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous...

  9. Foliar application of nickel and copper on pecan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mobilization and conversion of reserve nitrogen (N) is critical for pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] during early spring when trees begin growing actively. Conversion of N reserves to translocatable forms (amides, amino acids, ureides) is adversely affected by a nickel (Ni) shortage...

  10. Foliar boron and nickel applications reduce water-stage fruit-split of pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-stage fruit-split (WSFS) is a relatively common and often major problem of certain pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. This study evaluates the possibility that the malady can be influenced by improving tree micronutrient nutrition. Foliar sprays of boron (B) and nickel...

  11. Supplemental foliar nickel and copper applications do not reduce kernel necrosis in pecan trees receiving excess nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] fruit developed necrotic tissue at the basal end of the kernels (cotyledons) in an orchard receiving unusually high amounts of nitrogen (N) from nitrate contaminated irrigation water. It was hypothesized that increasing canopy nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) ...

  12. Increasing foliar Zn:Ni or Cu:Ni concentration ratios increase severity of nickel deficiency symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The occurrence of nickel (Ni) deficiency of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] in orchards is an increasingly common problem. There is uncertainty regarding the primary cause of the problem, as orchard soils have plenty of Ni. The influence of essential micronutrients on the endogenous...

  13. Response of young bearing pecan trees to spring foliar nickel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lower critical leaf concentration for nickel (Ni) has not been fully determined for commercial pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch.] orchards. In a two-year study, foliar Ni was applied to orchard trees in early spring beginning at the parachute stage of leaf development and followed by ...

  14. Iron-induced nickel deficiency in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency can occur in horticultural and agronomic crops. This study assesses impact of excessive iron (Fe) on expression of Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Field and greenhouse experiments found Ni deficiency to be inducible by ei...

  15. Patterns of Genetic Variation in Woody Plant Species in the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria L. Sork; Anthony Koop; Marie Ann de la Fuente; Paul Foster; Jay. Raveill

    1997-01-01

    We quantified current patterns of genetic variation of three woody plant species—Carya tomentosa (Juglandaceae), Quercus alba (Fagaceae), and Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae)—distributed throughout the nine Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) study sites and evaluated the data in light of the MOFEP...

  16. Efficacy of orchard-applied insecticides against the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) attacking pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyphagous brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southcentral and southeastern U.S.A. Management of this pest in both orchards and row crops i...

  17. Insecticide assays against the brown stink bug feeding on pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southeastern U.S. Management of this pest is mainly via insecticides. Many commercial products indicate o...

  18. Wing Infrastructure Development Outlook: Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    live oaks (Quercus ruba), red oaks (Quercus sp.), pecan (Carya sp.), bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa), mesquite ( Prosopis sp.), Afghan pine (Pinus...which causes shear breaks in water lines. The first phase of replacing the existing rigid cast iron and asbestos cement pipes with resilient plastic

  19. Flavonoids, alkali earth and rare earth elements affect germination of pecan pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The factors regulating pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] pollen grain germination on receptive stigmatic flower surfaces in vivo or in vitro in pollen viability assays are poorly understood. While there are many potential regulating factors, there is evidence for involvement of flavonol...

  20. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  1. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  2. New Records of Seed Plants from Guangdong, China%广东省种子植物新资料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 肖建生

    2016-01-01

    Eight species (including varieties),Hamamelis mollis, Lychnis senno, Gelidocalamus stellatus, Monochasma sheareri, Epimedium leptorrhizum, Triadenum breviflorum, Juglans cathayensis var. formosana,Corydalis decumbens, are reported as new records from Guangdong. In addition, the generaHamamelis, Lychnis, Triadenum have not been previously recorded in Guangdong.%报道广东省种子植物分布新记录8种(变种):金缕梅Hamamelis mollis Oliver、剪红纱花Lychnis senno Sieb. et Zucc.、井冈寒竹Gelidocalamus stellatusWen、沙氏鹿茸草Monochasma savatieriFranch. ex Maxim.、黔岭淫羊藿Epimedium leptorrhizum Stearn、三腺金丝桃Triadenum breviflorum (Wall. ex Dyer) Y. Kimura、华东野核桃Juglans cathayensis Dode var.formosana (Hayata) A. M. Lu et R. H, Chang、伏生紫堇Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers.。其中,金缕梅属、剪秋罗属、三腺金丝桃属为广东新记录属。

  3. Environmental Assessment: Invasive Pest Plant Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    region of the EHR. “Barrens” most often refers to grasslands similar to the Midwestern tallgrass prairie but may also be used to describe openings with... prairies in the midwestern United States and also include many wildflower and bird species associated with that region. According to the IEMP (Call...The plant species found at Arnold AFB are those common to the EHR Ecological Association. Oak-hickory forest and a mosaic of bluestem prairie and

  4. Environmental Impact Study of the Northern Section of the Upper Mississippi River, Upper and Lower St. Anthony Falls Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    Icress Rorippa obtusa Obtuse yellow cress Unidentified sp. P I CUCURBITACEAE Sicyos angulatus Bur-cucumber1 CYPERACEAE Carex aenca Sedge Carex annectens...Bitter- White oak Little bluestem Reed-canary- Sedges flackbcrry nut White pine Nodding grama grass Milkweed Green ash hickory Sugar maple Northern Rice...Aster Cottonwood Hackbcrry Paper birch dropseed cutgrass Blue-joint Silver maple Ironwood Ironwood Hairy grama River sedge grass Slippery Bur oak Red

  5. Stockton Lake Survey and Assessment. National Register Assessment of Prehistoric Archeological Sites 23DA407 and 23DA408 and Historic Properties Survey in the Stockton Lake Project, Cedar and Dade Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    conducted at the Stockton, Truman and Pomme de Terre reservoirs, principal investigators generally agree that the culture history and chronology of the...1992 Archaeological Survey at Pomme de Terre and Stockton Lakes: Cedar, Dade, Hickory and Polk Counties, Missouri. Report of Investigations, No. 33...Conservation Program, Missouri Department of Natural Resources. Haynes, C. Vance 1976 Late Quaternary Geology of the Lower Pomme de Terre Valley. In

  6. Ecological Survey Data for Environmental Considerations on the Trinity River and Tributaries, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-01

    walnut 11[jugans nigra and sweetguu. Blact- hickory was less frequent. Two- t~iirds of the wdy down the siop, eastern redbud gj~jis c~ndaiL winged elm...b. Continued. Connon name Scientific name *Blac’k oak Quercus velutina Lamn. Black walnut Juglans nixra L. Black willow Salix nigra March. Blackjack...Acer rubrum L. Red mulberry Morus rubra, L. Red-berried moonseed Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. Redbud Cercis canadensis L. Redroot Ceanothus herbaceus

  7. Public Water Supply, Red River Parish, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    nigra ) willow oak (Quercus phellos), sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), and elms (Ulmus spp.). Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), silverbell...and consists of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), slash pine (Pinus elliottii), water oak (Quercus nigra ), post oak (Quercus stellata), mockernut hickory...Patridge Berry C,D,E 9 8 Mnium spp. Moss D 1 Morus rubra Red Mulberry D,E 2 Myrica cerifera Wax Myrtle C,E 97 49 Nyssa aquatica Tupelogum D,E 4 17 3 Nyssa

  8. Hydrologic, water-quality, and meteorologic data from selected sites in the Upper Catawba River Basin, North Carolina, January 1993 through March 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic, water-quality, and meteorologic data were collected from January 1993 through March 1994 as part of a water-quality investigation of the Upper Catawba River Basin, North Carolina. Specific objectives of the investigation were to characterize the water quality of Rhodhiss Lake, Lake Hickory, and three tributary streams, and to calibrate hydrodynamic water-quality models for the two reservoirs. Sampling locations included 11 sites in Rhodhiss Lake, 14 sites in Lake Hickory, and 3 tributary sites. Tributary sites were located at Lower Creek upstream from Rhodhiss Lake and at Upper Little River and Middle Little River upstream from Lake Hickory. During 21 sampling visits, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, and water transparency were measured at all sampling locations. Water samples were collected for analysis of biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, hardness, alkalinity, total and volatile suspended solids, suspended sediment, nutrients, total organic carbon, chlorophyll, iron, calcium, and magnesium from three sites in each reservoir and from the three tributary sites. Chemical and particle-size analyses of bottom material from Rhodhiss Lake and Lake Hickory were performed once during the study. At selected locations, automated instruments recorded water level, streamflow, water temperature, solar radiation, and air temperature at 15-minute intervals throughout the study. Hydrologic data presented in the report include monthly water-level statistics and daily mean values of discharge. Diagrams, tables, and statistical summaries of water-quality data are provided. Meteorologic data in the report include monthly precipitation, and daily mean values of solar radiation and air temperature.

  9. Environmental Assessment, Glide Slope/Clear Zone Obstructions, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    shrubs in upland forests include sugar maple , white oak, red oak, red maple , shagbark hickory, white ash, blue ash, red elm, redbud, blacklocust, amur...the region. Long-term adverse impacts to threatened and endangered species would be minor due to the abundance of forest cover within a 0.6-mi le...would include measures such as planting low-growing shrubs in treatment areas in order to prevent re- forestation . This plan would ensure that this

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of a Battalion Headquarters for the U.S. Army Priority Air Transport at Joint Base Andrews-Naval Air Facility Washington, Prince George’s County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    forest , mixed hardwood/pine forest , oak forest , oak/hickory forest , oak/pine forest , pine forest , red maple swamp, and shallow emergent marsh. The plants...Permit from MDE. Wetlands identified on Andrews include palustrine, forested wetlands and palustrine emergent wetlands, both of which are both primarily...historic sites: 77-00 !- Forest Grove Methodist Church and Cemetery (Chapel 2). and 77-014-Belle Chance and Cemetery. Neither of these properties will be

  11. Environmental Assessment, Buildings 4133 and Building 4143, Historic Building Demolitions, Barksdale Air Foce Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    communities for this region include the oak-gum-cypress bottomlands, in which most wetlands occur, and the pine-oak-hickory- maple forest , which dominates...areas, forest , safety clearance/security areas, utility easements Water 2,317 11.0 Ponds, lakes, streams, forest wetlands Total 21,802 100 BAFB Total...comprises 21,802 acres of natural vegetation, 17,301 acres of which is dominated by forested communities. Bottomland hardwoods make up approximately

  12. Environmental Assessment Building 5745, Historical Building Demolition, Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    wetlands occur, and the pine-oak-hickory- maple forest , which dominates the uplands. Seven plants listed on the state rare list and ten uncommon...parks/picnic areas, FamCamp, pools, golf course Open Space 16,450 75.0 Conservation areas, forest , safety clearance/security areas, utility...easements Water 2,317 11.0 Ponds, lakes, streams, forest wetlands Total 21,802 100 BAFB Total Area Source: Barksdale Air Force Base General Plan

  13. The Banister Allen Plantation (38AB102) and Thomas B. Clinkscales Farm: (38AB221) Data Recovery in the Richard B. Russell Multiple Resource Area Abbeville County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    than with Structure A. In addition to the glass and bottle fragments noted above, pecan and hickory nut shells, ": the fluted clay pipe bowl fragment...variety of artifact classes suggestive of secondary deposition some distance away from the immediate habitation area of Structure B: a button, nut ...increased its representation in the archaeological record is immaterial, since the Clinkscales house was abandoned, and if it ever had glazed windows

  14. Kansas forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Robert L. Atchison; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; William H. IV Reading; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of Kansas forests reports 2.1 million acres of forest land, roughly 4 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for nearly 5 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 56 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 30 percent of the...

  15. Kansas' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Robert L. Atchison; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant Domke; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second completed annual inventory of Kansas' forests reports 2.4 million acres of forest land, roughly 5 percent of the total land area in the State. Softwood forests account for 4.4 percent of the total timberland area. Oak/hickory forest types make up 55 percent of the total hardwood forest land area. Elm/ash/cottonwood accounts for more than 32 percent of...

  16. Geomorphic Investigation of Shreveport to Daingerfield Navigation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    a stream; geo- morphologically , it is a landform composed primarily of unconsolidated depositional material derived from sediments being transported...whenever possible. If the grain could not be differentiated from similar genera based on morphology , it was identified to the family level. For one taxon... Poaceae (grass) family, Cary& (pecan and hickory), and Lg (sweet gum). These pollen taxa represent plants common to the indigenous floral communities of

  17. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Lakeview Marina Site Boat Ramp and Access, Saylorville Lake, Polk County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    cover of yellow sweet clover, red clover, and a small amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate...clover, brome grass , and switchgrass ( Paspalum virgatum) with small amounts of goldenrod (Solidago sp.) poison ivy, milkweed (Amaranthus sp.), thistle...amount of brome grass ( Bromus sp.). Trees within the upper zone include sapling and intermediate size shagbark hickory, sumac (Rhus glabra), and white

  18. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  19. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  20. Annual Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces (17th) Held in Clearwater Beach, Florida on January 31 - February 2, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-12

    University of Minnesota 331 Newman Springs Rd. 200 Union St. SE Redbank, NJ Minneapolis, MN 55455 Randall M. Feenstra Dr. Larry R. Cooper IBM Research...303) 491-7301 Gretchen Wiltshire 2873 Hickory Ln. Largo, FL 34640 Horst R. Wittmann US Air Force Bolling AFB Washington DC, 20332 Donald J. Wolford ...the generous financial support provided by the Air Force Office for Scientific Research (Horst R. Wittmann) and the Office of Naval Research ( Larry R

  1. Ball clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global ball clay mining industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It cites several firms that are involved in ball clay mining in the U.S., including HC Spins Clay Co. Inc., the Imerys Group and Old Hickory Clay Co. Among the products made from ball clay are ceramic tiles, sanitaryware, as well as fillers, extenders and binders.

  2. Mississippi River Navigation System. Environmental Evaluations of Proposed Mooring Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    crayfish, oligochetes, nematodes , snails, clams, mussels and tubifex worms. Fish commonly found in the Kentucky River and tributaries are carp, drum...with ash, poplar, tulip tree, sugar maple, and pawpaw as associate species. The floodplain portions of the basin include southern "swamp" species...such as oak, hickory, ash, poplar, tulip tree, sugar maple and associated species. Understories include rhododendron, laurel, dogwood and wild cherry

  3. Effect of Water Stress on the Growth of Pecan%水分胁迫对美国山核桃苗木生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常君; 姚小华; 杨水平; 王开良

    2009-01-01

    美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Koch.)又名薄壳山核桃、长山核桃,属胡桃科(Juglandaceae)山核桃属(Carya Nutt.)。原产北美,是世界著名干果之一,也是优良的果材兼用树种。美国山核桃继油茶(Camellia oleifera Abel.)之后,逐渐成为江浙一带的主要经济树种。但是在育苗过程中,苗木经常会遭受到各种环境胁迫,特别是夏季的高温和干旱胁迫,对苗木生长造成严重影响。

  4. Archaeological Investigation at El Dorado Lake, Butler County, Kansas. Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 35. 1973 Le Malpas Rockshelter: A Study of Late Paleolithic Technology in its Environmental Setting. University of...either through trade or growing their own crops. The nuts of Carya spp., Juglans nigra, and Quercus spp. were pro- bably part of the diet . In addition...bones, and charred nut remains are suggestive of hunting, gathering, and food processing activities. The diet was composed, in part, of deer, fish

  5. A Cultural Resources Literature Search of the Bayou Du Chien Drainage Project Area in Fulton, Graves, and Hickman Counties, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-10

    tulipfera sweetgum Liquididambar styraciflua cucumber tree Magnolia acuminata mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa syTvatica hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana...tuliptree -•i:Todendron tulipfera mulberry Morus rubla sour gum Nyssa spp. white oak Qiecus alba southern red oak Quercus falTcata blackjack oak Quercus...Acer negundo forests valleys red maple Acer rubrum silver maple Aer saccarinum river birch B-i-f1a nigra pecan Carya pecan smooth hackberry Celtis

  6. 推荐一个好树种——薄壳山核桃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安徽省造林经营总站; 安徽省林业厅办公室

    2010-01-01

    @@ 薄壳山核桃,学名Carya illinoensis K.koch,又名长山核桃,或美国山核桃、美国薄壳山核桃,是胡桃科山核桃属落叶乔木,是一个用途广、受益期长、经济价值高、社会效益和生态效益明显的优良经济树种.

  7. Significance Assessment of Site 16SC61, Luling Revetment, Mississippi River M-116.7-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    laevigata ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styaciflua), pecan (Carya i11inoiensis), magnolia (Magnolia spp.), and possibly some conifers (Bahr et al. 1983:82). These...Quercus nigra). Subdominants include the sweet gum (Liquidambar stryaciflua), hackberry (Celtis laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other...nuttallil). The most common shrub species are palmetto (Sabal minor) and green haw ( Crataegus viridis), but thickets of possum-haw (Zlex decidua) also

  8. Cultural Resources Survey of the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Dredged Material Disposal Areas, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-15

    Celtis laevigata ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styaciflua), pecan (Carya illinoiensis), magnolia (Magnolia app.), and various pines (Bahr et al. 1983:82... laevigata ), and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Other forest species include the box-elder (Acer negundo), honey-locust (Gleditsia triacanthos...American elm (Ulmus americana) and the Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii). The most common shrub species were palmetto (Sabal minor) and green haw ( Crataegus

  9. 陕西丹凤巩家湾新石器时代动物骨骼分析%An Analysis of the animal bone from Gongjiawan Neolithic site,Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡松梅

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an account of animal bone from the ash--pits of Yangshao and Longshan cultures at Gongjiawan site, Shaanxi province respectively. There are 18 species of animal altogether,including 2 invertebrate (namely Cipangaludina cathayensis and unio douglasiae) ,fish ,reptile ,bird (each has 1 species) and 13 mammalia. The pig,dog and ox were domestic and the rest were wild. Through analyzing of these animal sorts and animal differences between Yangshao culture(14species)and Longshan cultures (-8 species),the author gains the paleoclimate and paleoenvironment which is close to that of the middle--lower reaches of Changjiang river today and its change tendency in the region. The climate was becoming drier and cooler ,water area was becoming smaller from Yangshao to Longshan culture.

  10. Phytochemistry, Bioactivity and Potential Impact on Health of Juglans: the Original Plant of Walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dongdong; Zhao, Yicheng; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Tian, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; She, Gaimei

    2016-06-01

    Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes. The diarylheptanoids and quinones have notable antitumor activity, supplying new lead compounds for preparing antitumor drugs. The potent pain-relieving, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities of these plants are significant. In the review, comprehensive information on the nutritional characteristics, traditional functions, chemical constituents, and biological activities of the Juglans species, together with the seeds used as walnuts is provided to explore their potential and to advance research.

  11. Analysis and Evaluation on Nutritional Components of Three Freshwater Mussels from Zhejiang Province%浙江地区3种淡水经济贝类的营养成分分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑汉丰; 李家乐

    2012-01-01

    采用国标方法对浙江地区的河蚬、环棱螺和圆田螺的营养成分进行分析并进行评价,以期为贝类的营养研究、饲料生产和开发利用提供理论依据.结果表明,环棱螺和圆田螺的水分、灰分、粗蛋白和粗脂肪的含量较为接近,而糖类的含量有较大差异;河蚬与环棱螺和圆田螺在主要营养成分组成方面差异较大.氨基酸分析结果表明,3种淡水经济贝类均含有18种氨基酸,其中包括人体必需的8种氨基酸,第一、二限制性氨基酸分别为缬氨酸和异亮氨酸.此外,谷氨酸含量远高于其他氨基酸,环棱螺中高达1 15.88 mg/g,圆田螺中也高达98.68 mg/g,2种螺肉的呈味氨基酸接近,含量均达40%以上.环棱螺和圆田螺的总氨基酸含量分别为653.28 mg/g和561.67 mg/g,必需氨基酸占总氨基酸的比例均在35%左右,与WHO/FAO模式推荐的模式(35.38%)接近.因此,3种淡水经济贝类软体部分的营养组成丰富,氨基酸种类齐全、比例均衡,具有较好的开发和利用价值.%The national standard methods was used to analyze and evaluate the nutrition components in the muscles of Corbicula fluminea, Bellamya aeruginosa, Cipangopaludina cathayensis in Zhejiang Province, which in order to supply theoretic basis for the nutrient research of mussels, production of feed and development of novel food. The results showed that water content, ash, crude protein, crude fat and in Bellamya aeruginosai and Cipangopaludina cathayensis were similar, but the content of carbohydrates were different. However, significant differences in ash, crude fat and carbohydrates between Corbicula fluminea and Bellamya aeruginosa, Cipangopaludina cathayensis were observed. There were 18 common amino acids in 3 freshwater mussels, of which 8 were essential amino acids, and the first limiting amino acid was Val and the second limiting amino acid was Ile. Moreover, the content of Glu was the highest among 18 amino acids in

  12. A Systems Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of the Aubrey Reservoir Project on Elm Fork of the Trinity River in North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-06-01

    viridis 5 3 1 Morus rubra 13 1 Ulmus americana 2 2 Maclura pomifera 2 Cercis canadensis 6 Acer negundo 1 1 Carya illinoensis 1 Ulmus alata 9 Ulmus rubra... Carya illinoensis 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 Ulmus alata 0.4 0.4 13.6 0 0.0 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.3 0.4 4.6 0 0.0 0.1 q .4 228 Y I Table 17. The species of trees found...viridis 0.3 1.0 13.6 7.2 0.8 1.1 Cercis canadensis 0.1 0.3 9.1 4.4 0.5 0.4 Ulmus rubra 0.1 0.3 4.6 3.2 0.4 0.4 Carya illinoensis 0.2 4.6 7.5 0.9 0.2 229

  13. FRUITS AND SIMILES AND METAPHORS ON FRUITS IN CLASSICAL TURKISH LITERATURE (DIVAN POETRY / DIVAN SIIRINDE MEYVELER VE MEYVELERDEN HAREKETLE YAPILAN TESBIH VE MECAZLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Abdülkerim GÜLHAN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have surveyed 40 divans belonging differentcenturies and different regions in classical TurkishLiterature. Đn the works we have looked up, poets used fruitnames such as pear, quince, almond, hickory, apple, plum,filbert, peanut, date palm, jujube, oleaster, fig, coffee,watermelon, melon, apricot, cherry, lemon, pomegranate,peach, bitter orange, grape, morello, olive and mademetaphor regarding their trees, forms, tastes, colors, flowersand functions. Many characteristical features of “the lovedone” were given with word games on fruits.

  14. Cultural Resources Survey, Harry S. Truman Dam and Reservoir Project, Missouri. Volume 10. Environmental Study Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    character In lower A2 at 30 cm. 99 S Locality: 24 SOIL CLASSIFICATION: Typic Ochraqualf 0 FEDON NO,: 24 LOCATIOW: In the SE 1/4 SW 1/4, Sec. 3, T38N...CLASSIFICATION: Typic Albaqualf FEDON iO,: 25 LOCATIOiJ: In the NE 1/4 NW 1/4, sec. 9, T38N, R22W, Hickory county, HO. SLOPE (’): 1-2 GEOIIORPHIC SURFACE: T...unrubbed); Remarks: Sampling terminated at 119 cm. Monolith preserved (0-119 c). 101 Locality: 26 SOIL CLASSIFICATION: Typic Argiaquoll FEDON O,: 26

  15. Asian Carp Survivability Experiments and Water Transport Surveys in the Illinois River, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    current. It is highly dependent on the amount of dissolved solids (such as salt ) in the water (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) website, accessed...Sluice Gate Calumet River Indiana Harbor Burns Harbor O’Brien Lock-and-Dam Ill in oi s In di an a L ittle C alum et Ri ver Grand Calumet River Brandon...Lock-and-Dam Hickory Creek D es P la in e s R i v e r Lockport Lock-and-Dam Electric Barrier(s) Calumet Sag Channel De s P lai ne s R ive r Salt C

  16. A Formal Approach to Discourse Anaphora

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    e.g. 90. Bruoe didn’t marry a Swedish girl. Sie was a brunette . Here the speaker may intend "she" to refer to the Just-mentioned girl that...others, each in a different way, e.g., "Bruce takes sugar in his coffee, pride in his work and offense at the slightest innuendo." u <#5>. One sense...animal 56a. Alongside the trail were an elm, a hickory, two pines, a sugar maple and a white oak. b. The deciduous ones were putting on a good show

  17. 从美国入境胡桃木上截获胡桃缢虎天牛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶军; 钱天荣

    2004-01-01

    2003年5月,上海局对从美国入境的胡桃原木(Juglans nigra)进行检疫时,截获一种天牛,经鉴定为胡桃缢虎天牛(Megacyllene caryae 1908)。由于该种天牛在我国没有分布,且有一定的危害性,笔者在此就该种天牛作一简单介绍。

  18. Stomatal acclimation to vapour pressure deficit doubles transpiration of small tree seedlings with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchin, Renée M.; Broadhead, Alice A.; Bostic, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    .5-1.3 kPa on transpiration and stomatal conductance (gs ) of tree seedlings in the temperate forest understory (Duke Forest, North Carolina, USA). We observed peaked responses of transpiration to VPD in all seedlings, and the optimum VPD for transpiration (Dopt ) shifted proportionally with increasing...... chamber VPD. Warming increased mean water use of Carya by 140% and Quercus by 150%, but had no significant effect on water use of Acer. Increased water use of ring-porous species was attributed to (1) higher air T and (2) stomatal acclimation to VPD resulting in higher gs and more sensitive stomata...

  19. Mapping hardwood forests through a two-stage unsupervised classification by integrating Landsat Thematic Mapper and forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Gang; Pauli, Benjamin P.; Haulton, G. Scott; Zollner, Patrick A.; Shao, Guofan

    2014-01-01

    Sound forest management requires accurate forest maps at an appropriate scale. Forest cover data developed at a national scale may be too coarse for forest management at a local level. We demonstrated a two-stage unsupervised classification, integrating Continuous Forest Inventory (CFI) data and Landsat imageries, to classify forest types for Indiana State Forests (ISF) and 8-km surrounding areas. In the first stage, an automatic unsupervised classification assisted by CFI data was applied in ISF. In the second stage, the resultant forest cover information from the first stage was used to expand the classification area into the 8-km surrounding areas. Splitting the classification procedure into two stages made it possible to expand the classification area beyond the coverage of the CFI data. This data-aided unsupervised classification approach increased the repeatability of forest mapping. The resultant map contains five forest types: conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests. The overall accuracy was 81.9%, and the total disagreement was 0.176. The accuracies of conifer, conifer-hardwood, maple, mixed hardwood, and oak-hickory forests were 81.6, 63.4, 75.0, 33.3, and 90%, respectively. This forest mapping technique is suitable for automated mapping of forest areas where extensive plot data are available.

  20. Indiana forest cover mapping based on multi-stage integrated classification using satellite and in situ forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Gang

    Forest species classification through remote sensing data is a complex process, which usually is done either at a coarse level or with low accuracy. This study examines a multi-stage classification algorithm combining supervised and unsupervised classifications to classify forest areas in Indiana. Integrated classification makes the procedures automatic and reduces human errors. Splitting the classification into two steps increases the accuracy with limited ground data. In the first step, in which the Indiana state forest area is classified, the point plug-in classification algorithm is employed, because plenty of ground data are available. In the second step the classifying of the state forest including a surrounding 8km buffer, the ground data are insufficient to process the point plug-in classification approach. In this case, the polygon plug-in classification algorithm is used to realize the extended area classification at the second stage. The resultant land cover map has six tree species (conifer, mixed forest, oak and hickory, mixed oak and hickory/ hardwood, maple and other hardwood). The overall accuracy is 81.93%.

  1. 长山核桃嫁接技术研究%Study on G rafting T echniques of C arya illinoensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雷

    2014-01-01

    In this paper effects of different periods, varieties and grafting m ethods on the survival rates of grafted plantlets of Carya illinoensis were contrastively analyzed and the optim al period and grafting m ethod were screened out, which could m ake the survival rate of grafted plantlets of Carya illinoensis reach over 95% and significantly im prove the grafting work efficiency.%本文通过对长山核桃的不同时期、不同品种和不同嫁接方法对苗木嫁接成活率影响的对比分析,筛选出了长山核桃苗木嫁接最佳时间段和最佳嫁接方法,能使长山核桃苗木嫁接成活率达到95%以上,显著提高了苗木嫁接时的工作效率。

  2. 新品之窗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    康普创新方案助广电系统维持最佳空压 美国北卡罗来纳州HICKORY 2012年4月25日讯-控制广播传输线路中的湿度标准通常需要价格高昂且难以维修的设备,例如瓶装氮气罐和干粉干燥剂等,但如今广电企业有了基于膜脱水技术的崭新选项。康普DryLine Sahara是专为广播电视企业设计的脱水机,为湿度控制这一技术难题,提供高度可靠且更具成本效益的方案。

  3. Tips for cleanroom construction and renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, William; Huffman, Lanny

    2009-01-01

    The installation or renovation of a cleanroom is an increasing priority among compounders who, to offer sterile preparations, must comply with the most recent version of United States Pharmacopeia revised General Chapter 797 guidelines. To upgrade their pharmacy facilites, many compounders have worked successfully with a large-scale mechanical engineering firm or a specialized construction company dedicated to cleanroom installation. However, a qualified local mechanical contractor with design capability is a valuable and often overlooked resource for the construction of customized stae-of-the-art cleanrooms. In this report, we describe the installation of such a facility in a busy pharmacy and suggest ways in which compounding pharmacists can identify competent local contractors and control the cost of construction and upgrades. The addition of a cleanroom has enabled The Compounding Pharmacy in Hickory, North Carolina, to achieve accreditation from the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board.

  4. Use of geostatistics for remediation planning to transcend urban political boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Tammy M; Sinha, Gaurav; Gardella, Joseph A

    2012-11-01

    Soil remediation plans are often dictated by areas of jurisdiction or property lines instead of scientific information. This study exemplifies how geostatistically interpolated surfaces can substantially improve remediation planning. Ordinary kriging, ordinary co-kriging, and inverse distance weighting spatial interpolation methods were compared for analyzing surface and sub-surface soil sample data originally collected by the US EPA and researchers at the University at Buffalo in Hickory Woods, an industrial-residential neighborhood in Buffalo, NY, where both lead and arsenic contamination is present. Past clean-up efforts estimated contamination levels from point samples, but parcel and agency jurisdiction boundaries were used to define remediation sites, rather than geostatistical models estimating the spatial behavior of the contaminants in the soil. Residents were understandably dissatisfied with the arbitrariness of the remediation plan. In this study we show how geostatistical mapping and participatory assessment can make soil remediation scientifically defensible, socially acceptable, and economically feasible.

  5. An evaluation of ²²⁶Ra and ²²⁸Ra in drinking water in several counties in Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S G; George, G

    2013-11-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) or Technology Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) can be a potential health risk. It is now well known that the underlying geology in many parts of Texas has given rise to levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra that often exceed the limits set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A detailed literature search was undertaken to assess the levels of (226)Ra and (228)Ra in all of the Texas counties. Several statistical evaluations of the data were performed. The Hickory aquifer in the Llano Uplift region of Texas has consistently had the highest number of (226)Ra and (228)Ra concentrations above the legal limit. As well many of the affected rural communities may not have the financial resources to rectify the problem.

  6. Susceptibility of eastern U.S. habitats to invasion of Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) following fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Grundel, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Fire effects on invasive species are an important land management issue in areas subjected to prescribed fires as well as wildfires. These effects on invasive species can be manifested across life stages. The liana Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) is a widespread invader of eastern US habitats including those where fire management is in practice. This study examined if prescribed fire makes these habitats more susceptible to invasion of C. orbiculatus by seed at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Four treatments (control, litter removed, high and low intensity fire) were applied in six habitat types (sand savanna/woodland, sand prairie, moraine prairie, sand oak forest, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forest) and germinating seedlings were tracked over two growing seasons. Treatment did not have a significant effect on the germination, survival, or biomass of C. orbiculatus. However, habitat type did influence these responses mostly in the first growing season. Moraine prairie, beech-maple forest, and oak-hickory forests had the greatest peak percentage of germinants. Moraine prairie had significantly greater survival than oak forest and savanna habitats. Control plots with intact litter, and the moraine prairie habitat had the tallest seedlings at germination, while tallest final heights and greatest aboveground biomass were highest in oak forest. Thus, fire and litter removal did not increase the susceptibility of these habitats to germination and survival of C. orbiculatus. These results indicate that most eastern US habitats are vulnerable to invasion by this species via seed regardless of the level or type of disturbance to the litter layer.

  7. Analysis of regional rainfall-runoff parameters for the Lake Michigan Diversion hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, David T.; Over, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting (LMDA) system has been developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago District (USACE-Chicago) and the State of Illinois as a part of the interstate Great Lakes water regulatory program. The diverted Lake Michigan watershed is a 673-square-mile watershed that is comprised of the Chicago River and Calumet River watersheds. They originally drained into Lake Michigan, but now flow to the Mississippi River watershed via three canals constructed in the Chicago area in the early twentieth century. Approximately 393 square miles of the diverted watershed is ungaged, and the runoff from the ungaged portion of the diverted watershed has been estimated by the USACE-Chicago using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) program. The accuracy of simulated runoff depends on the accuracy of the parameter set used in the HSPF program. Nine parameter sets comprised of the North Branch, Little Calumet, Des Plaines, Hickory Creek, CSSC, NIPC, 1999, CTE, and 2008 have been developed at different time periods and used by the USACE-Chicago. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey and the USACE-Chicago collaboratively analyzed the parameter sets using nine gaged watersheds in or adjacent to the diverted watershed to assess the predictive accuracies of selected parameter sets. Six of the parameter sets, comprising North Branch, Hickory Creek, NIPC, 1999, CTE, and 2008, were applied to the nine gaged watersheds for evaluating their simulation accuracy from water years 1996 to 2011. The nine gaged watersheds were modeled by using the three LMDA land-cover types (grass, forest, and hydraulically connected imperviousness) based on the 2006 National Land Cover Database, and the latest meteorological and precipitation data consistent with the current (2014) LMDA modeling framework.

  8. Oxidative stress and anxiety-like symptoms related to withdrawal of passive cigarette smoke in mice: beneficial effects of pecan nut shells extract, a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckziegel, P; Boufleur, N; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Pase, C S; Muller, L G; Teixeira, A M; Zanella, R; Prado, A C P; Fett, R; Block, J M; Burger, M E

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the role of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shells aqueous extract (AE) against oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) and behavioral parameters of smoking withdrawal. Mice were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 3 weeks (6, 10, and 14 cigarettes/day) and orally treated with AE (25 g/L). CSE induced lipid peroxidation in brain and red blood cells (RBC), increased catalase (CAT) activity in RBC, and decreased plasma ascorbic acid levels. AE prevented oxidative damage and increased antioxidant defenses of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In addition, AE reduced the locomotor activity and anxiety symptoms induced by smoking withdrawal, and these behavioral parameters showed a positive correlation with RBC lipid peroxidation. Our results showed the beneficial effects of this by-product of the pecan industry, indicating its usefulness in smoking cessation.

  9. 美国山核桃单芽腹接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊南; 熊新武; 习学良; 杨素琼

    2008-01-01

    美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis K.Koch,又名薄壳山核桃或长山核桃,为胡桃科山核桃属的一种落叶乔木,是世界著名优良干果油料树种。近几年美国山核桃在国内多个省份得到了推广发展,特别是在云南被列为“十一五”发展的特色经济林树种之一。美国山核桃需采用本砧嫁接才能使幼苗定植后童期缩短。目前,美国山核桃的嫁接方法主要为腹接和劈接。

  10. Planejamento estatístico de experimentos como uma ferramenta para otimização das condições de biossorção de Cu(II em batelada utilizando-se casca de nozes pecã como biossorvente Statistical design of experiments as a tool for optimizing the batch conditions of Cu(II biosorption using pecan nutshells as biosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Brasil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the total number of experiments for achieving the highest amount of adsorbed Cu2+ (qmax using pecan nutshells (Carya illinoensis as biosorbent, a full 2(4 factorial design with two central points was carried out (mass of biosorbent- m, pH, initial metallic ion concentration- C0, time of contact- t. In order to continue the optimization of the system, a central composite surface analysis design with two factors and five central points was carried out. The maximum amount of Cu2+ taken up by the pecan nutshells was 20 mg g-1. These results were confirmed by determining a Cu2+ isotherm using the best conditions attained by the statistical design of experiments.

  11. 云南省核桃资源现状及研究进展%Present situation and research progress of Walnut resources in Yunnan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婷; 郎南军; 杨素琼; 贺娜; 肖良俊

    2012-01-01

    Through the research of Walnut Resources situation in Yunnan Province , this article summarized the current walnut varieties in Yunnan, including traditional fine walnut, new hybrid varieties and Carya illinoensis introduced in recent years, and understood the current walnut cultivation technology in Yunnan province, while The existing problems and development strategy are described in detail.%文章通过对云南省核桃资源现状的研究,总结了目前云南主要的核桃品种,包括传统优良核桃,杂交新品种和近几年引进的美国山核桃,并简单了解当前云南省核桃栽培技术,同时对存在的问题以及发展策略做了阐述。

  12. 美国山核桃实生苗的培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温爱存

    2008-01-01

    美国山核桃[Carya illinoensis(Wangenh.)K.Koch]又名美国山核桃、长山核桃,为胡桃科山核桃属植物,属落叶高大乔木,树高可达55m、胸径2.5m,是一种优良的果材兼用树种。原产美国和墨西哥北部。现以美国为中心产区,分布于世界5个洲的20个以上国家和地区,包括美国、墨西哥、意大利、法国、以色列、日本和中国等地。

  13. Sand Dredging Operations in Lafourche Parish, Near Leeville, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Campis radicans .. .......... 0.93 48.4 4.2 Carex xrus-corvi. .......... 0.03 3.2 0.1 Carya illinoensis .. ......... 0.16 16.1 0.7 Ceitis laevigata... illinoensis ..... 0.05 5.5 0.4 Diodia virginiana .. ......... 0.05 5.5 0.4 Eclipta alba... .......... 0.16 16.6 1.2 Equisetum prealtum. ......... 0.05 5.5...3.2 0.1 A-4 Table A-2 continued. Species Density Frequency Percent Daubentonia texana ....... . 0.03 3.2 0.1 Desmanthus illinoensis ..... . 0.03 3.2 0.1

  14. Pecan Distribution, Cultural Regionalization and Cultivar Classification in USA%美国山核桃在原产地分布、引种栽培区划及主要栽培品种分类研究概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张日清; 吕芳德

    2002-01-01

    @@ 美国山核桃Carya illinoensis是北美最重要、最有价值和最有前途的坚果树种.它的起源可追溯至遥远的白垩纪时代,主要分布于美国和墨西哥北部.美国山核桃栽培历史近300年,此间除了栽培面积的扩大外,还进行了大量的品种改良工作,极大地促进了美国山核桃产量和品质的提高.

  15. 美国山核桃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国良; 陈丽霞; 段良骅; 杨俊强; 宋玉琴

    2005-01-01

    美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis Koch)属胡桃科的山核桃属,又名薄壳山核桃或长山核桃.英文名为Pecan或Hickory。原产北美大陆的美国和墨西哥北部.现已成为世界性的干果类树种之一。由于其种仁有优异的食疗保健价值.美国山核桃仁在国内外市场上价格一直走俏。我国早在1890年就开始陆续进行了美国山核桃的引种活动。但直到目前还尚未形成商品性生产。

  16. Remarks on paleoecology of Miocene flora in Turow sphaero-siderites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchniewicz, K. (Muzeum Ziemi PAN, Warsaw (Poland))

    1992-03-01

    Discusses the paleoenvironment of fossil flora in the Turow brown coal deposit (Poland), considering both botanical classification of flora and conditions of their sedimentation. Species found reveal the conditions of sideritic formations. The plants originated from shallow, stagnant water (Salvinia, Menyanthes), swampy and inshore environment (Pronephrium, Glyptostrobus) and wet forest (Quercus, Carya). A diversity of plant parts, i.e. leaves, seeds, fruits, roots, trunks and bark, facilitated their identification. A great abundance of bark and root fragments suggest they grew in situ. The scheme of processes to generate sideritic concretions with plant fossils shows that decaying plant remains were subject to bacterial activity and trapped by precipitating acidic iron carbonate in colloidal form. It is concluded that studies of sideritic concretions with plant fossils broaden knowledge of coal-forming plants since the remains are more difficult to identify in coal seams. 23 refs.

  17. Fossil plants from Romanian deposits of Bacles, Dolj District, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae T̡icleanu

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available From the Middle Romanian lacustrine deposits of the Oltenia province, the authors describe the youngest fossil flora known until now in Oltenia. The inventory of the fossil flora includes the following taxa: Taxodium dubium, ?Platanus platanifolia, Ulmus laevis, Quercus roburoides, Q. cf. muehlenbergii, Carya serraefolia, Acer cf. tricuspidatum and Salix sp. In the Bâcleş fossil flora, Glyptostrobus europaeus, which is a thermophilous and shows a high frequency in all Oltenia area till the XV-th coal seam, is absent. Consequently, having in view the high frequency of Taxodium dubium, which indicate temperate climate conditions, the other consider that the fossil flora from Bâcleş is much more younger and marks an important cooling. From palaeofloristic point of view, the study of Bâcleş fossil flora is indicative for river meadow forest and, probably, flat plain forest environments.

  18. 警根瘤蚜的生物学特性研究%Biological Characteristics of Phylloxera notabilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查志刚

    2014-01-01

    The morphological and biological characteristics of Phylloxera notabilis on Carya illinoensis trees were studied through regular indoor and outdoor observation and the changing process of the insect galls were emphatically recorded. The results showed that the hibernating eggs of phylloxera notabilis started hatching in late March or early April and the main hatching period was early and mid April,and the hibernating eggs were laid from mid October. The adults of phylloxera notabilis had several forms. The fundatrices hatched from the hibernating eggs formed the first generation galls on the host young leaves. Phylloxera notabilis formed galls on the host blades and both the adults and larvae sucked sap of the blades in galls,having a serious impact on the growth of Carya illinoensis trees.%通过定期室内外观察的方法,研究了美国山核桃警根瘤蚜的形态特征和生物学习学特性,重点记录其虫瘿的变化过程。结果表明,警根瘤蚜越冬卵于3月末4月初开始孵化,4月上中旬为孵化盛期,10月中旬开始产生越冬卵。警根瘤蚜成虫有多个形态,由越冬卵孵化出的为干母,干母在寄主的幼叶上形成第一代虫瘿。警根瘤蚜在寄主叶片上形成虫瘿,成虫、幼虫均在虫瘿内吸食叶片汁液,严重影响了美国山核桃的生长。

  19. Phytophthora species recovered from the Connecticut River Valley in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazee, Nicholas J; Wick, Robert L; Hulvey, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the assemblage of Phytophthora species in northeastern North America, representing a gap in our understanding of species incidence. Therefore, Phytophthora species were surveyed at 20 sites in Massachusetts, with 16 occurring in the Connecticut River Valley. Many of the sampled waterways were adjacent to active agricultural lands, yet were buffered by mature floodplain forests composed of Acer, Platanus, Populus and Ulmus. Isolates were recovered with three types of baits (rhododendron leaves, pear, green pepper) in 2013 and water filtration in 2014. Overall, 457 isolates of Phytophthora were recovered and based on morphological characters and rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (β-tub) and cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox1) sequences, 18 taxa were identified, including three new species: P. taxon intercalaris, P. taxon caryae and P. taxon pocumtuck. In addition, 49 isolates representing five species of Phytopythium also were identified. Water filtration captured a greater number of taxa (18) compared to leaf and fruit baits (12). Of the three bait types rhododendron leaves yielded the greatest number of isolates and taxa, followed by pear and green pepper, respectively. Despite the proximity to agricultural lands, none of the Phytophthora species baited are considered serious pathogens of vegetable crops in the region. However, many of the recovered species are known woody plant pathogens, including four species in the P. citricola s.l. complex that were identified: P. plurivora, P. citricola III, P. pini and a putative novel species, referred to here as P. taxon caryae. An additional novel species, P. taxon pocumtuck, is a close relative of P. borealis based on cox1 sequences. The results illustrate a high level of Phytophthora species richness in the Connecticut River Valley and that major rivers can serve as a source of inoculum for pathogenic Phytophthora species in the northeast.

  20. Effect of 4 Kinds of Vegetation Restoration Patterns on the Topsoil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Rocky Desertification Region of Guizhou Province%4种植被恢复模式对贵州石漠化地区表层土壤有机碳氮的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文强; 唐金刚; 罗时琴; 林涛; 周传艳

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil contents,densities and storage of soil organic carbon(SOC)and total nitrogen(TN) of four different vegetation restoration patterns,i.e.,Prunus salicina,Juglans cathayensis,Punica grana-tum and Passiflora caerulea were studied in rocky desertification region in Guizhou Province.The results showed that the contents of SOC under four different vegetation restoration patterns were in the order of Prunus salicina >Passiflora caerulea >Juglans cathayensis >Punica granatum,while the contents of TN did not differ much.SOC and TN contents and densities in the 0~10 cm soil layer were higer in the 10~20 cm soil layer in each of the four vegetation restoration patterns.SOC storage in the topsoil layer was the highest(54.31t/hm2 )in Prunus salicina,and TN storage in the topsoil layer was the highest (6.21t/hm2)in Passiflora caerulea.Both SOC and TN storage were the lowest in Punica granatum,with 49.77t/hm2 and 5.66t/hm2 respectively.Prunus salicina and Passiflora caerulea were both comparative better vegetation restoration patterns in the process of vegetation restoration and reconstruction in the rocky desertification region of Guizhou Province.%对酥李(Prunus salicina)、核桃(Juglans cathayensis)、石榴(Punica granatum)以及西番莲(Passiflora caerulea)等4种植被治理石漠化模式下土壤有机碳氮含量、密度以及储量进行了研究,结果表明,4种植被恢复模式下:土壤有机碳含量大小顺序为酥李模式>西番莲模式>核桃模式>石榴模式,土壤全氮含量差异较小;0~10cm层土壤有机碳氮含量和密度均大于10~20 cm 层;土壤有机碳和全氮储量最高的分别为酥李模式(54.31t/hm2)和西番莲模式(6.21t/hm2);土壤有机碳和全氮储量最低的均为石榴模式,分别为49.77t/hm2和5.66t/hm2。相对而言,酥李模式和西番莲模式是土壤有机碳氮储存能力较高的两种植被恢复模式。

  1. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Lü

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha, 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha accounted for 1.4% of the total community aboveground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 211-222. Epub 2009 June 30.Las lianas son componentes importantes de los bosques tropicales y tienen importantes impactos en la diversidad, la estructura y la dinámica de los bosques tropicales. El presente estudio documenta la flora de lianas en una región tropical estacional china. La

  2. Diversity and aboveground biomass of lianas in the tropical seasonal rain forests of Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Tao; Tang, Jian-Wei; Feng, Zhi-Li; Li, Mai-He

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are important components of tropical forests and have significant impacts on the diversity, structure and dynamics of tropical forests. The present study documented the liana flora in a Chinese tropical region. Species richness, abundance, size-class distribution and spatial patterns of lianas were investigated in three 1-ha plots in tropical seasonal rain forests in Xishuangbanna, SW China. All lianas with > or = 2 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) were measured, tagged and identified. A total of 458 liana stems belonging to 95 species (ranging from 38 to 50 species/ha), 59 genera and 32 families were recorded in the three plots. The most well-represented families were Loganiaceae, Annonceae, Papilionaceae, Apocynaceae and Rhamnaceae. Papilionaceae (14 species recorded) was the most important family in the study forests. The population density, basal area and importance value index (IVI) varied greatly across the three plots. Strychnos cathayensis, Byttneria grandifolia and Bousigonia mekongensis were the dominant species in terms of IVI across the three plots. The mean aboveground biomass of lianas (3 396 kg/ha) accounted for 1.4% of the total community above-ground biomass. The abundance, diversity and biomass of lianas in Xishuangbanna tropical seasonal rain forests are lower than those in tropical moist and wet forests, but higher than those in tropical dry forests. This study provides new data on lianas from a geographical region that has been little-studied. Our findings emphasize that other factors beyond the amount and seasonality of precipitation should be included when considering the liana abundance patterns across scales.

  3. 三种常用半枫荷类药用植物的化学成分与生物活性研究概况%Research Progress of Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Activities from Three Commonly Used Ban-feng-he Medicinal Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 王雅琪; 刘升长; 何军伟

    2016-01-01

    目的:半枫荷类药用植物的种类很多,涉及5科6属12种,是形态特征或临床功效相似的一类植物,大多具有祛风除湿、活血通络的功效,是一类具有较大开发价值的植物群.临床上以金缕梅科半枫荷Semiliquidambar cathayensis,五加科树参Dendropanax dentiger及梧桐科翻白叶树Pterospermum heterophyllum为常用且以S.cathayensis的抗风湿作用最佳,广泛使用于苗族、瑶族、畲族、壮族等多个民族,有着悠久的临床用药历史和确切的疗效,主要用于治疗风湿、类风湿关节炎等炎症方面的疾病,但其抗炎药效物质基础尚不明确,且有混用和乱用的现象,因此亟需对它们的抗炎药效物质基础进行系统、深入的比较性研究.本文对临床上3种常用半枫荷类药用植物的化学成分和生物活性进行系统的文献综述,以期为该类植物资源的质量控制、临床用药及合理开发提供科学依据.

  4. 6种木本植物叶浸液对钉螺驱杀作用及其生殖器官解剖结构的影响%Expelling and Killing Effects of Leaf Extracts of 6 Woody Plant Species on Oncomelania hupensis and the Impact of the Extracts on the Anatomical Structures of Its Reproductive Organs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏尚光; 张仪; 刘和香; 苗婷婷; 丁增发; 吴缨

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the expelling and killing effects of leaf extracts of 6 woody plant species including Triadica sebifera, Nerium oleander, llex latifolia, Celtis julianae, Carya illinoensis and Melia azedarach on Oncomelania hupensis and the impact of the extracts on the anatomical structures of its reproductive organs. The results showed: 1. The leaf extracts of Carya illinoensis and Celtis julianae had nearly no short-time poisonous killing effects on Oncomelania hupensis and those of Melia azedaroch had the most significant poisonous killing effects, followed by Nerium oleander, Triadica sebifera and Llex lotifolia. The leaf extracts of the 6 plant species all had 100% poisonous killing effects over time. 2. The poisonous killing effects of the mixed leaf extracts of different plant species are significantly greater than those of single species leaf extracts. Under the 5-to-30min-long treatments with mixed leaf extracts of llex latifolia ~ Carya iUinoensis, Nerium oleander ~ Melia azedarach, llex latifolia x Triadica sebifera, and Celtis julianae x Triadica sebifera, the escape rate and feign death rate were 10-12% and 90-88% respectively for the treatment group of Ilex latifolia x Carya illinoensis, 0% and 100% respectively for that of Nerium oleander x Melia azedarach, 0-2% and 100-98% respectively for that of llex latifolia x Triadica sebifera, and 8-24% and 92-76% respectively for that of Celtis julianae x Triadica sebifera. 3. After the respective treatments with leaf extracts of Celtis julianae, Carya illinoensis, Triadica sebifera, Nerium oleander, Ilex latifolia and Melia azedarach for 24 hours, the anatomical structures of both the male penises and female ovaries of Oncomelania hupensis showed no significant changes compared with the control group. Consequently, mixed afforestation with llex latifolia, Triadica sebifera, Nerium oleander and Melia azedarach should be considered in the construction of schistosomasis-prevention forests, which would

  5. Do Fungi Transport 10Be During Wood Degradation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conyers, G.; Granger, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Meteoric cosmogenic 10Be is increasingly used to determine erosion and soil transport rates. To calculate these rates, it is assumed that 10Be is a conservative passive tracer of soil particles. However, there is experimental evidence that beryllium is mobilized in natural soils complexed with organic acids. For example, up to 50% of beryllium can be mobilized by humic acids in soils at pH 7 (Takahashi et al., 1999). Beryllium is also known to be taken up in plants such as tobacco and vegetables (World Health Organization, 1990) at ppm levels, primarily as organic acid chelates. It is not known to what extent biological beryllium transport in the environment affects the cosmogenic 10Be budget, or how it influences beryllium mobility. In this study, we address a problem recognized early in the development of meteoric 10Be methods. It has been observed that decayed organic matter in soils and sediments contains very high concentrations of 10Be of up to 109-1010 atoms/g (Lundberg, et al., 1983). On the other hand, living trees contain much lower concentrations of 106 atoms/g (Klein et al., 1982). The driving question for this study is how 10Be becomes bound to decayed organic matter. Direct fallout seems unlikely as the residence time of organic matter in soil is too short. One possibility is that 10Be is transported by fungi. Wood-degrading fungi are known to transport and bioaccumulate metals from large areas, facilitated by acids such as oxalic acid in the fungal hyphae. To test the hypothesis that fungi transport 10Be, we analyzed both intact and fungally degraded wood of oak, hickory, and hemlock. From these data, we reached two conclusions (observations?): 1) Oak has a 10Be concentration of about 2x106 at/g, similar to that observed by Klein et al. (1982). Hickory has a significantly higher concentration of about 3x107 atoms/g, confirming observations that hickory bioaccumulates beryllium. Using these data, the inventory of 10Be in a temperate forest is expected

  6. Magnolia dealbata en Nuevo León, México Magnolia dealbata in Nuevo Leon, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gerardo Velazco-Macías

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza y describe la distribución de Magnolia dealbata Zucc. en el estado de Nuevo León, México, aportando información acerca de la ecología, estado de conservación, situación del hábitat y fenología de las poblaciones estudiadas. Por medio de una revisión bibliográfica y trabajo de campo realizado en la sierra Madre Oriental, se obtuvieron datos que permiten distinguir 2 núcleos poblacionales ubicados en el municipio de Montemorelos, en el centro del estado, con extensión total de 17.66 hectáreas, y densidad de hasta 30 individuos por 100 m2. Se presenta en asociación con Pinus teocote, Quercus spp., Cornus florida, Carya sp. y Sambucus nigra. La observación fenológica durante el periodo de estudio mostró que la aparición de nuevos brotes foliares comienza a principios de marzo y la floración a principios de mayo. El hábitat se observa con pocas alteraciones y no se identificaron amenazas a corto plazo para estas poblaciones.The distribution of Magnolia dealbata Zucc. in the state of Nuevo León in northeastern Mexico is analyzed and described; information regarding its conservation status, habitat health, and phenology of studied populations is provided. Through bibliographical information and field work in the Sierra Madre Oriental, 2 core populations of M. dealbata Zucc. can be distinguished, both located in the municipality of Montemorelos in the center of the state, covering a total of 17.66 hectares. Density reaches 30 individuals per 100 square meters. The species grows in association with Pinus teocote, Quercus spp, Cornus florida, Carya sp. and Sambucus nigra. New leaves sprout in early March, and flower production starts in early May. Habitat shows little disturbance and no short-term threats were identified for these populations.

  7. Study on the Ecophysiological Characteristics of Photosynthesis in the Saplings of Three South Asian Tropical Trees%南亚热带3种幼树的光合生理生态特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨期和; 陈昆平; 杨和生; 赖万年

    2016-01-01

    采用Li-6400便携式光合作用测定仪对3种南亚热带植物:变叶树参(Dendropanax proteu)、半枫荷(Semiliquidambar cathayensis)、台湾榕(Ficus formosana)幼树光合生理特性进行研究.结果表明:①3种幼树的净光合速率(Pn)日变化均呈“双峰”曲线,变叶树参首峰(3.62 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现于10:00,次峰(2.09 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现在16:00;半枫荷首峰(3.15 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现于10:00,次峰(1.75)出现在16:00左右;台湾榕首峰(4.07 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现在9:00左右,次峰(2.20 μmol·m-2·s-1)出现在16:00左右.均具有明显的光合午休现象.②相关、回归及通径分析表明,3种植物Pn与光合有效辐射(PAR)、气孔导度(Gs)显著正相关,而与胞间CO2浓度(Ci)显著负相关,光合午休现象的原因很可能是环境因子变化引起叶肉细胞光合活性降低的非气孔限制因素.③3种植物的光饱和点(LSP)、光补偿点(LCP)均较低,变叶树参分别为640.45、4.16μmol·m-2 ·s-1;半枫荷分别为597.96、2.09 μmol·m-2·s-1;台湾榕分别为657.85、3.08μmol·m-2·s-1,均为典型的阴生植物.

  8. Adaptability Evaluation on Tested Tree Species in The Middle Mountain Regions of Semi-arid Valleys in The Upper Minjiang River%岷江上游半干旱河谷中山区试验树种适应性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 程秦明; 冯正波; 邵慧敏

    2011-01-01

    The survival percentage,growth and adaptability of the ten tested tree species,which were cultivated at altitudes of 1 800 m~2 000 m in Dagou areas of Maoxian county,Sichuan,had been evaluated in this paper.The results revealed that the survival percentage of the tested tree species was affected by the heredity,ecological habit of its own,natural surroundings and interferences of mankind activities under the set and concrete habitat conditions.Acer davidii,Betula luminifera,Ailanthus altissima,Aesculus wilsonii were proved to be very adaptive to the local surroundings and can be used as materials restoring the local vegetation by means of measuring the high growth and making sure the differential sequence of tree species mentioned above,further combined field survey on the character of anti-adversity.Rhododendron davidii,Prunus davidiana,Liquidambar acalycina,Juglans cathayensis were proved to be adaptive to the local surroundings,but further study and observation were needed in order to ascertain the usage scheme.On the other hand,Ginkgo biloba and Davidia involucrate were proved that they couldn't be used as forestation materials.%本文评价了四川茂县大沟地区海拔1800~2000m的区段10个供试树种的成活率、生长量和适应性。结果表明:在设定的具体生境条件下,供试树种的成活率受到自身遗传、生态习性及其自然环境与人类活动干扰的影响,通过对高生长量的测试确定了上述树种的生长量差异序列,并进一步结合对抗逆性的现场调查确定青榨槭、光皮桦、臭椿、天师栗很适应当地的环境,可以作为当地植被恢复的材料使用;腺果杜鹃、山桃、枫香、野核桃适宜当地环境,但尚需作进一步研究观察,以便确定使用方案;而银杏与珙桐不能作为营林材料利用。

  9. The Pleistocene biogeography of eastern North America: A nonmigration scenario for deciduous forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.; Iltis, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Botany

    1998-12-31

    The current reconstruction of the vegetation of eastern North America at the last glacial maximum postulates a very wide zone of tundra and boreal forest south of the ice. This reconstruction requires that the deciduous forest retreated far to the south. The authors believe that this reconstruction is seriously in error. Geologic evidence for glacial activity or tundra is absent from the southern Appalachians. Positive evidence for boreal forest is based on pollen identifications for Picea, Betula, and Pinus, when in reality southern members of these genera have pollen that cannot be distinguished from that of northern members. Further, pollen of typical southern species such as oaks and hickories occurs throughout profiles that past authors had labeled boreal. Pollen evidence for a far southern deciduous forest refuge is lacking. Data on endemics are particularly challenging for the scenario in which deciduous forest migrated to the south and back. The southern Appalachian region is rife with endemics that are often extreme-habitat specialists unable to migrate. The previously glaciated zone is almost completely lacking in endemics. Outlier populations, range boundaries, and absence of certain hybrids all argue against a large boreal zone. The new reconstruction postulates a cold zone no more than 75--100 miles wide south of the ice in the East.

  10. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  11. Deciduous Forest Structure Estimated with LIDAR-Optimized Spectral Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Defibaugh y Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage and frequency of remotely sensed forest structural information would benefit from single orbital platforms designed to collect sufficient data. We evaluated forest structural information content using single-date Hyperion hyperspectral imagery collected over full-canopy oak-hickory forests in the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, USA. Hyperion spectral derivatives were used to develop machine learning regression tree rule sets for predicting forest neighborhood percentile heights generated from near-coincident Leica Geosystems ALS50 small footprint light detection and ranging (LIDAR. The most successful spectral predictors of LIDAR-derived forest structure were also tested with basal area measured in situ. Based on the machine learning regression trees developed, Hyperion spectral derivatives were utilized to predict LIDAR forest neighborhood percentile heights with accuracies between 2.1 and 3.7 m RMSE. Understory predictions consistently resulted in the highest accuracy of 2.1 m RMSE. In contrast, hyperspectral prediction of basal area measured in situ was only found to be 6.5 m2/ha RMSE when the average basal area across the study area was ~12 m2/ha. The results suggest, at a spatial resolution of 30 × 30 m, that orbital hyperspectral imagery alone can provide useful structural information related to vegetation height. Rapidly calibrated biophysical remote sensing techniques will facilitate timely assessment of regional forest conditions.

  12. Farmers’ desired traits and selection criteria for maize varieties and their implications for maize breeding: A case study from KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sibiya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of hybrids and improved varieties has remained low in the smallholder farming sector of South Africa, despite maize being the staple food crop for the majority of households. The objective of this study was to establish preferred maize characteristics by farmers which can be used as selection criteria by maize breeders in crop improvement. Data were collected from three villages of a selected smallholder farming area in South Africa using a survey covering 300 households and participatory rural appraisal methodology. Results indicated a limited selection of maize varieties grown by farmers in the area compared to other communities in Africa. More than 97% of the farmers grew a local landrace called Natal-8-row or IsiZulu. Hybrids and improved open pollinated varieties were planted by less than 40% of the farmers. The Natal-8-row landrace had characteristics similar to landraces from eastern and southern Africa and closely resembled Hickory King, a landrace still popular in Southern Africa. The local landrace was preferred for its taste, recycled seed, tolerance to abiotic stresses and yield stability. Preferred characteristics of maize varieties were high yield and prolificacy, disease resistance, early maturity, white grain colour, and drying and shelling qualities. Farmers were willing to grow hybrids if the cost of seed and other inputs were affordable and their preferences were considered. Our results show that breeding opportunities exist for improving the farmers’ local varieties and maize breeders can take advantage of these preferred traits and incorporate them into existing high yielding varieties.

  13. Comparison of the characteristics and mechanisms of Hg(II) sorption by biochars and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Schierz, Ariette; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2016-02-01

    Two biochars were produced from bagasse and hickory chips (referred to as BB and HCB, respectively) and evaluated for their sorption ability of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A commercial activated carbon (AC) which is commonly used for Hg(II) removal was included for comparison. Both biochars showed higher sorption capacities than AC, following the trend of BB>HCB>AC. The sorption of Hg(II) by BB and AC was mainly attributed to the formation of (COO)2Hg(II) and (O)2Hg(II). As a result, the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) by BB decreased 17.6% and 37.6% after COOH and OH were blocked, respectively and that of Hg(II) by AC decreased 6.63% and 62.2% for COOH and OH hindered, respectively. However, blocking the function groups had little effect on the Hg removal by HCB since sorption of Hg(II) by HCB was mainly resulted from the π electrons of CC and CO induced Hg-π binding. Further X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the possibility of reduction of the Hg(II) to Hg(I) by phenol groups or π electrons during the removal of Hg(II) by both biochars. In conclusion, biochar is more effective than activated carbon in removing Hg(II) and there exists a high potential that biochar can be a substitute of activated carbon for removal of Hg(II) from wastewater.

  14. New hydrologic instrumentation in the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkovich, V.J.; Shope, W.G.; ,

    1991-01-01

    New water-level sensing and recording instrumentation is being used by the U.S. Geological Survey for monitoring water levels, stream velocities, and water-quality characteristics. Several of these instruments are briefly described. The Basic Data Recorder (BDR) is an electronic data logger, that interfaces to sensor systems through a serial-digital interface standard (SDI-12), which was proposed by the data-logger industry; the Incremental Shaft Encoder is an intelligent water-level sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12; the Pressure Sensor is an intelligent, nonsubmersible pressure sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and monitors water levels from 0 to 50 feet; the Ultrasonic Velocity Meter is an intelligent, water-velocity sensor, which interfaces to the BDR through the SDI-12 and measures the velocity across a stream up to 500 feet in width; the Collapsible Hand Sampler can be collapsed for insertion through holes in the ice and opened under the ice to collect a water sample; the Lighweight Ice Auger, weighing only 32 pounds, can auger 6- and 8-inch holes through approximately 3.5 feet of ice; and the Ice Chisel has a specially hardened steel blade and 6-foot long, hickory D-handle.

  15. The radial distribution of [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoshima, N. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Science); Bondietti, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1994-01-01

    The distributions of [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs in tree trunks were measured for eight species. The concentration of [sup 137]Cs was relatively uniform in the wood xylem and did not show any correlation with the temporal record of cumulative deposition of fallout in the northern hemisphere, indicating that [sup 137]Cs was mobile in the wood xylem. The distributions of [sup 90]Sr were classified into three groups. All of the gymnosperms - red spruce, eastern hemlock and white pine - showed a maximum [sup 90]Sr specific activity in rings formed in the 1960s and the overall distribution was closely associated with the temporal record of the cumulative deposition of fallout. Three of five angiosperms -hickory, elm and American beech - showed similar distributions to the gymnosperms except that the maximum [sup 90]Sr specific activity corresponded to the 1970s. The other two angiosperms - yellow poplar and sugar maple - did not show any correlation with the cumulative fallout deposition. The radial distribution of [sup 90]Sr in gymnosperms was simulated considering a steady-state cycling of [sup 90]Sr in the forest ecosystem. The model suggested that a few per cent of stable Sr are replaced annually in the nutrient pool of gymnosperms. (Author).

  16. Fault Detection Using Polarimetric Single-Input-Multi-Output Ground Penetrating Radar Technique in Mason, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, A.; Everett, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    At the Mason Mountain Wildlife Management Area (MMWMA) near Mason, Texas, we conducted a 2D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey using single-input-multi-output (SIMO) acquisition technique to image a Pennsylvanian high-angle normal fault. At the MMWMA, the surface geology is mapped extensively but the subsurface remains largely unknown. The main objective of our study is to develop a detailed subsurface structural image of the fault and evaluate existing hypotheses on fault development. Also, to develop and apply a new methodology based on Polarimetric SIMO acquisition geometry. This new methodology allows the subsurface structures to be viewed simultaneously from different angles and can help reduce noise caused by the heterogeneities that affect the electromagnetic waves. We used a pulseEKKO pro 200 GPR with 200 MHz antennae to acquire 8 north-south lines across the fault. Each line is 30 meters long with the transmitter starting on the Town Mountain Granite, footwall, with the receiver stepping 40 cm until the end of the line crossing the fault on to the Hickory Sandstone, hanging wall. Each pass consisted of a stationary transmitter antenna and the moving receiver antenna. The data were initially processed with standard steps including low-cut dewow filter, background subtraction filter and gain control. Advanced processing techniques include migration, phased array processing, velocity analysis, and normal moveout. We will compare the GPR results with existing geophysical datasets at the same site, including electromagnetic (EM), seismic, and seismoelectric.

  17. A new framework for predicting how roots and microbes influence soil organic matter dynamics in forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R.; Midgley, M.; Brzostek, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    While it is well-established that tree species modify soil organic matter (SOM) through differences in leaf litter chemistry, far less is known about the role of roots and their microbial associates in influencing SOM dynamics. We investigated the extent to which temperate hardwood trees which associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi differ in their effects on SOM turnover from those associating with ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi using 1) root and fungal ingrowth cores, 2) experimental tree girdling and 3) fertilization additions. We conducted our research in the central hardwood forests of southern Indiana where a rich assemblage of AM (e.g. maples, ashes, tulip poplar, black cherry) and EM (e.g. oaks, hickories, beech, pine) tree species co-occur on soils developed from similar parent materials. Our results indicate that EM trees likely play a greater role in contributing to SOM turnover than AM trees as rhizosphere enzyme activities were greater in EM soils than AM soils, and both girdling and fertilization reduced enzyme activities in EM soils but not in AM soils. Although girdling and fertilization had little effect on enzyme activities in AM soils, soil respiration decreased suggesting that much of the carbon (C) allocated belowground was likely derived from roots rather than from mycorrhizal fungi. Collectively our results suggest AM and EM trees influence SOM dynamics in fundamentally unique ways, and that categorizing forests based on the relative abundance of AM and EM trees may provide a useful framework for predicting complex biogeochemical interactions between roots, microbes and SOM.

  18. Soil types and forest canopy structures in southern Missouri: A first look with AIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, G. M.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance properties of deciduous oak-hickory forests covering the eastern half of the Rolla Quadrangle were examined using Thematic Mapper (TM) data acquired in August and December, 1982 and Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data acquired in August, 1985. For the TM data distinctly high relative reflectance values (greater than 0.3) in the near infrared (Band 4, 0.73 to 0.94 micrometers) correspond to regions characterized by xeric (dry) forests that overlie soils with low water retention capacities. These soils are derived primarily from rhyolites. More mesic forests characterized by lower TM band 4 relative reflectances are associated with soils of higher retention capacities derived predominately from non-cherty carbonates. The major factors affecting canopy reflectance appear to be the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf optical properties. The Suits canopy reflectance model predicts the relative reflectance values for the xeric canopies. The mesic canopy reflectance is less well matched and incorporation of canopy shadowing caused by the irregular nature of the mesic canopy may be necessary. Preliminary examination of high spectral resolution AIS data acquired in August of 1985 reveals no more information than found in the broad band TM data.

  19. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  20. Establishing axenic cultures from mature pecan embryo explants on media with low water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidy, A A; Smith, M A

    1990-12-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with mature pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) nuts prevented successful, contaminant-free in vitro culture of embryo expiants, even after rigorous surface disinfestation of the nuts and careful aseptic shelling. Disinfestation with sodium hypochlorite after shell removal was also unsuccessful, because even dilute concentrations which were ineffective against the fungal contaminants prevented subsequent growth from the embryo. Explanting media with low water availability which would not sustain growth of fungal contaminants, but supported growth from mature pecan embryos, were developed as an alternative disinfestation method. The explanting media were supplemented with 0.9-1.5% agar, and other media components were selectively omitted to test their influence on water availability and fungal growth. Disinfestation of up to 65% of the cultures was accomplished, depending on the medium formulation, compared to 100% loss to contamination on control medium (0.5% agar). A complete medium (containing sucrose, salts, vitamins, 18 μM BAP, and 5 μM IBA) with 1.5% agar provided control of contamination, and encouraged subsequent regeneration from the embryo expiants, which remained free of contaminant growth through subsequent subcultures.

  1. Discovery and small RNA profile of Pecan mosaic-associated virus, a novel potyvirus of pecan trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-05-26

    A novel potyvirus was discovered in pecan (Carya illinoensis) showing leaf mosaic symptom through the use of deep sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus was determined to comprise of 9,310 nucleotides (nt), and shared 24.0% to 58.9% nucleotide similarities with that of other Potyviridae viruses. The genome was deduced to encode a single open reading frame (polyprotein) on the plus strand. Phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome sequence and coat protein amino acid sequence showed that this virus is most closely related to Lettuce mosaic virus. Using electron microscopy, the typical Potyvirus filamentous particles were identified in infected pecan leaves with mosaic symptoms. Our results clearly show that this virus is a new member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. The virus is tentatively named Pecan mosaic-associated virus (PMaV). Additionally, profiling of the PMaV-derived small RNA (PMaV-sRNA) showed that the most abundant PMaV-sRNAs were 21-nt in length. There are several hotspots for small RNA production along the PMaV genome; two 21-nt PMaV-sRNAs starting at 811 nt and 610 nt of the minus-strand genome were highly repeated.

  2. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  3. Ethylene: Response of Fruit Dehiscence to CO2 and Reduced Pressure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    These studies were conducted to determine whether ethylene serves as a natural regulator of fruit wall dehiscence, a major visible feature of ripening in some fruits. We employed treatments to inhibit ethylene action or remove ethylene and observed their effect on fruit dehiscence. CO2 (13%), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action in many systems, readily delayed dehiscence of detached fruits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.). The CO2 effect was duplicated by placing fruits under reduced pressure (200 millimeters mercury), to promote the escape of ethylene from the tissue. Dehiscence of detached fruits of these species as well as attached cotton fruits was delayed. The delay of dehiscence of cotton and okra by both treatments was achieved with fruit harvested at intervals from shortly after anthesis until shortly before natural dehiscence. Pecan fruits would not dehisce until approximately 1 month before natural dehiscence, and during that time, CO2 and reduced pressure delayed dehiscence. CO2 and ethylene were competitive in their effects on cotton fruit dehiscence. All of the results are compatible with a hypothetical role of ethylene as a natural regulator of dehiscence, a dominant aspect of ripening of cotton, pecan, and some other fruits. PMID:16658260

  4. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  5. The influence of condensed tannin structure on rate of microbial mineralization and reactivity to chemical assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Charlotte E; Preston, Caroline M; Hogg, Karen E; Titus, Brian D

    2011-03-01

    We examined how tannin structure influences reactivity in tannin assays and carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Condensed tannins from the foliage of ten tree and shrub species and from pecan shells (Carya illinoensis) had different proportions of: (a) epicatechin (cis) and catechin (trans) isomers, (b) procyanidin (PC) and prodelphinidin (PD) monomers, and (c) different chain lengths. The response of each tannin to several widely used tannin assays was determined. Although there was some variation in response to proanthocyanidin (butanol/HCl) and Folin Ciocalteu assays, we did not deduce any predictable relationship between tannin structure and response to either assay. There was little variation in protein precipitation among the different tannins. To assess biological activity, six of the tannins were incubated with forest humus for 22 days. We determined that, while PC-based tannins remained at least partly extractable for the duration of the incubation, tannins with a high proportion of PD subunits rapidly became unextractable from soil. There was a positive correlation between net nitrogen mineralization and cis chemical structure. Carbon mineralization was enhanced initially by the addition of tannins to humus, but after 22 days, a negative correlation between the proportion of cis subunits and respiration was determined. Overall, we were not able to demonstrate consistent effects of structure on either microbial mineralization or reactivity to chemical assays; such relationships remain elusive.

  6. Penetration of UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red light into leaf tissues of pecan measured by a fiber optic microprobe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yadong; Bai, Shuju; Vogelmann, Thomas C.; Heisler, Gordon M.

    2003-11-01

    The depth of light penetration from the adaxial surfaces of the mature leaves of pecan (Carya illinoensis) was measured using a fiber optic microprobe system at four wavelengths: UV-B (310nm), UV-A (360 nm), blue light (430nm), and red light (680nm). The average thickness of the leaf adaxial epidermal layer was 15um and the total leaf thickness was 219um. The patterns of the light attenuation by the leaf tissues exhibited strong wavelength dependence. The leaf adaxial epidermal layer was chiefly responsible for absorbing the UV-A UV-B radiation. About 98% of 310 nm light was steeply attenuated within the first 5 um of the adaxial epidermis; thus, very little UV-B radiation was transmitted to the mesophyll tissues where contain photosynthetically sensitive sites. The adaxial epidermis also attenuated 96% of the UV-A radiation. In contrast, the blue and red light penetrated much deeper and was gradually attenutated by the leaves. The mesophyll tissues attenuated 17% of the blue light and 42% of the red light, which were available for photosynthesis use. Since the epidermal layer absorbed nearly all UV-B light, it acted as an effective filter screening out the harmful radiation and protecting photosynthetically sensitive tissues from the UV-B damage. Therefore, the epidermal function of the UV-B screening effectiveness can be regarded as one of the UV-B protection mechanisms in pecan.

  7. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghetti, Julio C P; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; da Cunha, Bruna M; Cardoso, Natali F; Brasil, Jorge L; Dias, Silvio L P

    2009-02-15

    In the present study we reported for the first time the feasibility of pecan nutshell (PNS, Carya illinoensis) as an alternative biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) metallic ions from aqueous solutions. The ability of PNS to remove the metallic ions was investigated by using batch biosorption procedure. The effects such as, pH, biosorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of PNS were studied. Four kinetic models were tested, being the adsorption kinetics better fitted to fractionary-order kinetic model. Besides that, the kinetic data were also fitted to intra-particle diffusion model, presenting three linear regions, indicating that the kinetics of adsorption should follow multiple sorption rates. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function, the data were best fitted to Sips isotherm model. The maximum biosorption capacities of PNS were 1.35, 1.78 and 0.946mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

  8. Ethylene: Response of Fruit Dehiscence to CO(2) and Reduced Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    These studies were conducted to determine whether ethylene serves as a natural regulator of fruit wall dehiscence, a major visible feature of ripening in some fruits. We employed treatments to inhibit ethylene action or remove ethylene and observed their effect on fruit dehiscence. CO(2) (13%), a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action in many systems, readily delayed dehiscence of detached fruits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.). The CO(2) effect was duplicated by placing fruits under reduced pressure (200 millimeters mercury), to promote the escape of ethylene from the tissue. Dehiscence of detached fruits of these species as well as attached cotton fruits was delayed. The delay of dehiscence of cotton and okra by both treatments was achieved with fruit harvested at intervals from shortly after anthesis until shortly before natural dehiscence. Pecan fruits would not dehisce until approximately 1 month before natural dehiscence, and during that time, CO(2) and reduced pressure delayed dehiscence. CO(2) and ethylene were competitive in their effects on cotton fruit dehiscence. All of the results are compatible with a hypothetical role of ethylene as a natural regulator of dehiscence, a dominant aspect of ripening of cotton, pecan, and some other fruits.

  9. 美国山核桃在云南的引种表现及丰产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习学良; 范志远; 张雨; 邹伟烈; 廖永坚; 董润泉

    2004-01-01

    美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis),又名薄壳山核桃、长山核桃,为胡桃科,山核桃属落叶乔木,原产美国和墨西哥,是世界上重要的油料干果树种之一。目前全世界年产美国山核桃坚果18万t(仅为核桃105万t的1/6),主产国美国(占世界产量70%左右)坚果售价3~8美元/kg;国内仅零星栽培,市场上很难看到销售,属珍稀干果。上世纪初首先由西方传教士引入我国栽培,近10年来,国家及云南等

  10. Transformation of pecan and regeneration of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, G H; Leslie, C A; Dandekar, A M; Uratsu, S L; Yates, I E

    1993-09-01

    A gene transfer system developed for walnut (Juglans regia L.) was successfully applied to pecan (Carya illinoensis [Wang] K. Koch). Repetitively embryogenic somatic embryos derived from open-pollinated seed of 'Elliott', 'Wichita', and 'Schley' were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium strain EHA 101/pCGN 7001, which contains marker genes for beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance to kanamycin. Several modifications of the standard walnut transformation techniques were tested, including a lower concentration of kanamycin and a modified induction medium, but these treatments had no measurable effect on efficiency of transformation. Nineteen of the 764 viable inoculated embryos produced transgenic subclones; 13 of these were from the line 'Elliott'6, 3 from 'Schley'5/3, and 3 from 'Wichita'9. Transgenic embryos of 'Wichita'9 germinated most readily and three subclones were successfully micropropagated. Three transgenic plants of one of these subclones were obtained by grafting the tissue cultured shoots to seedling pecan rootstock in the greenhouse. Gene insertion, initially detected by GUS activity, was confirmed by detection of integrated T-DNA sequences using Southern analysis.

  11. 美国山核桃容器苗造林试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟烈; 习学良; 范志远; 熊新武; 李淑芳; 杨建华

    2006-01-01

    美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis),又名薄壳山核桃、长山核桃,为胡桃科,山核桃属落叶乔木,原产美国和墨西哥,是世界著名的高档油料干果树种。美国山核桃主根深长,侧根不发达,根系受损后恢复较慢,加之云南又是干湿季分明的地区,造林后大部分地区无法保证足够的定根水和栽后补水,致使苗木地上和地下部分的水分失去平衡,是导致一些地区造林成活率低的主要原因之一。适当的容器、适时栽植和科学的方法,是提高造林效果的关键措施。从2001年开始,我们对美国山核桃苗木容器、造林时期和方法进行了初步研究。

  12. 美国山核桃育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永坚; 张雨; 董润泉

    2009-01-01

    美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis),又名薄壳山核桃,长山核桃,胡桃科山核桃属,高大乔木。云南省林业科学院自1974年陆续从浙江和美国引进美国山核桃以来.已经有30多年的历史了.品种引进已达54个,目前确定的优良品种10个,同时积累了丰富的栽培管理经验。特别是近几年来。在多个项目的研究基础上.通过在全省各地有代表性的10多个试验点的引种经验.在快速育苗方面总结了相对完善的技术,积累了一定的经验。现介绍如下:

  13. 不同类型绿地对南京热岛效应的缓解作用%Mitigative effects of different vegetations on heat island effect in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐罗忠; 李职奇; 严春风; 孙储华; 徐新; 相恒让

    2009-01-01

    通过研究南京市区林地、有行道树的道路、草坪地、水泥地面篮球场4种城市土地利用类型的气温、空气相对湿度、太阳辐射强度、地面辐射强度和地表温度等因子,比较了不同类型绿地对城市热岛效应的缓解作用.结果表明,在夏季,悬铃木(Platanus acerifolia willd)、水杉(Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng)、薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis K.Koch)行道树以及马褂木(Liriodendron chinense ×L.tulipifera)林能有效阻止阳光直射,太阳辐射强度明显低于篮球场和马尼拉草坪(Zoysia matrella L.Merr);地面辐射强度、地表温度和气温从高到低依次为篮球场,草坪,行道树,马褂木林;而空气相对湿度则表现出相反的趋势;从热岛效应的缓解效果看,树林最强,行道树次之,草坪较弱.

  14. 不同处理对美国山核桃种子发芽的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芳; 杨建华; 范志远; 习学良; 陈宏伟

    2011-01-01

    对美国山核桃Carya illinoensis种子分别进行了不同储藏时间、不同储藏方式和不同植物生长调节物质浸种,结合层积处理的种子发芽试验。结果表明:美国山核桃种子不宜即采即播,种子储藏在2个月以上用3~5℃冷库保存效果较好,随着储藏时间的推移,发芽率会降低;植物生长调节物质浸种和层积催芽可显著地提高美国山核桃种子的发芽率。层积催芽前最好用植物生长调节物质浸种8 d,然后在室内层积催芽35 d,发芽速度最快,田间发芽率可达91%。表6参20

  15. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  16. Particle film affects black pecan aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on pecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C

    2002-08-01

    Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.

  17. Analysis of pecan cultivars Mahan and Western in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Wan, X

    2016-09-16

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree. Appropriate cultivation practices that can be implemented to enhance fruit yield of cultivars Mahan and Western include soil-applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) at certain concentrations, pinching, and supplementary pollination. For example, the addition of 1.25 g/m(2) of PBZ inhibits pecan branch growth and stimulates short bearing branches, which promotes fruit yield. We found that soil-applied PBZ reached optimal performance 82 days after application. A pinching length of 40 cm resulted in a fruit yield increase. In addition, grafting and transplantation may promote male flowering, but delays female flowering. These cultural practices may provide insights that can be used to improve pecan cultivation in East China.

  18. 薄壳山核桃良种及早实丰产技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习学良; 邹伟烈; 范志远

    2006-01-01

    薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis K.Koch),又名长山核桃、美国山核桃,为胡桃科山核桃属落叶乔木,持续结实期长达80~120a,是一个高价值油料干果树种,原产于美国和墨西哥。其坚果壳薄,光滑美观,仁食味香润爽口,口感优于普通核桃,除直接食用外还可榨取高级食用油和作为制作糕点的辅料。仁的营养保健价值高,经测定,每100g含粗脂肪76g、淀粉1.9g、粗纤维5.85g、蛋白质9.7g,脂肪中单不饱和脂肪酸含量达60%左右(与油橄榄油相似),是核桃的4倍,可明显降低人体血液中低密度脂蛋白水平,具有预防心脑血管疾病功效。

  19. Determining host suitability of pecan for stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufran, A A; Mulder, P G; Payton, M E; Shufran, K A

    2013-04-01

    A no-choice test was performed to determine survival and reproductive capacity of stored-product insect pests on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenheim) Koch. Insects used were Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Cucujidae); red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae); lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae); and rusty grain beetle, Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae). Fifty adults of each beetle species or 10 reproductive pairs of P. interpunctella adults were placed in 0.5-liter containers with either whole-shell pecans, cracked-shell pecans, randomly selected in-shell pecans, pecan nutmeats, cracked wheat, or glass beads and held at 28 degrees C, 60-70% relative humidity, and 16:8 (L:D) photoperiod for 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk. Four replications of each insect-diet-interval combination were performed. Larvae of P. interpunctella, O. surinamensis, T. castaneum, C. ferrugineus, and adult P. interpunctella and O. surinamensis developed on cracked and nutmeat pecan diets. R. dominica did not complete reproduction on pecans. Knowledge that these pests can reproduce on stored pecan will assist pecan growers, accumulators, and storage facilities in preventing insect outbreaks on their product.

  20. Experimental research on pecan seed rapid germination of a foreign provenance%国外种源薄壳山核桃种子催芽试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兖攀; 曹凡; 王克春; 张瑞; 彭方仁; 翟敏

    2013-01-01

    以国外种源的薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis Koch)种子为试验材料,采用L9(34)正交试验设计,研究了不同激素、激素质量浓度、浸泡时间和基质对种子发芽率、发芽势和幼苗质量的影响,结果表明:以绿色植物生长调节剂(双吉尔)GGR处理的种子平均发芽率比以GA3处理、NAA处理和对照的发芽率分别提高7.9%,14.7%和23.2%,平均发芽势比以GA3处理、NAA处理和对照分别提高7.6%,11.5%和23.9%.用100 mg/L GGR溶液浸泡种子2d,播种在草炭土、蛭石、珍珠岩体积混合比为5∶3∶2的基质中是最佳的催芽方法.

  1. 美国山核桃主要经济性状的主成分分析及良种选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建华; 李淑芳; 范志远; 习学良; 邹伟烈; 刘娇; 潘莉

    2011-01-01

    应用主成分分析法,由样本相关矩阵出发,对12个美国山核桃Carya illinoensis样本的8个主要经济性状[坚果果形系数、平均坚果质量、坚果壳厚、坚果出仁率、核仁质量、核仁脂肪、蛋白质、单位面积(m2)树冠投影面积产果量]进行分析,以性状的累积方差贡献率达到83.99%为标准,确定了3个反映美国山核桃主要经济性状的主成分及其主成分的函数式,并通过计算样本的重要主成分值,对供试样本进行比较,进而选择综合经济性状优良的样本,其结果与品种的实际表现相符。表明用主成分分析法可以对美国山核桃主要经济性状进行综合评选。

  2. Morphology of modified biochar and its potential for phenol removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas A. Komnitsas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the efficiency of phenol removal from synthetic aqueous solutions by chemically modified biochar with the use of 1M KOH or 1M FeCl3 was investigated. Initially, biochar was produced after slow pyrolysis of three different agricultural wastes, namely pistachio (Pistacia vera L. shells, pecan (Carya illinoinensis shells and wood sawdust. The quality of biochar was assessed by evaluating its main properties, such as pH, surface area, porosity and C content. X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR were used for the identification of biochar’s structure. The efficiency of phenol removal from synthetic solutions was assessed with the use of kinetic and equilibrium experiments. The experimental results show that the KOH-modified biochar exhibited the highest phenol removal efficiency. Hydrophobic sorption on its surface is the main phenol removal mechanism. The pseudo-second order model fits best the kinetic data, while the Freundlich model, as deduced from an equilibrium study describes very well sorption of phenols on all biochars examined.

  3. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  4. Relative abundance and flight phenology of two pheromone types of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, E A; Harris, M K; Medina, R F

    2011-08-01

    Two synthetic sex pheromones have been developed and are currently used to detect the flight of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, the most damaging pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. One pheromone (referred to as standard) is attractive to moths in the southern United States, but not in Mexico. The other pheromone (referred to as Mexican) is attractive to moths in the southern United States and in Mexico. These two pheromones have been implemented by producers as an important tool in monitoring the activity of this pest and have allowed for more efficient pesticide use. In the future, these pheromones could be used as a means of population reduction through pheromone based control methods. Trapping data taken over a 3-yr period were used to determine if phenological differences exist between pheromone types of pecan nut casebearer. The relative abundance of each pheromone type at several locations in the United States also was evaluated. Results of this study indicate that no phenological differences exist between the two pheromone types studied in the United States and that significantly more males are attracted to field-deployed pheromone traps baited with the standard pheromone than to traps baited with the Mexican pheromone.

  5. Molecular identification of species in Juglandaceae:A tiered method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Guo XIANG; Jing-Bo ZHANG; An-Ming LU; Rui-Qi LI

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a method of species identification and recognition using DNA sequence data. A tiered or multilocus method has been recommended for barcoding plant species. In this study, we sampled 196 individuals representing 9 genera and 54 species of Juglandaceae to investigate the utility of the four potential barcoding loci (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)). Our results show that all four DNA regions are easy to amplify and sequence. In the four tested DNA regions, ITS has the most variable information, and rbcL has the least. At generic level, seven of nine genera can be efficiently identified by matK. At species level, ITS has higher interspecific p-distance than the trnH-psbA region. Difficult to align in the whole family, ITS showed heterogeneous variability among different genera. Except for the monotypic genera (Cyclocarya, Annamocarya, Platycarya), ITS appeared to have limited power for species identification within the Carya and Engelhardia complex, and have no power for Juglans or Pterocarya. Overall, our results confirmed that a multilocus tiered method for plant barcoding was applicable and practicable. With higher priority, matK is proposed as the first-tier DNA region for genus discrimination, and the second locus at species level should have enough stable variable characters.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-11-11

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study.

  7. Growth, yield, and nutrient status of pecans fertilized with biosolids and inoculated with rizosphere fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango Rivero, S H; Nevárez Moorillón, V G; Orrantia Borunda, E

    2009-03-01

    The application of anaerobically digested biosolids as a nutrient source for pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangeh.) K. Koch, cultivar Western, was evaluated. Conventional NPK fertilizers (CF) and biosolids included a treatment with the rhizospheric fungi Pisolithus tinctorius+Scleroderma sp. and Trichoderma sp. After an average of three years, the tree trunks with biosolid treatment grew 9.5% more than with CF; the length of the bearing shoots was 18.1 and 18.3cm and the production of nuts/tree was 9.26 and 8.75kg for pecans with CF and with biosolids, respectively. Western foliar nutrient concentration and nut quality were statistically equal in trees with CF and with biosolids. Soil inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi improved shoot growth by 19.4% when CF was applied, but did not when biosolids were used. Nutrient status and yield did not increase with mycorrhizal fungi. The addition of Trichoderma sp. did not favor any of the variables evaluated with both nutrient sources. Biosolids are efficient fertilizer at promoting the growth, production and nut quality of pecan trees.

  8. Differentiating climatic and successional influences on long-term development of a marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, D.K.; Jackson, S.T. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Madsen, B.J.; Wilcox, D.A. [Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Comparison of long-term records of local wetland vegetation dynamics with regional, climate-forced terrestrial vegetation changes can be used to differentiate the rates and effects of autogenic successional processes and allogenic environmental change on wetland vegetation dynamics. We studied Holocene plant macrofossil and pollen sequences from Portage Marsh, a shallow, 18-ha marsh in northeastern Indiana. Between 10 000 and 5700 yr BP the basin was occupied by a shallow, open lake, while upland vegetation consisted of mesic forests of Pinus, Quercus, Ulmus, and Carya. At 5700 yr BP the open lake was replaced rapidly by a shallow marsh, while simultaneously Quercus savanna developed on the surrounding uplands. The marsh was characterized by periodic drawdowns, and the uplands by periodic fires. Species composition of the marsh underwent further changes between 3000 and 2000 yr BP. Upland pollen spectra at Portage Marsh and other sites in the region shifted towards more mesic vegetation during that period. The consistency and temporal correspondence between the changes in upland vegetation and marsh vegetation indicate that the major vegetational changes in the marsh during the Holocene resulted from hydrologic changes forced by regional climate change. Progressive shallowing of the basin by autogenic accumulation of organic sediment constrained vegetational responses to climate change but did not serve as the direct mechanism of change. 84 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Identification and quantitation of asparagine and citrulline using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2007-03-28

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was used for identification of two problematic ureides, asparagine and citrulline. We report here a technique that takes advantage of the predictable delay in retention time of the co-asparagine/citrulline peak to enable both qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagine and citrulline using the Platinum EPS reverse-phase C18 column (Alltech Associates). Asparagine alone is eluted earlier than citrulline alone, but when both of them are present in biological samples they may co-elute. HPLC retention times for asparagine and citrulline were influenced by other ureides in the mixture. We found that at various asparagines and citrulline ratios [= 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3; corresponding to 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 (microMol ml(-1)/microMol ml(-1))], the resulting peak exhibited different retention times. Adjustment of ureide ratios as internal standards enables peak identification and quantification. Both chemicals were quantified in xylem sap samples of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] trees. Analysis revealed that tree nickel nutrition status affects relative concentrations of Urea Cycle intermediates, asparagine and citrulline, present in sap. Consequently, we concluded that the HPLC methods are presented to enable qualitative and quantitative analysis of these metabolically important ureides.

  10. Identification and Quantitation of Asparagine and Citrulline Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Bai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis was used for identification of two problematic ureides, asparagine and citrulline. We report here a technique that takes advantage of the predictable delay in retention time of the co-asparagine/citrulline peak to enable both qualitative and quantitative analysis of asparagine and citrulline using the Platinum EPS reverse-phase C18 column (Alltech Associates. Asparagine alone is eluted earlier than citrulline alone, but when both of them are present in biological samples they may co-elute. HPLC retention times for asparagine and citrulline were influenced by other ureides in the mixture. We found that at various asparagines and citrulline ratios [= 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3; corresponding to 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 (μMol ml–1/μMol ml–1], the resulting peak exhibited different retention times. Adjustment of ureide ratios as internal standards enables peak identification and quantification. Both chemicals were quantified in xylem sap samples of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch] trees. Analysis revealed that tree nickel nutrition status affects relative concentrations of Urea Cycle intermediates, asparagine and citrulline, present in sap. Consequently, we concluded that the HPLC methods are presented to enable qualitative and quantitative analysis of these metabolically important ureides.

  11. Trap Height Affects Capture of Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Pecan Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E

    2017-04-01

    There is scarce information regarding the vertical stratification of predaceous Coccinellidae in tall trees. Although numerous studies have been done in orchards and forests, very few studies have assessed the occurrence of predaceous Coccinellidae high in tree canopies. The objective of this study was to examine the abundance of Coccinellidae at different heights in mature pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, orchards with tall trees. From spring through late fall during 2013 and 2014, yellow pyramidal Tedders traps were suspended in the pecan canopy at 6.1 and 12.2 m, in addition to being placed on the ground (0 m). The exotic species Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata accounted for a high percentage of trap capture during this study. Except for Olla v-nigrum, low numbers of native species (Hippodamia convergens, Coleomegilla maculata, Cycloneda munda, Scymnus spp., and Hyperaspis spp.) were captured. However, significantly more were captured in ground traps rather than in canopy traps with the exception of O. v-nigrum. Similar to most native species, significantly more C. septempunctata were captured in ground traps than canopy traps. This contrasts sharply with H. axyridis captured similarly at all trap heights. The ability to exploit resources across vertical strata, unlike many intraguild predators, may be an underestimated factor helping to explain the invasiveness of H. axyridis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (hemiptera: aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2009-04-01

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of the black pecan aphid, when provided chlorotic pecan leaf discs resulting from previous black pecan aphid feeding and nonchlorotic leaf discs, under a normal photoperiod and constant dark. Additionally, aphid development from the first instar to the adult stage was examined when nymphs were either allowed to feed on the same leaf disc or moved daily to a new, nondamaged, same age leaf disc. After 24 h, a significantly higher percentage of black pecan aphids settled on chlorotic than on nonchlorotic leaf discs, regardless of photoperiod. When starting from the first instar, nymphs that were prevented from inducing leaf chlorosis by moving daily to new, same-age leaf discs took approximately 5 d longer to complete development, had a shorter body length, and had higher mortality than when aphids remained on the same leaf disc. These results show that black pecan aphid-induced leaf chlorosis plays an important role in the interaction of the black pecan aphid with its pecan host.

  13. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Ni, Xinzhi

    2010-11-01

    Black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), feeding elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K Koch] and apparent acceleration of leaf senescence and defoliation. The ability of certain plant growth regulators (PGRs) (forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and aviglycine) to prevent M. caryaefoliae from triggering pecan leaf chlorosis and senescence-like processes was evaluated on two dates in both 2006 and 2007. Treatments were applied to orchard foliage and used in laboratory leaf-disc bioassays to assess possible reduction in aphid-elicited chlorosis and concomitant effects on aphid mortality and development. Foliage pretreated with forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid prior to being challenged with aphids resulted in significantly less aphid-elicited chlorosis than did control or aviglycine-treated leaf discs. No PGR affected aphid mortality; however, development time was increased by forchlorfenuron + gibberellic acid in 2006 and by aviglycine + gibberellic acid on one date in 2007. Certain PGRs possess the potential for usage on pecan to protect foliar canopies from M. caryaefoliae via changes in the susceptibility of the host leaf to senescence-like factors being introduced by feeding aphids. This protective effect on host foliage and the associated suppressive effect on development of feeding aphids might also be relevant to pest management programs on other aphid-crop systems in which aphid-elicited chlorosis and senescence-like processes can limit profitability. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A multi-proxy palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic record within full glacial lacustrine deposits, western Tennessee, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, D.A.; Daniel, L.; Kaplan, S.W.; Yansa, C.H.; Curry, B. Brandon; Oches, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Fulton Section, along the Mississippi River in western Tennessee, USA, is a 1km continuous exposure (~20m vertically) of Quaternary fluvial and lacustrine deposits, inset within Eocene sediments and buried by thick loess. Fossiliferous slackwater lake sediments record maximum aggradation during the last two major glaciations, with deposition between ca. 190-140 ka and 24-1814C ka BP, based on amino acid and radiocarbon chronology, respectively. During the onset of full glacial conditions (ca. 24-22 14C ka BP), a relatively permanent shallow lake environment is indicated by ostracods, aquatic molluscs, and both pollen and macrofossils of aquatic plants. By 21.8 14C ka BP, increasing emergent plants, amphibious gastropods (Pomatiopsis) and heavier ??18O compositions suggest marsh-like conditions in a periodically drying lake. The surrounding uplands consisted of Picea-Pinus woodlands mixed with cool-temperate hardwoods (e.g. Quercus, Populus, Carya), grasses and herbs. More open conditions ensued ca. 20 14C ka BP, with loess and slopewash gradually infilling the former lake by 18 14C ka BP. Modern analogue analyses of ostracods and palaeontological evidence imply a full glacial climate similar to today's mixed-boreal zone in central Minnesota, USA, about 98C cooler in mean annual temperature than present-day western Tennessee. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Foliar temperature-respiration response functions for broad-leaved tree species in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolstad; Mitchell; Vose

    1999-11-01

    We measured leaf respiration in 18 eastern deciduous forest tree species to determine if there were differences in temperature-respiration response functions among species or among canopy positions. Leaf respiration rates were measured in situ and on detached branches for Acer pensylvanicum L., A. rubrum L., Betula spp. (B. alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta L.), Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Cornus florida L., Fraxinus spp. (primarily F. americana L.), Liriodendron tulipifera L., Magnolia fraseri Walt., Nyssa sylvatica Marsh., Oxydendrum arboreum L., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus alba L., Q. coccinea Muenchh., Q. prinus L., Q. rubra L., Rhododendron maximum L., Robinia psuedoacacia L., and Tilia americana L. in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. Dark respiration was measured on fully expanded leaves at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 degrees C with an infrared gas analyzer equipped with a temperature-controlled cuvette. Temperature-respiration response functions were fit for each leaf. There were significant differences in response functions among species and by canopy position within species. These differences were observed when respiration was expressed on a mass, nitrogen, or area basis. Cumulative nighttime leaf respiration was calculated and averaged over ten randomly selected nights for each leaf. Differences in mean cumulative nighttime respiration were statistically significant among canopy positions and species. We conclude that effects of canopy position and species on temperature-respiration response functions may need to be considered when making estimates of whole-tree or canopy respiration.

  16. Evaluating the accuracy of soil water sensors for irrigation scheduling to conserve freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjegunte, Girisha K.; Sheng, Zhuping; Clark, John A.

    2012-06-01

    In the Trans-Pecos area, pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] is a major irrigated cash crop. Pecan trees require large amounts of water for their growth and flood (border) irrigation is the most common method of irrigation. Pecan crop is often over irrigated using traditional method of irrigation scheduling by counting number of calendar days since the previous irrigation. Studies in other pecan growing areas have shown that the water use efficiency can be improved significantly and precious freshwater can be saved by scheduling irrigation based on soil moisture conditions. This study evaluated the accuracy of three recent low cost soil water sensors (ECH2O-5TE, Watermark 200SS and Tensiometer model R) to monitor volumetric soil water content (θv) to develop improved irrigation scheduling in a mature pecan orchard in El Paso, Texas. Results indicated that while all three sensors were successful in following the general trends of soil moisture conditions during the growing season, actual measurements differed significantly. Statistical analyses of results indicated that Tensiometer provided relatively accurate soil moisture data than ECH2O-5TE and Watermark without site-specific calibration. While ECH2O-5TE overestimated the soil water content, Watermark and Tensiometer underestimated. Results of this study suggested poor accuracy of all three sensors if factory calibration and reported soil water retention curve for study site soil texture were used. This indicated that sensors needed site-specific calibration to improve their accuracy in estimating soil water content data.

  17. Long-term successional forest dynamics: species and community responses to climatic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Question: Are tree dynamics sensitive to climatic variability, and do tree species differ in their responses to climatic variability? Hence, is vulnerability of forest communities to climatic variability depending on stand composition? Location: Mixed young forest at Walker Branch Watershed near Oak Ridge, East-Tennessee, USA. Methods: Using a long-term data set (1967-2006), we analyzed temporal forest dynamics at the tree and species level, and we analyzed community dynamics for forest stands that different in their initial species composition (i.e., Chestnut Oak, Oak-Hickory, Pine, and Yellow poplar stands). Using summer drought and growing season temperature as defined climate drivers, we evaluated relationships between forest dynamics and climate across levels of organization. Results: Over the 4-decade studied period, forest communities underwent successional change and substantially increased their biomass. Variation in summer drought and growing season temperature contributed to temporal biomass dynamics for some tree species, but not for others. Stand-level responses to climatic variability were shown to be related to responses of specific component species; however, not for Pine stands. Pinus echinata, the dominant species in stands initially identified as Pine stands, decreased over time due to periodical outbreaks of the pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis). The outbreaks on Walker Branch could not be directly related to climatic conditions. Conclusions: Our results imply that vulnerability of developing forests to predicted climate conditions is stand-type dependent, and hence, is a function of species composition. Autogenic successional processes (or insect outbreaks) were found to prevail over climatic variability in determining long-term forest dynamics for stands dominated by sensitive species, emphasizing the importance of studying interactions between forest succession and climate change.

  18. Case study: Prioritization strategies for reforestation of minelands to benefit Cerulean Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E.; Shumar, Matthew B.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2013-01-01

    The central Appalachian landscape is being heavily altered by surface coal mining. The practice of Mountaintop Removal/Valley Fill (MTRVF) mining has transformed large areas of mature forest to non-forest and created much forest edge, affecting habitat quality for mature forest wildlife. The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative is working to restore mined areas to native hardwood forest conditions, and strategies are needed to prioritize restoration efforts for wildlife. We present mineland reforestation guidelines for the imperiled Cerulean Warbler, considered a useful umbrella species, in its breeding range. In 2009, we surveyed forest predicted to have Cerulean Warblers near mined areas in the MTRVF region of West Virginia and Kentucky. We visited 36 transect routes and completed songbird surveys on 151 points along these routes. Cerulean Warblers were present at points with fewer large-scale canopy disturbances and more mature oak-hickory forest. We tested the accuracy of a predictive map for this species and demonstrated that it can be useful to guide reforestation efforts. We then developed a map of hot spot locations that can be used to determine potential habitat suitability. Restoration efforts would have greatest benefit for Cerulean Warblers and other mature forest birds if concentrated near a relative-abundance hot spot, on north- and east-facing ridgetops surrounded by mature deciduous forest, and prioritized to reduce edges and connect isolated forest patches. Our multi-scale approach for prioritizing restoration efforts using an umbrella species may be applied to restore habitat impacted by a variety of landscape disturbances.

  19. Estimating sources, sinks and fluxes of reactive atmospheric compounds within a forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, K.; Duman, T.; Walker, J. T.; Bash, J. O.; Huang, C. W.; Khlystov, A.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    While few dispute the significance of within-canopy sources or sinks of reactive gaseous and particulate compounds, their estimation continues to be the subject of active research and debate. Reactive species undergo turbulent dispersion within an inhomogeneous flow field, and may be subjected to chemical, biological and/or physical deposition, emissions or transformations on leaves, woody elements, and the forest floor. This system involves chemical reactions and biological processes with multiple time scales and represents the terrestrial ecosystem's exposure to nutrient and acid deposition and atmospheric oxidants. The quantification of these processes is a first step in better understanding the ecological impact of air pollution and feedback to atmospheric composition. Hence, it follows that direct measurements of sources or sinks is difficult to conduct in the presence of all these processes. However, mean scalar concentration profiles measured within the canopy can be used to infer the profile distribution of effective sinks and sources if the flow field is known. This is commonly referred to as the 'inverse problem'. In-canopy and above-canopy multi-level concentration measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds (ammonia, nitric acid, nitrous acid), as well as other compounds that are highly reactive to ammonia and its secondary products (hydrochloric acid and sulfur dioxide), are presented within a deciduous second-growth 180 year old oak-hickory forest situated within the Southeastern U.S. Two different approaches are used to solve for the source-sink distribution from the measured mean scalar concentration profiles: (1) an Eulerian high-order closure model that solves the scalar flux budget equation and (2) a new Lagrangian stochastic model that estimates the dispersion matrix. As each of these methods is subject to different assumptions, the combination of the two can be used to constrain the solution to the inverse problem and permit inference on the

  20. Secondary succession: Composition of the vegetation and primary production in the field-to-forest at Brookhaven, Long Island, N.Y.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodwell,G.M.; Holt, B. R.; Flaccus, E.

    1973-08-23

    Natural communities respond to disruption through a series of changes in plant and animal communities that are broadly predictable. The field-to-forest sere of central Long Island follows the pattern set forth earlier for the Piedmont of North Carolina and for New Jersey. The communities of herbs that occur in the years immediately after abandonment are followed by an Andropogon stage which is replaced before the 20th year by pine forest. The pine is replaced in the next 25 years by oak-pine, which in the normal Course is followed by oak-hickory. With repeated burning the oak-pine stage in various combinations of oaks and pine may be maintained indefinitely. Diversity, measured as number of species per unit land area, increased in this sere through the 3-5th years after abandonment to a maximum, dropped, and rose again in the later forest stages. Exotics were a conspicuous part of the communities of the earlier stages but their importance diminished as succession progressed and their contribution to net production was zero beyond the 20th year. The removal of exotics would probably not have changed the pattern of diversity appreciably. Net primary production increased with succession in this sere with major changes occurring as life-forms of the dominants shifted to woody plants. The peak net production was in the most mature forest, about 1200 g/m{sup 2}/yr. Root/shoot ratios declined from 4-5 in the early stages of succession to 0.3-0.5 with later stages. The standing crop of organic matter including humus throughout the sere was about 15 times the net production, indicating a halftime of residence for all organic matter throughout the sere of about 10 years.

  1. Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

    2012-12-01

    The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the

  2. Environmental Controls on Water Use Efficiency during Severe Drought in an Ozark Forest in Missouri, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bai [ORNL; Pallardy, Stephen G. [University of Missouri; Meyers, T. P. [NOAA ATDD; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Heuer, Mark [ATDD, NOAA; Hosman, K. P. [University of Missouri; Riggs, Jeffery S [ORNL; Sluss, Daniel Wayne [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Environmental control of canopy-level water use efficiency (WUE) during drought was studied at an eddy flux site in an oak-hickory forest in central Missouri, USA. Two consecutive severe droughts in the summers of 2006 and 2007 afforded coverage of a broad range of environmental conditions. We stratified data so as to obtain sub-ranges that minimized cross-correlations among WUE-controlling factors. Our results showed that WUE was subject to control by atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water potential (SWP) and the ratio of diffuse to total photosynthetically active radiation (If/It). The relationship between WUE and VPD was found to be an exponential decay function, whereas SWP and If/It appeared to control WUE in a linear fashion. VPD was a stronger controller than the other two factors since the former had much better correlations with WUE. It was also observed that the relationship between WUE and any single controlling factor was subject to regulations by the other two. One such example was an opposite response of WUE to SWP between low and high VPD values. An examination of WUE-SWP relationship within the full range of VPD obscured this difference. We also found that the slope of the linear regression between WUE and If/It, if determined within the full range of VPD, was exaggerated in comparison to that obtained in the sub-ranges of VPD. This was attributable to the fact that the two controlling parameters, VPD and If/It, were themselves correlated and direct controls of VPD on WUE were partially reflected in WUE-If/It relationship if considered within the full range of VPD.

  3. Emergent spatial pattern of herpetofauna in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing spatial pattern of regional biodiversity and its relationships with environmental factors is important for biodiversity conservation at large scales. The emergent spatial pattern of herpetofauna in Alabama is examined by combining thousands of historical records from 132 species of 24 families and environmental conditions. Our results indicate that species richness of herpetofauna increases with the increase of latitude, while it decreases with the increase of elevation. A negative spatial association exists between amphibians and reptiles on the scale of 10 km2, but 40% of habitats are still shared by amphibians and reptiles at this scale. The highest species richness of herpetofauna is in the Mobile and Baldwin Counties. Power-law relation exists between the county size and the average species richness. Total stream length, and road density are highly correlated with species richness at the county level. With the increase of annual precipitation, species richness decreases. Species richness is higher in the area with the annual average temperature around 17-18 °C. Herpetofaunal diversity in the Coosa/Tallapoosa River, the Alabama River, and the Tombigbee River basins is relatively higher than in the Perdido River and the Escatawpa River basins. The highest species richness exists at the Gulf Coastal Plain, but its species density is the lowest. The highest species richness of herpetofauna exists in the Longleaf-Slash Pine and Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine forests, while lower in Oak- Hickory forest. The emergent spatial pattern may provide important implications for herpetofauna conservation in the face of global climate change and large-scale habitat destruction. The spatial pattern and the possible underlying ecological processes have to be considered for the large scale land zoning and planning.

  4. Chronostratigraphy of a salt marsh sediment core from North Cinder Island in the Town of Hempstead, Long Island, NY, using radiocarbon and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E. C.; Browne, J.; Peteet, D. M.; Cochran, K. K.; Heilbrun, C.; Chery, N.; LongJohn, T.; Mayo, J.; Ricigliano, V.

    2016-12-01

    A 122 cm long sediment core was collected from the salt marsh of North Cinder Island (73.6092W, 40.6097N), a small uninhabited island in Middle Bay between Oceanside and Point Lookout, in the Town of Hempstead, NY, on 2 July 2013, in order to investigate the age of the marsh and the history of trace metal pollution in the area. First, to determine the chronostratigraphy of the core, pollen counts were compared to radiocarbon measurements. Sediment samples at several depths in the core were analyzed for Pine, Oak, Hickory, Birch, Grass (S. alterniflora and S. patens), and Ragweed pollen. The concentration of Ragweed was below 3% in samples below 80cm, and greater than 7% in samples above 80cm. This proliferation of a disturbance species suggests that layers deeper than 81cm were deposited prior to widespread European settlement, sometime in the 1600s AD. Paired radiocarbon measurements on sieved fine sediment at 42-43 cm depth, however, match well with each other (their 1-sigma confidence intervals overlap), but suggest a calendar age between 932 and 997 years before present. Paired radiocarbon measurements from the 60-61 cm depth also match well with each other, but represent an age that is approximately 200 years younger. Additional paired radiocarbon measurements at 78-79 cm and 96-97 cm depths give older ages, as expected stratigraphically. Perhaps the reversal between 43 and 60 cm represents reworking of sediments in the marsh by tidal currents. Interestingly, root matter extracted from the sediment at the same depths gives radiocarbon ages that range from 600-1200 years younger. Perhaps the roots penetrate down through older sediment, or perhaps the fine sediment is comprised of recaptured sediment with lignin or other residual organic matter that is older because it is difficult to break down. This would explain the apparent contradiction between the radiocarbon dates on fine sediment and the younger pollen date at a deeper depth.

  5. How the user can influence particulate emissions from residential wood and pellet stoves: Emission factors for different fuels and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    For a common household wood stove and a pellet stove we investigated the dependence of emission factors for various gaseous and particulate pollutants on burning phase, burning condition, and fuel. Ideal and non-ideal burning conditions (dried wood, under- and overload, small logs, logs with bark, excess air) were used. We tested 11 hardwood species (apple, ash, bangkirai, birch, beech, cherry, hickory, oak, olive, plum, sugar maple), 4 softwood species (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, spruce/fir), treated softwood, beech and oak wood briquettes, paper briquettes, brown coal, wood chips, and herbaceous species (miscanthus, Chinese silver grass) as fuel. Particle composition (black carbon, non-refractory, and some semi-refractory species) was measured continuously. Repeatability was shown to be better for the pellet stove than for the wood stove. It was shown that the user has a strong influence on wood stove emission behavior both by selection of the fuel and of the burning conditions: Combustion efficiency was found to be low at both very low and very high burn rates, and influenced particle properties such as particle number, mass, and organic content in a complex way. No marked differences were found for the emissions from different wood species. For non-woody fuels, much higher emission factors could be observed (up to five-fold increase). Strongest enhancement of emission factors was found for burning of small or dried logs (up to six-fold), and usage of excess air (two- to three-fold). Real world pellet stove emissions can be expected to be much closer to laboratory-derived emission factors than wood stove emissions, due to lower dependence on user operation.

  6. Emissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomass in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeeking, Gavin R.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Baker, Stephen; Carrico, Christian M.; Chow, Judith C.; Collett, Jr., Jeffrey L.; Hao, Wei Min; Holden, Amanda S.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Malm, William C.; Moosmuller, Hans; Sullivan, Amy P.; Wold, Cyle E.

    2009-05-15

    We characterized the gas- and speciated aerosol-phase emissions from the open combustion of 33 different plant species during a series of 255 controlled laboratory burns during the Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiments (FLAME). The plant species we tested were chosen to improve the existing database for U.S. domestic fuels: laboratory-based emission factors have not previously been reported for many commonly-burned species that are frequently consumed by fires near populated regions and protected scenic areas. The plants we tested included the chaparral species chamise, manzanita, and ceanothus, and species common to the southeastern US (common reed, hickory, kudzu, needlegrass rush, rhododendron, cord grass, sawgrass, titi, and wax myrtle). Fire-integrated emission factors for gas-phase CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2-4} hydrocarbons, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3} and particle-phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and NH{sub 4}{sup +} generally varied with both fuel type and with the fire-integrated modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the relative importance of flaming- and smoldering-phase combustion to the total emissions during the burn. Chaparral fuels tended to emit less particulate OC per unit mass of dry fuel than did other fuel types, whereas southeastern species had some of the largest observed EF for total fine particulate matter. Our measurements often spanned a larger range of MCE than prior studies, and thus help to improve estimates for individual fuels of the variation of emissions with combustion conditions.

  7. Declining water yield from forested mountain watersheds in response to climate change and forest mesophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Peter V; Miniat, Chelcy F; Elliott, Katherine J; Swank, Wayne T; Brantley, Steven T; Laseter, Stephanie H

    2016-09-01

    Climate change and forest disturbances are threatening the ability of forested mountain watersheds to provide the clean, reliable, and abundant fresh water necessary to support aquatic ecosystems and a growing human population. Here, we used 76 years of water yield, climate, and field plot vegetation measurements in six unmanaged, reference watersheds in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, USA to determine whether water yield has changed over time, and to examine and attribute the causal mechanisms of change. We found that annual water yield increased in some watersheds from 1938 to the mid-1970s by as much as 55%, but this was followed by decreases up to 22% by 2013. Changes in forest evapotranspiration were consistent with, but opposite in direction to the changes in water yield, with decreases in evapotranspiration up to 31% by the mid-1970s followed by increases up to 29% until 2013. Vegetation survey data showed commensurate reductions in forest basal area until the mid-1970s and increases since that time accompanied by a shift in dominance from xerophytic oak and hickory species to several mesophytic species (i.e., mesophication) that use relatively more water. These changes in forest structure and species composition may have decreased water yield by as much as 18% in a given year since the mid-1970s after accounting for climate. Our results suggest that changes in climate and forest structure and species composition in unmanaged forests brought about by disturbance and natural community dynamics over time can result in large changes in water supply.

  8. Fertilización de base en un cultivo inicial de pecan con dos marcos de plantación de alta densidad Effect of different fertilization strategies on pecan growth parameters under two high density plantation frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Giuffré

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El pecán, Carya illinoensis Koch, es una especie cuyo fruto es reconocido como un alimento altamente saludable. Su cultivo se encuentra en expansión en la Argentina pero existen muy pocas investigaciones sobre fertilización y sistemas de plantación. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron caracterizar algunas propiedades físico-químicas y químicas de un suelo en el que se inicia un cultivo de pecán, y comparar tratamientos de fertilización de base (FB en dos marcos de plantación de alta densidad (MP. Se realizó una plantación de pecán en Villanueva (provincia de Buenos Aires, sobre un suelo Hapludol taptoárgico, con dos marcos de plantación: 10 x 10 m (marco real: MR y 8 x 8 m (tresbolillo: TR. El diseño del experimento fue en parcelas divididas con cuatro repeticiones. La parcela principal fueron los dos marcos de plantación, y las subparcelas fueron los distintos tratamientos de fertilización base: Compost (C, Fósforo (P, Nitrógeno (N y Control sin fertilización base (T. Las determinaciones para evaluar el crecimiento de las plantas de pecán fueron: la altura de las plantas y el diámetro del tronco. Con respecto a la fertilidad del suelo, la fertilización fosforada y el agregado de compost permitieron aumentar significativamente los niveles de P-Bray. El tratamiento con fertilización orgánica: compost, presentó un incremento significativo en altura de los pecanes en el marco de plantación 8 x 8 m, que no se manifestó en ningún caso en los diámetros del tronco, con una interacción MP x FB significativa (P=0,01 para la variación de altura al primer año. La variación del volumen del árbol durante el año de experimentación no presentó efectos significativos según el marco de plantación ni la fertilización base aplicada.The fruit of the pecan tree, Carya illinoensis Koch, is considered a very healthy food. In Argentina, pecan cultivation has been expanding rapidly but very little research has been conducted on

  9. Inflorescence dimorphism, heterodichogamy and thrips pollination in Platycarya strobilacea (Juglandaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tatsundo; Tokumaru, Shin-ichiro

    2014-02-01

    Unlike other taxa in Juglandaceae or in closely related families, which are anemophilous, Platycarya strobilacea has been suggested to be entomophilous. In Juglandaceae, Juglans and Carya show heterodichogamy, a reproductive strategy in which two morphs coexist in a population and undergo synchronous reciprocal sex changes. However, there has been no study focusing on heterodichogamy in the other six or seven genera, including Platycarya. Inflorescence architecture, sexual expression and pollination biology were examined in a P. strobilacea population in Japan. Flowering phenology was monitored daily for 24 trees in 2008 and 27 in 2009. Flower visitors and inhabitants were recorded or collected from different sexes and stages. The population of P. strobilacea showed heterodichogamous phenology with protogynous and duodichogamous-protandrous morphs. This dimorphism in dichogamy was associated with distinct inflorescence morphologies. Thrips pollination was suggested by the frequent presence of thrips with attached pollen grains, the scarcity of other insect visitors, the synchronicity of thrips number in male spikes with the maturation of female flowers, and morphological characters shared with previously reported thrips-pollinated plants. Male spikes went through two consecutive stages: bright yellow and strong-scented M1 stage, and brownish and little-scented M2 stage. The latter contained more thrips, synchronized better with the receptive stage of female flowers of the reciprocal morph and is probably the main period of pollen export. Platycarya strobilacea is heterodichogamous and thrips-pollinated, both of which are relatively rare conditions in angiosperms. In male spikes of P. strobilacea, there is probably a temporal decoupling of pollinator attraction and pollen export.

  10. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  11. 薄壳山核桃林地昆虫物种多样性、功能多样性及其相互关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建强; 陈东辉; 徐奎源; 陈友吾; 吴佳伟; 周靖; 徐志宏

    2015-01-01

    通过扫网法和踏查法,调查了浙江省建德市薄壳山核桃Carya illinoensis林地昆虫多样性情况,共采集昆虫589头,鉴定至11目160种。基于9个生物学性状、4个物种多样性指数和7个功能多样性指数,研究了建德薄壳山核桃林地昆虫物种多样性和功能多样性2个维度的生物多样性,探究了两者的相互关系。结果表明:1同翅目Homoptera,半翅目Hemiptera,鞘翅目Coleoptera,鳞翅目Lepidoptera为优势目,整个昆虫亚群落的物种多样性和功能多样性均为最大。2选取的功能指数能较好地反映各群落的功能多样性情况。3功能性状距离(FAD),功能性状平均距离(MFAD),功能树状图指数(FD)随物种丰富度的增加而增大,属于物种丰富度单调递增指数(MSR);功能性状距离与功能性状平均距离是同一类指数。4功能多样性对害虫防治有指导意义。

  12. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  13. 10个不同品种的薄壳山核桃脂肪含量及脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞春莲; 王正加; 夏国华; 黄坚钦; 刘力

    2013-01-01

    以10个不同品种薄壳山核桃Carya illinoensis为试材,采用气相色谱法,测定不同品种的薄壳山核桃的脂肪相对含量及脂肪酸组成成分.测定结果表明:核桃仁中的脂肪相对含量为69.11%~78.19%,出仁率为36.79%~59.47%,脂肪中不饱和脂肪酸>90.00%,其中以油酸最高,其次是亚油酸、棕榈酸、硬脂酸、亚麻酸、花生酸,且油酸和亚油酸存在极显著负相关关系(P<0.01),不同品种的薄壳山核桃油脂肪酸组成相同,但脂肪酸相对含量有显著差异(P<0.05),其单不饱和脂肪酸(油酸)相对含量为73.01%~58.76%;多不饱和脂肪酸以亚油酸为主,相对含量为32.20%~19.69%,且出油率与出仁率呈极显著的正相关关系(P<0.01),同出籽率和果皮厚度没有明显的关系.

  14. [Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different tree species, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test tree species was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three tree species increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the tree species also had a significant increase. Among the test tree species, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the tree species under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the tree species with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level.

  15. 薄壳山核桃林地昆虫物种多样性、功能多样性及其相互关系分析%Insect species diversity, functional diversity, and their mutual relationship in a pecan stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾建强; 陈东辉; 徐奎源; 陈友吾; 吴佳伟; 周靖; 徐志宏

    2015-01-01

    通过扫网法和踏查法,调查了浙江省建德市薄壳山核桃Carya illinoensis林地昆虫多样性情况,共采集昆虫589头,鉴定至11目160种.基于9个生物学性状、4个物种多样性指数和7个功能多样性指数,研究了建德薄壳山核桃林地昆虫物种多样性和功能多样性2个维度的生物多样性,探究了两者的相互关系.结果表明:①同翅目Homoptera,半翅目Hemiptera,鞘翅目Coleoptera,鳞翅目Lepidoptera为优势目,整个昆虫亚群落的物种多样性和功能多样性均为最大.②选取的功能指数能较好地反映各群落的功能多样性情况.③功能性状距离(FAD),功能性状平均距离(MFAD),功能树状图指数(FD)随物种丰富度的增加而增大,属于物种丰富度单调递增指数(MSR);功能性状距离与功能性状平均距离是同一类指数.④功能多样性对害虫防治有指导意义.

  16. Effects of different phosphate solubilizing bacteria on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and phosphate nutrition of pecan%不同解磷菌剂对美国山核桃苗生长、光合特性及磷素营养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旋; 朱天辉; 刘旭; 刘广海

    2010-01-01

    为研究解磷菌剂对美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis)苗的促生效应,以及对光合特性和磷素吸收的影响,采用盆栽试验分别测定了灭菌和未灭菌土壤条件下,接种绿针假单胞菌(Pseudomonas chlororaphis)、荧光假单胞菌(Pseudomonas fluorescens)和蜡样芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)后植株停止生长时的株高、生物量、净光合速率、全磷含量等.结果表明,无论土壤灭菌与否,与对照相比,接种3种解磷菌剂均可显著促进美国山核桃苗的生长发育,提高植株的净光合速率及全磷吸收量(P<0.05);2种土壤处理方式下都以接种绿针假单胞菌的效果最佳,且除灭菌土壤的植株全磷含量外,荧光假单胞菌菌剂的接种效应较蜡样芽孢杆菌菌剂好;从土壤处理方式来看,未灭菌土壤接种3种解磷菌剂后其接种效应都相应优于灭菌土壤.

  17. The comparison of waterlogging resistance of 10 trees%1O个树种耐水淹能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    教忠意; 罗祺; 张纪林; 郝日明; 许万根; 潘伟明

    2007-01-01

    以黄连木(Pistacia chinensis)、石楠(Photinia serrulata)、蓝果树(Nyssa sinensis)、薄壳山核桃(Carya illinoensis)、榉树(Zelkova papyrifera)、一球悬铃木(Platanus occidentalis)、白蜡(Fraxinus chinensis)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)、墨西哥落羽杉(Taxodium macronatum)、花叶杞柳(Salix integra cv.Hakuro Nishiki)等10种树种为研究对象,在人工控制的淹水条件下,观察其叶形态受害程度,运用涝害指数方法分别研究各树种的耐水淹能力.结果表明:淹水胁迫下,黄连木、石楠、榉树、薄壳山核桃、蓝果树、一球悬铃木涝害指数达到0.90的时间分别在10,20,25,35,40,50 d左右;乌桕、白蜡水淹50 d涝害指数分别为0.54和0.80,耐涝性明显;墨西哥落羽杉和花叶杞柳受水淹60 d内无明显受害现象.乌桕、白蜡、墨西哥落羽杉、花叶杞柳等树种水淹后茎基部能产生不定根和皮孔,是对淹水胁迫的积极适应,可作为河岸带绿化的备选树种.

  18. 水淹胁迫下10个树种某些生理指标的变化及其耐水淹能力的比较%Change of some physiological indexes of ten tree species under waterlogging stress and comparison of their waterlogging tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祺; 张纪林; 郝日明; 许万根; 潘伟明; 教忠意

    2007-01-01

    以游离脯氨酸和丙二醛(MDA)含量及相对电导率为指标,比较了水淹条件下10个树种的耐水淹能力.结果表明,水淹胁迫下,不同树种的相对电导率及丙二醛含量均呈上升趋势,而游离脯氨酸含量的变化则有显著差异.根据生理指标的变化可以看出,黄连木(Pistacia chinensis Bunge)和石楠(Photinia serrulata Lindl. )的耐水淹能力较弱,耐水淹时间仅为5至10 d;蓝果树(Nyssa sinensis Oliv.)、薄壳山核桃[Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) Koch]、榉树(Zelkova schneideriana Hand.-Mazz.)和一球悬铃木(Platanus occidentalis L.)具有一定的耐水淹能力,耐水淹时间约为25 d;乌桕[Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.]和白蜡(Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.)的耐水淹能力较强,耐水淹时间超过45 d;墨西哥落羽杉(Taxodium macronatum Ten.)和花叶杞柳(Salix integra 'Hakuro Nishiki')的耐水淹能力最强,受水淹的60 d内无受害现象.

  19. Thirty Years of Compositional Change in an Old-Growth Temperate Forest: The Role of Topographic Gradients in Oak-Maple Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Julia I; McEwan, Ryan W

    2016-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured in response to spatial and temporal variation of numerous factors, including edaphic conditions, biotic interactions, climatic patterns and disturbance regimes. Widespread anthropogenic factors such as timber harvesting can create long-lasting impacts, obscuring the relationship between community structure and environmental conditions. Minimally impacted systems such as old-growth forests can serve as a useful ecological baseline for predicting long-term compositional shifts. We utilized decadal tree species sampling data (1979-2010) divided into three strata (understory, midstory, overstory) to examine temporal changes in relative abundances and spatial distributions of dominant taxa, as well as overall shifts in community composition, in a relatively pristine Appalachian old-growth forest in eastern Kentucky, USA. Quercus and Carya species persisted mainly as mature canopy trees with decreasing juvenile recruitment, especially in mesic areas. In contrast, Acer, Fagus, and other mesophytic species were abundant and spatially widespread in subcanopy layers suggesting these species are more likely to recruit in gap-scale canopy openings. In the overstory, mesophytic species were spatially restricted to lower and mid-slope mesic habitats. Temporal changes in community composition were most evident in the understory and tended to be greater in mesic areas, a trend seemingly driven by recruitment failure among xerophytic species. In subcanopy vegetation we discovered a loss of distinction through time among the ecological community designations established following the 1979 survey (Chestnut oak, Mixed mesophytic, and Beech). The overstory was more stable through time, suggesting a storage effect where long-lived trees have maintained a particular community composition through time in areas where regeneration opportunities are minimal under current environmental conditions. Overall, sitewide canopy succession is occurring slowly in

  20. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  1. Effects of cerium nitrate on the growth and physiological characteristics in Cyclocarya paliurusseedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寅峰; 李颖; 刘娜娜; 张颖颖; 郭楠; 王涛; 尚绪岚

    2015-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to examine the effects of cerium on the growth and physiological characteristics ofCyclo-carya paliurusseedlings by spraying the foliage with different concentrations of cerium nitrate. Optimal concentrations of cerium ni-trate improved the relative growth yield of seedling height and stems and the soluble protein and sugar content of the leaves. Cerium nitrate also increased the concentration of secondary metabolites including triterpenoids, quercetin and kaempferol, mineral elements K, P, Mg, Mn, Fe and Cu, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the leaves. The effects of cerium nitrate on these indices were dose dependent. A concentration of 0.20 mmol/L was optimal to promote the relative growth yield of seedling height, contents of soluble sugar, kaempferol, K, P, Cu, and activities of PAL, SOD, and POX, significantlyincreased by 54.61%, 14.71%, 55.19%, 105.2%, 74.5%, 133.3%, 80.48%, 25.35% and 22.54%, respectively, as compared with the control. However, the maximal increase in relative growth yield of stems, contents of triterpenoid, quercetin, Mg, Mn, and Fe was attained at 1.00 mmol/L treatment, which significantlyincreased by 87.00%, 80.56%, 452.44%, 93.2%, 29.4%, and 133.9%, respectively, compared with control check (CK). Correlation analysis revealed positive relationships between activities of PAL, SOD and contents of triterpenoid, quercetin and kaempferol within a certain concentration range of cerium nitrate. These re-sults suggested that an appropriate concentration of cerium not only was effective in the improvement of physiological function ofC. paliurus, but alsoincreased seedling resistance. Moreover, it stimulated the synthesis of medicinal components in leaves.

  2. Nickel affects xylem Sap RNase a and converts RNase A to a urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Nickel (Ni) is an essential micronutrient; however, its metabolic or physiological functions in plants and animals are largely uncharacterized. The ribonucleases (RNase, e.g., RNase A) are a large family of hydrolases found in one form or many forms facilitating nitrogen (N) cycling. It is currently unknown how either a deficiency or excess of Ni influences the functionality of ribonucleases, like RNase A. This is especially true for perennial crops possessing relatively high Ni requirements. Results We report that the 'rising’ xylem sap of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, a long-lived tree] at bud break contains a 14 kDa RNase A (aka, RNase 1), which amount has a 33% greater in Ni-deficient as in Ni-sufficient trees when exposed to Ni ions exhibits ureolytic activity. The homologous 13.4 kDa bovine pancreatic RNase A likewise exhibits ureolytic activity upon exposure to Ni ions. Ni therefore affects enzymatic function of a typically non-metalloenzyme, such as it transforms to an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing a linear amide; thus, converting an endonuclease esterase into a urease. Conclusions We conclude that Ni potentially affects the level and activity of RNase A present in the spring xylem sap of pecan trees, and probably in other crops, it has the same influence. The catalytic property of RNase A appears to shift from a nuclease to a urease relying on Ni exposure. This is suggestive that RNase A might possess novel metabolic functionality regarding N-metabolism in perennial plants. The ability of Ni to convert the activity of plant and animal RNase A from that of a ribonuclease to a urease indicates a possible unrecognized beneficial metabolic function of Ni in organisms, while also identifying a potential detrimental effect of excessive Ni on N related metabolic activity if there is sufficient disruption of Ni homeostasis. PMID:24320827

  3. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  4. PALYNOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES FROM THE BOREHOLE ZKA4 AT DAQIAO TOWN, JIANGDU CITY, JIANGSU PROVINCE AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL MEANINGS%江苏省江都市大桥镇ZKA4钻孔第四纪孢粉组合及其环境变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗言; 于俊杰; 蒋仁; 韩芳; 柯学; 徐亚东; 何卫红

    2014-01-01

    本文依据江苏省江都市大桥镇第四系钻孔(ZKA4)中孢粉的分布,自下至上划分了11个孢粉组合:1.Betula-Ulmus-Artemisia,2.Ulmus-Chenopodiaceae-Quercus,3.ArtemisiaGramineae-Quercus,4.Liquidambar-Polypodiaceae-Ulmus,5.Pinus-Quercus-Betula-Juglans,6.Quercus-Juglans-Artemisia,7.Quercus-Polygonum-Juglans-Carya,8.Betula-Gramineae-Artemisia,9.Quercus-Polypodiaceae,10.Podocarpus-Triorites-Polypodiaceae,11.Pinus-Podocarpus-Juglans-Pterocarya.依据孢粉组合,识别出更新世以来七个气候冷暖变化阶段.孢粉组合1为常绿落叶针阔叶混交林,气候以冷干为主,向上气候回暖;孢粉组合2为高寒灌丛—落叶针阔叶混交林,以冷干为主;孢粉组合3为草本—落叶针阔叶混交林,较前一阶段气候变暖,偏暖干;孢粉组合4-5以落叶阔叶为主,整体上以变暖为主;孢粉组合6-7为落叶针阔叶混交林,整体气候为暖湿,早期略干;孢粉组合8-9为以针叶为主的针阔叶混交林,气候温凉偏湿;孢粉组合10-11为常绿落叶阔叶混交林,气候以湿暖为主.

  5. Les Plantations D’alignements En Turquie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SARIBAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L’état actuel des forets de Turquie est insuffisant pour les besoins en bois. İl est indispensable de chercher denouvelles alternatives pour enrichir les produits du bois en dehors de la source forestière. Les plantationsd’alignements peuvent etre les ressources assez abondantes.Actuellement les pays qui font les plantations d’alignements sont: France, L’İtalie, Belgique, Pays-Bas,L’Allemange, L’Angleterre, Hongrie, Turquie, Grèce; L’Iraq, L’İran, Au Japonais, Aux Etat-Unis, Au Canada,L’Argentine, Bosna -Herzégovinia, L’Avustralie, Bulgaria etc. Selon les etudes de L’İnstitut Turc de RecherchePeuplier à İzmit en Turquie, longueurs des plantations routières sont aux environs de 64000km. D’aprés Hilf(1953 en France %10; en Angletterre %30 de production du bois était à l’origine des plantations routières.Depuis longtemps on discute des inconvénients et des avantages des plantations d’alignements. A parte quelquesrares exceptions, les plantations sont donc devenues pratique, courante, confiées le plus souvent a des servicesadministratifs et lorsqu’elles ne sont pas rendues obligatoires, encoragées tout au moins par subventions, enargents ou en nature et par exemptions d’impots.Les essences utilisées dans les plantations d’alignements sont: Le Platane, L’Orme, Le Peuplier, Le Frene, LeTilleul, L’Erable, Le Sycomore, Le Robinier, L’Acacia, Le Pavia, Le Noyer, Le Carya, Le Chataigner, L’Aulne,Le Bouleau, Le Chene, Le Hetre, Le Paulownia, Aillanthe, L’Alisier, Le Charme, Le Murrier etc. Dans notrearticle on porrrait étudier le potentiel prochain en détail les plantations d’alignements actuelle et dans l’avenir.

  6. Quaternary disappearance of tree taxa from Southern Europe: Timing and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Donatella; Di Rita, Federico; Aranbarri, Josu; Fletcher, William; González-Sampériz, Penélope

    2017-05-01

    A hundred pollen and plant macrofossil records from the Iberian Peninsula, Southern France, the Italian Peninsula, Greece and the Aegean, and the southwestern Black Sea area formed the basis for a review of the Quaternary distribution and extirpation of tree populations from Southern Europe. Following a discussion of the caveats/challenges about using pollen data, the Quaternary history of tree taxa has been reconstructed with attention to Taxodium/Glyptostrobus, Sciadopitys, Cathaya, Cedrus, Tsuga, Eucommia, Engelhardia, Carya, Pterocarya, Parrotia, Liquidambar, and Zelkova. The timing of extinction, distributed over the whole Quaternary, appears very diverse from one region to the other, in agreement with current biodiversity in Southern Europe. The geographical patterns of persistence/disappearance of taxa show unexpected trends and rule out a simple North to South and/or West to East trend in extirpations. In particular, it is possible to detect disjunct populations (Engelhardia), long-term persistence of taxa in restricted regions (Sciadopitys), distinct populations/species/genera in different geographical areas (Taxodium type). Some taxa that are still widespread in Europe have undergone extirpation in Mediterranean areas in the lateglacial period and Holocene (Buxus, Carpinus betulus, Picea); they provide an indication of the modes of disappearance of tree populations that may be useful to evaluate correctly the vulnerability of modern fragmented plant populations. The demographic histories of tree taxa obtained by combined palaeobotanical and genetic studies is a most challenging field of research needed not only to assess species/population differentiation, but also to reach a better understanding of extinction processes, an essential task in the current global change scenario.

  7. Nickel Deficiency Disrupts Metabolism of Ureides, Amino Acids, and Organic Acids of Young Pecan Foliage[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C.; Wood, Bruce W.

    2006-01-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  8. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan.

  9. Changes of oxidase and hydrolase activities in pecan leaves elicited by black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Ni, Xinzhi; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Buntin, G David

    2009-06-01

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a foliar feeder of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). The pest causes chlorosis of leaflet lamina, physiological damage to foliage and trees, and commonly limits the profitability of commercial pecan orchard enterprises. However, key aspects of this host-pest interaction are poorly understood. We report here the effects of M. caryaefoliae feeding on the foliar activity of oxidative (i.e., catalase, lipoxygenase [LOX]-1 and 3, and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (i.e., esterase) enzymes in relation to the degree of aphid resistance among pecan varieties. The 2-yr study showed that M. caryaefoliae-infested foliage exhibited elevated peroxidase activity only in susceptible ('Desirable', 'Sumner', and 'Schley'), but not in resistant ('Cape Fear', 'Gloria Grande', and 'Money Maker') genotypes. Susceptible genotypes also exhibited more severe leaf chlorosis in response to M. caryaefoliae feeding than the resistant genotypes; however, the aphid feeding did not influence catalase or esterase activity in all varieties, except the increase of esterase activity in Desirable and Gloria Grande. Melanocallis caryaefoliae feeding also influences activity of two lipoxygenase isozymes, with LOX3 being more frequently induced than LOX1. Foliar LOX3 activity was more frequently induced by M. caryaefoliae feeding in the moderately resistant 'Oconee' and highly resistant Money Maker and Cape Fear than in the susceptible genotypes. Therefore, the elevation of peroxidase is likely to be associated with aphid susceptibility and contributed to the severe leaf chlorosis, whereas the increase of LOX3 activity might be associated with aphid resistance in pecan. These findings contribute to our understanding of the etiology of M. caryaefoliae-elicited leaf chlorosis on pecan foliage. Such information may also be used to develop enzyme markers for identifying black pecan aphid resistance

  10. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss.

  11. A first linkage map of pecan cultivars based on RAPD and AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedanagari, Sudheer R; Dove, Sue K; Wood, Bruce W; Conner, Patrick J

    2005-04-01

    We report here the first genetic linkage maps of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch], using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Independent maps were constructed for the cultivars 'Pawnee' and 'Elliot' using the double pseudo-testcross mapping strategy and 120 F1 seedlings from a full-sib family. A total of 477 markers, including 217 RAPD, 258 AFLP, and two morphological markers were used in linkage analysis. The 'Pawnee' linkage map has 218 markers, comprising 176 testcross and 42 intercross markers placed in 16 major and 13 minor (doublets and triplets) linkage groups. The 'Pawnee' linkage map covered 2,227 cM with an average map distance of 12.7 cM between adjacent markers. The 'Elliot' linkage map has 174 markers comprising 150 testcross and 22 intercross markers placed in 17 major and nine minor linkage groups. The 'Elliot' map covered 1,698 cM with an average map distance of 11.2 cM between adjacent markers. Segregation ratios for dichogamy type and stigma color were not significantly different from 1:1, suggesting that both traits are controlled by single loci with protogyny and green stigmas dominant to protandry and red stigmas. These loci were tightly linked (1.9 cM) and were placed in 'Elliot' linkage group 16. These linkage maps are an important first step towards the detection of genes controlling horticulturally important traits such as nut size, nut maturity date, kernel quality, and disease resistance.

  12. Zinc deficiency in field-grown pecan trees: changes in leaf nutrient concentrations and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Barrios, Dámaris; Abadía, Javier; Lombardini, Leonardo; Abadía, Anunciación; Vázquez, Saúl

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a typical nutritional disorder in pecan trees [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] grown under field conditions in calcareous soils in North America, including northern Mexico and south-western United States. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological and nutritional changes in pecan leaves affected by Zn deficiency as well as the Zn distribution within leaves. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf chlorophyll concentrations, leaf area and trunk cross-sectional area. Zinc deficiency increased significantly the leaf concentrations of K and Ca, and decreased the leaf concentrations of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu. All nutrient values found in Zn-deficient leaves were within the sufficiency ranges, with the only exception of Zn, which was approximately 44, 11 and 9 µg g(-1) dry weight in Zn-sufficient, moderately and markedly Zn-deficient leaves, respectively. Zinc deficiency led to decreases in leaf thickness, mainly due to a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, as well as to increases in stomatal density and size. The localisation of Zn was determined using the fluorophore Zinpyr-1 and ratio-imaging technique. Zinc was mainly localised in the palisade mesophyll area in Zn-sufficient leaves, whereas no signal could be obtained in Zn-deficient leaves. The effects of Zn deficiency on the leaf characteristics of pecan trees include not only decreases in leaf chlorophyll and Zn concentrations, but also a reduction in the thickness of the palisade parenchyma, an increase in stomatal density and pore size and the practical disappearance of Zn leaf pools. These characteristics must be taken into account to design strategies to correct Zn deficiency in pecan tree in the field. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Nickel affects xylem Sap RNase a and converts RNase A to a urease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng; Liu, Liping; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-12-09

    Nickel (Ni) is an essential micronutrient; however, its metabolic or physiological functions in plants and animals are largely uncharacterized. The ribonucleases (RNase, e.g., RNase A) are a large family of hydrolases found in one form or many forms facilitating nitrogen (N) cycling. It is currently unknown how either a deficiency or excess of Ni influences the functionality of ribonucleases, like RNase A. This is especially true for perennial crops possessing relatively high Ni requirements. We report that the 'rising' xylem sap of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, a long-lived tree] at bud break contains a 14 kDa RNase A (aka, RNase 1), which amount has a 33% greater in Ni-deficient as in Ni-sufficient trees when exposed to Ni ions exhibits ureolytic activity. The homologous 13.4 kDa bovine pancreatic RNase A likewise exhibits ureolytic activity upon exposure to Ni ions. Ni therefore affects enzymatic function of a typically non-metalloenzyme, such as it transforms to an enzyme capable of hydrolyzing a linear amide; thus, converting an endonuclease esterase into a urease. We conclude that Ni potentially affects the level and activity of RNase A present in the spring xylem sap of pecan trees, and probably in other crops, it has the same influence. The catalytic property of RNase A appears to shift from a nuclease to a urease relying on Ni exposure. This is suggestive that RNase A might possess novel metabolic functionality regarding N-metabolism in perennial plants. The ability of Ni to convert the activity of plant and animal RNase A from that of a ribonuclease to a urease indicates a possible unrecognized beneficial metabolic function of Ni in organisms, while also identifying a potential detrimental effect of excessive Ni on N related metabolic activity if there is sufficient disruption of Ni homeostasis.

  14. Caracterización de jamones adicionados con pastas residuales de la extracción mecánica de aceite de frutos secos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los frutos secos contienen en su composición nutrientes y compuestos bioactivos que al ser consumidos en cantidades suficientes aportan beneficios a la salud. En este estudio se evaluó la influencia de la adición de pastas residuales (10 %, obtenidas de la extracción de aceite de nuez de Castilla (Juglans regia L., nuez pecanera (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variedad Western Shley, y cacahuate (Arachis hypogaea, sobre la modificación de algunas características de textura, composición proximal, fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales en jamones cocidos. Los jamones estudiados fueron almacenados a 4 °C durante 21 días. Las pastas adicionadas a los jamones aumentaron de manera significativa (P≤0,05 el contenido de proteína, grasa y fibra total. Los jamones adicionados con pasta presentaron estructuras menos rígidas (P≤0,05. Los parámetros de color (L*, a* y b* de los jamones mostraron una ligera disminución durante el tiempo de almacenamiento, a excepción de los adicionados con nuez de Castilla que mostraron un mayor oscurecimiento. Las pastas de frutos secos contribuyeron significativamente (P≤ 0,05 a disminuir la vida de anaquel de los jamones. Sin embargo, el recuento de mohos y levaduras en los jamones fue menor a 10 UFC/g a los 21 días de almacenamiento. La aw y el pH disminuyeron significativamente (P≤0,05 y la sinéresis aumentó durante el almacenamiento. Los jamones adicionados con pastas residuales fueron sensorialmente bien aceptados con respecto al color, olor, sabor, apariencia y aceptabilidad general.

  15. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Cui; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Kang, Ke; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Zhang, Long-Wa

    2015-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing. We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), six chemosensory proteins (CSP), four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 22 odorant receptors (OR), four gustatory receptors (GR), three ionotropic receptors (IR), and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis. The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary analyses

  17. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  18. Water yield following forest-grass-forest transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine J.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Brantley, Steven T.; Miniat, Chelcy F.; Vose, James M.; Swank, Wayne T.

    2017-02-01

    Many currently forested areas in the southern Appalachians were harvested in the early 1900s and cleared for agriculture or pasture, but have since been abandoned and reverted to forest (old-field succession). Land-use and land-cover changes such as these may have altered the timing and quantity of water yield (Q). We examined 80 years of streamflow and vegetation data in an experimental watershed that underwent forest-grass-forest conversion (i.e., old-field succession treatment). We hypothesized that changes in forest species composition and water use would largely explain long-term changes in Q. Aboveground biomass was comparable among watersheds before the treatment (208.3 Mg ha-1), and again after 45 years of forest regeneration (217.9 Mg ha-1). However, management practices in the treatment watershed altered resulting species composition compared to the reference watershed. Evapotranspiration (ET) and Q in the treatment watershed recovered to pretreatment levels after 9 years of abandonment, then Q became less (averaging 5.4 % less) and ET more (averaging 4.5 % more) than expected after the 10th year up to the present day. We demonstrate that the decline in Q and corresponding increase in ET could be explained by the shift in major forest species from predominantly Quercus and Carya before treatment to predominantly Liriodendron and Acer through old-field succession. The annual change in Q can be attributed to changes in seasonal Q. The greatest management effect on monthly Q occurred during the wettest (i.e., above median Q) growing-season months, when Q was significantly lower than expected. In the dormant season, monthly Q was higher than expected during the wettest months.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Aquatic Species from the Typical E-Waste Burning Site%典型电子废物焚烧区水生生物多溴联苯醚累积特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延梅; 陶义; 唐阵武; 何洁; 黄启飞

    2013-01-01

    对广东清远某电子废物焚烧区封闭水体中水生生物体PBDEs(多溴联苯醚)的累积特征进行了研究.结果表明,草虾、田螺、河蚌、鲫鱼、鲤鱼、黄鳝和乌鳢等水生生物体内w(Σ21PBDEs)(以脂肪质量计)为0.248 7 ~24.50 μg/g.该电子废物焚烧区水生生物PBDEs污染较严重,较我国其他地区开放性水体的水生生物体w(PBDEs)高出1~3个数量级.其中,底栖动物河蚌和田螺体内PBDEs累积最高,w(Σ21PBDEs)分别为11.38和4.968 μg/g.不同同系物在水生生物体内累积差异较大,BDE209是水生生物体PBDEs累积的主要组分,占49.83% ~91.48%,八溴代和九溴代BDE也发生了高累积.营养级是电子废物焚烧区水生生物PBDEs累积的最主要控制因素,但捕食和生活习性对生物体尤其是软体动物PBDEs累积也产生了较大影响.%Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers was investigated using aquatic species collected from a pond in an e-waste burning site in South China. The levels of PBDEs ranged from 0. 2487 to 24. 50 μg/g (lipid weight) in the bodies of aquatic organisms including shrimp, river snail, mussel, crucian, carp, monopterus and snakehead. In this study, the highest levels of PBDEs were investigated in mussel (Anodonta) and river snail ( Cipangopaludina cathayensis) , which were 11.38 and 4.968 μg/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the results showed that the PBDE levels of aquatic species were 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that reported in other regions of China. This indicated that heavy PBDE pollution occurred in this area. BDE209 was the most dominant congener (49. 83% -91. 48% ) of PBDEs in these investigated aquatic organisms. In addition, relatively higher levels of octa-BDE and nona-BDE were also detected in the aquatic species. Based on the results, trophic level is the main controlling factors for PBDE bioaccumulation. Meanwhile, the feeding and living habits also play important

  20. Influence of the Flo-Dynamics Movement System© intervention on measures of performance in older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson LA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Lara A Carlson,1 Alexander J Koch,2 Michael Lawrence11University of New England, Biddeford, ME, 2Lenoir-Rhyne University, Hickory, NC, USABackground: Fall-related injuries associated with aging are a serious clinical and economic problem. The Flo-Dynamics Movement System© (FDMS, which consists of eight movements with a water-filled device, may be a useful low-impact exercise suited for older persons. This study investigated the effects of the FDMS regimen with the Wun-Jo™ trainer on measures of strength, flexibility, and balance in older individuals.Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, 15 healthy subjects aged 61–79 years participated in an FDMS exercise program with the Wun-Jo trainer, consisting of three weekly 30-minute sessions. The following measures were assessed pretraining and after 8 weeks of training: knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength; grip strength; the Short Physical Performance Battery; functional reach; and low back and hamstring flexibility. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance, with statistical significance set at the P ≤ 0.05 confidence level.Results: Sit and reach test scores significantly increased (+21% from baseline to week 8 (P < 0.001. Forward-left functional reach testing significantly increased (P = 0.012, while forward-right functional reach testing did not change (P = 0.474. Both left-lateral (P = 0.012 and right-lateral (P = 0.036 functional reach scores improved. Grip strength increased in both the left (+11.9% and right (+14.5% hands (P < 0.001 for each. Isokinetic knee extension at 60° per second increased for the left (+15.6% and right (+17.6% significantly (P = 0.001 for each. Isokinetic knee flexion at 60° per second significantly increased for both the left (+43.2%, P = 0.010 and right (+41.7%, P < 0.001. Time to complete the ten-repetition chair stand decreased significantly (-31%, P = 0.004. The 8-feet walk time also significantly decreased (-21.6%, P < 0

  1. Functional diversity response to hardwood forest management varies across taxa and spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan D; Holland, Jeffrey D; Summerville, Keith S; Dunning, John B; Saunders, Michael R; Jenkins, Michael A

    2017-03-15

    Contemporary forest management offers a trade-off between the potential positive effects of habitat heterogeneity on biodiversity, and the potential harm to mature-forest communities caused by habitat loss and perforation of the forest canopy. While the response of taxonomic diversity to forest management has received a great deal of scrutiny, the response of functional diversity is largely unexplored. However, functional diversity may represent a more direct link between biodiversity and ecosystem function. To examine how forest management affects diversity at multiple spatial scales, we analyzed a long-term dataset that captured changes in taxonomic and functional diversity of moths (Lepidoptera), longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and breeding birds in response to contemporary silvicultural systems in oak-hickory hardwood forests. We used these datasets to address the following questions: how do even- and uneven-aged silvicultural systems affect taxonomic and functional diversity at the scale of managed landscapes compared to the individual harvested and unharvested forest patches that comprise the landscapes, and how do these silvicultural systems affect the functional similarity of assemblages at the scale of managed landscapes and patches? Due to increased heterogeneity within landscapes, we expected even-aged silviculture to increase and uneven-aged silviculture to decrease functional diversity at the landscape level regardless of impacts at the patch level. Functional diversity responses were taxon-specific with respect to the direction of change and time since harvest. Responses were also consistent across patch and landscape levels within each taxon. Moth assemblage species richness, functional richness, and functional divergence were negatively affected by harvesting, with stronger effects resulting from uneven-aged than even-aged management. Longhorned beetle assemblages exhibited a peak in species richness two years after harvesting, while

  2. The Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Max

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark Highlands include diverse topographic, geologic, soil, and hydrologic conditions that support a broad range of habitat types. The landscape features rugged uplands - some peaks higher than 2,500 feet above sea level - with exposed rock and varying soil depths and includes extensive areas of karst terrain. The Highlands are characterized by extreme biological diversity and high endemism (uniqueness of species). Vegetation communities are dominated by open oak-hickory and shortleaf pine woodlands and forests. Included in this vegetation matrix is an assemblage of various types of fens, forests, wetlands, fluvial features, and carbonate and siliceous glades. An ever-growing human population in the Ozark Highlands has become very dependent on reservoirs constructed on major rivers in the region and, in some cases, groundwater for household and public water supply. Because of human population growth in the Highlands and increases in industrial and agricultural activities, not only is adequate water quantity an issue, but maintaining good water quality is also a challenge. Point and nonpoint sources of excessive nutrients are an issue. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership programs to monitor water quality and develop simulation tools to help stakeholders better understand strategies to protect the quality of water and the environment are extremely important. The USGS collects relevant data, conducts interpretive studies, and develops simulation tools to help stakeholders understand resource availability and sustainability issues. Stakeholders dependent on these resources are interested in and benefit greatly from evolving these simulation tools (models) into decision support systems that can be used for adaptive management of water and ecological resources. The interaction of unique and high-quality biological and hydrologic resources and the effects of stresses from human activities can be evaluated best by using a multidisciplinary approach that the USGS

  3. EFECTO DEL SISTEMA DE RIEGO Y CLIMA EN LA EFICIENCIA DEL USO DE AGUA DE NOGAL PECANERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Zermeño González

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El nogal pecanero (Carya illinoensis K. es una especie frutícola de gran importancia para México, su cultivo se realiza en regiones de clima semidesértico donde el agua es el factor limitante de la producción, por lo que es necesario obtener la máxima eficiencia del uso de este recurso, que es función del sistema de riego y de las condiciones climáticas de la región. Sobre esta base, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficiencia del uso del agua de dos huertas de nogal pecanero bajo dos sistemas de riego y diferentes condiciones climáticas. El estudio se realizó en el verano de 2008, en dos huertas de nogal pecanero del noreste de México: una de ellas ubicada en el sureste del estado de Coahuila (Mieleras, municipio de Matamoros con riego por goteo subsuperficial, y la otra en el norte del mismo estado (Zaragoza regada con aspersión. La eficiencia del uso del agua de las huertas del nogal pecanero se definió como la relación entre moles de CO2 asimilados por mol de agua evapotranspirada por el dosel de los árboles. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que aunque la asimilación de CO2 promedio diurna en la huerta de Mieleras (441.68 mmol m-2 fue estadísticamente igual a la observada en la huerta de Zaragoza (489.04 mmol m 2; la eficiencia promedio diaria del uso del agua (mmol CO2 mol-1 H2O fue mayor (P ≤ 0.05 en la huerta de Zaragoza (1.82 que la que se obtuvo en la huerta de Mieleras (1.42. Esto se debió a que las condiciones climáticas en Matamoros fueron de un mayor déficit de presión de vapor y una mayor tasa de evapotranspiración, que tuvieron un efecto mayor en la eficiencia del uso del agua que el sistema de riego utilizado en cada huerta.

  4. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  5. Ethylene: Role in Fruit Abscission and Dehiscence Processes 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, John A.; Morgan, Page W.

    1972-01-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  6. Study on Grading of Grafted Seedlings of C. illinoensis%美国山核桃嫁接苗木分级研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芳; 杨建华; 范志远; 习学良; 刘恒鹏

    2011-01-01

    [目的]建立美国山核桃(Carya illinoensis)嫁接苗木分级标准.[方法]对美国山核桃嫁接苗进行田间生长量实测,运用聚类分析法和正态性检验时其进行综合分析.[结果]以苗高、地径、主根长和≥5 cm的Ⅰ级侧根数作为分级的品质指标,提出了以下分级标准:Ⅰ级苗为苗高≥67 cm,地径≥1.0 cm,主根长≥35 cm,≥5 cm的Ⅰ级侧根数≥24条;Ⅱ级苗为苗高≥27 cm,地径≥0.65 cm,主根长≥30 cm,≥5 cm的Ⅰ级侧根数≥15条.[结论]该分级标准与苗木实际情况相符,可为生产提供参考.%[ Objective] The research aimed to establish the grading standard of grafted seedling of C. illinoensis. [ Method ] The growth of grafted .seedlings of C. illinoensis was measured in field, and was comprehensively analyzed using cluster analysis and normality tests. [ Result] Seedling height, base diameter, taproot length and the grade Ⅰ lateral root number of ≥5 cm of C. illinoensis were proposed as the main indexes of quality for grafted seedling, the criteria for class Ⅰ was seedling height ≥67 cm, base diameter ≥1.0, taproot length ≥35 cm,the grade Ⅰ lateral root number of ≥5 cm ≥24 strip; the criteria for class Ⅱ was seedling height ≥27 cm, base diameter ≥0.65, taproot length ≥30 cm, the grade Ⅰ lateral root number of ≥5 cm ≥ 15 strip respectively. [Conclusion] The classification criteria were coincided with the practical growth of C. illinoensis grafted seedlings, and they were expected to provide reference for production.

  7. Ethylene: role in fruit abscission and dehiscence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, J A; Morgan, P W

    1972-12-01

    Two peaks of ethylene production occur during the development of cotton fruitz (Gossypium hirsutum L.). These periods precede the occurrence of young fruit shedding and mature fruit dehiscence, both of which are abscission phenomena and the latter is generally assumed to be part of the total ripening process. Detailed study of the dehiscence process revealed that ethylene production of individual, attached cotton fruits goes through a rising, cyclic pattern which reaches a maximum prior to dehiscence. With detached pecan fruits (Carya illinoensis [Wang.] K. Koch), ethylene production measured on alternate days rose above 1 microliter per kilogram fresh weight per hour before dehiscence began and reached a peak several days prior to complete dehiscence. Ethylene production by cotton and pecan fruits was measured just prior to dehiscence and then the internal concentration of the gas near the center of the fruit was determined. From these data a ratio of production rate to internal concentration was determined which allowed calculation of the approximate ethylene concentration in the intact fruit prior to dehiscence and selection of appropriate levels to apply to fruits. Ethylene at 10 microliters per liter of air appears to saturate dehiscence of cotton, pecan, and okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) fruits and the process is completed in 3 to 4 days. In all cases some hastening of dehiscence was observed with as little as 0.1 microliter of exogenous ethylene per liter of air. The time required for response to different levels of ethylene was determined and compared to the time course of ethylene production and dehiscence. We concluded that internal levels of ethylene rose to dehiscence-stimulating levels a sufficience time before dehiscence for the gas to have initiated the process. Since our data and calculations indicate that enough ethylene is made a sufficient time before dehiscence, to account for the process, we propose that ethylene is one of the regulators of

  8. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  9. 不同解磷菌剂对美国山核桃根际微生物和酶活性的影响%Effects of Different Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria on Rhizosphere Microorganism and Enzyme Activities of Pecan Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旋; 朱天辉; 刘旭

    2012-01-01

    A potting experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of three phosphate-solubilizing bacteria ( PSB) (Pseudomonas chlororaphis, P. Fluorescens, Bacillus cereus) and their mixture on rhizosphere soil microorganism and enzyme activities at three growth stages of pecan ( Carya illinoensis) seedlings subjected to three application levels of calcium-superphosphate. Results showed that; Inoculation of the three PSB and their mixture increased the amounts of rhizosphere bacteria and actinomyces, reduced the amounts of rhizosphere fungi, and enhanced activities of phosphatase and urease. However, the effects on rhizosphere microorganism and enzyme activities decreased progressively with increase of calcium-superphosphate content. The bacteria mixture was stronger effects than that of any single bacterium, and brought about the most rhizosphere bacteria and actinomyces, the lest rhizosphere fungi, and the highest activities of phosphatase and urease in all three application levels of calcium-superphosphate compared to inoculation with any single bacteria.%通过盆栽试验研究3种施P水平下绿针假单胞菌、荧光假单胞菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌3种细菌及其混合菌群对美国山核桃苗3个生长时期根际微生物数量和酶活性的影响.结果表明:施加4种细菌菌剂后山核桃根际土壤中的细菌和放线菌数量增加,真菌数量减少,土壤磷酸酶和脲酶活性上升;3种施P水平下,随着施P水平的提高,各种菌剂对根际微生物数量和酶活性的影响逐渐降低,且3种细菌的混合菌剂较单一菌种对根际微生物数量及土壤磷酸酶和脲酶活性的影响更大.

  10. Plant-Arthropod Associations from the Lower Miocene of the Most Basin in Northern Bohemia(Czech Republic):A Preliminary Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub PROKOP; Torsten WAPPLER; Stanislav KNOR; Zlatko KVA(C)EK

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and insects currently account for the majority of the Earth's biodiversity,and approximately half of insect species are herbivores.Thus,insects and plants share ancient associations that date back more than 400 Myr.However,investigations of their past interactions are at the preliminary stages in Western Europe.Herein,we present the first results of our study of various feeding damage based on a dataset of nearly 3500 examined plant specimens from the Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine in the Most Basin,Czech Republic.This site provides a unique view of the Neogcue freshwater ecosystems.It has long been studied by scientists working in different branches of sedimentology,paleobotany,and paleozoology.The fossils are preserved in three characteristic horizons overlaying the coal seam(Clayey Superseam Horizon,Delta Sandy Horizon,and Lake Clayey Horizon),reflecting paleoenvironmental changes in a short time period of development.The trace fossils are classified as functional feeding groups or"guilds",without searching for a direct cause or a recent analog host relation.Approximately 23% of specimens of dicotyledonous plant leaves were found to be damaged and associated with some leaf"morphotypes".Deciduous plant-host taxa,and those with a chartaceons texture typical of riparian habitats,were frequently damaged,such as Populus,recorded with two species Populus zaddachii and Populus populina(57.9% and 31% herbivory levels,respectively),followed by Acer,Alnus,and Carya,averaging almost 30% of damaged leaves/leaflets.There has been evidence of 60 damage types(DT)representing all functional feeding groups recorded at the Bilina Mine,including 12 types of leaf mines and 16 galltype DT.In total,Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine exhibits a high level of external foliage feeding types(23.7%),and a low level of more specialized DT,such as galls(4.3%)and leaf mines(<1%).A broader comparison based on DT of the main sedimentary environments

  11. Influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of the parasitic fungus, Hesperomyces virescens, on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, E W

    2006-01-01

    Hesperomyces virescens Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) is a parasitic fungus that infects lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) via horizontal transmission between adults at overwintering and feeding sites. The differential behavior of male and female hosts could have profound effects on intensity of infection and positioning of fungus on the host's integument. The influence of host gender on infection rate, density and distribution of this parasite on the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was determined at a feeding site. Adult H. axyridis were sampled from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, trees in northern Mississippi, USA, during summer and early fall 2003-2004. Results indicated that the behavior of male or female beetles on pecan trees had only a limited effect on the intensity of infection. When averaged over the entire season, the percentage of H. axyridis infected with H. virescens was not influenced by host gender. In 2003, a seasonal average of 54 and 39% of males and females, respectively, were infected; whereas in 2004, 36 and 41% of male and female beetles, respectively, were infected. The percentage of males infected with H. virescens was correlated with the number of males captured at the site in 2003; infection rate decreased as male abundance increased. Infection rate did not correlate with female abundance in 2003 or male or female abundance in 2004. Host gender had a considerable effect on the density and distribution of the fungus. Hesperomyces virescens mature thalli were denser on male rather than female beetles. Also, thallus density was often greatest on the elytra, meso- and metathorax, and abdomen of males and elytra of females, than on other body parts, in 2003. In 2003 and 2004, approximately 59 and 97% and 67 and 96% of males and females, respectively, had mature thalli distributed on the elytra. Prevalence of H. virescens thalli on the dorsum of H

  12. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Keeling, Christopher I; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Yuen, Macaire M S; Li, Maria; Hillbur, Ylva; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2013-03-21

    The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in

  13. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Water uptake and retention by trees affects their ability to cope with drought, as well as influences ground water recharge and stream flow. Historically, water has not often been limiting in Eastern U.S. forests. As a result, very little work has been done to understand the basics of timing of water use by vegetation in these systems. As droughts are projected to increase in length and severity in future decades, this focus is increasingly important, particularly for informing hydrologic models. We used deuterium tracer and sap flux techniques to study tree water transport on a forested ridge top with shallow soil in central Pennsylvania. Three trees of each of the species, Acer saccharum, Carya tomentosa, Quercus prinus, and Quercus rubrum were accessed by tree climbing and scaffolding towers. We hypothesized that contrasting vessel size of the tree species would affect the efficiency of water transport (tracer velocity) and contrasting tree size would affect tracer storage as estimated by tracer residence times. Trees were injected with deuterated water in July 2012. Leaves were sampled 15 times over 35 days, initially daily for the first week, then at regular intervals afterwards. The tracer arrived in the canopy of the study trees between 1 and 7 days after injection, traveling at a velocity of 2 to 19 m d-1. The tracer residence time was between 7 and 33 days. Although there was variation in tracer velocity and residence time in individual trees, there were no significant differences among wood types or species (P>0.05). The general patterns in timing of water use were similar to other studies on angiosperm trees in tropical and arid ecosystems. There was no evidence of longer residence times in the larger trees. Sap flux-based estimates of sap velocity were much lower than tracer estimates, which was consistent with other studies. Levels of sap flux and midday water potential measurements suggested that the trees were water-stressed. We observed relatively

  14. Analysis of seven kinds of trace copper nuts%七种坚果中微量铜分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮超凡; 赵伟; 陈璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective: More and more people pay attention to the reasonable diet health problems, the content of trace elements in nuts rich, gradual y become people daily consumption goods often.Copper is one of essential trace elements in human body, for the maintenance of human life activities play an important role.The content of copper element monitoring nuts, guide people rational selection of food. Methods :With wet digestion and flame atomic absorption of 7 kinds of common market sel ing nuts spectrophotometry (almonds, Carya il inoensis Koch, Juglans, pine nut, pistachio , Macadamia ternifolia F. Muel ) were measured.The use of statistical methods to analyze the results, determine whether significant. Results:The copper content in samples from high to low is Juglans (15.4229mg/kg) > pistachio (13.0142mg/kg)> pine mnut (11.7226mg/kg) > almonds (9.8965mg/kg) > Carya il inoensis Koch(9.1470mg/kg) > salted pistachios (6.8381mg/kg) > Macadamia ternifolia F. Muel (5.3722mg/kg);The sample products contain copper, the highest content of walnut than macadamia nuts in the lowest 2.7 times higher, with significant;After salted pistachios copper content processing technology is lower than unprocessed pistachios , there are significant. Conclusion:The experiment proved that the high copper content of nuts, have a certain guiding significance for the people's daily edible nuts.The pistachio copper salt baked processing loss, select the edible nuts can choose the unprocessed nuts.Copper deficiency people can choose to eat high copper content of walnut, pine nut, almond, necessary to supplement the body of copper;For in vivo copper content of more people, as far as possible to Eat nuts food, avoid copper poisoning.%目的:人们越来越注意饮食的合理健康问题,坚果微量元素含量丰富,渐渐成为人们日常消费品。铜是人体必需的微量元素之一,对于维持人的生命活动发挥着重要作用。监测坚果中铜元素的含量,指导人

  15. Effects of waterlogging on growth, porosity and radial oxygen loss of three tree species%涝渍对3个树种生长、组织孔隙度和渗漏氧的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪贵斌; 曹福亮; 王媛

    2012-01-01

    Aims Flooding reduces soil oxygen content, and leads to oxygen deprivation in the root system of plants. Since oxygen is essential for mitochondrial respiration, this process cannot be maintained under anoxic conditions and must be replaced by other pathways. Our objective was to understand flooding adaptation mechanisms of baldcy-press (Taxodium distichuni), Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) under waterlogged conditions. Methods One-year seedlings of baldcypress, Chinese tallow tree and pecan were grown in pots, and three treatments were implemented: CK (control, common soil water content), WA (waterlogging, water level equal with soil surface) and FL (flooding, water level 8 cm above soil surface). Treatments lasted 65 days, and indexes of growth, porosity and root oxygen consumption were determined at different times after treatment. Important findings We found that WA and FL treatments inhibited growth of both Chinese tallow tree and pe-can,but biomass and biomass increment of baldcypress increased under WA condition, indicating that baldcypress was more tolerant to flooding. Root/shoot ratio of the three tree species increased significantly under WA and FL treatments, which was primarily due to the decrease of stem and leaf biomass. WA and FL treatments also stimulated aerenchyma formation in the roots, stems and leaves of the three tree species, thereby the porosity in the roots, stems and leaves of the three tree species increased significantly under WA and FL conditions. The aerenchyma formation and increased porosity enhanced O2 diffusion to roots and rhizosphere. Our results indicate that baldcypress, Chinese tallow tree and pecan exhibit several adaptive mechanisms in response to waterlogging, including formation of new roots, aerenchyma formation, increased porosity of the roots, stems and leaves, and increased O2 release into the rhizosphere.%为了了解落羽杉(Taxodium distichum)、乌桕(Sapium sebiferum)和美国山核桃(Carya

  16. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  17. Evaluation of Biomass and Coal Briquettes for a Spreader Stoker Boiler Using an Experimental Furnace --- Modeling and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Gavin Memminger

    The compliance of coal-fired boilers with emissions regulations is a concern for many facilities. The introduction of biomass briquettes in industrial boilers can help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and coal usage. In this research project, a thermodynamic chemical equilibrium model was derived and analytical simulations performed for a coal boiler system for several types of biomass fuels such as beech, hickory, maple, poplar, white oak, willow, sawdust, torrefied willow, and switchgrass. The biomass emissions were compared to coal and charcoal emissions. The chemical equilibrium analysis numerically estimated the emissions of CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N 2O, SO2, and SO3. When examining the computer results, coal and charcoal emitted the highest CO, CO2, and SO x levels while the lowest (especially for SOx) were reached by the biomass fuels. Similarly, NOx levels were highest for the biomass and lowest for coal and charcoal. To validate these analytical results, a custom traveling grate furnace was designed and fabricated to evaluate different types of biofuels in the laboratory for operation temperatures and emissions. The furnace fuels tested included coal, charcoal, torrefied wood chips, and wood briquettes. As expected, the coal reached the highest temperature while the torrefied wood chips offered the lowest temperature. For CO and NO x emissions, the charcoal emitted the highest levels while the wood briquettes emitted the lowest levels. The highest SO2 emissions were reached by the coal while the lowest were emitted by the wood briquettes. When compared to the coal fuel, charcoal emissions for CO increased by 103%, NO and NOx decreased by 21% and 20% respectively, and SO2 levels decreased by 92%. For torrefied wood, emissions for CO increased by 17%, NO and NOx decreased by 58% and 57% respectively, and SO 2 decreased by 90%. For wood briquettes, emissions for CO decreased by 27%, NO and NOx decreased by 66%, and SO2 levels decreased by 97%. General trends in

  18. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitman, Helen M.; Sohm, James E.; Franklin, Marvin A.

    1984-01-01

    The Apalachicola River in northwest Florida is part of a three-State drainage basin encompassing 50,800 km 2 in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam from which it flows 171 km to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its average annual discharge at Chattahoochee, Fla., is 690 m3/s (1958-80) with annual high flows averaging nearly 3,000 m3/s. Its flood plain supports 450 km 2 of bottom-land hardwood and tupelo-cypress forests. The Apalachicola River Quality Assessment focuses on the hydrology and productivity of the flood-plain forest. The purpose of this part of the assessment is to address river and flood-plain hydrology, flood-plain tree species and forest types, and water and tree relations. Seasonal stage fluctuations in the upper river are three times greater than in the lower river. Analysis of long-term streamflow record revealed that 1958-79 average annual and monthly flows and flow durations were significantly greater than those of 1929-57, probably because of climatic changes. However, stage durations for the later period were equal to or less than those of the earlier period. Height of natural riverbank levees and the size and distribution of breaks in the levees have a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Thirty-two kilometers upstream of the bay, a flood-plain stream called the Brothers River was commonly under tidal influence during times of low flow in the 1980 water year. At the same distance upstream of the bay, the Apalachicola River was not under tidal influence during the 1980 water year. Of the 47 species of trees sampled, the five most common were wet-site species constituting 62 percent of the total basal area. In order of abundance, they were water tupelo, Ogeechee tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak

  19. Coupling multistripe laser triangulation with hyperspectral imaging VisNIR spectroscopy to elucidate the feedbacks between soil structure, hydrology, and organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirmas, Daniel; Steffens, Markus; Sullivan, Pamela; Zhang, Chi; Giménez, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in three-dimensional (3-D) laser scanning techniques and reflectance spectroscopy provide the high-resolution quantitative measures needed to unravel the feedbacks mechanism between soil structure, hydrology, and organic matter at the pedon scale. Multistripe laser triangulation (MLT) can be used to quantify the shape, size, orientation, abundance, and spatial distribution of soil peds and associated macropore networks, while imaging visible light near infrared spectroscopy (imVisIR) can be used to examine the spatial distribution, quality and quantity of total, labile, and non-labile organic matter (SOM), iron, and manganese oxides at high spatial resolutions. In this work, we sought to investigate the potential for coupling these two disparate sensors (MLT and imVisIR) to examine relationships between soil structure, soil hydrology, and SOM. Soils were sampled from four landscape positions (summit, backslope, footslope, and toeslope) along an oak-hickory forest catena at the University of Kansas Field Station (KUFS) Fitch Natural History Reserve in conjunction with the installation of a National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) site. Soil pits were excavated at each position to 1 m, described in detail by US Department of Agriculture-Natural Resource Conservation (USDA-NRCS) soil scientists, and sampled by morphological horizon for standard chemical and physical soil analyses. In addition, samples were taken from each horizon for root density and size determination, cores sampled to estimate water content, pore-size distribution, and hydraulic conductivity via low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and clods taken for water retention determination. Two intact soil monoliths per pit, carefully carved from the excavation walls at two depths (0-40 and 30-70 cm), were sampled in custom steel trays that were 15 cm wide by 40 cm long with a lip around the edge approximately 2 cm deep. The monoliths were prepared and dried at 40° C for 12

  20. 薄壳山核桃‘马汉’雄蕊发育特性及花粉储藏活力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨先裕; 黄坚钦; 徐奎源; 夏国华; 袁紫倩; 凌骅; 王正加

    2014-01-01

    为解决薄壳山核桃Carya illinoensis花期花粉的采集和有效保存等问题,系统观测雄蕊开花习性,采用荧光染色反应(FCR)法研究了不同散粉期花粉生活力差异,以及不同储藏条件(室温密封、室温密封干燥;4℃密封、4℃密封干燥;-70℃密封、-70℃密封干燥)和储藏时间对花粉活力的影响.结果表明:①4月26日薄壳山核桃雄蕊花萼开裂,5月6日花药由绿变黄,5月7-9日雄蕊进入散粉期,5月8日散粉量最大,占花粉总量的75%,至5月10日花粉基本散尽,花药变黑、小花开始脱落;②散粉期花粉生活力大小依次为即将散粉期(花药由绿变黄)>散粉初期>散粉盛期>散粉末期,花粉耐储藏性亦是即将散粉期最优,即将散粉期>散粉初期>散粉盛期>散粉末期.③储藏条件对花粉活力的保持有显著影响,利于花粉生活力保持的储藏条件依次为-70℃密封干燥>-70℃密封>4℃密封干燥>4℃密封>室温密封干燥>室温密封;在任一储藏条件下,花粉活力均随储藏时间而下降,干燥与不干燥差异不显著.室温下花粉活力下降最快,50 d后花粉已经完全丧失活力;4℃下花粉活力次之,120d后花粉已经完全丧失活力;-70℃超低温条件下保存效果最好,与常温、低温储藏差异极显著,储藏360 d花粉还保持43.55%的活力.

  1. 美国山核桃叶的抗菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶申怡; 阮夏云; 樊莹; 张欢帅; 井长怡; 毛胜凤; 张爱莲

    2014-01-01

    对美国山核桃Carya illinoensis叶进行体外抗菌作用研究,以期开发出一种新型的天然杀菌剂.美国山核桃叶经体积分数为75%乙醇提取后,采用系统溶剂法将抽提物分为石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇和水等5个不同极性的提取物.采用滤纸片法,检测以上提取物对黄曲霉菌Aspe rgillus flay us,根霉菌Rhzopus oryzae,青霉菌Penicillium sp.,酵母菌Saccharomyces cerevisiae,大肠埃希菌Escherichia coli和枯草杆菌Bacillus subtilis等的抑菌效果,并计算各提取物对真菌的半数抑菌质量浓度(CE50).结果表明:乙酸乙酯提取物对青霉菌、根霉菌、黄曲霉菌和枯草杆菌均表现出明显的抑菌效果且差异显著(P<0.05,P<0.01),抑菌圈直径均值分别为9.18,10.86,8.26,10.18mm,但对于黄曲霉菌石油醚提取物(CE50 0.91 g&#183;L-1)的抑菌效果优于乙酸乙酯提取物(CE50>200 g&#183;L-1);而正丁醇提取物对酵母菌和大肠埃希菌表现出明显的抑菌效果且差异显著(P<0.05,P<0.01),其抑菌圈直径均值分别为11.13,8.83 mm,但对于大肠埃希菌水提物的抑菌效果优于正丁醇提取物,其抑菌圈直径均值为9.13 mm.综上,美国山核桃叶的正丁醇提取物和乙酸乙酯提取物抑菌效果最佳.针对这一实验结果,可以根据防治对象不同,采用不同的提取方法和工艺,研发专菌专治的天然杀菌剂,以提升杀菌剂的作用效果.

  2. Hydrologic, soil, and vegetation gradients in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands in west-central Missouri, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Mettler-Cherry, Paige A.

    2004-01-01

    not been significantly altered; however, portions of the area have suffered from hydrologic alteration by a drainage ditch that is resulting in the displacement of swamp and marsh species by colonizing shrub and tree species. This area likely will continue to develop into an immature flood plain forest under the current (2004) hydrologic regime. Reforestation plots in constructed wetlands consisted of sampling survival and growth of multiple tree species (Quercus palustris, pin oak; Carya illinoiensis, pecan) established under several production methods and planted at multiple elevations. Comparison of survival between tree species and production types showed no significant differences for all comparisons. Survival was high for both species and all production types, with the highest mortality seen in the mounded root production method (RPM?) Quercus palustris (pin oak, 6.9 percent), while direct seeded Quercus palustris at middle elevation and bare root Quercus palustris seedlings at the low elevation plots had 100 percent survival. Measures of growth (diameter and height) were assessed among species, production types, and elevation by analyzing relative growth. The greatest rate of tree diameter (72.3 percent) and height (65.3 percent) growth was observed for direct seeded Quercus palustris trees planted at a middle elevation site. Natural colonized vegetation data were collected at multiple elevations within an abandoned cropland area of a constructed wetland. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of herbaceous vegetation in this area were elevation, ponding duration, and soil texture. Richness, evenness, and diversity were all significantly greater in the highest elevation plots as a result of more recent disturbance in this area. While flood frequency and duration define the delivery mechanism for inundation on the flood plain, it is the duration of ponding and amount of 'topographic capture' of these floodwaters in fluvial lan

  3. Evaluating the mid Miocene paleoclimate of Lower Carinthia (Austria) based on high resolution palynological studies from the Lavanttal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido

    2016-04-01

    , characteristic for the humid and semi-humid, summer-rain areas of the meridional and nemoral zone. (Co-)Dominant genera in these forests are the various members of the northern hemispheric Fagales. Important indicator taxa include Fagus, one of the most common and widespread genera in temperate, mixed mesophytic forests of North America, China and Japan, and Quercus Group Ilex, a co-dominant group in the East Asian monsoon influenced, winter-dry or fully humid southern foothills of the Himalayas and montane regions of south-western and central China. Equally informative is Corylus, and the co-occurrence of Carya, Juglans, Pterocarya and Engelhardioideae, pinpointing towards forests as today found in south-western China and the warm subtropical parts of the southeastern United States. References: Denk T, Grimm GW, Grímsson F, Zetter R. 2013. Evidence from "Köppen signatures" of fossil plant assemblages for effective heat transport of Gulf Stream to subarctic North Atlantic during Miocene cooling. Biogeosciences 10: 7927-7942. Grímsson F, Grimm GW, Meller B, Bouchal JM, Zetter R. 2015. Combined LM and SEM study of the middle Miocene (Sarmatian) palynoflora from the Lavanttal Basin, Austria: part IV. Magnoliophyta 2 - Fagales to Rosales. Grana: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00173134.2015.1096566 Velitzelos D, Bouchal JM, Denk T. 2014. Review of the Cenozoic floras and vegetation of Greece. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 204: 56-117.

  4. 可调振幅单向拽振式林果采收机构参数优化%Parameter optimization of stroke-adjustable and monodirectional pulling fruit harvester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜小强; 倪柯楠; 潘珂; 陈少钟; 高旗; 武传宇

    2014-01-01

    calculation result indicated that the shaking crank had more influence on the stroke than the rocker and stroke-adjusting crank. In addition, the stroke increased with the length of the shaking crank, but decreased with the length of the rocker and stroke-adjusting crank. Range was significantly affected by those two cranks and increased significantly with them. To make the fruit harvester more compact and avoid interferences among all components, the dimension of the shaking mechanism was optimized based on a genetic algorithm. The acceleration curve of the actuator slider at various rotation angles of the stroke-adjusting crank was acquired by further calculations. Moreover, the three-dimensional model of the shaking mechanism was built according to the optimal parameters. The dynamics of the shaking mechanism were simulated in ADAMS software when the shaking crank and stroke-adjusting crank rotated. The rotation speeds of the shaking crank and the stroke-adjusting crank were set to 840 r/min and 7 r/min, respectively. Then the driving torque of those two cranks, the displacement and the acceleration of actuating slider were obtained. The simulation results showed that the driving torque of those two cranks fluctuated wildly while the mechanism generated a two-frequency, reciprocating movement. Finally, based on the kinematic analysis and dynamics simulations, a physical prototype was developed. After that, five Chinese hickory trees with similar age and height in the orchard were measured by digital dynamometer to obtain the average separating force of the fruit, and then the fruit was harvested by the stroke-adjustable fruit harvester to evaluate its performance. The results revealed that the average separating force of fruit was 7.3 N, and the average harvesting percentage was 63.9%, which demonstrated that this mechanical harvester can be used to harvest fruit. By further analysis of problems and causes in the experiment, the cantilever structure in this mechanism needs

  5. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a

  6. 基于双轮廓同步跟踪的果树枝干提取及三维重建%Fruit tree extraction based on simultaneous tracking of two edges for 3D reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺磊盈; 武传宇; 杜小强

    2014-01-01

    自适应果实振动收获是利用机器视觉技术识别果树的几何参数,从而分析其动力学特性并用来自动调整振动设备的参数,达到高效低损伤的作业目的。该文以自然生长的无叶山核桃树为研究对象,根据果实自适应振动收获方式的需要,研究了一种基于双轮廓同步跟踪提取果树枝干并利用双目视觉技术进行三维重建的方法。首先结合自适应阈值分割算法和轮廓跟踪技术提取果树枝干区域,细化后得到枝干骨架并用二叉树结构描述。然后根据极线约束和拓扑结构建立双视图中树枝的对应关系。考虑到果树树枝形状的连续性,在三维重建过程中引入了曲率约束,从而提高了重建的效果。最后利用植物学的营养管道输送模型,结合线性回归方法参数化树枝半径。试验结果显示,重建的三维果树枝干形态与真实果树在视觉上很接近,估计的半径与测量半径之间的相对误差小于9%。该研究可为果树动力学模型的创建提供树体的3D结构参数,从而为果实的自适应振动收获技术提供参考。%In order to develop adaptive equipment for the mechanical harvest of fruit, a 3D model of a fruit tree was required for analyzing its dynamic properties which can help in tuning vibratory parameters. A Chinese hickory tree without leaves was selected for this study. The objective of this paper was to extract trunks of a fruit tree from images for 3D reconstruction based on a stereo vision with two images. All tree branches in an image were divided into two parts, up-side branches and down-side branches respectively, according to their different background. The up-side branches can be easily segmented by an auto-threshold binarization algorithm. The down-side branches were extracted by simultaneous tracking of the two edges. The branch in image can be treated as a series of scanning beams defined by two end points with a

  7. Premium Fuel Production From Mining and Timber Waste Using Advanced Separation and Pelletizing Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R. Q.; Taulbee, D.; Parekh, B. K.; Tao, D.

    2005-12-05

    agents for the briquetting of 90% coal and 10% sawdust blends. Guar gum, wheat starch, and a multi-component formulation were identified as most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the pulverized-coal market with costs being around $8 per ton of the coal-sawdust blend. REAX/lime and a second multi-component formulation were identified as the most cost-effective for the production of briquettes targeted for the stoker-coal market. Various sources of sawdust generated from different wood types were also investigated to determine their chemical properties and to evaluate their relative performance when briquetted with clean coal to form a premium fuel. The highest heating values, approaching 7,000 Btu/lb, were obtained from oak. Sawdusts from higher-density, red oak, white oak, hickory, and beech trees provided higher quality briquettes relative to their lower-density counterparts. In addition to sawdust type, a number of other parameters were evaluated to characterize their impact on briquette properties. The parameters that exhibited the greatest impact on briquette performance were binder concentration; sawdust concentration and particle size; cure temperature; and ash content. Parameters that had the least impact on briquette properties, at least over the ranges studied, were moisture content, briquetting force, and briquetting dwell time. The continuous production of briquettes from a blend of coal and sawdust was evaluated using a 200 lbs/hr Komarek Model B-100 briquetter. The heating values of briquettes produced by the unit exceeded the goal of the project by a large margin. A significant observation was the role of feed moisture on the stability of the mass flow rate through the briquetter and on briquette strength. Excessive feed moisture levels caused inconsistent or stoppage of material flow through the feed hopper and resulted in the production of variable-quality briquettes. Obviously, the limit on feed moisture content has a