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Sample records for hibonite-rich refractory inclusions

  1. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  2. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  3. Refractory metal particles in refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, L.H.; Blander, M.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of refractory metal particles in five calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite indicates a complex variety of compositions and large departures from equilibrium. These particles appear to have been primordial condensates which were isolated from the nebula and from each other at different times by cocondensing oxides. Selective diffusion and/or oxidation of the more oxidizable metals (Mo, W, Fe and Ni), phase segregations into different alloy phases (fcc, bcc, hcp and perhaps ordered phases) and the formation of metastable condensates appears to have been involved in the modification of these materials to their present state. Only a small fraction of our observations cannot be reconciled with this picture because of a lack of knowledge of some of the phase equilibria which might have bee involved

  4. Magnesium and Titanium Isotopic Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende: It Is Fun

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    Liu, M.-C.; Keller, L. P.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hibonite-rich refractory inclusions are among the first solids that formed in the solar nebula, and thus provide constraints on the earliest environment in the Solar System. An unusual hibonite-perovskite inclusion from Allende, SHAL, consists of a large (approximately 500 by 200 microns) single hibonite crystal and coexisting blocky perovskite (approximately 200 microns in size). The hibonite is characterized by chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those in the FUN (Fractionated and Unknown Nuclear anomalies) inclusion HAL. However, the rare earth element (REE) patterns measured at different spots of SHAL hibonite are highly variable, ranging from Group II-like (light REEs enriched relative to heavy REEs) to Group III-like (relatively flat with slight Eu depletions), but overall contrast largely with that of HAL, especially in the Ce and Yb abundances. This implies that SHAL hibonite formed and underwent distillation processes under more reducing conditions. Interestingly, the accompanying perovskite has uniform, unfractionated oxygen isotopic compositions (averaging delta (sup 17) O equals delta (sup 18) O equals -7 per mille) and REE abundances that are completely different from those of SHAL hibonite. This has been interpreted that perovskite and hibonite may not be co-genetic. Here we performed Al-Mg and Ti isotopic measurements of SHAL hibonite and perovskite to determine if the FUN characteristics are observed in these two isotope systems, and to further constrain the origin and evolution of SHAL. Results: Isotopic measurements of Al-Mg and Ti in SHAL were performed on the UCLA CAMECA ims-1290 ion microprobe by following the analytical protocols described in [1]. The Al-Mg and Ti data obtained in both terrestrial standards and SHAL hibonite and perovskite are shown below. Both SHAL hibonite and perovskite, despite very high (sup 27) Al to (sup 24) Mg ratios, are devoid of (sup 26) Mg excesses that can be attributed to the decay

  5. A multielement isotopic study of refractory FUN and F CAIs: Mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope effects

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    Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated objects that formed inside the Solar System. Among these are rare, enigmatic objects with large mass-dependent fractionation effects (F CAIs), which sometimes also have large nucleosynthetic anomalies and a low initial abundance of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (FUN CAIs). We have studied seven refractory hibonite-rich CAIs and one grossite-rich CAI from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite for their oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions. The 26Al-26Mg system was also studied in seven of these CAIs. We found mass-dependent heavy isotope enrichment in all measured elements, but never simultaneously in the same CAI. The data are hard to reconcile with a single-stage melt evaporation origin and may require reintroduction or reequilibration for magnesium, oxygen and titanium after evaporation for some of the studied CAIs. The initial 26Al/27Al ratios inferred from model isochrons span a range from <1 × 10-6 to canonical (∼5 × 10-5). The CAIs show a mutual exclusivity relationship between inferred incorporation of live 26Al and the presence of resolvable anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. Furthermore, a relationship exists between 26Al incorporation and Δ17O in the hibonite-rich CAIs (i.e., 26Al-free CAIs have resolved variations in Δ17O, while CAIs with resolved 26Mg excesses have Δ17O values close to -23‰). Only the grossite-rich CAI has a relatively enhanced Δ17O value (∼-17‰) in spite of a near-canonical 26Al/27Al. We interpret these data as indicating that fractionated hibonite-rich CAIs formed over an extended time period and sampled multiple stages in the isotopic evolution of the solar nebula, including: (1) an 26Al-poor nebula with large positive and negative anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti and variable Δ17O; (2) a stage of 26Al-admixture, during which anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti had been largely diluted and a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ had been achieved in the CAI formation region; and (3

  6. First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L.

    2009-01-01

    Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f O2 conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent with formation in a gas of solar composition (log f O2 = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl 12 O 19 ), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios have not been previously measured. Analysis of these samples allows comparison of Ti valence of (1

  7. Collosion and Absorption Behaviors of Inclusions on Refractory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Guo Z.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to analysis the inclusion behavior in steel using theoretical calculation and simulation of water. The aim is to establish collision and absorption model of inclusions on refractory. The article discusses the variation of critical stay speed and critical shear with the radius of inclusions in the process of colliding, rebounding and absorbing. The results show the critical stay speed and critical shear of alumina respectively surpasses 1 cm·s−1 and 1 N·m−2, while titanium dioxide separately exceeds 4 cm·s−1 and 10 N·m−2 for the inclusions that radius is less than 2.5 μm. If the inclusions occur rebound after colliding, the inclusions that radius is less than 7 μm will still be absorbed by the surface, while the inclusions that radius is more than 10 μm can easily reenter the steel. The model coincides with the water simulation results and it is of good adaptability.

  8. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites

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    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.

    1995-09-01

    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  9. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

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    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  10. NWA10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx. 20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  11. Chemical compositions of refractory inclusions in the Murchison C2 chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekambaram, V.; Kawabe, I.; Tanaka, T.; Davis, A.M.; Grossman, L.

    1984-01-01

    Samples from ten refractory inclusions in Murchison, some of which are splits of inclusions whose mineralogical and petrographic characteristics are known, have been analysed for thirty-six elements by neutron activation. Six inclusions have group II or group III patterns or variants of such patterns. Two inclusions, BB-5 and MUCH-1, have large negative Yb anomalies unaccompanied by correspondingly large negative Eu anomalies. It is possible that the latter condensed originally with group III patterns and preferentially took up Eu in later exchange processes under reducing conditions. One inclusion, SH-2, has heavy REE enrichment factors that increase with the refractoriness of the REE, indicating the presence of an extremely high-temperature, or ultrarefractory, REE condensate, but it also has a heavy REE/light REE ratio that indicates mixing of that component with a lower-temperature REE condensate. The frequency of highly fractionated REE patterns and absence of group I patterns suggest that refractory inclusions in Murchison stopped equilibrating with the nebular gas at higher temperatures than most Allende-coarse-grained inclusions. The results are discussed. (author)

  12. Experimental constraints on heating and cooling rates of refractory inclusions in the early solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynton, W.V.

    1987-01-01

    The refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites were the subject of considerable interest since their discovery. These inclusions contain minerals that are predicted to be some of the earliest condensates from the solar nebula, and contain a plethora of isotopic anomalies of unknown origin. Of particular interest are those coarse-grained inclusions that contain refractory metal particles (Fe, Ni, Pt, Ru, Os Ir). Experimental studies of these inclusions in terrestrial laboratories are, however, complicated because the dense particles tend to settle out of a molten or partially molten silicate material. Heating experiments in the Space Station technology and microgravity in order to observe the effects of metal nuggets (which may act as heterogeneous nucleation sites) on nucleation rates in silicate systems and to measure simultaneously the relative volatilization rate of siderophile and lithophile species. Neither experiment is possible in the terrestrial environment

  13. Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

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    Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing CAI from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this CAI shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.

  14. The Oxygen Isotopic Composition of MIL 090001: A CR2 Chondrite with Abundant Refractory Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; McKeegan, K. D.; Sharp, Z. D.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (>6 kg) carbonaceous chondrite that was classified as a member of the CV reduced subgroup (CVred) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. Based on the abundance of refractory inclusions and the extent of aqueous alteration, Keller [2] suggested a CV2 classification. Here we report additional mineralogical and petrographic data for MIL 090001, its whole-rock oxygen isotopic composition and ion microprobe analyses of individual phases. The whole rock oxygen isotopic analyses show that MIL 090001 should be classified as a CR chondrite.

  15. Fluid Force-Induced Detachment Criteria for Nonmetallic Inclusions Adhered to a Refractory/Molten Steel Interface

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    Dieguez Salgado, Uxia; Weiß, Christian; Michelic, Susanne K.; Bernhard, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Since nonmetallic inclusions (NMIs) in steel cannot be completely avoided, a greater understanding of their development and evolution during the steelmaking process is required. In particular, this includes the adhesion of microinclusions to the refractory/steel interface in the flow control system between the tundish and the mold. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as clogging, causes losses in productivity and product quality. Inclusions transported from the bulk melt to the boundary layer may adhere to the refractory/steel interface due to formation of a fluid cavity. A detailed model was derived for the detachment of NMIs adhering to a nozzle wall and is based on the local hydrodynamic conditions combined with the specific interfacial properties in the system consisting of the inclusions, the refractories, and the steel. The model is evaluated for three different application-oriented cases. This study has been focused on providing a better understanding of fluid flow in the near-wall region in order to reduce clogging during steelmaking.

  16. The Origin and Evolution of Nucleosynthetic Sr Isotope Variability in Calcium and Aluminum-rich Refractory Inclusions

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    Myojo, Kunihiro; Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Okabayashi, Satoki; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Sugiura, Naoji; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2018-01-01

    Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies in meteorites are useful for investigating the origin of materials in the protoplanetary disk and dynamical processes of planetary formation. In particular, calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) found in chondrites are key minerals for decoding the initial conditions of the solar system before the accretion of small planetary bodies. In this study, we report isotopic analyses for three Allende CAIs, fluffy type A (FTA), type B, and fine-grained spinel rich (FS) inclusions, with a specific emphasis on the measurements of 84Sr/86Sr ratios. It was found that the average μ 84Sr values (106 relative deviations from a standard material) were 175, 129, and 56 ppm for the samples of FTA, type B, and FS inclusions, respectively. Additionally, the FTA samples exhibited heterogeneous μ 84Sr values, while those for the type B and FS inclusions were homogeneous within individual inclusions. The elevated μ 84Sr values were most likely explained by the relative enrichment of r-process nuclides in the CAI formation region. The variation of μ 84Sr values between the FTA and type B inclusions, as well as within the FTA inclusion, suggests the presence of multiple CAI source reservoirs with distinct isotopic compositions, which is either inherited from isotopic heterogeneity in the molecular cloud or caused by the selective destruction of r-process-enriched supernova grains via nebular thermal processing. On the other hand, the reaction between a refractory precursor of the FS inclusion and a gaseous reservoir enriched in Mg, Si, and 16O resulted in the lowest μ 84Sr values for the FS inclusion.

  17. Heterogenous Oxygen Isotopic Composition of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim and the Margin of a Refractory Inclusion from Leoville

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    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2014-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims [1] surrounding many refractory inclusions represent marker events in the early evolution of the Solar System in which many inclusions were exposed to changes in pressure [2], temperature [3], and isotopic reservoirs [4-7]. The effects of these events can be complex, not only producing mineralogical variability of WL rims [2], but also leading to mineralogical [8-10] and isotopic [7, 11, 12] changes within inclusion interiors. Extreme oxygen isotopic heterogeneity measured in CAIs has been explained by mixing between distinct oxygen gas reservoirs in the nebula [13]. Some WL rims contain relatively simple mineral layering and/or are isotopically homogeneous [14, 15]. As part of a larger effort to document and understand the modifications observed in some CAIs, an inclusion (L6) with a complex WL rim from Leoville, a member of the reduced CV3 subgroup was studied. Initial study of the textures and mineral chemistry was presented by [16]. Here we present NanoSIMS oxygen isotopic measurements to complement these petrologic observations.

  18. Mg isotope evidence for contemporaneous formation of chondrules and refractory inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Haack, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Primitive or undifferentiated meteorites (chondrites) date back to the origin of the Solar System, and thus preserve a record of the physical and chemical processes that occurred during the earliest evolution of the accretion disk surrounding the young Sun. The oldest Solar System materials present...... within these meteorites are millimetre- to centimetre-sized calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) and ferromagnesian silicate spherules (chondrules), which probably originated by thermal processing of pre-existing nebula solids. Chondrules are currently believed to have formed ~2-3 million years (Myr...

  19. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas

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    Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa

    1998-12-04

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  20. Calcium and titanium isotopes in refractory inclusions from CM, CO, and CR chondrites

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    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Simon, Steven B.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that CV and CM chondrites incorporated Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with different isotopic characteristics, which may represent different snapshots in the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. To better understand how the isotopic characteristics of CAIs vary between different chondrite groups, we have studied calcium and titanium isotopes in CAIs from CM, CO, and CR chondrites. We show that all three chondrite groups contain CAIs with large anomalies in 48Ca and/or 50Ti (10s of ‰ or 100s of ε-units) as well as CAIs with no anomalies resolved beyond measurement uncertainties. Isotopically, the anomalous CO and CR chondrite CAIs resemble the platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) from CM chondrites, but they are more mineralogically complex. The new data are consistent with the well-established mutual exclusivity relationship between incorporation of 26Al and the presence of large anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. The two highly anomalous CO chondrite CAIs have correlated anomalies in 46Ti and 50Ti, while most other highly anomalous CAIs do not. This result could indicate that the reservoir with coupled 46Ti and 50Ti that was sampled by bulk meteorites and CV chondrite CAIs already existed before arrival and/or homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk. Among the studied CM chondrite CAIs are ten spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs) with known oxygen isotopic compositions. Our results show that these objects sampled a reservoir that was well-mixed in oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopes. We further show that SHIBs tend to be slightly enriched in the heavy calcium isotopes, suggesting that their formation history was different from CV chondrite CAIs.

  1. CORRELATION OF 48Ca, 50Ti, AND 138La HETEROGENEITY IN THE ALLENDE REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Chen, Jiang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Precise determinations of 48 Ca anomalies in Allende calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are reported in this work. There are endemic positive 48 Ca/ 44 Ca anomalies in all analyzed CAIs after normalization to 42 Ca/ 44 Ca, and it is clearly shown that there is no simple correlation between 48 Ca/ 44 Ca and 50 Ti/ 48 Ti anomalies, in agreement with Jungck et al. Compared to the 48 Ca/ 44 Ca versus 50 Ti/ 48 Ti correlation line defined by differentiated meteorites, reported by Chen et al., the CAIs plot to elevated 50 Ti/ 48 Ti. Assuming the 48 Ca/ 44 Ca anomalies of both CAIs and differentiated meteorites came from the same source, excess 50 Ti anomalies in CAIs can be calculated by subtracting the part associated with 48 Ca/ 44 Ca. These excesses show a linear correlation with 138 La anomalies, a neutrino-process nuclide. According to current stellar nucleosynthetic models, we therefore suggest that the solar system 48 Ca, 50 Ti, and 138 La isotopic variations are made of mixtures between grains condensed from ejecta of neutron-rich accretion-induced SNe Ia and the O/Ne–O/C zone of core-collapse SNe II

  2. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems

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    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  3. CORRELATION OF {sup 48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, AND {sup 138}La HETEROGENEITY IN THE ALLENDE REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Chen, Jiang-Chang, E-mail: hart.chen@bristol.ac.uk [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-06-10

    Precise determinations of {sup 48}Ca anomalies in Allende calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are reported in this work. There are endemic positive {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca anomalies in all analyzed CAIs after normalization to {sup 42}Ca/{sup 44}Ca, and it is clearly shown that there is no simple correlation between {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca and {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti anomalies, in agreement with Jungck et al. Compared to the {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca versus {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti correlation line defined by differentiated meteorites, reported by Chen et al., the CAIs plot to elevated {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti. Assuming the {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca anomalies of both CAIs and differentiated meteorites came from the same source, excess {sup 50}Ti anomalies in CAIs can be calculated by subtracting the part associated with {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca. These excesses show a linear correlation with {sup 138}La anomalies, a neutrino-process nuclide. According to current stellar nucleosynthetic models, we therefore suggest that the solar system {sup 48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, and {sup 138}La isotopic variations are made of mixtures between grains condensed from ejecta of neutron-rich accretion-induced SNe Ia and the O/Ne–O/C zone of core-collapse SNe II.

  4. Refractory Inclusion Size Distribution and Fabric Measured in a Large Slab of the Allende CV3 Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P.; Simon, Justin I.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate textures of chondrites reflect accretion of early-formed particles in the solar nebula. Explanations for the size and density variations of particle populations found among chondrites are debated. Differences could have risen out of formation in different locations in the nebula, and/or they could have been caused by a sorting process [1]. Many ideas on the cause of chondrule sorting have been proposed; some including sorting by mass [2,3], by X-winds [4], turbulent concentration [5], and by photophoresis [6]. However, few similar studies have been conducted for Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). These particles are known to have formed early, and their distribution could attest to the early stages of Solar System (ESS) history. Unfortunately, CAIs are not as common in chondrites as chondrules are, reducing the usefulness of studies restricted to a few thin sections. Furthermore, the largest sizes of CAIs are generally much larger than chondrules, and therefore rarely present in most studied chondrite thin sections. This study attempts to perform a more representative sampling of the CAI population in the Allende chondrite by investigating a two decimeter-sized slab.

  5. Refractory vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Bram; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.

    Refractory vasculitis occurs in 4-5% of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis (AAV). Differences between therapies used for refractory disease are mostly reflected in the percentages of complete and partial remissions, but also in the number of serious side

  6. A petrologic and ion microprobe study of a Vigarano Type B refractory inclusion - Evolution by multiple stages of alteration and melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.

    1993-01-01

    A Type B Ca-, Al-rich 6-m-diam inclusion (CAI) found in the Vigarano C3V chondrite was inspected using optical and scanning electron microscopies and ion microprobe analyses. It was found that the primary constituents of the CAI inclusion are (in percent), melilite (52), fassaite, (20), anorthite (18), spinel (10), and trace Fe-Ni metal. It is noted that, while many of the properties of the inclusion indicate solidification from a melt droplet, the Al-26/Mg-26 isotopic systematics and some textural relationships are incompatible with single-stage closed system crystallization of a homogeneous molten droplet, indicating that the history of this inclusion must have been more complex than melt solidification alone. Moreover, there was unusually high content of Na in melilite, suggesting that the droplet did not form by melting of pristine high-temperature nebular condensates.

  7. Long-term evaluation of treatment of chronic, therapeutically refractory tinnitus by neurostimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, M. J.; Holm, A. F.; Mooij, J. J. A.; Albers, F. W. J.; Bartels, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Long-term evaluation of treatment of chronic, therapeutically refractory tinnitus by means of chronic electrical stimulation of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Patients: Inclusion criteria were severe, chronic, therapeutically refractory, unilateral tinnitus and severe hearing loss at the

  8. High alumina refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simao, L.C.; Lopes, A.B.; Galvao Filho, N.B.; Souza, R.B. de

    1989-01-01

    High alumina refractories with 92 to 96.5% Al 2 O 3 were produced using brown and white fused as aggregate. Those refractories present only alumina-α and mullite as crystalline mineralogical phase. Other physical and chemical characteristics are similar to the ones found in refractories produced in Brazil, Japan and U.S.A. The most important physical and chemical tests used for the characterization of the raw materials and refractories, complemented by those realized at high temperatures, plus X-ray Difractometry and optical microscopy are presented, besides the refractory formulation and main parameters of production [pt

  9. Tungsten and refractory metals 3, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Third International Conference on Tungsten and Refractory Metals was held in Greater Washington DC at the McLean Hilton, McLean Virginia, on November 15--16, 1995. This meeting was the third in a series of conferences held in the Washington DC area. The first meeting was in 1992 and was entitled ''International Conference on Tungsten and Tungsten Alloys.'' In 1994, the scope of the meeting was expanded to include other refractory metals such as molybdenum, iridium, rhenium, tantalum and niobium. The tremendous success of that meeting was the primary motivation for this Conference. The broader scope (the inclusion of other refractory metals and alloys) of the Conference was kept intact for this meeting. In fact, it was felt that the developments in the technology of these materials required a common forum for the interchange of current research information. The papers presented in this meeting examined the rapid advancements in the technology of refractory metals, with special emphasis on the processing, structure, and properties. Among the properties there was emphasis on both quasi-static and dynamic rates. Another topic that received considerable interest was the area of refractory carbides and tungsten-copper composites. One day of concurrent session was necessary to accommodate all of the presentations

  10. Refractory bin for burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, D.L.; McPherson, T.L.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a refractory bin. It has a generally rectangular horizontal cross sectional configuration. It has wall structures each comprising an upper and a lower pair of elongated horizontal vertically spaced generally parallel support beams each having a vertical flange defining a support edge along its upper surface, a first generally rectangular refractory panel arranged with its lower edge at the bottom of the bin and with its outer surface in flat face contacting relation with the vertical flanges of the lower pair of support beams, a plurality of brackets each having a horizontal part and a vertical part and being secured to the outer surface of the first refractory panel.

  11. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  12. Colectomy for refractory constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Loud, Franck Bjørn; Christensen, Elsebeth

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the type of colectomy, postoperative complications, functional results, and satisfaction in patients with constipation refractory to conservative therapy. Further, colonic transit time (CTT), faecal load (coprostasis), and colon length (redundancies) were compared ...

  13. Spinning of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Wenkua; Zheng Han

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spinning process parameters including max. pass percentage reduction, spinning temperature, feed rate, lubricant and annealing technology on the quality of shaped components are summarized and discussed in the present paper. The above mentioned parameters are adopted in the process of spinning of barrel-shaped and specially shaped components of refractory metals and their alloys W, Mo, Nb, Zr, TZM molybdenum alloy, C-103, C-752 niobium alloy etc. The cause of leading to usual defects of spun products of refractory metals such as lamellar as 'scaling', crack, swelling, wrinkle, etc. have been analysed and the ways to eliminate the defects have been put forward. 8 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Super Refractory Status Epilepticus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    et al did retrospective cohort study from 1 January st. 1994 to 31 March 1998 at Presbyterian Medical. Centre in Columbia, to determine the frequency, risk factors and impact on the outcome of RSE. They found out that 69% of seizures recurred after. Key Words: Super refractory status epilepticus, Zambia. Medical Journal of ...

  15. Plasma deposition of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of deposition, testing and application of plasma coating of refractory metals and oxides are considered. The process fundamentals, various manufacturing procedures and equipment for their realization are described in detail. Coating materials are given (Al, Mg, Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , MgAlO 4 ) which are used in reactor engineering and their designated purposes are shown [ru

  16. Colectomy for refractory constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahave, Dennis; Loud, Franck Bjørn; Christensen, Elsebeth

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the type of colectomy, postoperative complications, functional results, and satisfaction in patients with constipation refractory to conservative therapy. Further, colonic transit time (CTT), faecal load (coprostasis), and colon length (redundancies) were compared...... had at hemicolectomy, 11 patients a subtotal colectomy and 3 patients an ileostomy. Two patients had an anastomotic leak and one died. In 11 patients, further surgery was necessary, because of recurrent constipation. Abdominal pain disappeared and defecation patterns improved significantly to 1-4 per...

  17. Refractory alloy component fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe joining procedures, primarily welding techniques, which were developed to construct reliable refractory alloy components and systems for advanced space power systems. Two systems, the Nb-1Zr Brayton Cycle Heat Receiver and the T-111 Alloy Potassium Boiler Development Program, are used to illustrate typical systems and components. Particular emphasis is given to specific problems which were eliminated during the development efforts. Finally, some thoughts on application of more recent joining technology are presented. 78 figures

  18. Refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits.

  19. Refractory status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay P; Agarwal, Shubhi; Faulkner, M

    2014-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED), i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits. PMID:24791086

  20. Refractory chronic cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Edvinsson, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cluster headache (CCH) often resists to prophylactic pharmaceutical treatments resulting in patients' life damage. In this rare but pragmatic situation escalation to invasive management is needed but framing criteria are lacking. We aimed to reach a consensus for refractory CCH definition...... for clinical and research use. The preparation of the final consensus followed three stages. Internal between authors, a larger between all European Headache Federation members and finally an international one among all investigators that have published clinical studies on cluster headache the last five years...

  1. Slagging gasifier refractories. A new pathway to longer refractory life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnake, Mark [Harbinson-Walker Refractories Company, Mexico, MO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Solid fuel slagging gasification to convert coal or petroleum coke feedstocks into syngas has rapidly evolved over the last 25 years. The gasifier is a high temperature, high pressure reaction chamber. Operating temperatures are between 1250 and 1575 C. Pressures will be between 20.4 and 68 atm. Syngas has been typically used for chemical feedstocks, fuel for power plants, or for steam and hydrogen generation in other industrial applications. Ash which comes from the solid fuel during gasification has many impurities. It melts during the gasifier reactor operation forming a liquid that penetrates the refractory lining. Given time, the refractory will wear away from thermal spalling, structural spalling, or overheating of the refractory. In some cases, all three wear mechanisms are seen in the same gasifier lining. Industry users have identified refractory life as one major limiting factor in worldwide use of this technology. Users have stated if the refractory liner can increase on-line availability of the gasifier operation, more industry acceptance of this technology is possible. Harbison-Walker Refractories Company will review destructive factors affecting lining life and discuss new refractory materials that have dramatically increased gasifier lining life and reliability. New refractory materials will be presented and supported by field trial results and post mortem analysis.

  2. Refractory benign esophageal strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory benign esophageal stricture (RBES is a frequently encountered problem worldwide. These strictures arise from various causes such as corrosive injury, radiation therapy, peptic origin, ablative therapy, and after surgery. Most strictures can be treated successfully with endoscopic dilatation using bougies or balloons, with only a few complications. Those patients who fail after serial dilatation with bougies or balloons will come to the category of refractory strictures. Dilatation combined with intralesional steroid injections can be considered for peptic strictures, whereas incisional therapy has been demonstrated to be effective for short anastomotic strictures. When these therapeutic options do not resolve the stenosis, stent placement should be considered. Self-bougienage can be proposed to a selected group of patients with a proximal stenosis. Most of the patients of RBES respond to above-mentioned treatment and occasional patient may require surgery as the final treatment option. This review aims to provide a comprehensive approach toward endoscopic management of RBESs based on current literature and personal experience.

  3. Refractory metal based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Paula R.; Vicente, Eduardo E.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    1999-01-01

    Refractory metals are looked as promising materials for primary circuits in fission reactors and even as fusion reactor components. Indeed, superalloys could be developed which take advantage of their high temperature properties together with the benefits of a two- phase (intermetallic compound-refractory metal matrix) coherent structure. In 1993, researchers of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales of France reported the observation of such a coherent structure in the Ta-Ti-Zr-Al-Nb-Mo system although the exact composition is not reported. The intermetallic compound would be Ti 2 AlMo based. However, the formation of this compound and its possible coexistence with a disordered bcc phase in the ternary system Ti-Al-Mo is a controversial subject in the related literature. In this work we develop a technique to obtain homogeneous alloys samples with 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. The resulting specimens were characterized by optical and electronic metallography (SEM), microprobe composition measurements (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show the evidence for a bcc (A2→B2) ordering reaction in the Ti-Al-Mo system in the 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. (author)

  4. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  5. Autoradiographic study of corrosion of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisenenkova, S.B.; Kucheryavyi, M.N.; Bursteva, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the character of the interaction between a container-glass melt consisting of sodium calcium silicate and refractories in various furnace sections using an autoradiographic method. Static tests were conducted on specimens of the following refractories: chrome-aluminum-zircon, Bakor 41, corundum, a high alumina refractory, and a refractory based on tin dioxide. The specimens were activated by calcium 45. Autoradiography and photomicrography indicated that an intrinsic feature of all refractories was that calcium from the melt penetrated the refractories along the weak link; for fused-cast refractories, the glass phase; and for sintered refractories, through the binder and cracks

  6. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Skov Mortensen, Stig

    This article will present a case for a shift in perspective in inclusive education research towards a continentally inspired approach. Drawing on the age old distinction between continental and Anglo-American educational research the aim is to flesh out what a shift to a continental approach...... will entail, and why it might be beneficial to research in inclusive education...

  7. Social inclusion and inclusive education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Robo

    2014-07-01

    In line with global debate on social inclusion and exclusion, the author brings the way this debate has now pervaded both the official and development policy discourse in Albania.Social inclusion is considered as one of the priorities of the current government, with poverty reduction as its main focus, which will be ensured not only through economic development. In the end, the article focuses on the role of education as a very important and useful tool for ensuring social inclusion.Social inclusion through education, in particular through vocational education, considered by the author as the only way towards sustainable development of Albanian society.

  8. Refractory chronic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martelletti, Paolo; Katsarava, Zaza; Lampl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The debate on the clinical definition of refractory Chronic Migraine (rCM) is still far to be concluded. The importance to create a clinical framing of these rCM patients resides in the complete disability they show, in the high risk of serious adverse events from acute and preventative drugs...... and in the uncontrolled application of therapeutic techniques not yet validated.The European Headache Federation Expert Group on rCM presents hereby the updated definition criteria for this harmful subset of headache disorders. This attempt wants to be the first impulse towards the correct identification...... of these patients, the correct application of innovative therapeutic techniques and lastly aim to be acknowledged as clinical entity in the next definitive version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 (ICHD-3 beta)....

  9. Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Charumathi Raghu; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms, esophageal injury, and/or complications. Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remains the standard therapy for GERD and is effective in most patients. Those whose symptoms are refractory to PPIs should be evaluated further and other treatment options should be considered, according to individual patient characteristics. Response to PPIs could be total (no symptoms), partial (residual breakthrough symptoms), or absent (no change in symptoms). Patients experiencing complete response do not usually need further management. Patients with partial response can be treated surgically or by using emerging endoscopic therapies. Patients who exhibit no response to PPI need further evaluation to rule out other causes. PMID:25274499

  10. Bulk Vitrification Castable Refractory Block Protection Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Beck, Andrew E.; Brouns, Thomas M.; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Elliott, Michael L.; Matyas, Josef; Minister, Kevin BC; Schweiger, Michael J.; Strachan, Denis M.; Tinsley, Bronnie P.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-05-01

    penetration of molten salt. Out of several refractory tile candidates, only greystone and fused-cast alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory remained intact and well bonded to the CRB after firing to 1000 C. The deformation of the refractory-tile composite was avoided by prefiring the greystone tile to 800 C. Condensed vapors did not penetrate the tiles, but Re salts condensed on their surface. Refractory corrosion tests indicated that a 0.25-inch-thick greystone tile would not corrode during a BV melt. Tiles can reduce both vapor penetration and molten salt penetration, but vapor deposition above the melt line will occur even on tiles. The Tc/Re transport scenario was outlined as follows. At temperatures below 700 C, molten ionic salt (MIS) that includes all the Tc/Re penetrates, by capillarity, from the feed into the CRB open porosity. At approximately 750 C, the MIS decomposes through the loss of NOx, leaving mainly sulfate and chloride salts. The Na2O formed in the decomposition of the nitrates reacts with insoluble grains in the feed and with the aluminosilicates in the CRB to form more viscous liquids that reduce further liquid penetration into the CRB. At 800 to 1000 C, a continuous glass phase traps the remains of the MIS in the form of inclusions in the bulk glass melt. At 1000 to 1200 C, the salt inclusions in the glass slowly dissolve but also rise to the surface. The Tc/Re salts also evaporate from the free surface of the glass melt that is rapidly renewed by convective currents. The vapors condense on cooler surfaces in the upper portion of the CRB, the box lid, and the off-gas system.

  11. Inclusive pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann; Mortensen, Stig Skov

    of education. The article explores the relationship between Continental and Anglo-American educational theory, and why they seem to have developed in such distinct directions. Beginning with the Anglo-American perspective it is outlined how pedagogy and the so called educational interest became replaced...... and the politicisation of inclusive education, and a positive aim in the form of an argument for a move towards constructing a pedagogical ideal of inclusion....

  12. Updates in Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahulikar, Advait; Suchdev, Kushak; Shah, Aashit

    2018-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus is defined as persistent seizures despite appropriate use of two intravenous medications, one of which is a benzodiazepine. It can be seen in up to 40% of cases of status epilepticus with an acute symptomatic etiology as the most likely cause. New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently coined term for refractory status epilepticus where no apparent cause is found after initial testing. A large proportion of NORSE cases are eventually found to have an autoimmune etiology needing immunomodulatory treatment. Management of refractory status epilepticus involves treatment of an underlying etiology in addition to intravenous anesthetics and antiepileptic drugs. Alternative treatment options including diet therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, and surgical resection in case of a focal lesion should be considered. Short-term and long-term outcomes tend to be poor with significant morbidity and mortality with only one-third of patients reaching baseline neurological status. PMID:29854452

  13. inclusions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Migórski

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we confirm the validity of some recent results of Hu, Lakshmikantham, Papageorgiou [4] and Papageorgiou [13] concerning the existence and relaxation for nonlinear evolution inclusions. We fill a gap in the proofs of these results due to the use of incorrect Nagy's compactness embedding theorem.

  14. Translating Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallov, Mia Arp; Birk, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how practices of translation shape particular paths of inclusion for people living in marginalized residential areas in Denmark. Inclusion, we argue, is not an end-state, but rather something which must be constantly performed. Active citizenship, today......, is not merely a question of participation, but of learning to become active in all spheres of life. The paper draws on empirical examples from a multi-sited field work in 6 different sites of local community work in Denmark, to demonstrate how different dimensions of translation are involved in shaping active...... citizenship. We propose the following different dimensions of translation: translating authority, translating language, translating social problems. The paper takes its theoretical point of departure from assemblage urbanism, arguing that cities are heterogeneous assemblages of socio-material interactions...

  15. Machining refractory alloys: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopher, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nontraditional machining is a generic term for those material removal processes that differ drastically from the historic operations such as turning, milling, drilling, tapping, and grinding. The use of primary energy modes other than mechanical, such as thermal, electrical, and chemical, sets these operations apart and reinforces their nontraditional label. Several of these newer processes have been very successful in machining close tolerance parts from refractory materials. This paper provides a general overview of both traditional and nontraditional aspects of machining refractory materials. 11 figures, 7 tables

  16. Refractories for steel-works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanova, R.A.; Galant, C.L.; Haas, C.; Rosenbaum, V.

    The routine procedures utilized for quality control of refractory materials used by PIRATINI's steel-works, are presented ' under an objetive and practical maner. The attention of the paper is concentrated upon the following' refractory types with higher consume: silicon-aluminous; aluminous; basic magnesia; basic chrom-magnesia. All steps of utilization are described, including specification, supplies programation, storage; sampling; physical tests, and also aplication procedures. Results from routine analysis during a six month period, by ' means of X-Ray Quantometry, using the fusion pearls procedure, are presented compared with Atomic Absorption [pt

  17. SINTERED REFRACTORY TUNGSTEN ALLOYS. Gesinterte hochschmelzende wolframlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, R.; Sedlatschek, K.; Braun, H.

    1971-12-15

    Dependence of the melting point of the refractory metals on their positions in the periodic system - alloys of tungsten with other refractory metals - sintering of the alloys - processing of the alloys - technological properties.

  18. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  19. REFRACTORY THROMBOCYTOPENIA AND NEUTROPENIA: A DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGE

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Gyan; François Dreyfus; Pierre Fenaux

    2015-01-01

    Background. The 2008 WHO classification identified refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD) as a composite entity encompassing refractory anemia, refractory thrombocytopenia (RT), and refractory neutropenia (RN), characterized by 10% or more dysplastic cells in the bone marrow respective lineage. The diagnosis of RT and RN is complicated by several factors.  Diagnosing RT first requires exclusion of familial thrombocytopenia, chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenia, concomitant medi...

  20. Refractory disease in autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasconcelos, Carlos; Kallenberg, Cees; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    Refractory disease (RD) definition has different meanings but it is dynamic, according to knowledge and the availability of new drugs. It should be differentiated from severe disease and damage definitions and it must take into account duration of adequate therapy and compliance of the patient. It

  1. A Review on Recent Advances on Magnesia-Doloma Refractories by Nano-Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to exhibiting an excellent chemical resistance against basic environments at high temperature, good thermal shock resistance, thermodynamic stability in the presence of carbon, and a suitable abrasion resistance, MgO-CaO refractories are widely used in argon-oxygen decarburization furnaces in the metallurgy industry and cement rotary kilns. Furthermore, MgO-CaO refractories are beneficial to removing inclusions from molten steels; thus, they have been considered to be one of the effective refractory types for processing clean steel products. Also, MgO-CaO materials have become one of the attractive steelmaking refractories because of their low cost and high ore reserves.  However, in spite of these primary advantages, the application of MgO-CaO refractories has not been popular due to its tendency to hydration when exposed to the atmosphere.  In world most of MgO-CaO bricks producers used of organic components such as tar, pitch, and peck for produce MgO-CaO refractories. But during the application of these bricks in steel and cement and industrials, they released CO and CO2 gases to air and pollute the atmosphere. For this reason, recently some researcher investigate the effect of additive nanoparticles on MgO-CaO refractories performance. They reported the used of Nano-additive have acceptable results and additive nanoparticles can replace by aforementioned environment contaminating organic compounds. In this study, we reviewed all effort that done for improving the hydration resistance of MgO-CaO refractories by application of Nano-additives with an emphasis on the beneficial the use of additives nanoparticle for reduction of environmental pollution by various industries which used of MgO-CaO refractory bricks.

  2. Interventional embolization for refractory hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Guomin; Zhang Yunping; Chen Yaxian; Zhao Jinwei; Yang Weihuai; Chen Jinluo

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of the thyroid artery embolization for refractory hyperthyroidism. Methods: Super selective catheterization and interventional embolization of thyroid superior and inferior arteries were performed with PVA microspheres and Gelfoam particles. Changes of function and size of thyroid were investigated after embolization. Results: The procedures were succeeded in all 21 patients. Followed up by 3-12 months, serum level of thyroid hormones dropped significantly (median FT 3 from 17.1 pmol/L to 7.44 pmol/L, median FT 4 from 51.1 pmol/L to 23.3 pmol/L, P< 0.01). The size of thyroid glands decreased remarkably. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism were controlled in 4 patients and were effectively controlled through low dose antithyroid medication in 17 patients. No serious complications occurred. Conclusions: Thyroid artery embolization is a new safe and effective method for refractory hyperthyroidism

  3. Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Mayeda, T.K.; Clayton, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition has been measured on the constituent phases of Allende inclusion HAL, which has unusual mineralogical, chemical, and calcium isotopic compositions. The oxygen in HAL is heterogeneous, with the rim showing more ''normal'' composition and the hibonite core showing large deviation from both the terrestrial material and the usual inclusions. The observed pattern indicates that HAL is a bona fide and more devious member of the rare ''FUN'' family, whose isotopic composition is characterized by correlated nuclear effects and extreme mass fractionation. The data imply that HAL has suffered a large oxygen mass fractionation of 25% 0 per mass unit, followed by exchange with oxygen in a second reservoir. The present experiment supports the identification of two distinct reservoirs from which all refractory inclusions in carbonaceous meteorites derived their oxygen. The required fractionation process seems to operate according to the volatility of various elements and could have been caused by evaporation during a heating event. Nuclear anomalies can be produced in the same heating event if the progenitors of the refractory inclusions were macroscopic aggregates of tiny pre-solar interstellar dust grains and if these grains were destroyed differentially during the evaporation

  4. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  5. Emergency Surgery for Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botre, Abhijeet; Udani, Vrajesh; Desai, Neelu; Jagadish, Spoorthy; Sankhe, Milind

    2017-08-15

    Management of refractory status epilepticus in children is extremely challenging. Two children with medically refractory status epilepticus, both of whom had lesional pathology on MRI and concordant data on EEG and PET scan. Emergency hemispherotomy performed in both patients. A complete, sustained seizure freedom obtained postoperatively. Emergency surgery is a treatment option in selected cases of drug refractory status epilepticus with lesional pathology and concordant data.

  6. Medical versus surgical treatment for refractory or recurrent peptic ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Pallari, Elena

    2016-03-29

    Refractory peptic ulcers are ulcers in the stomach or duodenum that do not heal after eight to 12 weeks of medical treatment or those that are associated with complications despite medical treatment. Recurrent peptic ulcers are peptic ulcers that recur after healing of the ulcer. Given the number of deaths due to peptic ulcer-related complications and the long-term complications of medical treatment (increased incidence of fracture), it is unclear whether medical or surgical intervention is the better treatment option in people with recurrent or refractory peptic ulcers. To assess the benefits and harms of medical versus surgical treatment for people with recurrent or refractory peptic ulcer. We searched the specialised register of the Cochrane Upper GI and Pancreatic Diseases group, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trials registers until September 2015 to identify randomised trials and non-randomised studies, using search strategies. We also searched the references of included studies to identify further studies. We considered randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies comparing medical treatment with surgical treatment in people with refractory or recurrent peptic ulcer, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio, mean difference, standardised mean difference, or hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals using both fixed-effect and random-effects models with Review Manager 5 based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included only one non-randomised study published 30 years ago in the review. This study included 77 participants who had gastric ulcer and in whom medical therapy (histamine H2 receptor blockers, antacids, and diet) had failed after an average duration of treatment of 29 months. The

  7. Merits of using andalusite-based refractories compared to bauxite-based refractories

    OpenAIRE

    Nyoka, M.; Brazier, D.; Courtney, T.; Parry, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically bauxite-based refractories have been used in applications where andalusite-based refractories could work. Bauxite-based refractories were chosen over andalusite-based refractories mainly because of the availability of low-cost Chinese bauxite and also because many furnaces were designed by international companies that cannot easily access high-quality products. Currently, the availability of low-cost bauxite is under threat as a result of high export duties and tariffs as well as...

  8. Development of refractory concrete for extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pundiene, I; Antonovich, V; Stonys, R; Demidova-Buiziniene, I

    2011-01-01

    Comparative analysis is provided for the properties of medium-cement refractory concrete with microsilica based on mullite filler in relation to different type of deflocculant. The effect of different deflocculants on refractory concrete structure formation, hydration, rheology, strength and heat resistance is discussed. Corrosion resistance test, determined that samples with hybrid deflocculant showed better resistance for slag penetration than samples with only the sodium tripolyphosphate or polycarboxylate ether deflocculant. Moreover, a composition of hybrid deflocculant let to control the rate of the hydration process and to get features of refractory refractory concrete.

  9. Refractory, Abrasive and Other Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes refractory, abrasive, and other industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals...

  10. Refractory organic substances in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frimmel, F. H

    2002-01-01

    ... and its Quality Control in Fractions of Refractory Organic Substances and the Corresponding Original Water Samples 39 Introduction 39 Description of Analytical Methods 41 Sample Treatment 41 Fl...

  11. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade. Policymakers, businesspeople and civil society advocates need evidence-based research to react ... understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... refractory iron deficiency anemia Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia is one of many types of anemia , which ...

  13. Interface Analyses Between a Case-Hardened Ingot Casting Steel and Carbon-Containing and Carbon-Free Refractories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruhstorfer, Jens; Dudczig, Steffen; Rudolph, Martin; Schmidt, Gert; Brachhold, Nora; Schöttler, Leandro; Rafaja, David; Aneziris, Christos G.

    2018-06-01

    Corrosion tests of carbon-free and carbon-containing refractories were performed. The carbon-free crucibles corroded, whereas the carbon-containing crucibles were negligibly attacked. On them, inclusions were attached. This study investigates melt oxygen contents, interface properties, and steel compositions with their non-metallic inclusions in order to explore the inclusion formation and deposition mechanisms. The carbon-free crucibles were based on alumina, mullite, and zirconia- and titania-doped alumina (AZT). The carbon-containing (-C) ones were alumina-C and AZT-C. Furthermore, nanoscaled carbon and alumina additives (-n) were applied in an AZT-C-n material. In the crucibles, the case-hardened steel 17CrNiMo7-6 was remelted at 1580 °C. It was observed that the melt and steel oxygen contents were higher for the tests in the carbon-free crucibles. Into these crucibles, the deoxidizing alloying elements Mn and Si diffused. Reducing contents of deoxidizing elements resulted in higher steel oxygen levels and less inclusions, mainly of the inclusion group SiO2-core-MnS-shell (2.5 to 8 μ m). These developed from smaller SiO2 nuclei. The inclusion amount in the steel was highest after remelting in AZT-C-n for 30 minutes but decreased strongly with increasing remelting time (60 minutes) due to inclusions' deposition on the refractory surface. The Ti from the AZT and the nanoadditives supported inclusion growth and deposition. Other inclusion groups were alumina and calcium aluminate inclusions. Their contents were high after remelting in carbon- or AZT-containing crucibles but generally decreased during remelting. On the AZT-C-n crucible, a dense layer formed from vitreous compositions including Al, Ca, Mg, Si, and Ti. To summarize, for reducing forming inclusion amounts, mullite is recommended as refractory material. For capturing formed inclusions, AZT-C-n showed a high potential.

  14. Sub-micrometer refractory carbonaceous particles in the polar stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Katharina; Wilson, James Charles; Weinbruch, Stephan; Benker, Nathalie; Ebert, Martin; Günther, Gebhard; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Eleven particle samples collected in the polar stratosphere during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone loss and validation experiment) from January until March 2000 were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A total of 4202 particles (TEM = 3872; SEM = 330) were analyzed from these samples, which were collected mostly inside the polar vortex in the altitude range between 17.3 and 19.9 km. Particles that were volatile in the microscope beams contained ammonium sulfates and hydrogen sulfates and dominated the samples. Some particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 830 nm were refractory in the electron beams. Carbonaceous particles containing additional elements to C and O comprised from 72 to 100 % of the refractory particles. The rest were internal mixtures of these materials with sulfates. The median number mixing ratio of the refractory particles, expressed in units of particles per milligram of air, was 1.1 (mg air)-1 and varied between 0.65 and 2.3 (mg air)-1. Most of the refractory carbonaceous particles are completely amorphous, a few of the particles are partly ordered with a graphene sheet separation distance of 0.37 ± 0.06 nm (mean value ± standard deviation). Carbon and oxygen are the only detected major elements with an atomic O/C ratio of 0.11 ± 0.07. Minor elements observed include Si, S, Fe, Cr and Ni with the following atomic ratios relative to C: Si/C: 0.010 ± 0.011; S/C: 0.0007 ± 0.0015; Fe/C: 0.0052 ± 0.0074; Cr/C: 0.0012 ± 0.0017; Ni/C: 0.0006 ± 0.0011 (all mean values ± standard deviation).High-resolution element distribution images reveal that the minor elements are distributed within the carbonaceous matrix; i.e., heterogeneous inclusions are not observed. No difference in size, nanostructure and elemental composition was found between particles collected inside and outside the polar vortex. Based on chemistry and nanostructure

  15. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  16. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  17. Study of non-metallic inclusion sources in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khons, Ya.; Mrazek, L.

    1976-01-01

    A study of potential inclusion sources was carried out at the Tvinec steel plant using an unified labelling procedure for different sources. A lanthanum oxide labelling method has been used for refractories with the subsequent La determination in steel by the neutron activation analysis. Samarium and cerium oxides and the 141 Ce radionuclide have been used in conjunction with the testing. The following sources of exogenous inclusions have been studied: 1)Refractory material comprising fireclay and corundum for steel-teeming trough in open-heart furnaces; 2) Fireclay bottom-pouring refractories; 3) Steel-teeming laddle lining; 4) Heat-insulating and exothermic compounds for steel ingots; 5) Vacuum treatment plant lining; 6) Open-hearth and electric arc furnace slag. The major oxide inclusion source in steel was found to be represented by the furnace slag, since it forms about 40 p.c. of all oxide inclusions. The contributions of the remaining sources did not exceede 5 p.c. each

  18. Carbothermic reduction of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.N.; Parlee, N.A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The reduction of stable refractory metal oxides by carbon is generally unacceptable since the product is usually contaminated with carbides. The carbide formation may be avoided by selecting a solvent metal to dissolve the reactive metal as it is produced and reduce its chemical activity below that required for carbide formation. This approach has been successfully applied to the oxides of Si, Zr, Ti, Al, Mg, and U. In the case where a volatile suboxide, a carbonyl reaction, or a volatile metal occur, the use of the solvent metal appears satisfactory to limit the loss of material at low pressures. In several solute--solvent systems, vacuum evaporation is used to strip the solvent metal from the alloy to give the pure metal

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  20. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  4. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  10. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  11. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  12. Plasma spraying of refractory metals and refractory hard materials. State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.; Lugscheider, E.; Jaeger, D.

    1989-01-01

    Suitable spraying processes for manufacturing refractory metals, refractory hard materials as well as spray materials with refractory components are the VPS- and IPS-spraying techniques. The advantages of these special spraying process variations are described. The reactive spraying materials are systematically organized. The characteristical properties used in purpose of improving the substrate surfaces are explained. Finally some examples of the latest results of research concerning plasma spraying of reactive materials are shown. 16 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  13. Cometary dust: the diversity of primitive refractory grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D H; Ishii, H A; Zolensky, M E

    2017-07-13

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive cometary particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), chondritic porous (CP) IDPs and UltraCarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites, Stardust and Rosetta ), as well as through remote sensing ( Spitzer IR spectroscopy). Comet dust are aggregate particles of materials unequilibrated at submicrometre scales. We discuss the properties and processes experienced by primitive matter in comets. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and refractory organic matter; Mg- and Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; sulfides; existence/abundance of type II chondrule fragments; high-temperature calcium-aluminium inclusions and ameboid-olivine aggregates; and rarely occurring Mg-carbonates and magnetite, whose explanation requires aqueous alteration on parent bodies. The properties of refractory materials imply there were disc processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disc present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Zirconium determination in refractories (gravimetric method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiotto, N.; Narahashi, Y.; Perish, C.G.; Souza, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The zirconium determination in refractories is described, consisting in two separation methods for eliminating the interferences. The formatted product is calcined at 1100 0 C and determined gravimetrically as Zr P z 07. (author)

  15. Testing Consent Order on Refractory Ceramic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice announces that EPA has signed signed an enforceable testing consent order under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. section 2601 at seq., with three of the primary producers of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF).

  16. Zirconium determination in refractories (gravimetric method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capiotto, N.; Narahashi, Y.; Perish, P.G.; Souza, J.R. de

    1991-01-01

    A gravimetric method for zirconium determination in refractories is described. X-ray fluorescence analysis is also employed in this experiment and considerations about interfering elements are presented. (M.V.M.)

  17. Prognostic Factors for Refractory Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN studied the outcome and identified prognostic factors for refractory status epilepticus (RSE in 54 adult patients, median age 52 years [range 18-93].

  18. Outcomes in Children Treated with Pentobarbital Infusion for Refractory and Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erklauer, Jennifer; Graf, Jeanine; McPherson, Mona; Anderson, Anne; Wilfong, Angus; Minard, Charles G; Loftis, Laura

    2018-03-26

    Functional neurologic outcome for children with refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus has not been well defined. Retrospective chart review including children age 0-17 years who received pentobarbital infusion from 2003 to 2016 for status epilepticus. Outcomes were defined in terms of mortality, need for new medical technology assistance at hospital discharge and functional neurologic outcome determined by pediatric cerebral performance category score (PCPC). Potential patient characteristics associated with functional neurologic outcome including age, sex, ethnicity, etiology of the status epilepticus, and duration of pentobarbital infusion were evaluated. Forty children met inclusion criteria. In-hospital mortality was 30% (12/40). Of survivors, 21% (6/28) returned to baseline PCPC while half (14/28) declined in function ≥ 2 PCPC categories at hospital discharge. 25% (7/28) of survivors required tracheostomy and 27% (7/26) required new gastrostomy. Seizures persisted at discharge for most patients with new onset status epilepticus while the majority of patients with known epilepsy returned to baseline seizure frequency. Etiology (p = 0.015), PCPC at admission (p = 0.0006), new tracheostomy (p = 0.012), and new gastrostomy tube (p = 0.012) were associated with increase in PCPC score ≥ 2 categories in univariable analysis. Duration of pentobarbital infusion (p = 0.005) and length of hospital stay (p = 0.056) were longer in patients who demonstrated significant decline in neurologic function. None of these variables maintained statistical significance when multiple logistic regression model adjusting for PCPC score at admission was applied. At long-term follow-up, 36% (8/22) of children demonstrated improvement in PCPC compared to discharge and 23% (5/22) showed deterioration including three additional deaths. Mortality in this population was high. The majority of children experienced some degree of disability at discharge. Despite

  19. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  20. Refractory hypertension: definition, prevalence, and patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acelajado, Maria Czarina; Pisoni, Roberto; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Cartmill, Falynn; Zhang, Bin; Cofield, Stacey S; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2012-01-01

    Among patients with resistant hypertension (RHTN), there are those whose blood pressure (BP) remains uncontrolled in spite of maximal medical therapy. This retrospective analysis aims to characterize these patients with refractory hypertension. Refractory hypertension was defined as BP that remained uncontrolled after ≥3 visits to a hypertension clinic within a minimum 6-month follow-up period. Of the 304 patients referred for RHTN, 29 (9.5%) remained refractory to treatment. Patients with refractory hypertension and those with controlled RHTN had similar aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity (PRA). Patients with refractory hypertension had higher baseline BP (175±23/97±15 mm Hg vs 158±25/89±15 mm Hg; P=.001/.005) and heart rate, and higher rates of prior stroke and congestive heart failure. During follow-up, the BP of patients with refractory hypertension remained uncontrolled (168.4±14.8/93.8±17.7 mm Hg) in spite of use of an average of 6 antihypertensive medications, while those of patients with controlled RHTN decreased to 129.3±11.2/77.6±10.8 mm Hg. Spironolactone reduced the BP by 12.9±17.8/6.6±13.7 mm Hg in patients with refractory hypertension and by 24.1±16.7/9.2±12.0 mm Hg in patients with controlled RHTN. In patients with RHTN, approximately 10% remain refractory to treatment. Similar aldosterone and PRA levels and a diminished response to spironolactone suggest that aldosterone excess does not explain the treatment failure. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Refractories for exhaust gas scrubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Primary metal smelters are recovering a greater percentage of their stack emissions because of increased global environmental pressures. Copper and nickel producers processing sulfide ore are under particular scrutiny for sulfur dioxide emissions. The use of various acid plant designs and associated scrubbers to capture the gas is commonplace. Failure of acid plant or sulfur dioxide control devices can be very expensive, both in terms of repair costs and lost production. Close attention should be paid to ensure smooth, long term and proper operation of these vessels. With INCO flash furnace shops smelter gases are treated immediately upon leaving the furnace in a particulate scrubber where the gases are cooled and de-dusted in a water spray chamber. The amount of chlorine and fluorine in the waste gas can vary widely, ranging from non-existent to being a major source of concern for refractory wear. Developed specifically for use in hazardous waste incinerators burning fluorine-containing materials, spall-resistant, high-purity alimina bricks were installed in various gas cleaning units in copper smelting plants. Because of the materials's combination of abrasion resistance, thermal cycling resistance, and chemical durability under conditions of variable SO(3) and fluorine attack, the material has proven to be more than adequate for the challenges of gas cleaning equipment. 2 refs.

  2. REFRACTORY THROMBOCYTOPENIA AND NEUTROPENIA: A DIAGNOSTIC CHALLENGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gyan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2008 WHO classification identified refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia (RCUD as a composite entity encompassing refractory anemia, refractory thrombocytopenia (RT, and refractory neutropenia (RN, characterized by 10% or more dysplastic cells in the bone marrow respective lineage. The diagnosis of RT and RN is complicated by several factors.  Diagnosing RT first requires exclusion of familial thrombocytopenia, chronic auto-immune thrombocytopenia, concomitant medications, viral infections, or hypersplenism. Diagnosis of RN should also be made after ruling out differential diagnoses such as ethnic or familial neutropenia, as well as acquired, drug-induced, infection-related or malignancy-related neutropenia. An accurate quantification of dysplasia should be performed in order to distinguish RT or RN from the provisional entity named idiopathic cytopenia of unknown significance (ICUS. Cytogenetic analysis, and possibly in the future somatic mutation analysis (of genes most frequently mutated in MDS, and flow cytometry analysis aberrant antigen expression on myeloid cells may help in this differential diagnosis. Importantly, we and others found that, while isolated neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are not rare in MDS, those patients can generally be classified (according to WHO 2008 classification as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia or refractory anemia with excess blasts, while RT and RN (according to WHO 2008 are quite rare.These results suggest in particular that identification of RT and RN as distinct entities could be reconsidered in future WHO classification updates.

  3. Refractory migraine in a headache clinic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Torron Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many migraineurs who seek care in headache clinics are refractory to treatment, despite advances in headache therapies. Epidemiology is poorly characterized, because diagnostic criteria for refractory migraine were not available until recently. We aimed to determine the frequency of refractory migraine in patients attended in the Headache Unit in a tertiary care center, according to recently proposed criteria. Methods The study population consisted of a consecutive sample of 370 patients (60.8% females with a mean age of 43 years (range 14-86 evaluated for the first time in our headache unit over a one-year period (between October 2008 and October 2009. We recorded information on clinical features, previous treatments, Migraine Disability Assessment Score (MIDAS, and final diagnosis. Results Overall migraine and tension-type headache were found in 46.4% and 20.5% of patients, respectively. Refractory migraine was found in 5.1% of patients. In refractory migraineurs, the mean MIDAS score was 96, and 36.8% were medication-overusers. Conclusions Refractory migraine is a relatively common and very disabling condition between the patients attended in a headache unit. The proposed operational criteria may be useful in identifying those patients who require care in headache units, the selection of candidates for combinations of prophylactic drugs or invasive treatments such as neurostimulation, but also to facilitate clinical studies in this patient group.

  4. Social imaginaries and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    that inclusion on the one hand may be seen to be about human rights, solidarity, and democracy, and on the other hand, it is about ensuring the cohesion of neoliberal society by means of every person’s obligation to realize one’s potential through learning, development, and education regardless of one’s needs......, the development of inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments will involve both inclusion and exclusion processes. With this starting point, international educational research knowledge about inclusive schools and inclusive learning environments in general will be related to the fundamental dilemma...

  5. Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation data set shares the status of action items under the Roadmap for Inclusive Innovation. Each action or project has been assigned...

  6. Teachers becoming inclusive practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , construct their identities in the light of inclusive education, and how they negotiate the tensions and contradictions emerging from the processof becoming inclusive practitioners. Central to this discussion is the understanding that teachers' ...

  7. [Surgery of refractory ischemic arrhythmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, M; Graffigna, A; Salerno, G

    1992-03-01

    Since June 1980, 138 patients have undergone surgical treatment for refractory ventricular tachycardia due to ischemic heart disease. Electrically guided surgical ablation (EGSA) of the focus was performed in 117 patients, while 14 patients underwent application of automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), and 8 patients underwent heart transplantation. During the whole period considered, among the EGSA patients an operative mortality of 13 patients was observed (11.4%), with a late mortality of another 14 patients (13.4%). Two early and six late recurrences were described, and 4 cases of sudden or unexplained death, with 2 cases clearly due to an arrhythmic event. Multivariate analysis showed preoperative ejection fraction lower than 25% as a powerful predictor of early mortality (32% vs 0%). Actuarial survival rate of patients with LVEF lower than 25% was 67 +/- 12% vs 95 +/- 2% at one year and 37 +/- 25% vs 94 +/- 8% at 8 years. A high operative mortality was then observed in patients who underwent aneurysmectomy alone or visually guided procedures as compared to electrically guided procedures (75% or 3 deaths out of 4 patients vs 8.5% or 10 out of 113 patients, respectively). Patients who received an AICD with or without associated procedures showed 1 case of in-hospital mortality and no late mortality; in 6 patients at least one shock was delivered; in two patients the AICD was implanted during an EGSA procedure, due to multiple or difficult origins of the arrhythmias. Of patients who underwent heart transplantation one case of later mortality was observed due to malignancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Delimiting Inclusive Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper was written as an answer to the question raised by my PhD dissertation on accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design (ID) methods: can Inclusive Design be delimited? The literature on Inclusive Design deals almost entrirely with consumer product design and assistive...

  9. Footstep towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Faiza; Zafar, Aneeka; Naz, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education is a rising trend in the world. The first step towards inclusive education is providing the awareness to the general education teachers. This study focused to investigate the general education teachers of primary and secondary level awareness about the special education and inclusive education. This study is descriptive method…

  10. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  11. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  12. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  13. Refractory versus resistant hypertension: Novel distinctive phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Gharpure, Nitin; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant hypertension (RHTN) is relatively common with an estimated prevalence of 10-20% of treated hypertensive patients. It is defined as blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg treated with ≥3 antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic, if tolerated. Refractory hypertension is a novel phenotype of severe antihypertensive treatment failure. The proposed definition for refractory hypertension, i.e. BP >140/90 mmHg with use of ≥5 different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) has been applied inconsistently. In comparison to RHTN, refractory hypertension seems to be less prevalent than RHTN. This review focuses on current knowledge about this novel phenotype compared with RHTN including definition, prevalence, mechanisms, characteristics and comorbidities, including cardiovascular risk. In patients with RHTN excess fluid retention is thought to be a common mechanism for the development of RHTN. Recently, evidence has emerged suggesting that refractory hypertension may be more of neurogenic etiology due to increased sympathetic activity as opposed to excess fluid retention. Treatment recommendations for RHTN are generally based on use and intensification of diuretic therapy, especially with the combination of a long-acting thiazide-like diuretic and an MRA. Based on findings from available studies, such an approach does not seem to be a successful strategy to control BP in patients with refractory hypertension and effective sympathetic inhibition in such patients, either with medications and/or device based approaches may be needed. PMID:29034321

  14. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  15. Stochastic histories of refractory interstellar dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liffman, K.; Chayton, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The authors calculate histories for refractory dust particles in the interstellar medium. The double purposes are to learn something of the properties of interstellar dust as a system and to evaluate with specific assumptions the cosmic chemical memory interpretation of a specific class of isotopic anomalies. They assemble the profile of a particle population from a large number of stochastic, or Monte Carlo, histories of single particles, which are necessarily taken to be independent with this approach. They specify probabilities for each of the events that may befall a given particle and unfold its history by a sequence of random numbers. They assume that refractory particles are created only by thermal condensation within stellar material during its ejection from stars, and that these refractory particles can be destroyed only by being sputtered to a size too small for stability or by being incorporated into the formation of new stars. In order to record chemical detail, the authors take each new refractory particle to consist of a superrefractory core plus a more massive refractory mantle. They demonstrate that these superrefractory cores have effective lifetimes much longer than the turnover time of dust mass against sputtering. As examples of cosmic chemical memory they evaluate the 16 O-richness of interstellar aluminum and mechanisms for the 48 Ca/ 50 Ti correlation. Several related consequences of this approach are discussed

  16. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  17. Modern materials based on refractory compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosolapova, T.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are the existing methods for synthesizing powders of binary refractory compounds and high-productivity techniques which hold promise as regards the manufacture of highly disperse and pure powders. Plasmochemical synthesis is shown to be an effective method for obtaining practically all carbides, nitrides and borides. A description is given of three main methods for obtaining single crystals of refractory compounds (TiN, TiC, ZrC, ZrB 2 , NbC) fairly perfect in structure and composition. These processes include deposition from vapour-gas phase, melting in arc plasma and crystallization from solutions in metallic melts. The advantages have been shown of the self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory compounds, ensuring the manufacture of products, close in composition to stoichiometric ones simultaneously with forming of items. Mechanical, thermal, abrasive, and resistive characteristics of the above materials are presented

  18. Theoretical and practical aspects about corrosion of refractories used in steel metallurgy: part 3: characterization of commercial refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braganca, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it was reviewed the main aspects found in the literature about refractories corrosion, evaluating the feasibility of certain tests and relating them with experimental results. The physical properties and microstructure of commercial refractories were analyzed, considering the differences between them and the quality implications and probable life of the refractory. Thus, it was studied the various types of refractories used as lining on steel ladle. Magnesia-carbon and doloma-carbon refractories were analyzed, highlighting the differences between them. The examined refractory showed characteristics favoring high resistance to corrosion process, presenting a series of properties to be selected in accordance with industry practice. (author)

  19. Friction measurements of steel on refractory bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselstein, L.E.

    1981-08-01

    During startup or shutdown of a pool-type LMFBR, substantial shear stresses may arise between the base of the steel reactor vessel and the refractory brick support base. The magnitude of these stresses, which result from differences in thermal expansion, can be estimated if the friction coefficient is known. This report describes experiments to determine friction coefficients between 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo steel and several refractory materials and to examine effects to contact pressure, temperature, sliding velocity, lubricants, and surface condition

  20. Chemical analysis of refractories by plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray spectrometry has been, since the last two or three decades, the traditional procedure for the chemical analysis of refractories, due to its high degree of accuracy and speed to produce analytical results. An interesting alternative to X-ray fluorescence is provided by the Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry technique, for those laboratories where wet chemistry facilities are already available or process control is not required at high speed, or investiment costs have to be low. This paper presents results obtained by plasma spectroscopy for the analysis of silico - aluminous refractories, showing calibration curves, precion and detection limits. Considerations and comparisons with X-ray fluorescence are also made. (author) [pt

  1. Improvements in or relating to refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckett, J.W.A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for the production of a refractory material which includes heating an intermediate material containing carbon to cause a thermally induced reaction involving carbon in the intermediate material, wherein the intermediate material has been produced by heating a shaped gel precipitated gel, and the carbon in the intermediate material for participating in the thermally induced reaction has been produced from a gelling agent, or a derivative thereof, incorporated in the gel during gel precipitation. As examples, the refractory material may comprise uranium/plutonium oxide, or uranium/plutonium carbide, or thorium/uranium carbide, or tungsten carbide, or tungsten carbide/cobalt metal. (author)

  2. Statistical experimental design for refractory coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, J.A.; Standard, O.C.

    2000-01-01

    The production of refractory coatings on metal casting moulds is critically dependent on the development of suitable rheological characteristics, such as viscosity and thixotropy, in the initial coating slurry. In this paper, the basic concepts of mixture design and analysis are applied to the formulation of a refractory coating, with illustration by a worked example. Experimental data of coating viscosity versus composition are fitted to a statistical model to obtain a reliable method of predicting the optimal formulation of the coating. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  3. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Refractory Ceramics Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Stephen; Whitten, Mary C.; Trejo, David; Zidek, Jason; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ceramics can be defmed as a material consisting of hard brittle properties produced from inorganic and nonmetallic minerals made by firing at high temperatures. These materials are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements and are either totally ionic, or predominately ionic but having some covalent character. This definition allows for a large range of materials, not all applicable to refractory applications. As this report is focused on potential ceramic materials for high temperature, aggressive exposure applications, the ceramics reviewed as part of this report will focus on refractory ceramics specifically designed and used for these applications. Ceramic materials consist of a wide variety of products. Callister (2000) 1 characterized ceramic materials into six classifications: glasses, clay products, refractories, cements, abrasives, and advanced ceramics. Figure 1 shows this classification system. This review will focus mainly on refractory ceramics and cements as in general, the other classifications are neither applicable nor economical for use in large structures such as the flame trench. Although much work has been done in advanced ceramics over the past decade or so, these materials are likely cost prohibitive and would have to be fabricated off-site, transported to the NASA facilities, and installed, which make these even less feasible. Although the authors reviewed the literature on advanced ceramic refractories 2 center dot 3 center dot 4 center dot 5 center dot 6 center dot 7 center dot 8 center dot 9 center dot 10 center dot 11 center dot 12 after the review it was concluded that these materials should not be ' the focus of this report. A review is in progress on materials and systems for prefabricated refractory ceramic panels, but this review is focusing more on typical refractory materials for prefabricated systems, which could make the system more economically feasible. Refractory ceramics are used for a wide variety of applications

  4. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received.

  5. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    2017-01-01

    of policymaking processes affects the actual process with a focus on inclusion, and we discuss how it affects policy effectiveness and innovation system transformation. Our argument is that processes of policymaking must be inclusive to affect and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors...... in foresight cases in two emerging economies: Brazil and South Korea. We conclude that better systemic and innovation oriented foresight is needed to enhance inclusive development....

  6. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN ITALY

    OpenAIRE

    Voitkāne, Vita

    2017-01-01

    European member States implement Inclusive Education policies thus contributing to a sustainable, inclusive society, although each country is at a different stage in this process. Italy, one of the first countries to launch integrative learning, has set an example since the 1970s, although the quality of inclusive education is unpredictable due to many issues. Authors Cantoni and Panetta (2006) emphasize that, although the culture of integration in Italy exists, much needs to be done to impro...

  7. SUPPORT IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Belma Čičkušić; Ševala Tulumović; Selma Bakić; Salem Bakić

    2016-01-01

    In order for inclusive class to be successful, associates are of great help to teachers. Besides associates, teachers' specialization can be accomplished through educational seminars on the inclusion topic. However, information about inclusion, working with children with special needs, can also be found in scientific journals that offer more information on methods of working with children with special needs, didactic materials customized according to abilities of children. Aim of ...

  8. Biodegradable stents for the treatment of refractory or recurrent benign esophageal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki; García-Pérez, Sonia; Nachtnebel, Anna; Martín-Águeda, Belén; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Karadayi, Bilgehan; Demirbaş, Ali Rıza

    2016-06-01

    Esophageal stents are used for the treatment of refractory and recurrent dyphagias. In 2007, esophageal biodegradable stents (EBS) were authorised as an alternative to existing metal and plastic stents in Europe. The advantages claimed for EBS are fewer complications concerning tissue ingrowth, stent migration and stent removal. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EBS compared to fully-covered self-expanding metal stents, self-expanding plastic stents, and esophageal dilation for the treatment of refractory or recurrent benign esophageal stenosis. Three comparative studies (one randomized controlled trial and two cohort studies) were assessed. The studies used different inclusion criteria, had a very small (sample) size and the quality of the evidence was very low. Expert commentary: The current evidence is insufficient to determine the relative efficacy or safety of esophageal biodegradable stents. The results of this systematic review should be updated once new evidence is available.

  9. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory Au-Ag ore for improved cyanidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Ibrahim; Celep, Oktay; Deveci, Haci

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the alkaline sulfide pretreatment of an antimonial refractory gold and silver ore. In the ore, gold occurs mainly as gold-silver alloys and as associated with quartz and framboidal pyrite grains, and, to a small extent, as the inclusions within antimonial sulfides. Silver is present extensively as antimonial sulfides such as andorite. Alkaline sulfide pretreatment was shown to allow the decomposition of the antimonial sulfide minerals (up to 98% Sb removal) and to remarkably improve the amenability of gold (e.g., from leaching. An increase in reagent concentration (1-4 mol/L Na2S or NaOH) and temperature (20-80°C), and a decrease in particle size seem to produce an enhancing effect on metal extraction. These findings suggest that alkaline sulfide leaching can be suitably used as a chemical pretreatment method prior to the conventional cyanidation for antimonial refractory gold and silver ores.

  10. Sub-micrometer refractory carbonaceous particles in the polar stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schütze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven particle samples collected in the polar stratosphere during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone loss and validation experiment from January until March 2000 were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A total of 4202 particles (TEM  =  3872; SEM  =  330 were analyzed from these samples, which were collected mostly inside the polar vortex in the altitude range between 17.3 and 19.9 km. Particles that were volatile in the microscope beams contained ammonium sulfates and hydrogen sulfates and dominated the samples. Some particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 830 nm were refractory in the electron beams. Carbonaceous particles containing additional elements to C and O comprised from 72 to 100 % of the refractory particles. The rest were internal mixtures of these materials with sulfates. The median number mixing ratio of the refractory particles, expressed in units of particles per milligram of air, was 1.1 (mg air−1 and varied between 0.65 and 2.3 (mg air−1. Most of the refractory carbonaceous particles are completely amorphous, a few of the particles are partly ordered with a graphene sheet separation distance of 0.37 ± 0.06 nm (mean value ± standard deviation. Carbon and oxygen are the only detected major elements with an atomic O∕C ratio of 0.11 ± 0.07. Minor elements observed include Si, S, Fe, Cr and Ni with the following atomic ratios relative to C: Si∕C: 0.010 ± 0.011; S∕C: 0.0007 ± 0.0015; Fe∕C: 0.0052 ± 0.0074; Cr∕C: 0.0012 ± 0.0017; Ni∕C: 0.0006 ± 0.0011 (all mean values ± standard deviation.High-resolution element distribution images reveal that the minor elements are distributed within the carbonaceous matrix; i.e., heterogeneous inclusions are not observed. No difference in size, nanostructure and elemental composition was found between

  11. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-seven major, minor and trace elements were determined by INAA and RNAA in samples of hibonite, black rim and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, HAL. The peculiar isotopic, mineralogical and textural properties of HAL are accompanied by very unusual trace element abundances. The most striking feature of the chemistry is the virtual absence of Ce from an inclusion otherwise highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os and Ir, relative to other refractory elements. Of the lithophile elements determined which are normally considered to be refractory in a gas of solar composition, Sr, Ba, Ce, U and V are the most volatile in oxidizing gases. The distribution of REE between hibonite and rims seems to have been established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. On the basis of HAL's chemical and isotopic composition, possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are discussed. (author)

  12. Iatrogenic colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kaposi sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor associated to a human herpes virus-8. It often occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. Colorectal localization is rare. We report the case of a colorectal Kaposi sarcoma complicating a refractory ulcerative colitis treated with surgery after the failure of ...

  13. Decision Making during the Psychological Refractory Period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zylberberg, Ariel; Ouellette, Brian; Sigman, Mariano; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its massively parallel architecture [1], the human brain is fundamentally limited if required to perform two tasks at the same time [2, 3]. This limitation can be studied with the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, where two stimuli that require speeded responses occur in

  14. Service life prediction for refractory materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Cannio, M.; Volkov-Husović, T. D.; Kamseu, E.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Leonelli, C.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 12 (2008), s. 4079-4090 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : refractory materials * ultrasonic velocity * fracture toughness Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2008

  15. Bone hydatid disease refractory to nitazoxanide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Hans G.; Simsek, Suat; van Agtmael, Michiel A.; van Lienden, Krijn P.

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient with bone hydatid disease that was refractory to both long-term daily treatment with albendazole, combined with cimetidine or administered as monotherapy ( approximately 15 years) and a relatively short course of nitazoxanide combined with albendazole (3 months). Despite

  16. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  17. Testing and Inclusive Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Anne; Hamre, Bjørn; Ydesen, Christian

    Testing and Inclusive Schooling provides a comparative on seemingly incompatible global agendas and efforts to include all children in the general school system, Thus reducing exclusion. With an examination of the international testing culture and the politics of inclusion currently permeating...

  18. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  19. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  20. Clinical Features of Refractory Ascites in Outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Regina Caly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To present the clinical features and outcomes of outpatients who suffer from refractory ascites. METHODS: This prospective observational study consecutively enrolled patients with cirrhotic ascites who submitted to a clinical evaluation, a sodium restriction diet, biochemical blood tests, 24 hour urine tests and an ascitic fluid analysis. All patients received a multidisciplinary evaluation and diuretic treatment. Patients who did not respond to the diuretic treatment were controlled by therapeutic serial paracentesis, and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was indicated for patients who required therapeutic serial paracentesis up to twice a month. RESULTS: The most common etiology of cirrhosis in both groups was alcoholism [49 refractory (R and 11 non-refractory ascites (NR]. The majority of patients in the refractory group had Child-Pugh class B cirrhosis (p=0.034. The nutritional assessment showed protein-energy malnutrition in 81.6% of the patients in the R group and 35.5% of the patients in the NR group, while hepatic encephalopathy, hernia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, upper digestive hemorrhage and type 2 hepatorenal syndrome were present in 51%, 44.9%, 38.8%, 38.8% and 26.5% of the patients in the R group and 9.1%, 18.2%, 0%, 0% and 0% of the patients in the NR group, respectively (p=0.016, p=0.173, p=0.012, p=0.012, and p=0.100, respectively. Mortality occurred in 28.6% of the patients in the R group and in 9.1% of the patients in the NR group (p=0.262. CONCLUSION: Patients with refractory ascites were malnourished, suffered from hernias, had a high prevalence of complications and had a high postoperative death frequency, which was mostly due to infectious processes.

  1. Emerging therapeutic options for sporadic inclusion body myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfano LN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay N Alfano, Linda P Lowes Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Center for Gene Therapy, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Sporadic inclusion body myositis is the most common inflammatory muscle disorder preferentially affecting males over the age of 40 years. Progressive muscle weakness of the finger flexors and quadriceps muscles results in loss of independence with activities of daily living and eventual wheelchair dependence. Initial signs of disease are often overlooked and can lead to mis- or delayed diagnosis. The underlying cause of disease is unknown, and disease progression appears refractory to available treatment options. This review discusses the clinical presentation of inclusion body myositis and the current efforts in diagnosis, and focuses on the current state of research for both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment options for this patient group. Keywords: myositis, inclusion body myositis, inflammatory myopathy, treatment, function, outcomes

  2. Chemical composition of HAL, an isotopically-unusual Allende inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A. M.; Tanaka, T.; Grossman, L.; Lee, T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of hibonite, black rim, and portions of friable rim from an unusual Allende inclusion, named HAL, were analyzed by INAA and RNAA for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. An unusually low amount of Ce was found in HAL, although it otherwise was highly enriched in REE compared to C1 chondrites. HAL is also depleted in Sr, Ba, U, V, Ru, Os, and Ir relative to other refractory elements. It is concluded that the distribution of REE between hibonite and rims was established when hibonite and other refractory minerals were removed at slightly different temperatures from a hot, oxidizing gas in which they previously coexisted as separate grains. Possible locations for the chemical and mass dependent isotopic fractionation are considered to be in ejecta from the low temperature helium-burning zone of a supernova and in the locally oxidizing environment generated by evaporation of interstellar grains of near-chondritic chemical composition.

  3. Potential refractory alloy requirements for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In reviewing design requirements for refractory alloys for space nuclear applications, several key points are identified. First, the successful utilization of refractory alloys is considered an enabling requirement for the successful deployment of high efficiency, lightweight, and small space nuclear systems. Second, the recapture of refractory alloy nuclear technology developed in the 1960s and early 1970s appears to be a pacing activity in the successful utilization of refractory alloys. Third, the successful application of refractory alloys for space nuclear applications will present a significant challenge to both the materials and the systems design communities

  4. Inclusion in Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Allan Galis

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This study of reform policy focused on inclusive education in the 1990s in the state of Georgia, United States of America. Program modifications including, individualizing instructional methods, adapting the instructional environment, and lowering maximum class size emerged as significant issues. We found that policies related to these areas were compounded by the less experienced educators not readily accepting change strategies for serving students. Apparently younger educators are engrossed in surviving daily routine and have difficulty coping with the complex demands of change. Regular education teachers have difficulty with the idea of inclusion. Legal aspects dealing inclusion need clarification, especially for regular education teachers.

  5. Assessment of inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the way teachers, in teams can work with assessing the inclusive practice in their own classes. In 2012 a joint effort between CEPRA, teachers and school administrators from the municipality of Hjørring developed a dialog based model for continually assessing...... the quality of the learning environment in regard to inclusion – this model draws heavily on the logic and mindset of ECERS (Early child environment program). This article will relate the rationale of the assessment model called “Dialoger om Kvalitet” (dialogues on quality) to LSP’s definition of inclusion...

  6. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  7. Pharmacotherapy for Refractory and Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtkamp, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Patients with prolonged seizures that do not respond to intravenous benzodiazepines and a second-line anticonvulsant suffer from refractory status epilepticus and those with seizures that do not respond to continuous intravenous anesthetic anticonvulsants suffer from super-refractory status epilepticus. Both conditions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A strict pharmacological treatment regimen is urgently required, but the level of evidence for the available drugs is very low. Refractory complex focal status epilepticus generally does not require anesthetics, but all intravenous non-anesthetizing anticonvulsants may be used. Most descriptive data are available for levetiracetam, phenytoin and valproate. Refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus is a life-threatening emergency, and long-term clinical consequences are eminent. Administration of intravenous anesthetics is mandatory, and drugs acting at the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor such as midazolam, propofol and thiopental/pentobarbital are recommended without preference for one of those. One in five patients with anesthetic treatment does not respond and has super-refractory status epilepticus. With sustained seizure activity, excitatory N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are increasingly expressed post-synaptically. Ketamine is an antagonist at this receptor and may prove efficient in some patients at later stages. Neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone increase sensitivity at GABA A receptors; a Phase 1/2 trial demonstrated safety and tolerability, but randomized controlled data failed to demonstrate efficacy. Adjunct ketogenic diet may contribute to termination of difficult-to-treat status epilepticus. Randomized controlled trials are needed to increase evidence for treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus, but there are multiple obstacles for realization. Hitherto, prospective multicenter registries for pharmacological

  8. Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brose, Marcia S; Nutting, Christopher M; Jarzab, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    cancer that had progressed within the past 14 months. Adult patients (≥18 years of age) with this type of cancer were enrolled from 77 centres in 18 countries. To be eligible for inclusion, participants had to have at least one measurable lesion by CT or MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria...... cancer. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sorafenib. These results suggest that sorafenib is a new treatment option for patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. FUNDING: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals...

  9. Can we build inclusion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    of some children with special needs. Hence the title – can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily......Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion...... on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity...

  10. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  11. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  12. An unusual case of refractory wheeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Venkat; Acharya, Vishak; Pai, Narasimha; Krishnan, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man presented with a history of episodic wheeze and breathlessness of 3 years’ duration refractory to treatment. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory polyphonic rhonchi while the remainder of the examination including the cardiac examination was reported as normal. Pulmonary function testing revealed mild obstruction with bronchodilator reversibility. The patient was discharged on a 6-month course of antitubercular treatment (ATT) as bronchial brush cytology (obtained via bronchoscopy) was positive for acid-fast bacilli. The patient presented after completing 6 months of ATT with persistent symptoms, a loud S1 and a mid-diastolic murmur at the apex. High-resolution CT of the chest showed bilateral dependent ground glass opacities. An echocardiogram revealed a left atrial myxoma, and normal RV size and pressures. The patient underwent successful surgical removal of the same, and made a complete recovery. Refractory wheeze is a very unusual presentation of a left atrial myxoma. PMID:25733086

  13. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of dire...

  14. An unusual case of refractory wheeze

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Venkat; Acharya, Vishak; Pai, Narasimha; Krishnan, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    A 37-year-old man presented with a history of episodic wheeze and breathlessness of 3?years? duration refractory to treatment. Physical examination revealed diffuse expiratory polyphonic rhonchi while the remainder of the examination including the cardiac examination was reported as normal. Pulmonary function testing revealed mild obstruction with bronchodilator reversibility. The patient was discharged on a 6-month course of antitubercular treatment (ATT) as bronchial brush cytology (obtaine...

  15. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    receptor is no longer essential for survival, collectively termed androgen pathway independent prostate cancer (APIPC) (Nelson, 2012). A subset of these...Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer . Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17;19(5):575-86. Chen J, Li...2005a). The androgen receptor and signal-transduction pathways in hormone-refractory prostate cancer . Part 1: Modifications to the androgen receptor

  16. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  17. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life

  18. Perspectives on environmental protection of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perking, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Alloys of refractory metals which combine high strength to weight ratios with useful low-temperature toughness and ductility have been designed to meet the requirements for the next generation of high-temperature aerospace structural materials with one exception: long term resistance to oxidation. It is considered unlikely that refractory metal alloys can be modified to possess useful resistance to oxidation as bulk materials or that coating can be designed to provide high reliability fail-safe protection for the structural alloys developed to date. Recent developments indicate that bulk alloys of W and Mo can be designed to possess short term resistance to oxidation, providing a base material which can be coated to extend useful life with fail-safe protection in the event of random coating failures. Current research on silicide coatings indicates that significant improvements in coating reliability and performance also are feasible. The technical basis for these conclusions is presented in this paper and the direction of future work that could lead to environmentally stable refractory metal alloy/coating systems is discussed

  19. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  20. IMPROVED CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINA REFRACTORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven

    2001-09-30

    The initial objective of this project was to do a literature search to define the problems of refractory selection in the metals and glass industries. The problems fall into three categories: Economic--What do the major problems cost the industries financially? Operational--How do the major problems affect production efficiency and impact the environment? and Scientific--What are the chemical and physical mechanisms that cause the problems to occur? This report presents a summary of these problems. It was used to determine the areas in which the EERC can provide the most assistance through bench-scale and laboratory testing. The final objective of this project was to design and build a bench-scale high-temperature controlled atmosphere dynamic corrosion application furnace (CADCAF). The furnace will be used to evaluate refractory test samples in the presence of flowing corrodents for extended periods, to temperatures of 1600 C under controlled atmospheres. Corrodents will include molten slag, steel, and glass. This test should prove useful for the glass and steel industries when faced with the decision of choosing the best refractory for flowing corrodent conditions.

  1. Process technology - rare and refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Bose, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    India has fairly rich resreves of rare and refractory metals. Abundant sources of ilmenite, rutile, zircon and rare earths are found in the placer deposits of the southern and eastern coasts of the country. Columbite-tantalite occur in mica and the mining belts of Bihar and cassiterite deposits are found in Bastar (Madhya Pradesh). Vanadium as a minor associate occurs in bauxites and in the vast deposits of titaniferrous magnetites. Over the years, research and development and pilot plant works in many research organisations in India have built up a sound technological base in the country for process metallurgy of many refractory and rare earth metals starting from their indigenous sources. The present paper provides a comprehensive view of the developments that have taken place till now on the processing of various refractory and rare earth metals with particular reference to the extensive work carried out at the Department of Atomic Energy. The coverage includes mineral benification separation of individual elements, preparation of pure intermediates, techniques of reduction to metal and final purification. The paper also reviews some of the recent developments that have been taken place in these fields and the potential application of these metals in the foreseeable future. (author). 22 refs., 18 fi g., 7 tabs

  2. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  3. RISKS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Husnutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inclusion is a new and unfamiliar phenomenon for most of the Russians which is treated as ensuring equal access to education for all students taking into account a variety of their special educational needs and individual capabilities. Inclusive educational model began to take root in Russia without a broad public debate and today’s parents and teachers were not ready to the cardinal changes caused by transition to the new model of education. In this regard, the studying of directly educational process by consequences of inclusive training and education is urgent now.The aims of the research are the following: to identify the major risks that characterize the current stage of the implementation process of inclusion in the Russian educational organizations; to consider the main causes that lead to their occurrence; to present a comparative analysis of the views of respondents in comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools. Methodology and research methods. The Sector Monitoring Studies of Moscow State University of Psychology & Education in 2010 and 2014 implemented a sociological study on the process of introduction of inclusion in the Russian schools. 200 teachers and 244 parents were interviewed in 2010; in 2014, in addition, 178 teachers and 386 parents were interviewed; 47 senior students including those with disabilities were interviewed too.Results. According to the results, the main concerns of the parents of students of comprehensive, inclusive and correctional schools are reduced to a few basic risks: lack of individual approach while teaching children with different educational needs, increased emotional pressure on the child, and child’s perception of the complexity of disability as an equal. These risks arise primarily because of the acute shortage of especially prepared-governmental teachers and socio-cultural, psychological unpreparedness of most contemporary children with disabilities to the perception of

  4. Chemical vapor deposition of refractory metals and ceramics III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, B.M.; Lee, W.Y.; Pickering, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The papers contained in this volume were originally presented at Symposium K on Chemical Vapor Deposition of Refractory Metals and Ceramics III, held at the Fall Meeting of the Materials Research Society in Boston, Massachusetts, on November 28--30, 1994. This symposium was sponsored by Morton International Inc., Advanced Materials, and by The Department of Energy-Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The purpose of this symposium was to exchange scientific information on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of metallic and ceramic materials. CVD technology is receiving much interest in the scientific community, in particular, to synthesize new materials with tailored chemical composition and physical properties that offer multiple functionality. Multiphase or multilayered films, functionally graded materials (FGMs), ''smart'' material structures and nanocomposites are some examples of new classes of materials being produced via CVD. As rapid progress is being made in many interdisciplinary research areas, this symposium is intended to provide a forum for reporting new scientific results and addressing technological issues relevant to CVD materials and processes. Thirty four papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Evaluation of the reusing of MGO-C refractory brick in refractory mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.D.S. da; Braganca, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The residue from the use of MgO-C refractories in electric arc furnace presents, mostly, magnesium oxide in its composition and some slag contamination and impurities from the process of electrofusion scrap iron/steel. In this study, it was studied the characteristics of this residue and reused through its introduction into a commercial refractory mix, employed as material of coating and repair. This refractory mix was tested by thermogravimetric analysis, compressive strength, evaluation of plasticity and porosity as well as aspects of its installation, such as adhesion in situ. Results showed that there potential for reuse with the introduction of the waste in commercial mix was 30%, with little loss of compressive strength and plasticity. (author)

  6. Diagnosis and management of refractory celiac disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Asma; Serghini, Meriem; Karoui, Sami; Boubaker, Jalel; Filali, Azza

    2013-01-01

    Refractory celiac disease is defined by persisting malabsorptive symptoms in spite of a strict gluten free diet for at least 6 to 12 months. Alternatives to gluten free diet seem to be still controversial. To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of refractory celiac disease, and to identify therapeutic options in this condition. Systematic review and critical analysis of observational studies, clinical trials and case reports that focused on diagnosis and management of refractory celiac disease. Refractory celiac disease can be classified as type 1 or type 2 according to the phenotype of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Great complications such as enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma may occur in a subgroup of these patients mainly in refractory celiac disease type 2. Curative therapies are still lacking. Refractory celiac disease remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its prognosis remains still dismal by the absence yet of curative therapies. However, some new treatments seem to hold promise during few cohort-studies.

  7. A one-year prospective study of refractory status epilepticus in Modena, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Giada; Monti, Giulia; Polisi, Michela M; Mirandola, Laura; Marudi, Andrea; Pinelli, Giovanni; Valzania, Franco; Girardis, Massimo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a particular critical condition characterized by seizures that continue despite the use of first- and second-line therapies and by high mortality. To date, only one prospective study investigated clinical features and prognostic factors in RSE. In this study, we performed a one-year prospective survey to identify clinical features, outcomes, and variables associated with the development of RSE in the adolescent and adult population of Modena, northern Italy. We observed 83 episodes of SE in 83 patients. In 31% of the cases, third-line therapy (anesthetic drug) was needed. Among this group, 14% resolved and were classified as RSE, while, in 17%, seizures recurred at withdrawal of anesthetics and were classified as super-RSE. The development of RSE/super-RSE was associated with a stuporous/comatose state at presentation and with the absence of a previous history of epilepsy. Refractory status epilepticus/super-refractory status epilepticus showed a worse outcome compared with responsive SE: 54% versus 21% for 30-day mortality; 19% versus 56% for a return to baseline condition. This prospective study confirms stupor/coma at onset as a relevant clinical factor associated with SE refractoriness. We observed a rate of RSE comparable with previous reports, with high mortality and morbidity. Mortality in the observed RSE was higher than in previous studies; this result is probably related to the low rate of a previous epilepsy history in our population that reflects a high incidence of acute symptomatic etiologies, especially the inclusion of patients with postanoxic SE who have a bad prognosis per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multilingualism and Social Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role...... in these processes. As a consequence, English as the only global language is spreading around the world, including Europe and the European Union. Social and linguistic inclusion was accounted for in the pre-globalization age by the nation-state ideology implementing the ‘one nation-one people-one language’ doctrine...... in governance and daily life protected by a legal framework. This does not mean that there is full equality of languages. This carries over to the fair and just social inclusion of the speakers of these weaker, dominated languages as well. There is always a power question related to multilingualism. The ten...

  9. TOWARDS AN INCLUSIVE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía López Menéndez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays schools have to direct all efforts towards the comprehensive development of all students whatever their individual characteristics and their environment; they have to give a quality educational attention a qualified educational attention to the diversity in all their schools. This article presents an approach on the possibilities of developing a self-assessment using the Guide: "Index for Inclusion": “Index for Inclusion” published in the United kingdom by Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE Tony Booth - Mel Ainscow (2002. This guide is a simple tool intended for schools to evaluate their reality in relation to important aspects of school organization and teaching-learning from the perspective of inclusion. From this self-assessment they can design specific programs to guide their educacional practice.

  10. Temperature and Thermal Stress Analysis of Refractory Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyang Shi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firstly current status of temperature and thermal stress research of refractory product at home and aboard are analyzed. Finite element model of two classical refractory products is building by using APDL language. Distribution law of temperature and thermal stress of two typical refractory products-ladles and tundish are analyzed and their structures are optimized. Stress of optimal structure is dropped obviously, and operation life is increased effectively.

  11. Inclusive Education in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Mayzel

    2013-01-01

    To get acquainted with the practice of inclusive education in mainstream schools, with professionals who work with special children, to visit the specialist centers to share experiences - all of this was part of an internship program «Early Childhood Education for Children with Special Needs», held in Israel (April 8 -02 May 2013) this year. The country has been selected for an internship, because the practice of inclusive education has been used for over 20 years in Israel. Moreover, a lot ...

  12. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  13. Lead inclusions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Johansen, A.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Andersen, H.H.; Grabaek, L.; Bohr, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation at room temperature of lead into aluminum leads to spontaneous phase separation and formation of lead precipitates growing topotactically with the matrix. Unlike the highly pressurized (∼ 1-5 GPa) solid inclusions formed after noble gas implantations, the pressure in the lead precipitates is found to be less than 0.12 GPa. Recently the authors have observed the result that the lead inclusions in aluminum exhibit both superheating and supercooling. In this paper they review and elaborate on these results. Small implantation-induced lead precipitates embedded in an aluminum matrix were studied by x-ray diffraction

  14. Handbook of industrial refractories technology principles, types, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Caniglia, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    Encompasses the entire range of industrial refractory materials and forms: properties and their measurement, applications, manufacturing, installation and maintenance techniques, quality assurance, and statistical process control.

  15. Refractory Coated/Lined Low Density Structures, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the development of refractory coated or lined low density structures applicable for advanced future propulsion system technologies. The...

  16. An investigation into mineral processing of north Semnan refractory earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, S.; Samin-Bani-Hashemi, H.R.; Taghi-Zadeh, O.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is dealing with refractory earth of North Semnan. Having an area of 2000 square kilometers, Semnan province is mainly formed by sedimentary rocks with a verity of refractory earth, red earth and kaolin containing heavy minerals. The refractory earth of this area contains a considerable rate of aluminum oxide in shape of dia spore minerals, behemoth and gybsite along with heavy minerals of iron and titanium. To improve the quality of refractory earth, in order to be used in related industries, these minerals have to be separated. To assess the quality of refractory earth of North Semnan as the raw materials of refractory industries, their genesis and mineralogy properties have been precisely studied. Based on the rate of aluminium oxide of the refractory earth of North Semnan mines, a suitable mineral deposit has been selected for more investigation. Using XRD and X RF methods along with electronic and photo microscopes, the refractory earth and heavy minerals of them have been assessed. The elementary laboratory experiments of fragmentation and magnetic separation have been performed. It has been proved that the iron minerals can be separated and, therefore, the quality of the refractory earth can be improved. The separation of titanium minerals has to be investigated with other methods

  17. Tungsten isotopes in bulk meteorites and their inclusions-Implications for processing of presolar components in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Paton, Chad; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel

    2015-01-01

    We present high precision, low- and high-resolution tungsten isotope measurements of iron meteorites Cape York (IIIAB), Rhine Villa (IIIE), Bendego (IC), and the IVB iron meteorites Tlacotepec, Skookum, and Weaver Mountains, as well as CI chondrite Ivuna, a CV3 chondrite refractory inclusion (CAI...

  18. Developing a financial inclusion index and inclusive growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Susanta Kumar SETHY

    2016-01-01

    Financial inclusion is one of the systems through which Inclusive Growth can be achieved in developing countries like India where large sections are unable or hopeless to contribute in the financial system. An inclusive financial system mobilizes more resources for productive purposes leading to higher economic growth, better opportunities and reduction of poverty. This study, proposed an Index of financial inclusion – a multidimensional measure. The Financial Inclusion Index c...

  19. [Refractory heart failure. Models of hospital, ambulatory, and home management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Fabrizio; Alunni, Gianfranco

    2002-08-01

    Chronic heart failure is an enormous and growing public health problem and is reaching epidemic proportions. Its economic impact is dramatic; two thirds of expenses are for hospitalizations and relatively little is being spent for medications and outpatient visits. Most of the hospitalizations, deaths and costs are incurred by a relatively small minority of patients who may be described as having "complex", "advanced", "refractory" or "end-stage" heart failure; however, in essence they are patients who have severe symptoms and/or recurrent hospitalizations and/or emergency department visits despite maximal oral therapy. Many of the recommendations regarding the management of these patients are based more on experience than on evidence from controlled trials. This, because such patients require an individualized therapy which limits their inclusion in large trials and because support is less easily available when testing specific strategies than when testing specific agents. Improving the treatment of this group of patients by optimizing their medical regimen, aggressive monitoring and providing early intervention to avert heart failure can reduce their morbidity, mortality and costs of care. Refractory heart failure is not a single disease and it is extremely unlikely that all patients should be treated in a similar manner; before selecting the appropriate therapy, the clinician must categorize and profile the patient. The first step should be a re-evaluation of the previous treatment because many patients are treated suboptimally. It is also important to identify reversible or precipitating factors. For patients with advanced heart failure, the initial goal of therapy is to improve symptoms; the next goal is to maintain the improvement and to prevent later deterioration. The appropriate treatment plan will reflect the presence of comorbidities, the patients' history regarding previous responses to therapy, their own expectations with regard to daily life. The most

  20. Oral tranexamic acid lightens refractory melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron Wei Min; Sen, Priya; Chua, Sze Hon; Goh, Boon Kee

    2017-08-01

    Melasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentary disorder, particularly among Asians and Hispanics, but its exact pathomechanism is poorly understood. Tranexamic acid has been found to lighten melasma by interfering with the interaction of melanocytes and keratinocytes by inhibiting the plasminogen/plasmin system. The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oral tranexamic acid in the treatment of melasma refractory to topical skin-lightening agents. This retrospective study analyses patients with melasma recruited from a tertiary dermatological centre in Singapore between 1 August 2009 and 31 March 2011. The patients chosen had refractory melasma treated with oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily in addition to pre-existing combination topical therapy. Objective assessment using the physician's global assessment and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores were performed based on a post-hoc analysis of photographic records by three independent physicians. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI scores pre-therapy and post-treatment. Statistical significance was defined as P tranexamic acid for a mean period of 3.7 ± 0.33 months, in addition to combination topical therapy. Their mean age was 47.2 ± 1.61 years. The mean MASI scores after tranexamic acid treatment (2.7 ± 1.6) were significantly lower (P tranexamic acid can serve as a safe and useful adjunct in the treatment of refractory melasma. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Linguistic Diversity and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Ingrid; Takahashi, Kimie

    2011-01-01

    This introduction provides the framework for the special issue by describing the social inclusion agenda of neoliberal market democracies. While the social inclusion agenda has been widely adopted, social inclusion policies are often blind to the ways in which language proficiency and language ideologies mediate social inclusion in linguistically…

  2. Morphology study of refractory carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrda, J.; Blazhikova, Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Refractory carbides were investigated using JSM-U3 electron microscope of Joelco company at 27 KV accelerating voltage. Some photographs of each powder were taken with different enlargements to characterise the sample upon the whole. It was shown that morphological and especially topographic study of powders enables to learn their past history (way of fabrication and treatment). The presence of steps of compact particle fractures and cracks is accompanied by occurence of fine dispersion of carbides subjected to machining after facrication. On the contrary, the character of crystallographic surfaces and features of surface growth testify to the way of crystallization

  3. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinski, Ronald W.; Siegel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB) that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or without

  4. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Glinski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS, have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or

  5. Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Ahmad

    1989-12-01

    Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

  6. Refractory reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Ajit Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological penalization with atropine has been shown to be equally effective as conventional occlusion therapy in the treatment of amblyopia in children. Reverse amblyopia of the sound eye with atropine penalization has been reported before, but is more common in cases where the effect is augmented with optical penalization and is mostly reversible. We report a case of reverse amblyopia with atropine penalization, in a 4-year-old girl, which was refractory to treatment. This report highlights the need for strict monitoring of the vision in the sound eye and regular follow-up in children undergoing amblyopia treatment.

  7. Relationships in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Graça Duarte; Sardinha, Susana; Reis, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Climate in the classroom is one of the determining factors in the development of practices in Inclusive Education. Many factors contribute to the climate in the classroom. However, there are predominance on affective-relational factors, with impact on action, norms and values, social interactions and learning processes. In this paper, the authors…

  8. Inclusion on the Bookshelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Camille

    2009-01-01

    Three decades have passed since federal law mandated inclusion--ending, officially at least, a system that segregated students with disabilities from the rest of the student population. The publishing world has yet to catch up. In children's books, characters with disabilities often inhabit their own separate world, where disability is the only…

  9. Mathematics Teaching and Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 3rd Nordic Research Conference on Special Needs Education in Mathematics, which took place in Rebild organised by Aalborg University in November 23-25, 2005. The theme of the conference was Mathematics Education and Inclusion. The conference theme...

  10. Multilingualism and social inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marácz, L.; Adamo, S.

    2017-01-01

    This is a thematic issue on the relation between multilingualism and social inclusion. Due to globalization, Europeanization, supranational and transnational regulations linguistic diversity and multilingualism are on the rise. Migration and old and new forms of mobility play an important role in

  11. Inclusion's Confusion in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilham, Chris; Williamson, W. John

    2014-01-01

    This hermeneutic paper interprets a recent series of reforms to inclusive education policy undertaken by the ministry of education in the province of Alberta, Canada. A 2007 Alberta Education review of the 16,000 student files in the province that school boards had claimed met the criteria for severe disability codification status -- the level of…

  12. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Conrad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30-60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists. Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management.

  13. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.

    1982-02-01

    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  14. Engineering data bases for refractory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Harms, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    Refractory alloys based on niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten are required for the multi-100kW(e) space nuclear reactor power concepts that have been assessed in the SP-100 Program because of the extremely high temperatures involved. A review is presented of the technology efforts on the candidate refractory alloys in the areas of availability/fabricability, mechanical properties, irradiation effects, and compatibility. Of the niobium-base alloys, only Nb-1Zr has a data base that is sufficiently comprehensive for the high level of confidence required in the reference-alloy selection process for the reactor concept to be tested in the Ground Engineering System (GES) Phase of the SP-100 Program. Based on relatively short-term tests, the alloy PWC-11 (Nb-1Zr-0.1C) appears to have significantly greater creep strength than Nb-1Zr; however, concerns as to whether this precipitation-hardened alloy will remain thermally stable during seven years of full-power reactor operation need to be resolved. Additional information on the reference GES alloy will be needed for the detailed engineering design of a space power system and the fabrication of prototypical GES test components. Expedient development and demonstration of an adequate total manufacturing capability will be required if a high risk of significant schedule slippages and cost overruns is to be avoided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Fire and explosion hazards of refractory compound powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivtsov, V.A.; Kostina, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    Data on fire and explosion hazards of refractory compound powders (HfC, ZrC,LaB 6 , ZrN, etc.) are presented. It is shown that refractory compounds can be fire- and exposion hazardous in various degrees. Qualitative and quantitative estimations of one of fire-hazard characteristics - smoldering temperature - are presented

  16. Intraepithelial lymphocytes in refractory celiac disease : lost in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Frederike

    2014-01-01

    Refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of coeliac disease. Whereas celiac disease can successfully be treated by the strict avoidance of gluten, refractory celiac patients show no remission despite a gluten-free diet. The pathology of RCDII is only partially understood,

  17. Ketogenic diet in 3 cases of childhood refractory status epilepticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sort, Rune; Born, Alfred P; Pedersen, Karen N.

    2013-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in children is associated with a significant risk of death or neurological morbidity. Recently attention has been drawn to the ketogenic diet (KD) as an acute treatment, as it has shown promise in controlling seizures in otherwise refractory status epilepticus...

  18. Inclusive Physical Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Charlotte; Rostbøll, Solveig Fogh

    2015-01-01

    EN317 - Inclusive Physical Education - with a focus on active and successful participation Charlotte Østergaard, Solveig Fogh Rostbøll, Department of School and Learning, Metropolitan University College (DK) chao@phmetropol.dk The Danish School Reform 2014 intends to raise the amount and intensity...... and is often a bad experience for students who do not have the required skills or the necessary competitive mentality. The purpose of the study is to generate increased knowledge of how to work with inclusive education in PE in schools. The aims of the study are to identify groups of “outsiders” and to find...... and ability to participate in PE must be understood in specific socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions. The hypothesis of the study is that the experience of being acknowledged for your efforts in physical education by significant others can form the basis for the construction of physical capital. EN323...

  19. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  20. Inclusive Flavour Tagging Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Derkach, Denis; Rogozhnikov, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the flavour of neutral B mesons production is one of the most important components needed in the study of time-dependent CP violation. The harsh environment of the Large Hadron Collider makes it particularly hard to succeed in this task. We present an inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm as an upgrade of the algorithms currently used by the LHCb experiment. Specifically, a probabilistic model which efficiently combines information from reconstructed vertices and tracks using machine learning is proposed. The algorithm does not use information about underlying physics process. It reduces the dependence on the performance of lower level identification capacities and thus increases the overall performance. The proposed inclusive flavour-tagging algorithm is applicable to tag the flavour of B mesons in any proton-proton experiment. (paper)

  1. Can We Build Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette; Grangaard, Sidse

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of children with special needs in kindergartens and preschools may be approached from different angles. This paper raises the question of whether the physical framework of kindergartens makes any difference for daily life at the kindergarten at all, and whether it can support inclusion of some children with special needs. Hence the title - can we build inclusion? In the literature of Universal Design, accommodation and design features seldom reflect the less visible disabilities. The paper is based on a research project initiated to investigate how more or less space influences daily pedagogical practice in general. Twelve interviews were conducted with experienced teachers from twelve different kindergartens with different amounts of space, varying from a ratio of 2.1 m2 play area per child to 5.5 m2. The results indicated that, for a group of children with special needs in particular, the amount of space is crucial. This group consisted of children who were socially very extrovert, and who maybe were noisy, easily provoked, and quick to get involved in arguments with other children. Alternatively, children in the group were very restrained and withdrawn in social interaction. Based on the answers in the interviews, we found support for answering the question in the title in the affirmative; we can build inclusion! This is because the teachers' experience indicated that, if there was sufficient space per child, there were fewer conflicts and the children managed to stay in the same activity for a much longer period. Sufficient space made it possible to divide the children into smaller groups, and use any secluded space. Therefore, it was much easier for other children to include some children with special needs. Accordingly, we can say that, sufficient space per child and an adequate layout and furnishing of the kindergarten is an advantage for all children. This is a clear example of Universal Design in which architectural solutions that are good for

  2. Foresighting for Inclusive Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Andersen, Allan; Andersen, Per Dannemand

    and transform innovation systems because a set of distributed actors, rather than ministries and innovation agencies, is the gatekeepers of change. From this perspective, inclusion is a precondition rather than an obstacle for transformation. We develop a conceptual framework and use it to study design...... and processes in two foresight cases in two emerging economies - Brazil and South Korea. Although the research is exploratory and the results tentative, the empirical studies support our main propositions....

  3. Inclusion body myositis.

    OpenAIRE

    Garlepp, M J; Mastaglia, F L

    1996-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a heterogenous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dematomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). For discussion of later three disorders, the reader is referred to the IIM review in this issue. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50. It typically presents with chronic insidious proximal leg and/or distal arm asymmetric mus...

  4. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys

  5. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  6. Structure, preparation and properties of refractory compounds and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1977-01-01

    At the beginning of this report the possibilities of hardness optimization of refractory carbides are generally discussed. Three papers deal with TaC-basis refractories and hard metals. In particular, carbides with very low nonmetal/metal ratios and composites with hard phases formed by decomposition of tantalum carbonitrides are discussed. Another contribution reports investigations concerning the influence of the microstructure on the hardness of polycristaline mixed carbides. In a series of four papers, results are presented on the work of optimization conventional WC hard metals by introduction of a Fe,Co,Ni-binder: The influence of composition, carbon content and sintering conditions, as well as the wetting behaviour between carbides and binder metals are discussed. Phase relations in the refractory nitride and refractory nitride-binder metal systems as well as phase stabilities of ordered transition metal phases are reported in three papers, fundamental in character. Finally, the work concerning chemical analysis of refractory systems is described. (orig.) [de

  7. NOvel Refractory Materials for High Alkali, High Temperature Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, J.G.; Griffin, R. (MINTEQ International, Inc.)

    2011-08-30

    Refractory materials can be limited in their application by many factors including chemical reactions between the service environment and the refractory material, mechanical degradation of the refractory material by the service environment, temperature limitations on the use of a particular refractory material, and the inability to install or repair the refractory material in a cost effective manner or while the vessel was in service. The objective of this project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al2O3 spinel or other similar magnesia/alumina containing unshaped refractory composition (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, highalkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. A research team was formed to carry out the proposed work led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and was comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The two goals of this project were to produce novel refractory compositions which will allow for improved energy efficiency and to develop new refractory application techniques which would improve the speed of installation. Also methods of hot installation were sought which would allow for hot repairs and on-line maintenance leading to reduced process downtimes and eliminating the need to cool and reheat process vessels.

  8. A 20-year multicentre outcome analysis of salvage mechanical circulatory support for refractory cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Khorsandi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Refractory post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCCS is a relatively rare phenomenon that can lead to rapid multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and is almost invariably fatal without advanced mechanical circulatory support (AMCS, namely extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO or ventricular assist devices (VAD. In this multicentre observational study we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of salvage venoarterial ECMO (VA ECMO and VAD for refractory PCCS in the 3 adult cardiothoracic surgery centres in Scotland over a 20-year period. Methods The data was obtained through the Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen cardiac surgery databases. Our inclusion criteria included any adult patient from April 1995 to April 2015 who had received salvage VA ECMO or VAD for PCCS refractory to intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP and maximal inotropic support following adult cardiac surgery. Results A total of 27 patients met the inclusion criteria. Age range was 34–83 years (median 51 years. There was a large male predominance (n = 23, 85 %. Overall 23 patients (85 % received VA ECMO of which 14 (61 % had central ECMO and 9 (39 % had peripheral ECMO. Four patients (15 % were treated with short-term VAD (BiVAD = 1, RVAD = 1 and LVAD = 2. The most common procedure-related complication was major haemorrhage (n = 10. Renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (n = 7, fatal stroke (n = 5, septic shock (n = 2, and a pseudo-aneurysm at the femoral artery cannulation site (n = 1 were also observed. Overall survival to hospital discharge was 40.7 %. All survivors were NYHA class I-II at 12 months’ follow-up. Conclusion AMCS for refractory PCCS carries a survival benefit and achieves acceptable functional recovery despite a significant complication rate.

  9. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  10. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-21

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  11. A view on the European Refractory Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuels, N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The author refers to the basic role of the Refractory Industry within the context from raw material to the use of products and outlines the major important political, economic and technical impact of the future.

    En el presente artículo se revisa la situación actual de la industria refractaria en Europa y se dan unas perspectivas de futuro para el sector, destacando su importancia política, económica y técnica. Dentro de este contexto se da una visión tanto de la situación de las materias primas como de los distintos uso de los productos refractarios y sus tendencias de futuro.

  12. Gastric cancer associated with refractory cytomegalovirus gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Shimodate, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Motowo

    2017-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) sometimes causes gastritis, especially in immunocompromised patients, but whether CMV gastritis promotes the development of gastric cancer is unknown. Here, we report a case of gastric cancer that developed in the presence of CMV gastritis, which had been present for at least 4 years and was refractory to treatment. An 80-year-old woman had noted epigastric discomfort and appetite loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a shallow geographical ulcer extending from the upper body to the pylorus. Histological findings of the biopsy and serology were suggestive of CMV gastritis. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test was positive, suggesting co-infection with CMV and H. pylori. Her gastritis was unimproved with repeated antiviral therapy and eradication of H. pylori. Thirty months later, wide-spread gastric cancer had developed. We suggest the possibility that the addition of chronic inflammation of CMV infection to H. pylori-induced gastritis facilitated the development of gastric cancer.

  13. Directed light fabrication of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.K.; Thoma, D.J.; Nemec, R.B.; Milewski, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a metal, rapid fabrication process that fuses metal powders to full density into a solid replica of a computer modeled component. It has been shown feasible for forming nearly any metal and also intermetallics to near net shape with a single process. DLF of refractory pure metals is feasible, bypassing the extensive series of conventional processing steps used for processing these high melting point materials. Tungsten, tantalum, and rhenium were processed and show a continuous resolidified microstructure. Porosity was a problem for the tantalum and rhenium powders produced by chemical reduction processes but not for the tungsten powder spherodized in a plasma arc. Chemical analysis of powder compared to the DLF deposit showed reductions in carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, indicating that process parameters may also be optimized for evolution of residual gases in the deposits

  14. Status Epilepticus and Refractory Status Epilepticus Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Nicholas S.; Bearden, David; Helbig, Ingo; McGuire, Jennifer; Narula, Sona; Panzer, Jessica A.; Topjian, Alexis; Dlugos, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) describes persistent or recurring seizures without a return to baseline mental status, and is a common neurologic emergency. SE can occur in the context of epilepsy or may be symptomatic of a wide range of underlying etiologies. The clinician’s aim is to rapidly institute care that simultaneously stabilizes the patient medically, identifies and manages any precipitant conditions, and terminates seizures. Seizure management involves “emergent” treatment with benzodiazepines followed by “urgent” therapy with other anti-seizure medications. If seizures persist then refractory SE is diagnosed and management options include additional anti-seizure medications or infusions of midazolam or pentobarbital. This paper reviews the management of pediatric SE and RSE. PMID:25727508

  15. Transscleral Diode Laser Cyclophotocoagulation in Refractory Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfidan Bitirgen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transscleral diode laser cyclophotocoagulation (TSDLC in advanced glaucoma refractory to medical or surgical treatment. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The data of subjects who were treated with TSDLC between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Intraocular pressure before and after treatment, visual acuity, the number of medications and complications were analysed. Success was defined as final IOP of 6-22 mmHg with or without antiglaucomatous medications. Re sults: Thirty seven eyes of 37 patients were included in the study. Mean age of patients and mean follow-up time were 61.73±17.13 years (range: 19-80 years and 8.06±5.81 months (range: 3-22 months, respectively. Mean pretreatment IOP was 38.68±8.94 mmHg and IOP was 26.46±11.34 mmHg (p <0.01 at the second week, whereas it was 24.97±10.84 mmHg (p<0.01 at the last visit. IOP of less than 22 mmHg was achieved in 40.5% of eyes at the last visit. Mean treatment number per eye was 1.48±0.73, and more than one treatment was required in 13 (35.1% eyes. Preoperative and postoperative mean total antiglaucomatous medications were 3.14±1.18 and 2.76±1.23, respectively. No phthisis bulbi or persistent hypotonia developed during the follow-up period. Dis cus si on: TSDLC is an effective and safe method for the treatment of refractory glaucoma. It also served to reduce the number of antiglaucoma medications, thus improving both the quality of life of the patients and their compliance to therapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 434-7

  16. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Visser, Ruud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-10

    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ∼20–100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant- α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ∼3–10 au for 0.1–1 μ m grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  17. Esquizofrenia refratária Refractory schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Elkis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O propósito deste artigo é o de revisar vários aspectos da esquizofrenia refratária levando em conta questões relacionadas à definição, aspectos clínicos, correlatos psicobiológicos, tratamentos farmacológicos e não farmacológicos, assim como preditores de resposta terapêutica. MÉTODO: Pesquisa no Medline, assim como artigos dos autores. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Pelo menos um terço dos pacientes com esquizofrenia são refratários a tratamento com antipsicóticos e as evidências apontam a clozapina em monoterapia como a principal opção nesses casos. A politerapia com antipsicóticos não tem apoio em evidências. Ensaios clínicos recentes mostraram que a potencialização da clozapina com outros antipsicóticos não é superior ao placebo.OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present paper is to review the various aspects of refractory schizophrenia regarding issues such as definitions, clinical aspects, psychobiological correlates, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options and predictors of treatment response. METHOD: Medline search as well as articles of the authors. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Refractory schizophrenia affects at least one third of patients with schizophrenia and the best evidence shows that is monotherapy with clozapine remains the mainstay for the treatment of such condition. Antipsychotic polipharmacy is not supported by current evidence and recent clinical trials have shown that clozapine augmentation with antipsychotics has no benefit over placebo.

  18. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for MDA Blog Donate Search MDA.org Close Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses inclusion-body myositis (IBM) by considering the individual’s personal ...

  19. Financial inclusion: Policies and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Thankom Arun; Rajalaxmi Kamath

    2015-01-01

    As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional ...

  20. Removal of inclusions from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes

    2009-11-01

    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  1. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekhina S.V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.

  2. Singing and social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  3. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  4. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  5. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej

    2012-01-01

    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... hospital complexes ? The article will explore the fundament of wayshowing on the basis of prior research as well as on the basis of the results of a case study in a large existing danish hospital complex. The result points to signage being an inevitable factor but also that it is a factor that is not very...

  6. Inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of rare disorders that share many similarities. In addition to sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM), these include dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. IBM is the most common IIM after age 50 years. Muscle histopathology shows endomysial inflammatory exudates surrounding and invading nonnecrotic muscle fibers often accompanied by rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. It is likely that IBM is has a prominent degenerative component. This article reviews the evolution of knowledge in IBM, with emphasis on recent developments in the field, and discusses ongoing clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej

    2012-01-01

    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... in existing hospital complexes only half the size of these new ones is already recognized as a big problem: How can we avoid the wayfinding-problem of the new complexes to grow to the double with the doubling of the complex size ? What kind of design application can improve the accessibility of future...

  8. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  9. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  10. Inclusive Education under Collectivistic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futaba, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses how inclusive education under collective culture is possible. Inclusive education, which more-or-less involves changing the current schools, has been denied, doubted or distorted by both policy-makers and practitioners of general and special education in Japan. Main reason for the setback in inclusive education can be…

  11. Tracers application method for the quantitative determination of the source of oxygenic inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciukowa, B.; Dalecki, W.; Michalik, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The sense and the possibility of radioactive and nonradioactive isotopic tracers application in investigations of the origin of oxygenic nonmetalic inclusions is presented. The discussed methods touch the investigations such as the origin of egzogenic inclusions which passed from external sources (fireproof lining, slag) to the steel or as the endogenic ones formed during the process of steel deoxidisation. The question of the tracers choice for refractory material and the further investigations concerned the determination of the origin of nonmetallic inclusions are discussed. The question of so called isotopic replacement tracers for the main steel deoxidizing agents is considered. The criterion of determination of oxygenic inclusions formed during the process of steel deoxidization is also discussed. Several results of laboratory and industrial investigations and also the examples of application of the discussed methods in the industrial scale are presented. (author)

  12. Use of radioactive indicators for the quantitative determination of non-metall inclusions in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewienska-Kosciuk, B.; Michalik, J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of determining and investigating the sources of non-metal inclusions in steel are presented together with some results of radiometric investigations. The experience of several years of research in industries as well as profound studies of world literature were used as a basis for systematic and critical discussion of the methods used. Optimum methods have been chosen for the quantitative determination of oxide inclusions and for the identification of their origin (e.g. from the refractory furnace lining, the tap-hole, the runner, the ladle or mold slag). Problems of tracers (type, quantity, condition, activity), of the labelling method suitable for the various origins of inclusions, of sampling, of chemical processing of the material sampled, as well as of radiometric measuring techniques (including possible activation) are discussed. Finally, a method for the determination of inclusions resulting from the deoxidation of steel is briefly outlined. (author)

  13. Refractory myasthenia gravis - clinical profile, comorbidities and response to rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sepehrar, Mona; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Settikere Nataraju, Aravinda; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Sathyanarayana, Deepak; Gummadi, Siddharth; Burra, Hemanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody mediated autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. A proportion of myasthenia gravis patients are classified as refractory due to non responsiveness to conventional treatment. This retrospective study was done to evaluate clinical profile, epidemiological, laboratory, and features of patients with MG and mode of management using rituximab and complications. Methods: Data of myasthenia gravis patients admitted or presented to outpatient department (previous medical records) with MG between January 2008 and January 2016 were included. A total of 512 patients fulfilled the clinical and diagnostic criteria of myasthenia gravis of which 76 patients met the diagnostic certainty for refractory myasthenia gravis and were evaluated. Results: Out of 76 refractory MG patients, 53 (69.73%) patients fulfilled all the three defined criteria. The median age of onset of the refractory MG group was 36 years with a range of 27-53 years. In our study 25 patients (32.89%) belonged to the age group of 21-30 years. Anti-MuSK antibodies were positive in 8 non-refractory MG patients (2.06%) and 36 refractory MG patients (47.36%). Mean HbA 1C was found to be 8.6±2.33. The dose of administered prednisone decreased by a mean of 59.7% ( p =3.3x10 -8 ) to 94.6% ( p =2.2x10 -14 ) after the third cycle of rituximab treatment. Conclusion: The refractory MG patients are most commonly female with an early age of onset, anti-MuSK antibodies, and thymomas. Refractory MG patients have higher prevalence and poor control (HbA 1C >8%) of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia probably due to increased steroid usage. Rituximab is very efficient in treatment of refractory MG with adverse effects being low.

  14. Financial inclusion: Policies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankom Arun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional perspectives on the policies and practices of financial inclusion in India, South Africa, and Australia.

  15. VEGF 165 Gene Therapy for Patients with Refractory Angina: Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa G.; Plentz, Rodrigo D.M.; Dipp, Thiago; Salles, Felipe B.; Giusti, Imarilde I.; Sant'Anna, Roberto T.; Eibel, Bruna; Nesralla, Ivo A.; Markoski, Melissa; Beyer, Nance N.; Kalil, Renato A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with the capacity for proliferation and differentiation into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to the angiogenic process. We sought to assess the behavior of EPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease and refractory angina who received an intramyocardial injections of 2000 µg of VEGF 165 as the sole therapy. The study was a subanalysis of a clinical trial. Patients with advanced ischemic heart disease and refractory angina were assessed for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were as follows: signs and symptoms of angina and/or heart failure despite maximum medical treatment and a myocardial ischemic area of at least 5% as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Exclusion criteria were as follows: age > 65 years, left ventricular ejection fraction < 25%, and a diagnosis of cancer. Patients whose EPC levels were assessed were included. The intervention was 2000 µg of VEGF 165 plasmid injected into the ischemic myocardium. The frequency of CD34+/KDR+ cells was analyzed by flow cytometry before and 3, 9, and 27 days after the intervention. A total of 9 patients were included, 8 males, mean age 59.4 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 59.3% and predominant class III angina. The number of EPCs on day 3 was significantly higher than that at baseline (p = 0.03); however, that on days 9 th and 27 th was comparable to that at baseline. We identified a transient mobilization of EPCs, which peaked on the 3th day after VEGF 165 gene therapy in patients with refractory angina and returned to near baseline levels on 9 th and 27 th days

  16. VEGF 165 Gene Therapy for Patients with Refractory Angina: Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Clarissa G. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Plentz, Rodrigo D.M. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dipp, Thiago [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Salles, Felipe B. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giusti, Imarilde I.; Sant' Anna, Roberto T.; Eibel, Bruna; Nesralla, Ivo A.; Markoski, Melissa [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Beyer, Nance N. [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kalil, Renato A. K., E-mail: kalil.pesquisa@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with the capacity for proliferation and differentiation into mature endothelial cells, thus contributing to the angiogenic process. We sought to assess the behavior of EPCs in patients with ischemic heart disease and refractory angina who received an intramyocardial injections of 2000 µg of VEGF 165 as the sole therapy. The study was a subanalysis of a clinical trial. Patients with advanced ischemic heart disease and refractory angina were assessed for eligibility. Inclusion criteria were as follows: signs and symptoms of angina and/or heart failure despite maximum medical treatment and a myocardial ischemic area of at least 5% as assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Exclusion criteria were as follows: age > 65 years, left ventricular ejection fraction < 25%, and a diagnosis of cancer. Patients whose EPC levels were assessed were included. The intervention was 2000 µg of VEGF 165 plasmid injected into the ischemic myocardium. The frequency of CD34+/KDR+ cells was analyzed by flow cytometry before and 3, 9, and 27 days after the intervention. A total of 9 patients were included, 8 males, mean age 59.4 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 59.3% and predominant class III angina. The number of EPCs on day 3 was significantly higher than that at baseline (p = 0.03); however, that on days 9{sup th} and 27{sup th} was comparable to that at baseline. We identified a transient mobilization of EPCs, which peaked on the 3th day after VEGF 165 gene therapy in patients with refractory angina and returned to near baseline levels on 9{sup th} and 27{sup th}days.

  17. A 197Au and 57Fe Moessbauer study of the roasting of refractory gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.E.; Marion, P.

    1989-01-01

    The transformation of chemically bound gold into metallic gold during industrial scale roasting of an arsenical gold ore concentrate from the Fairview Mine, Eastern Transvaal, has been studied quantitatively by 197 Au Moessbauer spectroscopy. The iron compounds in the concentrate, mainly FeAsS and FeS 2 , and their transformations during roasting have been studied by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The bound gold is found to convert into the metal in parallel to the decomposition of FeAsS and the increase in cyanide leachability. This shows that the refractory character of the ore is caused by the chemical bonding of the gold rather than by the physical inclusion of small, discrete metallic particles in the matrix of FeAsS or FeS 2 . The ratio of the f-factors of gold bound in the FeAsS component of a refractory ore and of metallic gold was determined to be f(Au:FeAsS)/f(Au)=1.48 ± 0.09. (orig.)

  18. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Celis-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. Objective: To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Methods: Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8 mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30 mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Results: Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30 dB. Conclusions: Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

  19. INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Yeni Laksmini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis (IBM merupakan penyakit inflamasi pada otot yang bersifat progresif dengan penyebab yang tidak diketahui dan tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap berbagai terapi. Gambaran histopatologi IBM ditandai dengan infiltrat sel-sel limfosit diantara ruangan endomisial, di dalam otot dan di sekitar otot dengan fokus-fokus inklusi di dalam miosit (rimmed vacuole serta beberapa serat otot terlihat atrofi dan nekrosis. Dilaporkan wanita, usia 46 tahun dengan IBM. Keluhan utama pasien berupa kelemahan pada kedua tangan, kaki kanan terasa berat jika diangkat sehingga susah berjalan. Pemeriksaan saraf sensorik ekstremitas dekstra dan sinistra dalam batas normal. Pemeriksaan enzim cretinine kinase meningkat secara dramatik. Pemeriksaan histopatologi dari biospi otot gastrocnemius menunjukkan gambaran yang sesuai untuk IBM dan telah dilakukan penanganan dengan pemberian oral methilprednisolon 3x32 mg dan mecobalmin 1x500ìg intravena, namun tidak menunjukkan respon yang baik terhadap terapi dan akhirnya pasien meninggal. [MEDICINA 2013;44:118-123].

  20. IPads in Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Bente Tobiesen

    2015-01-01

    This paper builds on data from a research project where iPads were used in a lower secondary school in Denmark to support school development and inclusive learning environments. The paper explores how iPads enter into and work as part of an ecology of learning resources in five classes in lower...... secondary school. I conceptualize the systems of related technologies observed in this school as ecologies of learning resources as they present themselves as carefully balanced systems in which educational resources circulate in different ways that make sense for learners’ needs. Inspired by Actor...... in by pupils the paper argues that we should disengage approaches to the iPad in education from ideas of what the properties of these technologies are, and see the device as a more relational and situated actor, avoiding the definition of properties of technologies outside the contexts specific to their use....

  1. Between psychopathology and inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard-Sørensen, Lotte; Hamre, Bjørn Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    and social pedagogy. We thus enquire into how the rise of diagnostics and medicalisation affects our understanding of children’s difficulties. We discuss a paradox that is present in Denmark and other countries. As educational policies emphasise inclusion, the field of schooling experiences a huge rise......This article reports on a Danish study on interprofessional collaboration between child psychiatrists and educational psychologists concerning children who are categorised as being at risk. Methodologically, the analysis is grounded in qualitative interviews with psychologists. A Foucauldian...... approach is applied to narratives and experiences that occur within these interviews concerning external collaboration with child psychiatrists. The article is informed by the research tradition that has problematised the significance of psychiatry and diagnoses in the field of special needs education...

  2. Patterns of inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alex Young; Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Köppe, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Reconsidering the concept of digital citizenship and the essential component of education the authors propose that the concept of Hybrid Education may serve both as a guideline for the utilization of digital technologies in education and as a methodology for fostering new forms of participation......, inclusion and engagement in society. Following T.H. Marshall’s conception of citizenship the authors suggest that becoming, belonging and the capabilities to do so is essential to digital citizenship in a culturally diverse and digitally mediated world. The paper presents a theory-based, value driven...... for Hybrid Education that are directly applicable in relation to the concept of digital citizenship. The process introduces a value-based and vision-driven design pattern approach to innovation in education by framing and aligning values and visions of the participants. This work resulted in approximately 85...

  3. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  4. Typical corrosion of alumina refractory in aluminum reflow oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, Jaoa B.

    2014-01-01

    The refractory linings of furnaces for secondary melting of aluminum, are exposed to intense attack by the molten metal. This occurs, because molten aluminum has a strong reducing power over the refractory oxide components, particularly Fe 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and TiO 2 . In this work, based on X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, it is presented a post mortem study of the mechanisms that lead to a premature wear of a 80% Al2O3 chemically bonded refractory bricks, used in the metal line of an aluminum re-melting furnace. The SEM analysis demonstrated that the oxides SiO 2 and TiO 2 contained in the refractory were reduced and transformed into their metallic elements causing an intense structural spalling. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the Conference on Refractory Alloying Elements in Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Some papers about the use of refractory metals in superalloys are presented. Mechanical properties, thermodynamics properties, use for nuclear fuels and corrosion resistance of those alloys are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Lightweight cordierite–mullite refractories with low coefficients of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of thermal conductivity and high mechanical properties ... compositions and microstructures of lightweight refractories were measured by X-ray .... of matrices were determined by calibration with EDAX ZAF .... Guzman I Ya 2003 Glass Ceram.

  7. Ketogenic Diet in Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Garnett; Press, Craig A.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers from the Children’s National Health System in Washington, D.C. studied the feasibility, rate of complications, and effect on seizures of initiating the Ketogenic Diet (KD) in pediatric patients with Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE).

  8. Effectiveness of botulinum toxin A in treatment of refractory erythromelalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Hsiang Lin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Erythromelalgia is characterized by intense burning pain, erythema, and heat in affected areas after precipitating factors such as warm temperature or stress. It is refractory to treatment in some situations. We describe a woman with adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the lung and medically refractory erythromelalgia. The symptoms of erythromelalgia presented as refractory to any medical treatment. Due to the unresponsive nature of her condition, botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxin A was injected over both of her cheeks, periodically for six cycles. Her symptoms responded dramatically to subcutaneous and intradermal injection of botulinum toxin type A. Repetitive injection demonstrated consistent and reproducible responses, and the efficacy was maintained for approximately 1 month. No adverse effects or complications were noted. Botulinum toxin type A might be safe and effective as an alternative treatment for refractory erythromelalgia, but further large-scale studies are required.

  9. Approaching Inclusion as Social Practice: Processes of Inclusion and Exclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbæk, Mette; Hansen, Janne Hedegaard; Lassen, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    The article presents the results of a review of international research investigating mechanisms and processes of inclusion and exclusion as an ongoing part of social practice in a school context. The review forms part of a research project investigating the social practices of inclusive education...... in primary and lower-secondary education (age 6–16) in public schools as constituted by processes of inclusion and exclusion. The project aims to shift the scientific focus of research in inclusive education from the development of pedagogical and didactic practice to the importance of community construction...... through inclusion and exclusion processes. The project arises in context of Danish education policy, while the review looked for international research findings on the limits between inclusion and exclusion: how they are drawn, by whom, for what reasons, and for whose benefit? On the background...

  10. Inclusive Business - What It Is All About? Managing Inclusive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Golja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the challenges we face today, the inclusive business models are future business models through which the Millennium Development Goals can be fostered and strengthen. These are the models which, through their strategic orientation on inclusivity, include low income communities in their value chain. This can be done through combining variety of strategies which all have two common points – recognition of stakeholders and adjustment of the product to the target market. The paper presents the analysis of inclusive markets. Hence, the research results show the dispersion of inclusive businesses worldwide, type of the organization, sector coverage, and contribution to MDGs as well as the particular way of inclusion of low income communities in their value chain. The aim is to present how inclusive business benefits not only the low income societies, but the companies that operate in this way as well.

  11. Refractory absence epilepsy associated with GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2011-05-01

    GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is a disorder of cerebral glucose transport associated with early infantile epilepsy and microcephaly. We report two boys who presented with refractory absence epilepsy associated with hypoglycorrhachia, both of whom have genetically confirmed GLUT-1 DS. We propose that these children serve to expand the phenotype of GLUT-1 DS and suggest that this condition should be considered as a cause of refractory absence seizures in childhood.

  12. [Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbach, M; Koziolek, M J

    2018-05-02

    Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension differ in prevalence, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy. In both cases, a structured approach is required, with the exclusion of pseudoresistance and, subsequently, secondary hypertension. Resistant hypertension has been reported to be more responsive to intensified diuretic therapy, whereas refractory hypertension is presumed to require sympathoinhibitory therapy. Once the general measures and the drug-based step-up therapy have been exhausted, interventional procedures are available.

  13. Response properties of the refractory auditory nerve fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C A; Abbas, P J; Robinson, B K

    2001-09-01

    The refractory characteristics of auditory nerve fibers limit their ability to accurately encode temporal information. Therefore, they are relevant to the design of cochlear prostheses. It is also possible that the refractory property could be exploited by prosthetic devices to improve information transfer, as refractoriness may enhance the nerve's stochastic properties. Furthermore, refractory data are needed for the development of accurate computational models of auditory nerve fibers. We applied a two-pulse forward-masking paradigm to a feline model of the human auditory nerve to assess refractory properties of single fibers. Each fiber was driven to refractoriness by a single (masker) current pulse delivered intracochlearly. Properties of firing efficiency, latency, jitter, spike amplitude, and relative spread (a measure of dynamic range and stochasticity) were examined by exciting fibers with a second (probe) pulse and systematically varying the masker-probe interval (MPI). Responses to monophasic cathodic current pulses were analyzed. We estimated the mean absolute refractory period to be about 330 micros and the mean recovery time constant to be about 410 micros. A significant proportion of fibers (13 of 34) responded to the probe pulse with MPIs as short as 500 micros. Spike amplitude decreased with decreasing MPI, a finding relevant to the development of computational nerve-fiber models, interpretation of gross evoked potentials, and models of more central neural processing. A small mean decrement in spike jitter was noted at small MPI values. Some trends (such as spike latency-vs-MPI) varied across fibers, suggesting that sites of excitation varied across fibers. Relative spread was found to increase with decreasing MPI values, providing direct evidence that stochastic properties of fibers are altered under conditions of refractoriness.

  14. Refractory metal joining for first wall applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, C. H.; Odegard, B. C.

    2000-12-01

    The potential use of high temperature coolant (e.g. 900°C He) in first wall structures would preclude the applicability of copper alloy heat sink materials and refractory metals would be potential replacements. Brazing trials were conducted in order to examine techniques to join tungsten armor to high tungsten (90-95 wt%) or molybdenum TZM heat sink materials. Palladium-, nickel- and zirconium-based filler metals were investigated using brazing temperatures ranging from 1000°C to 1275°C. Palladium-nickel and palladium-cobalt braze alloys were successful in producing generally sound metallurgical joints in tungsten alloy/tungsten couples, although there was an observed tendency for the pure tungsten armor material to exhibit grain boundary cracking after bonding. The zirconium- and nickel-based filler metals produced defect-containing joints, specifically cracking and porosity, respectively. The palladium-nickel braze alloy produced sound joints in the Mo TZM/tungsten couple. Substitution of a lanthanum oxide-containing, fine-grained tungsten material (for the pure tungsten) eliminated the observed tungsten grain boundary cracking.

  15. Design of Refractory High-Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M. C.; Carney, C. S.; Doğan, Ö. N.; Jablonksi, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.; Alman, D. E.

    2015-11-01

    This report presents a design methodology for refractory high-entropy alloys with a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure using select empirical parameters (i.e., enthalpy of mixing, atomic size difference, Ω-parameter, and electronegativity difference) and CALPHAD approach. Sixteen alloys in equimolar compositions ranging from quinary to ennead systems were designed with experimental verification studies performed on two alloys using x-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Two bcc phases were identified in the as-cast HfMoNbTaTiVZr, whereas multiple phases formed in the as-cast HfMoNbTaTiVWZr. Observed elemental segregation in the alloys qualitatively agrees with CALPHAD prediction. Comparisons of the thermodynamic mixing properties for liquid and bcc phases using the Miedema model and CALPHAD are presented. This study demonstrates that CALPHAD is more effective in predicting HEA formation than empirical parameters, and new single bcc HEAs are suggested: HfMoNbTiZr, HfMoTaTiZr, NbTaTiVZr, HfMoNbTaTiZr, HfMoTaTiVZr, and MoNbTaTiVZr.

  16. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerins Weijenberg MD

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction. Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days. The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis.

  17. Refractory metal joining for first wall applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadden, C.H.; Odegard, B.C.

    2000-01-01

    The potential use of high temperature coolant (e.g. 900 deg. C He) in first wall structures would preclude the applicability of copper alloy heat sink materials and refractory metals would be potential replacements. Brazing trials were conducted in order to examine techniques to join tungsten armor to high tungsten (90-95 wt%) or molybdenum TZM heat sink materials. Palladium-, nickel- and zirconium-based filler metals were investigated using brazing temperatures ranging from 1000 deg. C to 1275 deg. C. Palladium-nickel and palladium-cobalt braze alloys were successful in producing generally sound metallurgical joints in tungsten alloy/tungsten couples, although there was an observed tendency for the pure tungsten armor material to exhibit grain boundary cracking after bonding. The zirconium- and nickel-based filler metals produced defect-containing joints, specifically cracking and porosity, respectively. The palladium-nickel braze alloy produced sound joints in the Mo TZM/tungsten couple. Substitution of a lanthanum oxide-containing, fine-grained tungsten material (for the pure tungsten) eliminated the observed tungsten grain boundary cracking

  18. Refractory metal joining for first wall applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadden, C.H. E-mail: chcadde@sandia.gov; Odegard, B.C

    2000-12-01

    The potential use of high temperature coolant (e.g. 900 deg. C He) in first wall structures would preclude the applicability of copper alloy heat sink materials and refractory metals would be potential replacements. Brazing trials were conducted in order to examine techniques to join tungsten armor to high tungsten (90-95 wt%) or molybdenum TZM heat sink materials. Palladium-, nickel- and zirconium-based filler metals were investigated using brazing temperatures ranging from 1000 deg. C to 1275 deg. C. Palladium-nickel and palladium-cobalt braze alloys were successful in producing generally sound metallurgical joints in tungsten alloy/tungsten couples, although there was an observed tendency for the pure tungsten armor material to exhibit grain boundary cracking after bonding. The zirconium- and nickel-based filler metals produced defect-containing joints, specifically cracking and porosity, respectively. The palladium-nickel braze alloy produced sound joints in the Mo TZM/tungsten couple. Substitution of a lanthanum oxide-containing, fine-grained tungsten material (for the pure tungsten) eliminated the observed tungsten grain boundary cracking.

  19. Ketogenic Diet in Refractory Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijenberg, Amerins; van Rijn, Margreet; de Koning, Tom J.; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ketogenic diet in children with epilepsy has a considerable impact on daily life and is usually adopted for at least 3 months. Our aim was to evaluate whether the introduction of an all-liquid ketogenic diet in an outpatient setting is feasible, and if an earlier assessment of its efficacy can be achieved. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational study in a consecutive group of children with refractory epilepsy aged 2 to 14 years indicated for ketogenic diet. Ketogenic diet was started as an all-liquid formulation of the classical ketogenic diet, KetoCal 4:1 LQ, taken orally or by tube. After 6 weeks, the liquid diet was converted into solid meals. The primary outcome parameter was time-to-response (>50% seizure reduction). Secondary outcome parameters were time to achieve stable ketosis, the number of children showing a positive response, and the retention rate at 26 weeks. Results: Sixteen children were included. Four of them responded well with respect to seizure frequency, the median time-to-response was 14 days (range 7-28 days). The mean time to achieve stable ketosis was 7 days. The retention rate at 26 weeks was 50%. Of the 8 children who started this protocol orally fed, 6 completed it without requiring a nasogastric tube. Conclusions: Introduction of ketogenic diet with a liquid formulation can be accomplished in orally fed children without major complications. It allowed for fast and stable ketosis. PMID:29872664

  20. Management of refractory status epilepticus in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Andrea O.; Lowenstein, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) can be defined as status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepines and one antiepileptic drug. RSE should be treated promptly to prevent morbidity and mortality; however, scarce evidence is available to support the choice of specific treatments. Major independent outcome predictors are age (not modifiable) and etiology (that should be actively targeted). Recent recommendations for adults, relying upon limited evidence, suggest that RSE treatment aggressiveness should be tailored to the clinical situation: to minimize ICU-related complications, focal RSE without major consciousness impairment might initially be approached more conservatively; conversely, early induction of pharmacological coma is advisable in generalized-convulsive forms. At this stage, midazolam, propofol or barbiturates represent the most used alternatives. Several other treatments, such as additional anesthetics, other antiepileptic or immunomodulatory compounds, or non-pharmacological approaches (electroconvulsive treatment, hypothermia), have been used in protracted RSE. Treatment lasting weeks or months may sometimes result in a good outcome, as in selected cases after cerebral anoxia and encephalitis. Well-designed prospective studies of this condition are urgently needed. PMID:21939901

  1. Optimizing thermal shock resistance of layered refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Jarno; Kuna, Meinhard [Institute of Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, Lampadiusstrasse 4, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Severe thermal shocks may cause critical thermal stresses and failure in refractories or ceramic materials. To increase the thermal shock resistance, layered material structures are suggested. In order to optimize properties of these alternative structures, thermo-mechanical simulations are required. In this study, a finite difference method (FDM) is used for solving the partial differential equation of heat conduction with spatially varying parameters. The optimization of the strip's thermal shock resistance is exemplarily done on a 10 layered strip subjected to constant temperature jump on the top surface. Each layer can be set with different porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO ceramics, whose material properties are theoretically determined. In this study, an improved optimization method is developed that consists of a combination and sequence of Monte Carlo simulations and evolution strategies to overcome certain disadvantages of both techniques. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Production of lightweight refractory material by hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulejmani, Ramiz B.

    2002-01-01

    Many different processes of production of lightweight refractories are well known over the World. Traditional production of lightweight refractories is by addition of combustibles or by a special frothing process. This work is concerned with hydrothermal of lightweight refractories from rice husk ash. The rice husk ash, used in present investigations were from Kocani region, R. Macedonia. The chemical analysis of the rice husk ash shows that it contains 91,8 - 93,7% SiO 2 and some alkaline and alkaline earth oxides. Microscopic and X - ray diffraction examinations of the rice husk ash have shown that it is composed of cristobalite, tridimite and amorphous silica. The composition of the mixture for lightweight refractory brick production is 93,4% rice husk ash and 6,6% Ca(OH) 2 . The mixtures were well mixed, moistened and pressed at 5 - 10 MPa. The hydrothermal reactions between calcium hydroxide and rice husk ash over the temperature range 80 - 160 o C were investigated. The period of autoclave treatment was from 2 to 72 h. After the hydrothermal treatment of the samples, the mineralogical composition, bulk density, density, cold crushing strength, porosity, refractoriness and thermal expansion were examined. Analysing the properties of the obtained samples it can be concluded that from rice husk ash and calcium hydroxide under hydrothermal condition it is possible to obtain lightweight acid refractory material with high quality.(Author)

  3. Development of AZS refractories for the glass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.M.; Rodriguez, P.

    2004-01-01

    Refractory materials can support high temperatures, thermal strength and the contact with aggressive environments, for this reason they are widely used in the cement, glass and steel industry. Commercial AZS (alumina-zirconia-silica) refractories are a good alternative in refractory materials for the glass industry' because they can support the aggressive conditions during liquid processing of glass. However, another problem encountered in glass industry is contamination by refractory' material that fall into the molten glass, which can produce a series of defects in the final product. This research was conducted to develop new formulations of AZS refractories with different amounts of ZrO 2 with the purpose of improving the characteristics, properties and the work conditions in the glass melting furnaces and, at the same time, lower the costs this type of refractories. The results obtained indicate that the composition with low content of ZrO 2 can provide better properties than the commercial product, with some modifications in the particle size distribution. Copyright (2004) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  4. The mineral chemistry and origin of inclusion matrix and meteorite matrix in the Allende CV3 chondrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornacki, A.S.; Wood, J.A.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1984-01-01

    The two textural varieties of olivine-rich Allende inclusions consist primarily of a porous, fine-grained mafic constituent that differs from the opaque meteorite matrix of CV3 chondrites by being relatively depleted in sulfides, metal grains, and carbonaceous material. Olivine is the most abundant mineral in Allende inclusion matrix; clinopyroxene, nepheline, sodalite, and Ti-Al-pyroxene occur in lesser amounts. Olivine in unrimmed olivine aggregates is ferrous and has a narrow compositional range. Olivine in rimmed olivine aggregates is, on average, more magnesian, with a wider compositional range. Olivine grains in the granular rims of Type 1B inclusions are zoned, with magnesian cores and ferrous rinds. Ferrous olivines in both varieties of inclusions commonly contain significant amounts of Al 2 O 3 , CaO and TiO 2 , refractory elements that probably occur in submicroscopic inclusions of Ca, Al, Ti-rich glass. Defocussed beam analyses of Allende matrix materials are discussed. (author)

  5. Inclusion in a Polarised World

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    This paper on inclusion was presented to the at the 2005 summer school of DEEEP (Development Education Exchange in Europe Project), Härnösand - Sweden, 5 - 12 June 2005. It addresses the significance of the concept of world civilisation. It assesses how meaning may be attached to the concept of inclusion in an economically polarised world. It develops a critique of the conception of economic inclusion, by means of an exploration of linguistic inclusion and the notion of ‘disability’. ‘...

  6. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  7. Inclusion in the East: Chinese Students' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Olli-Pekka; Savolainen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 523 Chinese university students was given a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the inclusion of children with disabilities into regular classrooms. Factor analysis, analysis of variance, t-test and correlations were used to assess the respondents' general attitude towards inclusion, the factor structure of the attitudes, the…

  8. Designing Inclusive Systems Designing Inclusion for Real-world Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, John; Robinson, Peter; Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT) are a series of workshops held at a Cambridge University College every two years. The workshop theme: “Designing inclusion for real-world applications” refers to the emerging potential and relevance of the latest generations of inclusive design thinking, tools, techniques, and data, to mainstream project applications such as healthcare and the design of working environments. Inclusive Design Research involves developing tools and guidance enabling product designers to design for the widest possible population, for a given range of capabilities. There are five main themes: •Designing for the Real-World •Measuring Demand And Capabilities •Designing Cognitive Interaction with Emerging Technologies •Design for Inclusion •Designing Inclusive Architecture In the tradition of CWUAAT, we have solicited and accepted contributions over a wide range of topics, both within individual themes and also across the workshop’s scope. ...

  9. Laboratory studies of refractory metal oxide smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A.; Nelson, R.N.; Donn, B.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the properties of refractory metal oxide smokes condensed from a gas containing various combinations of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, TiCl4, O2 and N2O in a hydrogen carrier stream at 500 K greater than T greater than 1500 K were performed. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra of pure, amorphous SiO(x), FeO(x), AlO(x) and TiO(x) smokes are discussed, as well as the spectra of various co-condensed amorphous oxides, such as FE(x)SiO(y) or Fe(x)AlO(y). Preliminary studies of the changes induced in the infrared spectra of iron-containing oxide smokes by vacuum thermal annealing suggest that such materials become increasingly opaque in the near infrared with increased processing: hydration may have the opposite effect. More work on the processing of these materials is required to confirm such a trend: this work is currently in progress. Preliminary studies of the ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Si2O3 and MgSiO(x) smokes revealed no interesting features in the region from 200 to 300 nm. Studies of the ultraviolet spectra of both amorphous, hydrated and annealed SiO(x), TiO(x), AlO(x) and FeO(x) smokes are currently in progress. Finally, data on the oxygen isotopic composition of the smokes produced in the experiments are presented, which indicate that the oxygen becomes isotopically fractionated during grain condensation. Oxygen in the grains is as much as 3 percent per amu lighter than the oxygen in the original gas stream. The authors are currently conducting experiments to understand the mechanism by which fractionation occurs

  10. Managing refractory Crohn's disease: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanida S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Tanida, Keiji Ozeki, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Takahito Katano, Hiromi Kataoka, Takeshi Kamiya, Takashi Joh Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Aichi Prefecture, Japan Abstract: The goals of treatment for active Crohn's disease (CD are to achieve clinical remission and improve quality of life. Conventional therapeutics for moderate-to-severe CD include 5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, purine analogs, azathioprine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Patients who fail to respond to conventional therapy are treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab, but their efficacy is limited due to primary nonresponse or loss of response. It is suggested that this requires switch to another TNF-α inhibitor, a combination therapy with TNF-α blockade plus azathioprine, or granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis, and that other therapeutic options having different mechanisms of action, such as blockade of inflammatory cytokines or adhesion molecules, are needed. Natalizumab and vedolizumab are neutralizing antibodies directed against integrin a4 and a4ß7, respectively. Ustekinumab is a neutralizing antibody directed against the receptors for interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. Here, we provide an overview of therapeutic treatments that are effective and currently available for CD patients, as well as some that likely will be available in the near future. We also discuss the advantages of managing patients with refractory CD using a combination of TNF-α inhibitors plus azathioprine or intensive monocyte adsorptive apheresis. Keywords: adalimumab, granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis, combination therapy, complete remission

  11. Intrathecal chemotherapy for refractory disseminated medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2008-05-01

    To analyze the effect of intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for disseminated medulloblastoma. Twenty-one patients received IT chemotherapy using the chemotherapeutic agents of methotrexate (MTX) and nitrosoureas (ACNU, MCNU) including nine patients for residual leptomeningeal lesions after initial surgery and radiation, and 12 for a recurrence with leptomeningeal dissemination. Of these 21 patients, 12 received a lumbar and/or ventricular bolus injection of the chemotherapeutic agents, one received the ventriculolumbar perfusion of the agents, and eight received both the perfusion and bolus injection. The doses ranged from 6-7 mg/m(2) of ACNU for perfusion and 3-3.5 mg/m(2) of ACNU, MCNU, or MTX for the bolus injection, and the cycles were administered from 3 to 12 times for perfusion and from 5 to 54 times for the bolus injection. The effects of chemotherapy were assessed by both radiological and cytological examinations, and the clinical symptoms were also assessed. Radiological and/or cytological responses were observed in 10 of 21 patients (47.6%), including seven cases demonstrating a complete remission. The 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year survival rate after dissemination were 61.5 and 46.4%, respectively. Five patients who received a lumbar bolus injection of nitrosoureas experienced paraplegia and double incontinence. One patient who received a ventricular injection of nitrosoureas experienced truncal ataxia. IT chemotherapy was found to be effective in some cases with refractory disseminated medulloblastoma and it seems to be an appropriate treatment choice for leptomeningeal recurrence. However, the frequent bolus injections of nitrosoureas should be avoided to prevent the side effects.

  12. Lenvatinib in Advanced Radioiodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer - A Retrospective Analysis of the Swiss Lenvatinib Named Patient Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmelli, Catharina; Railic, Nikola; Siano, Marco; Feuerlein, Kristin; Cathomas, Richard; Cristina, Valerie; Güthner, Christiane; Zimmermann, Stefan; Weidner, Sabine; Pless, Miklos; Stenner, Frank; Rothschild, Sacha I

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) accounts for approximately 95% of thyroid carcinomas. In the metastatic RAI-refractory disease, chemotherapy has very limited efficacy and is associated with substantial toxicity. With increasing knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of DTC, novel targeted therapies have been developed. Lenvatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with promising clinical activity based on the randomized phase III SELECT trial. In Switzerland, a Named Patient Program (NPP) was installed to bridge the time gap to Swissmedic approval. Here, we report the results from the Swiss Lenvatinib NPP including patients with metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Methods: Main inclusion criteria for the Swiss NPP were RAI-refractory DTC, documented disease progression, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-3. The number of previous therapies was not limited. The Swiss Lenvatinib NPP was initiated in June 2014 and was closed in October 2015 with the approval of the drug. Results: Between June 2014 and October 2015, 13 patients with a median age of 72 years have been enrolled. Most patients (69%) had at least one prior systemic therapy, mainly sorafenib. 31% of patients showed a PR and 31% SD. Median progression free survival was 7.2 months and the median overall survival was 22.7 months. Dose reduction due to adverse events was necessary in 7 patients (53%). At the time of analysis 6 patients (47%) were still on treatment with a median time on treatment of 9.98 months. Conclusions: Our results show that lenvatinib has reasonable clinical activity in unselected patients with RAI-refractory thyroid cancer with nearly two-third of patients showing clinical benefit. The toxicity profile of lenvatinib is manageable.

  13. Directed light fabrication of refractory metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. (1) Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. (2) The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. (3) The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06microm), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. (4) The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required

  14. Directed light fabrication of refractory metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers work performed under Order No. FA0000020 AN Contract DE-AC12-76SN00052 for deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents the progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. 1. Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. 2. The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. 3. The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06microm), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. 4. The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required

  15. Teacher preparedness for inclusive education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    Department of Information Systems, Faculty of Economic & Management ... paredness of teachers for this new policy of inclusion. ... of inclusive classrooms, if viewed in global perspective (Dyson & .... teachers experience stress when including learners with special needs. ..... Stress areas and coping skills of South African.

  16. The Inclusive Classroom. Professional's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; And Others

    Inclusive education reflects the changing culture of contemporary schools with emphasis on active learning, authentic assessment practices, applied curriculum, multi-level instructional approaches, and increased attention to diverse student needs and individualization. This guide is intended to help teachers implement inclusive educational…

  17. Measuring Attitudes toward Inclusive Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.

    1992-01-01

    Developed scale to measure attitudes toward inclusive education, in which disabled students are responsibility of regular teacher supported by specialists. Administered scale to 301 elementary and secondary teachers and to 144 undergraduate elementary education majors. Analysis yielded four discrete dimensions of inclusive education with…

  18. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  19. The Evolution of Secondary Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousand, Jacqueline; Rosenberg, Richard L.; Bishop, Kathryn D.; Villa, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Offers an alternative "Circle of Courage" model of education, derived from Native American culture, for creating inclusive high schools that welcome, value, support, and facilitate the learning of adolescents with differing abilities. Best practices related to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and campus life for effective inclusion are…

  20. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  1. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  3. Social Inclusion and Metrolingual Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuji, Emi; Pennycook, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the implications of metrolingual language practices for how we understand social inclusion. A vision of social inclusion that includes bi- and multilingual capacities may comprise an appreciation of a diversity of languages other than English, and the skills and capabilities of multilingual language users, yet it is all…

  4. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  5. Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    2004-01-01

    identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment......The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... theproductive/innovative linkage of politics of redistributuin and politics og resognition, whnich over a longer time span creates sustainable paths of democratic and social development, which increases the capacity to handle both conflicts about economic resources and life-chances and conflicts about...

  6. Surgical disconnection of patent paraumbilical vein in refractory hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Bando, Koichi; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kakinuma, Daisuke; Kanda, Tomohiro; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Refractory hepatic encephalopathy (HE) frequently develops in patients with cirrhosis and portal-systemic shunt. Recently, patients with refractory HE associated with portal-systemic shunt have been treated with interventional radiology. We describe a promising new treatment for portal-systemic shunt, ligation of the patent paraumbilical vein (PUV) after partial splenic embolization, in patients with refractory HE. Four patients with cirrhosis (3 women and 1 man; mean age, 56 years) and refractory HE due to a patent PUV were studied. Patency of the PUV had recurred in 1 patient after primary occlusion by interventional radiological procedures. The Child-Pugh class was B in 2 patients and C in 2. Before the present treatment, all patients had been hospitalized at least 3 times because of recurrent HE. Partial splenic embolization was performed in all patients to decrease portal venous pressure before surgery. Surgical ligation of the patent PUV was performed under epidural anesthesia. The patent PUV was carefully skeletonized and doubly ligated. Esophageal varices were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy before and after surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 15.8 months. After ligation, there were no clinically significant complications. Esophageal varices were unchanged. The serum ammonia level was higher before surgery (162.3 +/- 56.4 mug/dL, mean +/- SD) than after surgery (41.8 +/- 20.2 mug/dL; p=0.0299). No patient had symptoms of HE. Ligation of the patent PUV is an effective treatment for patients with refractory HE.

  7. Treatment of Refractory Idiopathic Supraorbital Neuralgia Using Percutaneous Pulsed Radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Lu, Jingjing; Ji, Nan

    2018-02-26

    No ideal therapeutic method currently exists for refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia patients who do not respond to conservative therapy, including medications and nerve blocks. Pulsed radiofrequency is a neuromodulation technique that does not produce sequelae of nerve damage after treatment. However, the efficacy of percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia is still not clear. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the supraorbital nerve for refractory supraorbital neuralgia patients. We prospectively investigated the long-term effects of ultrasound-guided percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency in the treatment of 22 refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia patients. A reduction in the verbal pain numeric rating scale score of more than 50% was used as the standard of effectiveness. The effectiveness rates at different time points within 2 years were calculated. After a single pulsed radiofrequency treatment, the effectiveness rate at 1 and 3 months was 77%, and the rates at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 73%, 64%, and 50%, respectively. Except for a small portion of patients (23%) who experienced mild upper eyelid ecchymosis that gradually disappeared after approximately 2 weeks, no obvious complications were observed. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that for patients with refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia, percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency may be an effective and safe treatment choice. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Resistant and Refractory Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Resistance vs Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant or difficult to treat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled with 3 or more different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Recent definitions also include controlled blood pressure with use of 4 or more medications as also being resistant to treatment. Recently, refractory hypertension, an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure has been defined as hypertension uncontrolled with use of 5 or more antihypertensive agents, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Patients with resistant vs refractory hypertension share similar characteristics and comorbidities, including obesity, African American race, female sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with refractory vs resistant hypertension tend to be younger and are more likely to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Refractory hypertension might also differ from resistant hypertension in terms of underlying cause. Preliminary evidence suggests that refractory hypertension is more likely to be neurogenic in etiology (ie, heightened sympathetic tone), vs a volume-dependent hypertension that is more characteristic of resistant hypertension in general. PMID:26514749

  9. Development of alumino-silicate refractories in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisiedu, A. K.; Tetteh, D.M.B.; Obiri, H. A.; Brenya, E. F.; Ayensu, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alumino-silicate (bauxite), andalusite, kaolin and clay were investigated for suitability in production of alumina, mullite and fireclay brick refractories. The raw materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and silicate analyses. The x-ray diffraction analysis of alumina and mullite refractories fired at 1450 0 C, and fireclay bricks fired at 1350 0 C, indicated presence of corundum and alpha-alumina crystals. The values of thermal (fired) shrinkage, crushing, strength, porosity, water absorption and bulk density determined were 31.1%, 2.3 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 4.86 x 10 6 N/m 2 and 13.2 % for mullite; 30.2%, 2.4 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 3.20 x 10 6 N/m 2 and W = 12.8 % for alumina; and 25.2 %, 2.1 x 10 3 kg/m 3 , 2.61 x 10 6 N/m 2 and W = 11.8% for fireclay, respectively. Bauxite, andalusite and special kaolin were identified as potential raw materials for developing alumina and mullite refractories for construction of high temperature kilns and furnaces operating at 1350 0 C. The clay and kaolin minerals could be used to produce fireclay refractories for construction of incinerators operating at maximum temperatures of about 1000 0 C. The performance of the refractories was demonstrated by producing bricks to construct kilns and incinerators for the ceramic industry and hospitals. (au)

  10. REFRACTORY CEPHALEA AND RHINITIS FOLLOWING DENTAL IMPLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENRIQUE COSCARÓN-BLANCO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental implants are prosthetic devices that are inserted into the thickness of the bone of the maxilla for osseointegration using a screw system. They are increasingly used for both functional and aesthetic reasons. As in any medical or surgical procedure, there are some typical risks and possible sequelae that must be explained and prevented. However, sometimes not-associated-with-implantation rare complications that can cause great morbidity and decrease in the quality of life of the implant recipient can occur. A case of an unusual complication is reported,MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 65-year-old woman presented with a permanent mainly right-sided bilateral nasal obstruction with frequent watery rhinorrhea and headache with retro-orbital and infraorbital irradiation refractory to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, corticosteroids and analgesics that she associated with a dental implant two weeks before. . Sinusitis or implant-related complication were ruled out by the dentist and her Primary Care Physician, and therefore she was referred to otorhinolaryngological assessment after radiological study with maxillary sinuses free of disease. The physical examination demostrated inferior obstructive hypertrophic turbinates from the anterior third and thick clear rhinorrhea. After topic tetracaine with adrenaline ,retraction of the turbinates revealed a screw that after breaking the floor of the right nostril entered the thickness of the inferior turbinate. In the left nostril, soil procidence is identified with turbinal contact. An orthopantomography demonstrated the findings described above, highlighting also how the implant was inserted into the skeleton of the inferior turbinate. The sympthoms resolved after removal of the implant. Topical oxymetazoline and corticosteroids provided little relief meanwhile. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The functional objectives sought with dental implants can be compromised by complications such as the

  11. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics of Refractory Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; Calhoun, David A; Oliveras, Anna; Blanch, Pedro; Vinyoles, Ernest; Banegas, Jose R; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M; Dudenbostel, Tanja; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2017-12-07

    We aimed to estimate the prevalence of refractory hypertension (RfH) and to determine the clinical differences between these patients and resistant hypertensives (RH). Secondly, we assessed the prevalence of white-coat RfH and clinical differences between true- and white-coat RfH patients. The present analysis was conducted on the Spanish Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Registry database containing 70 997 treated hypertensive patients. RH and RfH were defined by the presence of elevated office blood pressure (≥140 and/or 90 mm Hg) in patients treated with at least 3 (RH) and 5 (RfH) antihypertensive drugs. White-coat RfH was defined by RfH with normal (<130/80 mm Hg) 24-hour blood pressure. A total of 11.972 (16.9%) patients fulfilled the standard criteria of RH, and 955 (1.4%) were considered as having RfH. Compared with RH patients, those with RfH were younger, more frequently male, and after adjusting for age and sex, had increased prevalence of target organ damage, and previous cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of white coat RfH was lower than white-coat RH (26.7% versus 37.1%, P <0.001). White-coat RfH, in comparison with those with true RfH, showed a lower prevalence of both left ventricular hypertrophy (22% versus 29.7%; P =0.018) and microalbuminuria (28.3% versus 42.9%; P =0.047). The prevalence of RfH was low and these patients had a greater cardiovascular risk profile compared with RH. One out of 4 patients with RfH have normal 24-hour blood pressure and less target organ damage, thus indicating the important role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in guiding antihypertensive therapy in difficult-to-treat patients. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rb Positive Advanced Solid Tumors, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Histiocytic Disorders With Activating Alterations in Cell Cycle Genes (A Pediatric MATCH Treatment Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; RB1 Positive; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Kidney Wilms Tumor; Recurrent Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Recurrent Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdoid Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Ewing Sarcoma; Refractory Glioma; Refractory Hepatoblastoma; Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Refractory Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Malignant Glioma; Refractory Medulloblastoma; Refractory Neuroblastoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Osteosarcoma; Refractory Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Refractory Rhabdoid Tumor; Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  13. Inclusive education and social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bissoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.

  14. Inclusive education: Ideas vs reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popadić Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the key factors significant for the process of implementation of inclusive education in Serbia. After a brief review of the legal provisions regulating inclusive education in our country, the results of the research of attitudes towards inclusive education of teachers from six primary schools and one school for students with disabilities, as well as their experience, competencies, working conditions and opinions on consequences of inclusive education and education of children with developmental disabilities in specialized educational institutions are shown. Research was conducted in Krusevac, on a random sample of 60 teachers (51 teachers from primary schools and 9 special education teachers from schools for students with disabilities. We used two forms of questionnaires with twenty questions, and the results show predominantly negative attitudes towards inclusion in the majority of teachers in the sample. A significant percentage of respondents in both sub-samples considered that education of children with developmental disorders in specialized institutions (schools may give better results, primarily due to a lack of systematic support to teachers of primary schools in the process of implementing educational inclusion. The conclusion provides a critical overview of the current situation and presents the potential solutions to the problems that were identified during the research, and refer to the unsustainability of the current practice of inclusive education in Serbia.

  15. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Rahmat, K.; Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed

  16. Neuroimaging in refractory epilepsy. Current practice and evolving trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, N. [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Rahmat, K., E-mail: katt_xr2000@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (Malaysia); Lim, K.S.; Tan, C.T. [Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Neuroimaging is imperative in diagnostic work up and therapeutic assessment of refractory epilepsy. • Identification of epileptogenic zone on EEG, MRI and functional imaging improves the success of surgery. • High performance MRI greatly enhanced metabolic information and elucidate brain functions. • Optimisation of epilepsy protocols in structural and functional MRI are presented in this article. - Abstract: Identification of the epileptogenic zone is of paramount importance in refractory epilepsy as the success of surgical treatment depends on complete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Imaging plays an important role in the locating and defining anatomic epileptogenic abnormalities in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the current MRI sequences used in epilepsy imaging with special emphasis of lesion seen in our practices. Optimisation of epilepsy imaging protocols are addressed and current trends in functional MRI sequences including MR spectroscopy, diffusion tensor imaging and fusion MR with PET and SPECT are discussed.

  17. Beta-blockers in cirrhosis and refractory ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimer, Nina; Feineis, Martin; Møller, Søren

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is currently discussed if beta-blockers exert harmful effects and increase mortality in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. In this study, we provide an overview of the available literature in this field in combination with a retrospective analysis of 61 patients...... trials (9 trials on propranolol, 1 case-control study and 4 retrospective analyses) were identified. One trial suggested an increased mortality in patients treated with beta-blockers and refractory ascites. The results of the remaining trials were inconclusive. No increase in mortality among beta-blocker......-treated patients was found in the present retrospective analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with beta-blockers may increase mortality in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. However, the current evidence is sparse and high-quality studies are warranted to clarify the matter....

  18. Depression in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Borges Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comorbidity of depressive disorders in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: We evaluated 25 consecutive patients with refractory TLE (16 women and 9 men, using semi-structured psychiatric interviews, according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, and the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Seventeen of 25 patients (68% had depressive disorder: 6 with dysthymia, three with major depressive episodes and 8 with recurrent depressive disorders. Two (8% were diagnosed with mixed anxiety and depression. Only 5 of 17 patients (29.4% were previously diagnosed with depressive disorder and received prior antidepressant treatment. Duration of epilepsy was significantly higher in patients with depressive disorder (p=0.016, but there was no relationship between depression and seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that depressive disorders are common and underdiagnosed in patients with TLE refractory to AEDs. Patients with longer duration of epilepsy are at higher risk of having depression.

  19. Felbamate in an adult population with severe refractory epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kearney, H

    2011-04-05

    Felbamate (FBM) is efficacious in treating patients with refractory epilepsy but was withdrawn due to cases of aplastic anaemia, hepatic failure and five reported deaths. FBM is currently used in specialist centres and is only being used in one Irish centre to date. This papers aim is to review the efficacy and safety experience of FBM in Irish adult patients with refractory epilepsy. A retrospective chart review was done on patients\\' medical records. Patients were subdivided into responders and non responders based on change in seizure frequency and side effects were recorded for all. Of the 13 patients on FBM nine patients responded to FBM, four patients did not. FBM is a safe and efficacious alternative in an Irish adult population with refractory epilepsy. However close monitoring is still required given the potential fatal side effects that are possible with this anticonvulsant.

  20. Alkali metal-refractory metal biphase electrode for AMTEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor); Cole, Terry (Inventor); Khanna, Satish K. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Wheeler, Bob L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having increased output with slower degradation is formed of a film applied to a beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). The film comprises a refractory first metal M.sup.1 such as a platinum group metal, suitably platinum or rhodium, capable of forming a liquid or a strong surface adsorption phase with sodium at the operating temperature of an alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) and a second refractory metal insoluble in sodium or the NaM.sup.1 liquid phase such as a Group IVB, VB or VIB metal, suitably tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum or niobium. The liquid phase or surface film provides fast transport through the electrode while the insoluble refractory metal provides a structural matrix for the electrode during operation. A trilayer structure that is stable and not subject to deadhesion comprises a first, thin layer of tungsten, an intermediate co-deposited layer of tungsten-platinum and a thin surface layer of platinum.

  1. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  2. How Bureaucracy Promotes Inclusive Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...... and opportunities conducive to their inclusion. Guided by Ashcraft (2001) concept of organized dissonance, this paper explores how the combination of apparent incongruent elements of stability/flexibility and formality/informality might offer a passage for inclusive organizing....

  3. Ketogenic diet treatment for pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appavu, Brian; Vanatta, Lisa; Condie, John; Kerrigan, John F; Jarrar, Randa

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified. 4/10 patients had immune mediated encephalitis, including Rasmussen encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and post-infectious mycoplasma encephalitis. Other etiologies included Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, PCDH19 and GABRG2 genetic epilepsy, New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. 4/10 patients' EEG features suggested focal with status epilepticus, and 6/10 suggested generalized with status epilepticus. Median hospital length was 61days and median ICU length was 27days. The median number of antiepileptic medications prior to diet initiation was 3.0 drugs, and the median after ketogenic diet treatment was 3.5 drugs. Median duration of status epilepticus prior to KD was 18days. 9/10 patients had resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in a median of 7days after diet initiation. 8/9 patients were weaned off anesthesia within 15days of diet initiation, and within 1day of achieving ketonuria. 1/10 patients experienced side effects on the diet requiring supplementation. Most patients achieved resolution of status epilepticus on KD therapy, suggesting it could be an effective therapy that can be utilized early in the treatment of children with super refractory status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Refractory experience in circulating fluidized bed combustors, Task 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, R.Q.

    1989-11-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the status of the design and selection of refractory materials for coal-fueled circulating fluidized-bed combustors. The survey concentrated on operating units in the United States manufactured by six different boiler vendors: Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster Wheeler, Keeler Dorr-Oliver, Pyropower, and Riley Stoker. Information was obtained from the boiler vendors, refractory suppliers and installers, and the owners/operators of over forty units. This work is in support of DOE's Clean Coal Technology program, which includes circulating fluidized-bed technology as one of the selected concepts being evaluated.

  5. Evaluation of refractory materials for a nuclear waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotzky, V.K.; Kneale, P.A.; Teter, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment to find a suitable refractory lining for a nuclear waste incinerator has been completed. Eleven brick and six castable products were analyzed by optical and scanning microscopy. All the materials were fashioned into cup shapes and subjected to temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 0 C for as long as six weeks. Some of the cups were charged weekly with pellets made from ash materials that would contact an incinerator liner. Refractory products containing a high percentage of aluminum oxide had the greatest resistance to cracking and slag buildup. 35 figures

  6. Sorption techniques for production of high purity refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatalov, V.V.; Peganov, V.A.; Logvinenko, I.A.; Molchanova, T.V.

    2004-01-01

    A consideration is given to potentialities of sorption processes tot provide a high quality of refractory metal and their alloys when using hydrometallurgical methods for raw material processing. The efficiency of application of ion exchange technology is shown for complex solutions reprocessing for various types of polymetallic raw materials, among them uranium ores, enriched concentrates of refractory metal ores, intermediate products, waste solutions. Based on investigation results on the behaviour of elements in process solutions and the mechanism of their sorption and elution, the process of pure chemical compounds production are developed which provide thereafter manufacturing compact metals. The flowsheets developed are mastered on a commercial scale [ru

  7. MICROWAVE MEASUREMENT OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Smith, J.; Davis, B.; Limmer, R.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the electrical behavior of refractory materials may enable the development and optimization of microwave nondestructive techniques to detect and evaluate changes in their physical properties while the materials are in service. This paper presents the results of a limited and preliminary investigation in which two refractory materials (dense chrome and dense zircon) were subjected to increasing temperature in a furnace and in which a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz radar was used to evaluate their attenuation properties.

  8. Microwave Measurement of Refractory Materials at High-Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Smith, J.; Davis, B.; Limmer, R.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the electrical behavior of refractory materials may enable the development and optimization of microwave nondestructive techniques to detect and evaluate changes in their physical properties while the materials are in service. This paper presents the results of a limited and preliminary investigation in which two refractory materials (dense chrome and dense zircon) were subjected to increasing temperature in a furnace and in which a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz radar was used to evaluate their attenuation properties.

  9. Refractory metal component technology for in-core sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.

    1986-02-01

    Within recent years, an increasing concern over reactor safety has prompted tests that characterize reactor core environments during transient conditions. Such tests include the Loss-of-Fluid-Tests (Idaho National Engineering Lab (INEL)), Severe Fuel Damage Tests (INEL), Core Debris Rubble Tests (Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)), and similar tests performed by foreign nations. The in-core sensors for these tests require refractory metal components to be compatible with electrical insulator materials as well as materials comprising highly corrosive service mediums. This paper presents the refractory metal technology utilized to provide basic sensor designs in the above mentioned reactor tests

  10. Pembrolizumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, Hypermutated Brain Tumors, Ependymoma or Medulloblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-18

    Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; Malignant Glioma; Progressive Ependymoma; Progressive Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Refractory Brain Neoplasm; Refractory Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Medulloblastoma

  11. Inclusions and inhomogeneities under stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available Some general theorems, new and old, concerning the behaviour of elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities in bodies without or with external stress, are assembled. The principal new result is that arbitrary external tractions cannot influence the shape...

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab in Children with Refractory Nephrotic Syndrome; A Multicenter Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Han Ahn

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: In this interim analysis of clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RTX in children with refractory NS, RTX treatment for refractory NS was safe and effective, especially in patients with DNS.

  13. Long-term effects of electrical neurostimulation in patients with unstable angina : Refractory to conventional therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jessica; DeJongste, Mike J. L.; Zijlstra, Felix; Staal, Michiel

    2007-01-01

    Background. Patients with unstable angina pectoris may become refractory to conventional therapies. Electrical neurostimulation with transcutaneous electrical stimulation and/or spinal cord stimulation has been shown to be effective for patients with refractory unstable angina pectoris in hospital

  14. Inclusive approach to particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialas, A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems are reviewed of inclusive spectra. The data show strong disagreement with short-range order picture which is fundamental for most of the existing descriptions of inclusive spectra. There are two physical effects which should be taken into account and which give hopes to restore the agreement with data: compositeness of hadrons and unitarity correlations. The data on diffraction dissociation and cross section rise seem to indicate that hadrons are made of well-separated objects of rather small dimensions

  15. Forum, Dedicated to Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 – 27 of February 2015 in Kazan, in the University of Management “TISBI” been held National (All-Russian forum of promotion of ideas and principles of inclusive education (with international participants “Study and live together: open space of inclusion”. During the work of Forum the most topical questions of inclusive education implement in Russian Federation been discussed.

  16. Iron-Refractory Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yılmaz Keskin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demir, oksijenin taşınması, DNA sentezi ve hücre çoğalması gibi çeşitli biyolojik reaksiyonlar için vazgeçilmez olduğundan, yaşam için zorunludur. Demir metabolizması ve bu elementin düzenlenmesiyle ilgili bilgilerimiz, son yıllarda belirgin şekilde değişmiştir. Demir metabolizması ile ilgili yeni bozukluklar tanımlanmış ve demirin başka bozuklukların kofaktörü olduğu anlaşılmaya başlamıştır. Hemokromatozis ve demir tedavisine dirençli demir eksikliği anemisi (IRIDA; “iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia” gibi genetik durumlar üzerinde yapılan çalışmalar, vücuttaki demir dengesini kontrol eden moleküler mekanizmalar ile ilgili önemli ipuçları sunmuştur. Bu ilerlemeler, gelecekte, hem genetik hem de kazanılmış demir bozukluklarının daha etkili şekilde tedavi edilmesi amacıyla kullanılabilir. IRIDA, demir eksikliği ile giden durumlarda, hepsidin üretimini baskılayan matriptaz-2’yi kodlayan TMPRSS6 genindeki mutasyonlardan kaynaklanmaktadır. Hastalığın tipik özellikleri, hipokrom, mikrositer anemi, çok düşük ortalama eritrosit hacmi, oral demir tedavisine yanıtsızlık (veya yetersiz yanıt ve parenteral demire kısmi yanıttır. Klasik demir eksikliği anemisinin aksine, serum ferritin değeri genellikle hafif düşük ya da normal aralıkta; serum ve idrar hepsidin değerleri ise, aneminin derecesi ile orantısız şekilde yüksek bulunur. Şimdiye kadar literatürde bildirilmiş olguların sayısı 100’ü geçmediği halde, IRIDA’nın, “atipik” mikrositik anemilerin en sık nedeni olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu derlemenin amacı, IRIDA hakkındaki güncel bilgileri araştırıcılar ile paylaşmak ve bu alandaki farkındalıklarını arttırmaktır.

  17. Testing of the melter lid refractory for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Jain, V.; Mahoney, J.L.; Holman, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Monofrax H and Mulfrax 202 refractory were tested for potential application as the melter lid refractory for the WVDP. Resistance to spalling and corrosion by the slurry and offgas salts were primary criteria for selection. Test specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 450 and 1,100C for five weeks. Visual examination indicated some corrosion but no spalling. SEM/EDS analysis was performed to determine the glass/refractory interface corrosion mechanism. The refractory selection basis will be discussed

  18. Regorafenib Versus Trifluridine/Tipiracil for Refractory Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Retrospective Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuishi, Toshiki; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Hamauchi, Satoshi; Komori, Azusa; Kito, Yosuke; Narita, Yukiya; Tsushima, Takahiro; Ishihara, Makoto; Todaka, Akiko; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Yokota, Tomoya; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Machida, Nozomu; Ura, Takashi; Fukutomi, Akira; Ando, Masashi; Onozawa, Yusuke; Tajika, Masahiro; Yasui, Hirofumi; Muro, Kei; Mori, Keita; Yamazaki, Kentaro

    2017-06-01

    Regorafenib and trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) both prolong survival for patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. However, it is unclear which drug should be administered first. We retrospectively evaluated the data from patients who had received regorafenib or TAS-102 at 2 institutions from May 2013 to March 2015. The inclusion criteria were disease refractory or intolerant to fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies (if KRAS exon 2 wild-type), and no previous treatment with regorafenib or TAS-102. A total of 146 and 54 patients received regorafenib and TAS-102, respectively. The baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups, except for a history of irinotecan and anti-EGFR therapy and high alkaline phosphatase levels. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 2.1 months and 6.7 months, respectively, with regorafenib and 2.1 months and 6.5 months, respectively, with TAS-102 (progression-free survival hazard ratio 1.20, P = .27; overall survival hazard ratio, 1.01, P = .97). The analysis of overall survival for patients after the approval of TAS-102 in Japan was similar to the overall survival for the entire population. The frequency of hand-foot syndrome and increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin levels was higher and the frequency of neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, nausea, and febrile neutropenia was lower with regorafenib than with TAS-102. No remarkable differences were found in the efficacy and safety of TAS-102 between patients with and without previous regorafenib and vice versa. Regorafenib and TAS-102 had similar efficacy but resulted in different toxicities, which could guide the agent choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Refractory episodic vertigo: role of intratympanic gentamicin and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Aguilar, Erika; Hinojosa-González, Ramon; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Coutinho-Toledo, Heloisa

    Even today, the treatment of intractable vertigo remains a challenge. Vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin stands as a good alternative in the management of refractory vertigo patients. To control intractable vertigo through complete saccular and horizontal canal vestibular ablation with intratympanic gentamicin treatment. Patients with refractory episodic vertigo were included. The inclusion criteria were: unilateral ear disease, moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss, and failure to other treatments. Included patients underwent 0.5-0.8mL of gentamicin intratympanic application at a 30mg/mL concentration. Vestibular ablation was confirmed by the absence of response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. Audiometry, electronystagmography with iced water, and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials were performed in all patients. Ten patients were included; nine patients with Meniere's disease and one patient with (late onset) delayed hydrops. Nine patients showed an absent response on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and no response on caloric tests. The only patient with low amplitude on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials had vertigo recurrence. Vertigo control was achieved in 90% of the patients. One patient developed hearing loss >30dB. Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials confirmed vestibular ablation in patients treated with intratympanic gentamicin. High-grade vertigo control was due to complete saccular and horizontal canal ablation (no response to iced water in electronystagmography and no response on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials). Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Omalizumab therapy for refractory allergic fungal rhinosinusitis patients with moderate or severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Eng Cern; Habib, Al-Rahim R; Rajwani, Alykhan; Javer, Amin R

    2015-01-01

    1. To assess the efficacy of omalizumab therapy in improving sinonasal outcomes in refractory allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) patients with moderate or severe asthma. 2. To determine if omalizumab therapy reduces the usage of corticosteroids or antifungal therapy in AFRS patients The clinical charts of patients with AFRS with moderate or severe asthma who received at least three subcutaneous injections of omalizumab therapy between 1st January 2012 and 1st May 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. These patients had undergone bilateral functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and failed adjunct medical treatments (oral or topical corticosteroids and/or antifungal therapy) prior to omalizumab therapy. Seven patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 48.14. The average number of subcutaneous omalizumab injections was 7.57 (range 6-11) with a mean dosage of 287mg (range 225-375mg). The mean pre-omalizumab treatment Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) score was 52.14 while the mean post-omalizumab treatment SNOT-22 score was 35.86 (31% improvement). The mean pre-omalizumab therapy Phillpott-Javer endoscopic score (over the last one year before omalizumab therapy) was 36 while the mean post-omalizumab therapy endoscopic score (from the last clinic visit) was 14 (61% improvement). Omalizumab therapy reduced the dependence of AFRS patients on corticosteroid and antifungal treatments. Omalizumab therapy can be considered as a potential adjunct for the treatment for patients with refractory AFRS with moderate or severe asthma. However, larger prospective studies to confirm the findings of this study will be required. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone marrow immunophenotyping by flow cytometry in refractory cytopenia of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Aalbers (Anna Maartje); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); I. Baumann (Irith); M.N. Dworzak (Michael); H. Hasle (Henrik); F. Locatelli (Franco); B. de Moerloose (Barbara); M. Schmugge; E. Mejstříková (Ester); M. Nováková (Michaela); M. Zecca (Marco); C.M. Zwaan (Christian Michel); J.G. te Marvelde (Jeroen); A.W. Langerak (Anton); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); R. Pieters (Rob); C.M. Niemeyer (Charlotte); V.H.J. van der Velden (Vincent)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractRefractory cytopenia of childhood is the most common type of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome. Because the majority of children with refractory cytopenia have a normal karyotype and a hypocellular bone marrow, differentiating refractory cytopenia from the immune-mediated bone marrow

  2. Lack of effect of methotrexate in budesonide-refractory collagenous colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münch A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Münch,1,* Johan Bohr,2,3,* Lina Vigren,4 Curt Tysk,2,3,* Magnus Ström1,* 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, Linköping University, Linköping, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro University, Örebro, 3School of Health and Medical Science, Örebro University, Örebro, 4Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Clinical Science, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden *These authors are members of the Swedish Organization for the study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (SOIBD, a national organization for gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons, and basic scientists Background: In most cases, collagenous colitis can be treated effectively with budesonide. However, some patients develop side effects or have chronic symptoms refractory to budesonide. This paper reports an open case series of patients intolerant or refractory to budesonide who were treated with methotrexate (MTX. Methods and patients: Nine patients (seven women with a median (range age of 62 (44–77 years were studied. Bowel movements were registered during 1 week prior to baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks’ treatment, enabling calculation of the mean bowel movements/day. All patients underwent colonoscopy with biopsies before inclusion to confirm diagnosis. Open treatment with MTX was given 15 mg subcutaneously weekly for 6 weeks and was increased to 25 mg for a further 6 weeks if symptoms were unresponsive to the first 6 weeks’ treatment. The endpoint was clinical remission, which was defined as a mean <3 stools/day and mean <1 watery stool/day/week at Week 12. The Short Health Scale was used at baseline and Week 12 to assess health-related quality of life. Results: Five patients fulfilled the treatment according to the protocol and four patients discontinued the study after 3–6 weeks because of adverse events. No patient achieved

  3. Clinical and etiological profile of refractory rickets from western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh R; Patil, Shailesh; Rao, Sudha

    2013-07-01

    To present clinical and etiological profile of refractory rickets from Mumbai. Case records of 36 patients presenting over 2½ y with refractory rickets were evaluated with respect to clinical presentation, biochemical, radiological features and where needed, ophthalmological examination, ultrasonography and special tests on blood and urine. Twenty three (63 %) patients had renal tubular acidosis (RTA)-distal RTA in 20 and proximal RTA in 3 patients; 5 (14 %) had vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR I in 2 and VDDR II in 3 patients), 4 (11 %) had chronic renal failure (CRF) and 2 each (6 %) had hypophosphatemic rickets and chronic liver disease as cause of refractory rickets. A significant proportion of patients with RTA and VDDR showed skeletal changes of rickets in the first 2 y of life, while those with hypophosphatemic rickets presented later. Patients with hypophosphatemic rickets had predominant involvement of lower limbs, normal blood calcium and PTH levels and phosphorus leak in urine. All patients with RTA presented with failure to thrive, polyuria and marked rickets; blood alkaline phosphatase levels being normal in almost 50 % patients. Three (75 %) patients with rickets due to CRF had GFR rickets inspite of taking high dose of vitamin D orally. Refractory rickets is a disorder of multiple etiologies; a good history and clinical examination supplemented with appropriate investigations helps to determine its cause.

  4. Anaesthesia for left thoracoscopic sympathectomy for refractory long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mutations including life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Left thoracoscopic sympathectomy is an effective treatment for patients who are refractory to medical therapy or who need frequent epicardial internal cardio defibrillator intervention. The authors report three cases, one adult and two children, who ...

  5. Productivity Costs in Patients with Refractory Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L.; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Hwang, Peter H.; Mace, Jess C.; Soler, Zachary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disease-specific reductions in patient productivity can lead to substantial economic losses to society. The purpose of this study was to: 1) define the annual productivity cost for a patient with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 2) evaluate the relationship between degree of productivity cost and CRS-specific characteristics. Study Design Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. Methods The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 US National Census and the 2013 US Department of Labor statistics. Results A total of 55 patients with refractory CRS were enrolled. The mean work days lost related to absenteeism and presenteeism was 24.6 and 38.8 days per year, respectively. A total of 21.2 household days were lost per year related to daily sinus care requirements. The overall annual productivity cost was $10,077.07 per patient with refractory CRS. Productivity costs increased with worsening disease-specific QoL (r=0.440; p=0.001). Conclusion Results from this study have demonstrated that the annual productivity cost associated with refractory CRS is $10,077.07 per patient. This substantial cost to society provides a strong incentive to optimize current treatment protocols and continue evaluating novel clinical interventions to reduce this cost. PMID:24619604

  6. [Nursing management of a refractory cardiac death donor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Marion

    2016-09-01

    The nursing management of a refractory circulatory death donor is a new procedure which forms an integral part of patient care. It comprises technical and organisational aspects, and requires a conceptual, ethical and deontological effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Clinical outcomes of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in refractory uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Geremias, M; Carreño, E; Epps, S J; Lee, R W J; Dick, A D

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has multiple mechanisms of immunomodulatory action. We wished therefore to assess its efficacy in a spectrum of patients with refractory uveitis. Retrospective review of clinical charts was conducted to document response to IVIg treatment in consecutive patients with treatment-refractory uveitis. Main outcome measures were control of intraocular inflammation, visual acuity, progression of the disease, and complications. Four (two male) patients, with a mean age at the beginning of the treatment of 47 years (range: 39-64), were included in the study. Indication for treatment was patients with active non-infectious uveitis refractory to steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. All patients received a course of 0.5 g/kg per day of IVIg for three consecutive days, repeating this course at a mean of 11 week (range: 2-39 weeks) intervals when indicated clinically. The median duration of the IVIg therapy was 7 months (range: 3-14 months). In three patients treatment resulted in stabilisation and prevention of progression of the disease, and additionally in two patients it facilitated a decrease in prednisolone dose. Treatment failed to induce long-term remission in one patient with recurrence of macular oedema. IVIg was well tolerated with neither immediate nor longer-term adverse events observed. In three out of four cases IVIg was an effective adjunctive therapy and well tolerated for the management of treatment-refractory uveitis.

  8. Refractory compounds for repairing coke-oven brickwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanganu, M.; Dragomir, C. (and others)

    1984-01-01

    A number of refractory compounds are presented, based on aluminium phosphate, phosphoric acid, sodium silicate and fire-clay and mullitic zirconium mastic, including their composition, properties and application (by impregnation, spray application or pouring), which are suitable for repairing various types of coke-oven brickwork. The results obtained are given.

  9. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Testolin G

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 ± 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 ± 3,6 underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting and weight-for-height (wasting were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. Results 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate. Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA × 100] was Conclusion many children with refractory epilepsy would benefit from individual nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  10. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Immunomodulatory therapy in refractory/recurrent ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Chen

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: IMT alone or add-on to palliative/salvage chemotherapy for refractory/recurrent EOC achieves a substantial disease stabilizing rate without severe toxicity, which might be a potential option in selected patients. The ALC 1 month after IMT could be an early indicator to disease stabilization.

  12. Productivity costs in patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L; Schlosser, Rodney J; Hwang, Peter H; Mace, Jess C; Soler, Zachary M

    2014-09-01

    Disease-specific reductions in patient productivity can lead to substantial economic losses to society. The purpose of this study was to: 1) define the annual productivity cost for a patient with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 2) evaluate the relationship between degree of productivity cost and CRS-specific characteristics. Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 U.S. National Census and the 2013 U.S. Department of Labor statistics. A total of 55 patients with refractory CRS were enrolled. The mean work days lost related to absenteeism and presenteeism were 24.6 and 38.8 days per year, respectively. A total of 21.2 household days were lost per year related to daily sinus care requirements. The overall annual productivity cost was $10,077.07 per patient with refractory CRS. Productivity costs increased with worsening disease-specific QoL (r = 0.440; p = 0.001). Results from this study have demonstrated that the annual productivity cost associated with refractory CRS is $10,077.07 per patient. This substantial cost to society provides a strong incentive to optimize current treatment protocols and continue evaluating novel clinical interventions to reduce this cost. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Role of rectal myomectomy in refractory chronic constipation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To assess the role of diagnostic and therapeutic value of anorectal myectomy in cases of chronic refractory constipation. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight patients 11 months to 9 years of age presenting with chronic constipation, with contrast enema showing dilated rectum and sigmoid colon were included ...

  14. Viscosity measurements of molten refractory metals using an electrostatic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Paradis, Paul-François; Okada, Junpei T; Watanabe, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    Viscosities of several refractory metals (titanium, nickel, zirconium, niobium, ruthenium, rhodium, hafnium, iridium and platinum) and terbium have been measured by the oscillation drop method with an improved procedure. The measured data were less scattered than our previous measurements. Viscosities at their melting temperatures showed good agreement with literature values and some predicted values. (paper)

  15. Stimulus intensity and the psychological refractory period II auditive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, W.G.; Schuur, van R.

    1970-01-01

    In experiments in which stimuli are presented closely spaced in time, subjects exhibit a limitation in the transmission of the signals. The result is either a delayed response or a less accurate response. This phenomenon has been called the psychological refractory phase (Telford, 1931). It is

  16. Brentuximab Vedotin Treatment for Primary Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Bo Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 40% of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL become refractory or relapsed after current standard chemotherapy, among which primary refractory HL confers a particularly poor outcome. With intensive salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, the long-term remission rate for these patients was only 30%, but more selective treatments with higher therapeutic index are needed. We report the experience of using a new anti-CD30 immunotoxin, brentuximab vedotin, in salvage treatment of a 30-year-old woman with primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. The patient presented with SVC syndrome due to the bulky mediastinal tumor and was confirmed to have classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type, stage IIIA. The tumor responded to induction chemotherapy transiently, but local progression was noted during subsequent cycles of treatment. Salvage radiotherapy to the mediastinal tumor, obtained no remission but was followed by rapid in-field progression and then lung metastasis. She declined stem cell transplantation and received salvage brentuximab vedotin (BV therapy, which induced dramatic shrinkage of tumor without significant side effects. Serial followup of PET/CT imaging confirmed a rapid and continuous complete remission for 12 months. Although durability of the remission needs further observation, this case illustrates the excellent efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in primary refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

  17. USE OF STRUCTURAL MRI IN PATIENTS WITH MEDICALLY REFRACTORY SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara G. Kaprelyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Refractory epilepsy is common in patients with structural brain lesions including acquired disorders and genetic abnormalities. Recently, MRI is a precise diagnostic tool for recognition of different structural causes underlying medically intractable seizures.Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of MRI for detection of brain lesions associated with refractory epilepsy.Material and methods: 49 patients (20M and 29F; aged 48.6±24.7 years with refractory epilepsy were included in the study. They presented with partial (46.0%, secondary (31.0% or primary (23.0% generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clinical diagnosis was based on the revised criteria of ILAE. Structural neuroimaging (MRI, EEG recording, and neurological examination were performed.Results: MRI detected different structural brain abnormalities totally in 36 (73.5% patients, including cerebral tumors (21p, cerebrovascular accidents (5p, hyppocampal sclerosis (3p, developmental malformations (2p, postencephalitic lesions (2p, arachnoid cysts (2p, and tuberous sclerosis (1p. Neuroimaging revealed normal findings in 13 (27.5% cases. EEG recordings showed focal epileptic activity in 38 (77.6% patients, including 33 cases with and 5 without structural brain abnormalities.Conclusion: This study revealed that structural brain lesions are commonly associated with refractory epilepsy. We suggested that MRI is a useful diagnostic method for assessment of patients with uncontrolled seizures or altered epileptic pattern.

  18. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiesen, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a vessel for handling molten metal having an interior refractory lining, apparatus for continuous high temperature measurement of the molten metal. It comprises a thermowell; the thermowell containing a multiplicity of thermocouples; leads being coupled to a means for continuously indicating the temperature of the molten metal in the vessel

  19. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  20. Refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia with subsequent del(5q) MDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech Mortensen, Thomas; Frederiksen, Henrik; Marcher, Claus Werenberg

    2017-01-01

    A patient with refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) characterised by severe skin and mucosal bleedings was treated with several ITP-directed therapies including cyclophosphamide. He later developed therapy-related del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome with no dysplastic morphological featu...

  1. Use of sedation to relieve refractory symptoms in dying patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indications. Agitated delirium was the most common reason (45%) for using sedation, followed by intractable vomiting due to inoperable malignant intestinal obstruction in 25% of patients. Three patients with persistent convulsions or myoclonic jerking and 2 patients with severe refractory dyspnoea required some sedation.

  2. On calculation of lattice parameters of refractory metal solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsukov, A.D.; Zhuravleva, A.D.; Pedos, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Technique for calculating lattice periods of solid solutions is suggested. Experimental and calculation values of lattice periods of some solid solutions on the basis of refractory metals (V-Cr, Nb-Zr, Mo-W and other) are presented. Calculation error was correlated with experimental one. 7 refs.; 2 tabs

  3. Aborted and refractory status epilepticus in children : A comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechtsen, Florise A. C. P.; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    Purpose: The aims of this retrospective study were: (1) to compare the demographics, clinical characteristics, etiology, and EEG findings of status epilepticus aborted with medication (ASE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE), (2) to describe the treatment response of status epilepticus (SE),

  4. Molybdenite in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, L. H.; Blander, M.

    1977-01-01

    The first observations of molybdenite in a meteorite have been made in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions in the Allende chondrite. The mineral occurs as single individuals completely enclosed in high Ni metal (62-64.5 wt. % Ni). The association with refractories is consistent with thermodynamic calculations which predict that Mo is a high temperature condensate even when nucleation constraints are imposed on the formation of a metal phase. Kinetic factors (including nucleation constraints) appear to have played an important role in the formation of molybdenite and the associated sulfides, magnetite and high nickel metal.

  5. Clinical and microbiological features of refractory periodontitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, A P; Haffajee, A D; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Smith, C M; Cugini, M A; Socransky, S S

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the clinical parameters and the site prevalence and levels of 40 subgingival species in successfully treated and refractory periodontitis subjects. 94 subjects received scaling and root planing and if needed, periodontal surgery and systemically administered tetracycline. 28 refractory subjects showed mean full mouth attachment loss and/or > 3 sites showing attachment loss > 2.5 mm within 1 year post-therapy. 66 successfully treated subjects showed mean attachment level gain and no sites with attachment loss > 2.5 mm. Baseline subgingival plaque samples were taken from the mesial aspect of each tooth and the presence and levels of 40 subgingival taxa were determined using whole genomic DNA probes and checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The mean levels and % of sites colonized by each species (prevalence) was computed for each subject and differences between groups sought using the Mann-Whitney test. Most of the 40 species tested, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Bacteroides forsythus, were equally or less prevalent in the refractory group. Prevotella nigrescens was significantly more prevalent in successfully treated subjects, while refractory subjects harbored a larger proportion of Streptococcus species, particularly Streptococcus constellatus. The odds of a subject being refractory was 8.6 (p or = 3.5% of the total DNA probe count. Since few microbiological differences existed between treatment outcome groups using DNA probes to known species, the predominant cultivable microbiota of 33 subgingival samples from 14 refractory subjects was examined. 85% of the 1649 isolates were identified using probes to 69 recognized subgingival species. The remaining unidentified strains were classified by analyzing 16S rRNA gene sequences. Many sequenced isolates were of taxa not considered a common part of the oral microbiota such as Acinetobacter baumanni

  6. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe a test investigating ceramic dissolution by a molten non-eutectic melt. • The evolution of the interface temperature between melt and refractory is measured. • A theoretical model describing dissolution kinetics is proposed. • When dissolution stops, interface temperature is the liquidus temperature of the melt. - Abstract: The present work addresses the question of corium–ceramic interaction in a core catcher during a core-melt accident in a nuclear power plant. It provides an original insight into transient aspects concerning dissolution of refractory material by a volumetrically heated pool. An experiment with simulant material (LIVECERAM) is presented. Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average composition of the melt pool. With constant power dissipation in the melt and external cooling of the core-catcher, a final steady-state situation is reached. Dissolution stops when the heat flux (delivered by the melt to the refractory) can be removed by conduction through the residual thickness of the ceramic, with T{sub interface} = T{sub liquidus} (calculated for the average composition of the final liquid pool). The final steady state corresponds to a uniform pool composition and uniform interface temperature distribution. Convection in the pool is governed by natural thermal convection and the heat flux distribution is therefore similar to what would be obtained for a single component pool. An interpretation of the experiment with two model-based approaches (0D and 1D) is presented. The mass transfer kinetics between the interface and the bulk is controlled by a diffusion sublayer within the boundary layer. During the dissolution transient

  7. Becoming Inclusive: A Code of Conduct for Inclusion and Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Bonnie J; MacWilliams, Brent R; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    There are increasing concerns about exclusionary behaviors and lack of diversity in the nursing profession. Exclusionary behaviors, which may include incivility, bullying, and workplace violence, discriminate and isolate individuals and groups who are different, whereas inclusive behaviors encourage diversity. To address inclusion and diversity in nursing, this article offers a code of conduct. This code of conduct builds on existing nursing codes of ethics and applies to nursing students and nurses in both educational and practice settings. Inclusive behaviors that are demonstrated in nurses' relationships with patients, colleagues, the profession, and society are described. This code of conduct provides a basis for measureable change, empowerment, and unification of the profession. Recommendations, implications, and a pledge to action are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Illness identity in young adults with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Oris, Leen; Raymaekers, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Moons, Philip; Verdyck, Ludo; Mijnster, Teus; Mark, Ruth E

    2018-03-01

    Refractory epilepsy is an intrusive condition with important implications for daily functioning in emerging and young adulthood. The present study examined the degree to which refractory epilepsy is integrated in one's identity, and examined how such a sense of illness identity was related to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A total of 121 18- to 40-year-old patients with refractory epilepsy (56.2% women) completed self-report questionnaires assessing the four illness identity states of acceptance, enrichment, engulfment, and rejection (Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQ)); HRQOL (Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory - 31); and seizure frequency and severity (Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale (LSSS)). Illness identity scores were compared with a sample of 191 patients with a nonneurological chronic disease (congenital heart disease). Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess the predictive value of illness identity for HRQOL when simultaneously controlling for demographic and clinical features. Patients with refractory epilepsy scored higher on rejection and engulfment and lower on acceptance when compared with patients with congenital heart disease. Further, seizure severity and number of medication side-effects were positively related to engulfment and negatively to acceptance. Finally, when simultaneously controlling for various demographic and clinical variables, illness identity significantly predicted HRQOL (with engulfment being the strongest and most consistent predictor). The extent to which patients with refractory epilepsy succeed in integrating their illness into their identity may have important implications for HRQOL. Clinicians should be especially attentive for signs that patients feel engulfed by their epilepsy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunomodulatory therapy in refractory/recurrent ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Yu; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Yang, Lan-Yan; Tang, Yun-Hsin; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Chee-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Tao

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) alone or as an add-on to palliative/salvage chemotherapy in patients with refractory/recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of IMT in 15 patients with refractory/recurrent EOC who had previously received multiple chemotherapy regimens. The median age of the patients was 56 years (range, 41-75 years). Three patients were platinum-sensitive, two were platinum-resistant, and the remaining 10 patients were refractory to platinum-based front-line chemotherapy. IMT consisted of picibanil (OK-432) on Day 1, interleukin-2 and/or interferon-α on Day 2 administered by subcutaneous injection (every week or 2-weekly). Five patients never received metronomic oral cyclophosphamide. After IMT, three patients achieved partial remission (PR, lasting for 11 months, ≥ 12 months, and 16 months), and six patients had stable disease (SD). The disease stabilizing rate (PR+SD) was 60% (3/3 in platinum-sensitive and 6/12 in platinum-resistant/refractory patients). The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at 1 month after IMT was significantly higher in the PR+SD group (median 1242.0/μL) than in the progression group (median 325.0/μL) (p = 0.012). No ≥ Grade 3 toxicities were observed. The median post-IMT survival time was 12 months (range, 2-39 months). IMT alone or add-on to palliative/salvage chemotherapy for refractory/recurrent EOC achieves a substantial disease stabilizing rate without severe toxicity, which might be a potential option in selected patients. The ALC 1 month after IMT could be an early indicator to disease stabilization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Ixabepilone: a new chemotherapeutic option for refractory metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Puhalla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Shannon Puhalla, Adam BrufskyUPMC Magee-Womens Cancer Program, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USAAbstract: Taxane therapy is commonly used in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, most patients will eventually become refractory to these agents. Ixabepilone is a newly approved chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Although it targets microtubules similarly to docetaxel and paclitaxel, ixabepilone has activity in patients that are refractory to taxanes. This review summarizes the pharmacology of ixapebilone and clinical trials with the drug both as a single agent and in combination. Data were obtained using searches of PubMed and abstracts of the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium from 1995 to 2008. Ixapebilone is a semi-synthetic analog of epothilone B that acts to induce apoptosis of cancer cells via the stabilization of microtubules. Phase I clinical trials have employed various dosing schedules ranging from daily to weekly to 3-weekly. Dose-limiting toxicites included neuropathy and neutropenia. Responses were seen in a variety of tumor types. Phase II studies verified activity in taxane-refractory metastatic breast cancer. The FDA has approved ixabepilone for use as monotherapy and in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Ixabepilone is an efficacious option for patients with refractory metastatic breast cancer. The safety profile is similar to that of taxanes, with neuropathy and neutropenia being dose-limiting. Studies are ongoing with the use of both iv and oral formulations and in combination with other chemotherapeutic and biologic agents.Keywords: ixabepilone, epothilone, metastatic breast cancer, taxane-refractory

  11. Vernakalant selectively prolongs atrial refractoriness with no effect on ventricular refractoriness or defibrillation threshold in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Jeff; Gibson, John Ken; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Wheeler, Jeffery J; Schneidkraut, Marlowe J; Huang, Jian; Ideker, Raymond E; McAfee, Donald A

    2011-03-01

    Vernakalant is a novel antiarrhythmic agent that has demonstrated clinical efficacy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Vernakalant blocks, to various degrees, cardiac sodium and potassium channels with a pattern that suggests atrial selectivity. We hypothesized, therefore, that vernakalant would affect atrial more than ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) and have little or no effect on ventricular defibrillation threshold (DFT). Atrial and ventricular ERP and ventricular DFT were determined before and after treatment with vernakalant or vehicle in 23 anesthetized male mixed-breed pigs. Vernakalant was infused at a rate designed to achieve stable plasma levels similar to those in human clinical trials. Atrial and ventricular ERP were determined by endocardial extrastimuli delivered to the right atria or right ventricle. Defibrillation was achieved using external biphasic shocks delivered through adhesive defibrillation patches placed on the thorax after 10 seconds of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation. The DFT was estimated using the Dixon "up-and-down" method. Vernakalant significantly increased atrial ERP compared with vehicle controls (34 ± 8 versus 9 ± 7 msec, respectively) without significantly affecting ventricular ERP or DFT. This is consistent with atrial selective actions and supports the conclusion that vernakalant does not alter the efficacy of electrical defibrillation.

  12. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  13. Social inclusion and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather

    2010-09-01

    Recent research on approaches to improving social inclusion for people with mental disabilities is reviewed. We describe four approaches (or tools) that can be used to improve social inclusion for people with mental disabilities: legislation, community-based supports and services, antistigma/antidiscrimination initiatives, and system monitoring and evaluation. While legislative solutions are the most prevalent, and provide an important framework to support social inclusion, research shows that their full implementation remains problematic. Community-based supports and services that are person-centered and recovery-oriented hold considerable promise, but they are not widely available nor have they been widely evaluated. Antistigma and antidiscrimination strategies are gaining in popularity and offer important avenues for eliminating social barriers and promoting adequate and equitable access to care. Finally, in the context of the current human rights and evidence-based health paradigms, systematic evidence will be needed to support efforts to promote social inclusion for people with mental disabilities, highlight social inequities, and develop best practice approaches. Tools that promote social inclusion of persons with mental disabilities are available, though not yet implemented in a way to fully realize the goals of current disability discourse.

  14. Comparative evaluation of the locally manufactured low-alumina fireclay refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Ahmed, W.; Khan, M.I.

    2007-01-01

    Properties of domestically produced low-alumina refractories commonly known as medium duty fireclay refractories were studied and a comparative evaluation was performed. Refractory properties such as density, porosity, cold strength, reheat change and deformation at high-temperature were determined. Significant differences were discovered between these products sold as medium duty fireclay refractories. One brand marketed as medium duty refractory was found to be too inferior to be designated as medium duty firebrick. Absence of any standards and lack of awareness on the part of users of the various test methods appear to be the cause of this situation. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Alternative Refractory Materials for the Main Flame Deflectors at KSC Launch Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Trejo, David; Rutkowsky, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The deterioration of the refractory materials used to protect the KSC launch complex steel base structures from the high temperatures during launches results in frequent and costly repairs and safety hazards. KSC-SPEC-P-0012, Specification for Refractory Concrete, is ineffective in qualifying refractory materials. This study of the specification and of alternative refractory materials recommends a complete revision of the specification and further investigation of materials that were found to withstand the environment of the Solid Rocket Booster main flame deflector better than the refractory materials in current use in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, shrinkage, and abrasion.

  16. Migration of TRU-containing slag into candidate refractories for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, W.C.

    1978-11-01

    Results of initial tests on transuranic migration into commercial refractories are reported. Five castable refractories and a plastic-bonded refractory were tested using the cup test method. Initial results indicate that castable materials will not survive conditions expected in the slagging pyrolysis unit; plastic refractories appear to have better performance. The major mechanism of migration into the tested refractories is pore penetration. Al 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 -Cr 2 O 3 phases appear resistant to chemical diffusion of transuranics. 2 figures, 16 tables

  17. Inclusive production at LHC energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, C.; Pajares, C.; Shabelski, Yu.M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the first LHC data for pp collisions in the framework of Regge theory. The integral cross sections and inclusive densities of secondaries are determined by the Pomeron exchange, and we present the corresponding predictions for them. The first measurements of inclusive densities in the midrapidity region are in agreement with these predictions. The contribution of the baryon-number transfer due to String Junction diffusion in the rapidity space is at the origin of the differences in the inclusive spectra of particle and antiparticle in the central region, and this effect could be significant at LHC energies. We discuss the first data of ALICE and LHCb collaborations on the baryon/antibaryon asymmetry at LHC. (orig.)

  18. Doing Research Inclusively: Bridges to Multiple Possibilities in Inclusive Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study of how people do research that matters to people with learning disabilities and that involves them and their views and experiences. The study was an attempt to bring together people doing inclusive research so that, collectively, we could take stock of our practices. This would add to the individual reports and…

  19. The Inclusion of Music/the Music of Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubet, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to situate music within inclusive education. Intersections of music--widely regarded as a "talent" or hyperability--and disability provide unique perspectives on social organisation in general and human valuation in particular. Music is a ubiquitous and an essential component of learning beginning in infancy.…

  20. Inclusiveness program - a SWOT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dósa, M.; Szegő, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Inclusiveness Program was created with the aim to integrate currently under-represented countries into the mainstream of European planetary research. Main stages of the working plan include setting up a database containing all the research institutes and universities where astronomical or geophysical research is carried out. It is necessary to identify their problems and needs. Challenging part of the project is to find exact means that help their work in a sustainable way. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the program were identified based on feedback from the inclusiveness community. Our conclusions, further suggestions are presented.

  1. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  2. Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers » Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version This is the text version for the Inclusion: Leading by Example video. I'm Martin Keller. I'm the NREL of the laboratory. Another very important element in inclusion is diversity. Because if we have a

  3. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc

  4. Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects the di...

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  6. Inclusion body myositis. Clinical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, Fieke Maria Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Sporadische inclusion body myositis (IBM) is een van de meest voor voorkomende verworven spierziekte die ontstaat na het 50e levensjaar. In dit proefschrift worden de klinische aspecten van sporadische IBM beschreven. Uit de studie met betrekking tot het natuurlijk beloop blijkt dat de ziekte niet

  7. Inclusive Education and the Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the troubled, problematic and contested field of inclusive education, characterised by antagonisms between so-called inclusionists and special educationists; frustration, particularly among disability activists caused by the abstraction of the social model of disability and the expansion of the special educational needs…

  8. Inclusive Education: Lessons from History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    How has education evolved from exclusion to inclusion, from judgment to acceptance, and from disability to difference? This is the question that frames Barbara Boroson's article in the theme issue, "Differences, Not Disabilities." Boroson begins by taking a historical view of how schools have treated those who were perceived to be…

  9. Nonlocal quasilinear damped differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions to second order initial value problems for a class of damped differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.

  10. Evolution: From Isolation to Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Sharon M.

    1998-01-01

    Today, school district leaders must comply with multiple federal statutes (Individuals with Disabilities Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and Americans with Disabilities Act). The trend is toward full inclusion, despite judicial overrulings, clarifications of "least restrictive environment," and emergence of opposing groups.…

  11. Tracing Inclusion: Determining Teacher Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Brenda E.; Wimer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Though there appears to be an onslaught of No Child Left Behind, there is still more emphasis on testing than ever before. With the new implementation of national common-core standards, many school districts have moved towards full inclusive classrooms. However, it is rare that teachers have any input on whether such major decisions are apropos…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Coral R.

    2016-01-01

    From the introduction of early intervention services in Australian in the mid-1970s, the families of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities have been encouraged to enroll their children in local preschools and childcare centers. Children with disabilities have also accessed a range of alternatives to full inclusion, such as reverse…

  14. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbot, P.; Wrangham, R.; Abe, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arising from M. A. Nowak, C. E. Tarnita & E. O. Wilson 466, 1057-1062 (2010); Nowak et al. reply. Nowak et al. argue that inclusive fitness theory has been of little value in explaining the natural world, and that it has led to negligible progress in explaining the evolution of eusociality. However...

  15. Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Kaplan

    2017-01-01

    Paperet sætter fokus på inklusion i en dans sammenhæng, med særligt fokus på mobning. Der tages udgangspunkt i et fællesskabsorienteret mobbesyn, der udpeger særlige opmærksomhedspunkter til såvel forebyggelse som intervention....

  16. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  17. The evolution of complex type B Allende inclusion - An ion microprobe trace element study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Glenn J.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Lundberg, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented of a detailed trace-element and isotopic analyses of the constituent phases in each of the major textural parts (mantle, core, and islands) of a Type B refractory inclusion, the USNM 5241 inclusion from Allende, first described by El Goresy et al. (1985). The REE data on 5241 were found to be largely consistent with a model in which the mantle and the core of 5241 formed sequentially out of a single melt by fractional crystallization. The numerical models of REE evolution in the 5241 melt, especially that of Eu, require that a significant mass of spinel-free island material was assimilated into the evolving melt during the last half of the solidification history of 5241. The trace element results pbtained thus strongly support the interpretation of El Goresy et al. (1985) that the spinel-free islands in the 5241 are trapped xenoliths.

  18. Inclusion control in high-performance steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holappa, L.E.K.; Helle, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Progress of clean steel production, fundamentals of oxide and sulphide inclusions as well as inclusion morphology in normal and calcium treated steels are described. Effects of cleanliness and inclusion control on steel properties are discussed. In many damaging constructional and engineering applications the nonmetallic inclusions have a quite decisive role in steel performance. An example of combination of good mechanical properties and superior machinability by applying inclusion control is presented. (author)

  19. New applications and novel processing of refractory metal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Refractory metals have often been limited in their application because of their propensity to oxidize and to undergo a loos of yield strength at elevated temperatures. However, recent developments in both processing and alloy composition have opened the possibility that these materials might be used in structural applications that were not considered possible in the past. At the same time, the use of refractory metals in the electronics industry is growing, particularly with the use of tantalum as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization. Finally, the application of grain boundary engineering to the problem of intergranular fracture in these materials may allow processes to be developed that will produce alloys with a greater resistance to fracture. (author)

  20. Performance of refractory alloy-clad fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, D.S.; Cox, C.M.; Millhollen, M.K.

    1984-12-01

    This paper discusses objectives and basic design of two fuel-cladding tests being conducted in support of SP-100 technology development. Two of the current space nuclear power concepts use conventional pin type designs, where a coolant removes the heat from the core and transports it to an out-of-core energy conversion system. An extensive irradiation testing program was conducted in the 1950's and 1960's to develop fuel pins for space nuclear reactors. The program emphasized refractory metal clad uranium nitride (UN), uranium carbide (UC), uranium oxide (UO 2 ), and metal matrix fuels (UCZr and BeO-UO 2 ). Based on this earlier work, studies presented here show that UN and UO 2 fuels in conjunction with several refractory metal cladding materials demonstrated high potential for meeting space reactor requirements and that UC could serve as an alternative but higher risk fuel

  1. Wetting of refractory metals with copper base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Kostikov, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect is studied of phosphorus upon the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum by an alloy of the system copper-silver (10%) as a function of contact time and phosphorus concentration. Experiments have been conducted in vacuum of 5x10 -4 mm Hg at 900 deg C. It is established that the introduction of phosphorus into a copper-silver alloy improves the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. Formation of intermetallic compounds on the alloy-refractory metal interface can be avoided by adjusting the time of contact of the solder with molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. As a solder with 2.9% phosphorus spreads well over copper, it is suggested to use said solder for brazing copper and the investigated refractory metals in items intended for service at temperatures of up to 600 deg C

  2. Direct brazing of ceramics, graphite, and refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Cole, N.C.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1976-03-01

    ORNL has been instrumental in the development of brazing filler metals for joining ceramics, graphite, and refractory metals for application at temperatures above 1000 0 C. The philosophy and techniques employed in the development of these alloys are presented. A number of compositions are discussed that have been satisfactorily used to braze ceramics, graphite, and refractory metals without a prior surface treatment. One alloy, Ti--25 percent Cr--21 percent V, has wet and flowed on aluminum oxide and graphite. Further, it has been utilized in making brazes between different combinations of the three subject materials. The excellent flowability of this alloy and alloys from the Ti--Zr--Ge system is evidenced by the presence of filler metal in the minute pores of the graphite and ceramics

  3. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  4. Unusual cause of respiratory distress misdiagnosed as refractory asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Otair Hadil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a young lady, who was labeled as a case of refractory asthma for a few years, based on history of shortness of breath on minimal exertion, noisy breathing and normal chest radiograph. Repeated upper airway exam by an otolaryngologist and computerized tomography scan, were normal. On presentation to our hospital, she was diagnosed to have fixed upper airway obstruction, based on classical flow-volume loop findings. Fibroptic bronchoscopy revealed a web-shaped subglottic stenosis. The histopathology of a biopsy taken from that area, showed non-specific inflammation. No cause for this stenosis could be identified. The patient was managed with rigid bronchoscopy dilatation, without recurrence. We report this case as idiopathic subglottic stenosis, that was misdiagnosed as refractory bronchial asthma, stressing the importance of performing spirometry in the clinic.

  5. Omeprazole for Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Marshall

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux is a common complication of pregnancy and lactation. However, the safety of many effective medical therapies, including oral proton pump inhibitors, has not been well defined. The administration of oral omeprazole to a 41-year-old female during the third trimester of pregnancy, after ranitidine and cisapride failed to control her refractory gastroesophageal reflux, is reported. No adverse fetal effects were apparent, and the patient elected to continue omeprazole therapy (20 mg/day while breastfeeding. Peak omeprazole concentrations in breast milk (58 nM, 3 h after ingestion were less than 7% of the peak serum concentration (950 nM at 4 h, indicating minimal secretion. Although omeprazole is a potentially useful therapy for refractory gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy and lactation, further data are needed to define better its safety and efficacy.

  6. Optimization of the Technological Synthesis of Refractory Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidar, S. M.; Karelina, M. Yu.; Prikhod'ko, V. M.; Volkov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The results of experimental studies, which are related to the regulation of the fractional composition of refractory compounds by roll milling in using controlled roll opening and unbalanced peripheral speeds of rollers, are reported. The content of prepared fine, middle, and coarse fractions is within 50-80%; in this case, the milling time of synthesis products is less than the time of ball milling by an order of magnitude. The application of roll milling for refining the products of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis can be most efficient in using together with heat-generating reactor to solve the main problem of self-propagating synthesis (SHS), which is a problem for recent several decades (the problem is the creation of intense automated production of refractory compounds in using continuous manufacturing cycle within a energotechnological system with the recovery of a great quantity of heat released during SHS).

  7. Classical management of refractory adult immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, R

    2002-03-01

    Treatment of chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura with corticosteroids and/or splenectomy results in safe platelet counts in over 70% of patients without additional treatment. Therapy of patients who are refractory to these two treatments may be difficult. The treatment approach to refractory ITP patients, described in this report, is arbitrarily divided into four levels: levels 1 through 3 represent treatments with increasing side effects; level 4 therapy may be tried when the others have failed. Patients undergoing these treatments may require concomitant intravenous gammaglobulin, high-dose corticosteroids or platelets, to maintain the platelet count in the setting of mucosal bleeding or severe thrombocytopenia. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-Chrome/Chrome Free Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.P.; Thomas, H.; Petty, A.V. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Gasifiers are containment vessels used to react carbon-containing materials with oxygen and water, producing syngas (CO and H2) that is used in chemical and power production. It is also a potential source of H2 in a future hydrogen economy. Air cooled slagging gasifiers are one type of gasifier, operating at temperatures from 1275-1575 C and at pressures of 400 psi or higher. They typically use coal or petroleum coke as the carbon source, materials which contain ash impurities that liquefy at the gasification temperatures, producing liquid slag in quantities of 100 or more tons/day, depending on the carbon fed rate and the percent ash present in the feedstock. The molten slag is corrosive to refractory linings, causing chemical dissolution and spalling. The refractory lining is composed of chrome oxide, alumina, and zirconia; and is replaced every 3-24 months. Gasifier users would like greater on-line availability and reliability of gasifier liners, something that has impacted gasifier acceptance by industry. Research is underway at NETL to improve refractory service life and to develop a no-chrome or low-chrome oxide alternative refractory liner. Over 250 samples of no- or low-chrome oxide compositions have been evaluated for slag interactions by cup testing; with potential candidates for further studies including those with ZrO2, Al2O3, and MgO materials. The development of improved liner materials is necessary if technologies such as IGCC and DOE's Near Zero Emissions Advanced Fossil Fuel Power Plant are to be successful and move forward in the marketplace

  9. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  10. Chronic, refractory CRPS involving 3 limbs: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyluk, A

    2013-06-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old woman with CRPS involving consecutively 3 extremities during 8 years. None of the treatments used was effective and each CRPS episode resulted in persistence and chronification of the disease. We suggest that this patient presents a specific subtype of the disease, called "chronic, refractory CRPS" which is extremely severe, disabling and resistant to treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, S.; Cardinali, S.; Veggiotti, P.; Trentani, C.; Testolin, G.; Tagliabue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with ...

  12. Association of interleukin 17 / angiotensin II with refractory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 2 Multiple linear regression analysis showing relationship between IL 17, Ang II and mean arterial pressure in hemodialysis patients. Variables. B t value. P value. IL 17. 6.320. 10.221. 0.000. Ang II. 0.143. 2.442. 0.017. Discussion. This study aimed to investigate the association between. IL 17 and the risk of refractory ...

  13. Percutaneous radiofrequency treatment for refractory anteromedial pain of osteoarthritic knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ushida, Takahiro; Izumi, Masashi; Tani, Toshikazu

    2011-04-01

    Although severe knee osteoarthritis with refractory pain is commonly treated surgically, this is often not an option for patients with poor health status or unwillingness to undergo major surgery. We examined the efficacy of radiofrequency application to sensory nerves as a novel alternative treatment for refractory knee pain. This study was an open-label, nonrandomized, and controlled study. Patients complaining of refractory anteromedial knee pain associated with radiological osteoarthritis (moderate or severe) were included. They were assigned to one of two groups: those receiving radiofrequency thermocoagulation (N = 18) or those receiving nerve block (N = 17), depending on the time period that they were referred to the clinic. Radiofrequency current or local anesthetics was applied to the medial retinacular nerve and the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve. Western Ontario McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and patient's global assessment were assessed with a minimum follow-up of 6 months.   Radiofrequency treatment significantly decreased knee pain as measured by VAS for 12 weeks compared with the control group. In terms of responders, more patients in the RF group responded to the treatment than in the control group. The differences were statistically significant at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks in pain VAS. Eight patients (44%) treated with radiofrequency rated excellent or good but only three (18%) in the control group rated good, although the difference was not statistically significant. Some patients were able to benefit substantially from radiofrequency treatment. Even if its effective period is limited, radiofrequency application is a promising treatment to alleviate refractory anteromedial knee pain with osteoarthritis. Further experience and technical improvements are needed to establish its role in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Managing trichomonal vaginitis refractory to conventional treatment with metronidazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed-Jushuf, I H; Murray, A E; McKeown, J

    1988-01-01

    Three patients with vulvovaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, which was refractory to conventional treatment with metronidazole are described. The T vaginalis strain isolated from one patient was resistant to metronidazole (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) more than 100 mg/l) under aerobic conditions, although under anaerobic conditions it was as susceptible as a normal reference strain. The effect of the concomitant use of other medication and the influence of other vaginal patho...

  15. Development of a Refractory High Entropy Superalloy (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-17

    hardened with HfC precipitates [2], Co-Re- or Co-Al-W-based alloys [3] or two-phase ( FCC + L12) refractory superalloys based on platinum group metals...Ni-based superalloys consisting of cuboids with the ordered L12 structure embedded in an FCC solid-solution matrix. Based on this microstructural...and 5). A comparison of the average atomic radii with the measured lattice parameters allows us to conclude that the disordered BCC phase forming

  16. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Composite Coatings in Potassium Rich Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina BRINKIENĖ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory scale method was used to study the performance of reinforced cement composites in potassium rich environment of biomass combustion. Buckwheat husk (BH was used as potential source of unexploited biomass product applicable as biomass derived fuel. In order to enhance the alkali effect on the properties of the investigated materials, the solution of potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was selected as potassium rich aggressive environment. Two reinforced cement composites as potential repair coatings for restoration of damaged refractory surfaces with different composition of aggregate were used in corrosion tests. Performance of refractory coatings was evaluated by analysing the microstructure of the treated composites as well as mechanical properties. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and optical microscopy were used to study the microstructure in the corroded region of the refractory coatings. Long term studies in the solution of 1M K2CO3 for 56 months have demonstrated that composite with the additive of fluid cracking catalyst of oil refinery and petrochemical industries is more durable in the potassium rich environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.8348

  17. Colonic exclusion and combined therapy for refractory constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Xu, Ai-Zhong

    2006-12-28

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of colonic exclusion and combined therapy for refractory constipation. Thirty-two patients with refractory constipation were randomly divided into treatment group (n = 14) and control group (n = 18). Fourteen patients in treatment group underwent colonic exclusion and end-to-side colorectal anastomosis. Eighteen patients in control group received subtotal colectomy and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. The therapeutic effects of the operations were assessed by comparing the surgical time, incision length, volume of blood losses, hospital stay, recovery rate and complication incidence. All patients received long-term follow-up. All operations were successful and patients recovered fully after the operations. In comparison of treatment group and control group, the surgical time (h), incision length (cm), volume of blood losses (mL), hospital stay (d) were 87 +/- 16 min vs 194 +/- 23 min (t = 9.85), 10.4 +/- 0.5 cm vs 21.2 +/- 1.8 cm (t = 14.26), 79.5 +/- 31.3 mL vs 286.3 +/- 49.2 mL (t = 17.24), and 11.8 +/- 2.4 d vs 18.6 +/- 2.6 d (t = 6.91), respectively (P 0.05), 21.4% vs 33.3% (P = 0.73 > 0.05), respectively. Colonic exclusion has better therapeutic efficacy on refractory constipation. It has many advantages such as shorter surgical time, smaller incision, fewer blood losses and shorter hospital stay.

  18. Adalimumab for the treatment of refractory noninfectious paediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Gallego, Alicia; Barral, Estefanía; Enríquez, Eugenia; Tejada, Pilar; Barceló, Ana; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2017-06-01

    To report the experience of our center with the use of adalimumab (ADA) for the treatment of severe refractory noninfectious paediatric uveitis. The study is a retrospective case series of all paediatric patients with refractory uveitis who were treated with ADA at the Paediatric Uveitis Unit of our center from 2008 to 2015. We present 12 patients (6 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis, 4 idiopathic panuveitis, 1 early-onset sarcoidosis-associated panuveitis, and 1 intermediate uveitis), with uveitis in 19/24 eyes. Once ADA therapy was started, all the patients presented improved activity according to Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria. Nine out of the 12 patients had structural damage before ADA could be started: cataract (n = 4), glaucoma (n = 2), cystic macular edema (n = 1), exudative retinal detachment (n = 1), and optic disk edema (n = 5). Visual acuity improved or maintained stable in 17/19 affected eyes, and only 2 eyes decreased its visual acuity because of structural damage, which was already present before ADA therapy. In our experience, ADA presents a good safety profile and is efficacious in the treatment of paediatric patients with different forms of refractory noninfectious uveitis.

  19. A refractory metal gate approach for micronic CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubowiecki, V.; Ledys, J.L.; Plossu, C.; Balland, B.

    1987-01-01

    In the future, devices scaling down, integration density and performance improvements are going to bring a number of conventional circuit design and process techniques to their fundamental limits. To avoid any severe limitations in MOS ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) technologies, interconnection materials and schemes are required to emerge, in order to face the Megabits memory field. Among those, the gate approach will obviously take a keyrole, when the operating speed of ULSI chips will reach the practical upper limits imposed by parasitic resistances and capacitances which stem from the circuit interconnect wiring. Even if fairly suitable for MOS process, doped polycrystalline silicon is being gradually replaced by refractory metal silicide or polycide structures, which match better with low resistivity requirements. However, as we approach the submicronic IC's, higher conductivity materials will be paid more and more attention. Recently, works have been devoted and published on refractory metal gate technologies. Molybdenum or tungsten, deposited either by CVD or PVD methods, are currently reported even if some drawbacks in their process integration still remain. This paper is willing to present such an approach based on tungsten (more reliable than Molybdenum deposited by LPCVD (giving more conductive and more stable films than PVD). Deposition process will be first described. Then CMOS process flow will allow us to focus on specific refractory metal gate issues. Finally, electrical and physical properties will be assessed, which will demonstrate the feasibility of such a technology as well as the compatibility of the tungsten with most of the usual techniques

  20. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, S; Cardinali, S; Veggiotti, P; Trentani, C; Testolin, G; Tagliabue, A

    2006-04-26

    children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 +/- 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 +/- 3,6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate). Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA) x 100] was nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  1. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosion coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials

  2. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt procedure for refractory ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Wenke; Shan Hong; Zhu Kangshun; Jiang Zaibo; Li Zhengran; Huang Mingsheng; Guan Shouhai; Shen Xinying

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical efficacy of TIPS in the treatment of patients with refractory ascites and investigate the clinical factors associated with TIPS. Methods: 21 consecutive patients with refractory ascites, 16 men and 5 women with mean age of 45 years (range 22-69 years) were followed up for an average of 337 days (range 50-1323 days). Ascites/abdomen circumference, serum parameters, stents function, time of followed up and survival rate were analyzed. Results: The ascites was significantly reduced as compared with basal values (P<0.05). 81% and 91% patients had no or mild ascites during 3 to 6 months and 9 to 12 after TIPS respectively. According to responses to treatment within 3 months, using Logistic regression predicated the control of ascites with relation to Child class C for severe prognosis (P<0.05). There were significant change in serum sodium, serum creatinine as compared with baseline at follow-up (P<0.05). Their mortality were 14% during follow-up for 3 months, 20% in 6 and the survival rate was 72% at 1 year. According to COX regression analysis showed that age, Child class C, serum albumin, hepatic encephalopathy, serum total bilirubin were related to severe prognosis; but only hepatic encephalopathy and Child class C had an effect on survival rate. Conclusion: TIPS is an effective method for refractory ascite caused by hepatitis cirrhosis, and also effective for patients with functional renal failure but retaining of liver compensation

  3. Advances in multidisciplinary individualized treatment of refractory hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABUDUAINI Abulizi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (HAE is a zoonotic parasitic disease that seriously threatens the population in western China and compromises patients′ quality of life. With the continuous improvement in radical resection rate in recent years, late-stage HAE patients that were incurable in the past now have the opportunity for radical resection. However, patients who are not suitable candidates for radical resection still suffer from various complications and poor quality of life. Therefore, HAE is still considered a refractory and complex disease. The simple empirical treatment model provided by traditional professional discussion is unable to satisfy the treatment of advanced refractory HAE as it is unable to integrate specialized, standardized clinical skills for diagnosis and treatment. Multidisciplinary individualized treatment (MDT organically integrates the advantages of the available treatment into a reasonable individualized comprehensive treatment regimen. This review summarizes the advances in MDT for HAE as the best option to increase long-term survival, and suggests MDT as the first-line treatment for late-stage refractory hepatic alveolar echinococcosis.

  4. Super-refractory status epilepticus in West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L; Li, Y; Xue, X; Wu, M; Liu, F; Hao, X; Zhou, D

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to determine the general frequency, mortality, and risk factors of super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) versus non-refractory status epilepticus (NRSE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE). This work is a retrospective study. Clinical data of patients who were diagnosed with status epilepticus (SE) in the neurological ward and neuro-intensive care unit of West China Hospital from January 2009 to December 2012 were collected and analyzed. A total of 98 patients were included in the study. The percentages of NRSE, RSE, and SRSE were 67.3%, 20.4%, and 12.2%, respectively. Convulsive SE was the main seizure type among the three groups. The most common cause of NRSE was related to epilepsy (EP). However, 67.7% of SRSE cases were caused by acute encephalitis. Moreover, 47% of SE and 40% of RSE cases had a history of EP, whereas only 8.3% of SRSE cases had such history (P  0.05). The general mortality of SE was 7.1%, whereas that of SRSE was 50%. During follow-up, most SRSE patients who survived have developed symptomatic EP. This study was the first to use the statistical percentage of SRSE. Approximately 12.2% of SE cases will result in SRSE, which is a challenging medical situation for doctors. Patients with first episodes and acute encephalitis were also prone to develop SRSE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Treatment of refractory chylothorax with externalized pleuroperitoneal shunts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, A B; Silen, M L; Kokoska, E R; Rodgers, B M

    1999-09-01

    Traditional therapy for refractory chylothorax in the pediatric population has included pleurodesis and thoracic duct ligation. These procedures are associated with high morbidity and questionable success rates. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with 15 patients who underwent treatment for chylous effusions using pleuroperitoneal shunts with exteriorized pump chambers. Mean patient age at time of shunt placement was 2.1 (0.1 to 11.5) years and the most common indication (7 of 15) was refractory chylothorax following surgical correction of congenital heart disease. Mean chylothorax duration before shunt placement was 76 (5 to 810) days and shunts were in place for an average of 104 (12 to 365) days. A total of 19 chylous effusions (pleural or pericardial) were treated with shunts. Nine of 11 right-sided chylothoraces, 5 of 6 left-sided chylothoraces, and 2 of 2 chylopericardia resolved with shunt therapy (84% total). Pleuroperitoneal shunting failed to clear the effusion in 3 children. There were six episodes of shunt malfunction that were repaired and two episodes of infection. Inguinal or umbilical hernia developed in 4 patients. Externalized pleuroperitoneal shunting is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment for children with refractory chylous effusions.

  6. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, S; Cardinali, S; Veggiotti, P; Trentani, C; Testolin, G; Tagliabue, A

    2006-01-01

    Background children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 ± 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 ± 3,6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. Results 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate). Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA) × 100] was nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care. PMID:16640779

  7. Toll-like receptor 2 expression in refractory periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S V; Love, R M; Rich, A M; Seymour, G J

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the expression of TLR2 in refractory periapical lesions. Refractory periapical lesion biopsies were histopathologically and clinically categorized into asymptomatic periapical granuloma (n=10), symptomatic periapical granuloma (n=10) or periapical cyst (n=10) and prepared for immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to TLR2, CD3 and CD19 or staining with methyl green pyronin. Sections were viewed under light microscopy and the presence or absence of the target cells was correlated with the histopathological and clinical data. Additionally, TLR2 expression was quantified by counting TLR(+) cells. Various mononuclear inflammatory cells in the bacteria-induced periapical lesions were reactive to TLR2 antibody, with many showing morphological similarities to lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymphocytes were the most numerous cells in the inflammatory infiltrate. In refractory periapical granuloma, CD3(+) T cells were more numerous, whereas in periapical cysts, CD19(+) B cells were more numerous. There was a statistically significant (Pperiapical granuloma than asymptomatic periapical granuloma or periapical cyst. The presence of TLR-expressing cells in periapical granulomas and cysts provides further evidence that periapical cysts are likely to be sustained by the immune system via reaction to bacterial antigens. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  8. Long-term follow-up of pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation in teenagers with refractory Tourette syndrome and comorbid psychiatric disorders: About three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauseux, P-A; Cyprien, F; Cif, L; Gonzalez, V; Boulenger, J-P; Coubes, P; Capdevielle, D

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Peak of tic severity typically occurs in early adolescence and impacts quality of life. Since 1999, promising therapeutic effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) have been reported in tic reduction for adults with refractory TS. The aim of the study was to assess the long-term risk-benefit ratio of pallidal DBS for young patients with refractory TS and severe comorbid psychiatric disorders. We retrospectively assessed the long-term clinical outcomes of three adolescents who underwent pallidal DBS for the treatment of refractory TS. The mean duration of follow-up was 52 months in our case series. We observed that motor tics decreased with posteroventral GPi DBS in all patients, without reaching a continuous significance over the long-term follow-up. Self-reported social inclusion was globally improved, despite lack of efficacy of DBS on comorbid conditions. These findings suggest a long-term therapeutic benefit of early DBS intervention for highly socially impaired young patients suffering from intractable TS with severe comorbid psychiatric conditions. Further studies are needed to determine the most effective targets of DBS on both tics and comorbid psychiatric profile of TS. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Literature Review of Saccharomyces boulardii in the Treatment of Refractory Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Warila

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of S. boulardii for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infections.Methods: Eligible articles included S. boulardii in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. The primary endpoint examined was clinical resolution of infection with no further recurrences during follow-up.Results: Six studies met inclusion criteria. A case report showed resolution of recurrences in one patient, and an experimental trial showed a trend towards decreased recurrences in patients receiving S. boulardii (85% no further recurrences. Two randomized controlled trials found a significant decrease in recurrences for S. boulardii versus placebo (34.6% vs 64.7%, P=0.04; 16.7% vs 50%, P=0.05. One meta-analysis determined significant efficacy for S. boulardii in reducing relapses (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.98, while another concluded there was insufficient evidence to recommend probiotics for C. difficile infection.Conclusions: S. boulardii may be considered for patients with recurrent C. difficile infection, refractory to antibiotic regimens alone.

  10. Epilepsy surgery and neurocysticercosis: Assessing the role of the cysticercotic lesion in medically-refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalaya, Alejandro L; Burneo, Jorge G

    2017-11-01

    There is increasing evidence of the existence of refractoriness to treatment with antiepileptic medications in those with NCC-related epilepsy. We performed a systematic review with the objective to determine the role of a cysticercotic lesion in this group of patients. We sought those manuscripts, including case reports, describing patients with NCC-related medically-intractable epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery and were seizure-free a year after. Only 10 manuscripts fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three different clinical presentations were identified: 1) the cysticercotic lesion was epileptogenic, 2) there was dual pathology, including the cysticercotic lesion, with the other lesion usually being hippocampal sclerosis, and 3) the cysticercotic lesion was not related to the epileptogenic focus. In the case of an epileptogenic cysticercotic lesion, the presence of gliosis appeared to be the culprit for epileptogenicity. More studies using large cohorts of patients might be able to confirm our findings. This article is part of a Special issue entitled "Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFICACY OF RECURRENT RITUXIMAB TREATMENT IN PATIENT WITH SEVERE REFRACTORY SYSTEMIC JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Alexeeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains clinical case description of a severe systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, that was refractory to classic immunosuppressant therapy. The disease was characterized by such extraarticular manifestations as fever, lymphadenopathy,  hepatosplenomegaly, polyserositis, generalized joint involvement and high activity in lab tests. As a result of severe clinical course of the disease, patients develop bilateral aseptic bone necrosis in coxofemoral joints and coxarthrosis. Against the background of glucocorticosteroid treatment the patient has developed hormone-dependency and hormone resistance. Inclusion into the treatment of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (rituximab has stopped systemic manifestations of the disease, inflammation in the joints, normalized lab activity rates. The positive therapeutic effect allowed to perform surgery due to bilateral coxarthrosis. These results show that rituximab is highly effective in children with systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, that is resistant to classic immunosupressants and glucocorticoides. Key words: children, systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rituximab, recurrent treatment, prosthetics, hip joint. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 157–163.

  12. Friendship in inclusive physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Helena; Reid, Greg; Bloom, Gordon A

    2009-07-01

    Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom's (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

  13. EDPS 265: The Inclusive Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Begeske, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    EDPS 265: The Inclusive Classroom is a foundational, large enrollment lecture course and is taught in a lecture hall with a stadium style seating arraignment. This configuration results in a course that is not student-centered, promotes one-way communication and hinders cooperative learning. Education courses should be structured so that the course in itself is instructive. This course teaches interventions for reaching all students, using techniques that engage students in the learning proce...

  14. Student' responses to inclusive design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    interact with our environment and technology. Specifically this involved welfare technology, equipment and tools that can help with daily activities. This technology is designed help to citizens to be 'master of his or her own life' while off-setting capability changes due to declining physical ability...... was originally written for the DRTS 2012 conference "Articulating Design Thinking" and proposed for inclusion in a special edition of Design Issues....

  15. Student Engagement In Inclusive Classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    There is general agreement that to thrive and learn at their best, students must be engaged. However, schools face a particular challenge to provide a suitable and engaging learning environment for SEN (special educational needs) students who are educated in general education classes. Using data......-students as for other students. This highlights the need for better inclusion initiatives aimed at strengthening engagement of SEN-students in regular classrooms....

  16. Radioimmunotherapy in refractory b-cell nonhodgkins lymphoma with I-131-labeled chimeric anti cd-20 c2b8 (I-131 rituximab): preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Park, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Eun and others

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the native chimeric human-mouse anti CD-20 antibody IDEC-C2B8 (Rituximab) has been widely applied in NHL. This ongoing phase study was to evaluate whether radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with I-131 rituximab is effective in refractory B-cell NHL. Inclusion criteria were as follows: B-cell NHL with relapsed or refractory to primary standard therapy, measurable disease, adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function, informed consent. The rituximab (Mabthera, Roach) was radiolabeled with iodine-131(I-131) using a modified chloramine T method with high radiochemical purity (95%) and preservation of immuno-reactivity. All patients received loading doses of unlabeled rituximab (median, 40 mg: range, 20∼70 mg) immediately prior to administration of therapeutic dose (51.4∼152.2 MBq/kg), and then underwent gamma camera scan. 11 patients were enrolled (4 low-grade B-cell NHL, 7 DLBCL, median age 63 years). Patients had received a median of three prior chemotherapy regimens. The objective response rate was 36.4% (1 CR, 3 PRs). These all responses were observed in low-grade B-cell NHL, except one with DLBCL. Adverse events were primarily hematologic toxicities; the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was 27.3%, 45.5%, and 18.2%, respectively. The treatment-related mortality was observed in one patient, who had been previously treated with high-dose chemotherapy plus TBI with autologous stem cell transplantation. RIT with I-131 rituximab seems to be effective tolerable in refractory low-grade B-cell NHL, although modest activity in refractory DLBCL. Further studies to define the efficacy of I-131 rituximab in DLBCL are warranted

  17. Radioimmunotherapy in refractory b-cell nonhodgkins lymphoma with I-131-labeled chimeric anti cd-20 c2b8 (I-131 rituximab): preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Park, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Eun and others [Korea University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, the native chimeric human-mouse anti CD-20 antibody IDEC-C2B8 (Rituximab) has been widely applied in NHL. This ongoing phase study was to evaluate whether radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with I-131 rituximab is effective in refractory B-cell NHL. Inclusion criteria were as follows: B-cell NHL with relapsed or refractory to primary standard therapy, measurable disease, adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic function, informed consent. The rituximab (Mabthera, Roach) was radiolabeled with iodine-131(I-131) using a modified chloramine T method with high radiochemical purity (95%) and preservation of immuno-reactivity. All patients received loading doses of unlabeled rituximab (median, 40 mg: range, 20{approx}70 mg) immediately prior to administration of therapeutic dose (51.4{approx}152.2 MBq/kg), and then underwent gamma camera scan. 11 patients were enrolled (4 low-grade B-cell NHL, 7 DLBCL, median age 63 years). Patients had received a median of three prior chemotherapy regimens. The objective response rate was 36.4% (1 CR, 3 PRs). These all responses were observed in low-grade B-cell NHL, except one with DLBCL. Adverse events were primarily hematologic toxicities; the incidence of grade 3/4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was 27.3%, 45.5%, and 18.2%, respectively. The treatment-related mortality was observed in one patient, who had been previously treated with high-dose chemotherapy plus TBI with autologous stem cell transplantation. RIT with I-131 rituximab seems to be effective tolerable in refractory low-grade B-cell NHL, although modest activity in refractory DLBCL. Further studies to define the efficacy of I-131 rituximab in DLBCL are warranted.

  18. NOVEL REFRACTORY MATERIALS FOR HIGH ALKALI, HIGH TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.

    2012-08-01

    A project was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in collaboration with a research team comprised of the academic institution Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T), and the industrial company MINTEQ International, Inc. (MINTEQ), along with representatives from the aluminum, chemical, glass, and forest products industries. The project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3, MgAl2O4, or other similar spinel structured or alumina-based unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc.) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques (in-situ phase formation, altered conversion temperatures, accelerated reactions, etc). This family of refractory compositions would then be tailored for use in high-temperature, high-alkaline industrial environments like those found in the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, and steel industries. Both practical refractory development experience and computer modeling techniques were used to aid in the design of this new family of materials. The newly developed materials were expected to offer alternative material choices for high-temperature, high-alkali environments that were capable of operating at higher temperatures (goal of increasing operating temperature by 100-200oC depending on process) or for longer periods of time (goal of twice the life span of current materials or next process determined service increment). This would lead to less process down time, greater energy efficiency for associated manufacturing processes (more heat kept in process), and materials that could be installed/repaired in a more efficient manner. The overall project goal was a 5% improvement in energy efficiency (brought about through a 20% improvement in thermal efficiency) resulting in a savings of 3.7 TBtu/yr (7.2 billion ft3 natural gas) by the year 2030. Additionally, new

  19. Efficacy of infliximab in refractory posterior uveitis in Behcet's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman K. El Garf; Amira A. Shahin; Sherif A. Shawky; Mohammed A. Azim; Dina A. Effat; Sherry K. Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    Aim of the work: Ocular manifestations are the main cause of morbidity in Behcet's disease (BD). Infliximab (IFX), a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor-alpha, may be efficient in refractory uveitis due to BD. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of IFX in the treatment of patients with BD-associated refractory posterior uveitis (PU). Patient and Methods: Twenty patients with refractory Behcet's PU received IFX therapy as intravenous infu...

  20. The effect of various sintering temperature on used refractory towards its physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo; Wulandari, Y. R.; Amin, M.; Azhar

    2018-01-01

    The used magnesia refractory from the kiln of cement industry was successfully recycled to new refractory using Kaolin as an adhesive. In this work, the temperatures of sintering were varied from 1000°C to 1500°C. The result shows that the increment temperature effects in sintering process will enhance refractory physical properties such as bulk density, cold crushing strength or pressure strength and thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, the porosity was decreased as the increase of the sintering temperature.

  1. Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Yavari, A.; Goriely, A.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can

  2. Theoretical and practical aspects about corrosion of refractories used in steel metallurgy: part 3: characterization of commercial refractories; Aspectos teoricos e praticos sobre a corrosao de refratarios utilizados na metalurgia: caracterizacao de refratarios comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braganca, S.R., E-mail: saulorb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Sul (DEMAT/UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, it was reviewed the main aspects found in the literature about refractories corrosion, evaluating the feasibility of certain tests and relating them with experimental results. The physical properties and microstructure of commercial refractories were analyzed, considering the differences between them and the quality implications and probable life of the refractory. Thus, it was studied the various types of refractories used as lining on steel ladle. Magnesia-carbon and doloma-carbon refractories were analyzed, highlighting the differences between them. The examined refractory showed characteristics favoring high resistance to corrosion process, presenting a series of properties to be selected in accordance with industry practice. (author)

  3. Mechanical activation of ceramic powders and its influence on the quality of the refractory linings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceganac, Z.; Acimovic, Z.; Andric, Lj.; Petrov, M.; Mihajlovic, S.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper we present results of the investigation of the influence of mechanical activation of ceramic powders-talc and alumina, on the quality of refractory linings for casting applications. It is shown that additional fine grinding of ceramic powders increases the quality of the refractory lining. Grinding and activation of the particles with various granulations contributes to the creation of the homogenous continuous layer of refractory lining on the sand moulds and cores, as well as on the evaporating polystyrene patterns for applications in the Lost foam casting process. Refractory linings obtained within the activation of particles procedure have better adherence to moulds, cores and evaporating patterns. (Original)

  4. Characterization of refractory brick based on local raw material from Lampung Province - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad; Suryana, Yayat I.; Isnugroho, Kusno; Aji, Bramantyo B.; Birawidha, David C.; Hendronursito, Yusup

    2018-04-01

    Refractories are non-metallic inorganic materials that are difficult to melt at high temperatures and used in high-temperature casting industries. Refractories are classified into their constituent mineral feed stocks, refractories having typical plot properties commonly called fire bricks. In the manufacture of refractory bricks that exist in the market during the use of mangrove materials derived from abroad that is from China. In this research the refractory brick materials used are quartz sand, feldspart, kaolin, bentonite, and ball clay. All materials come from local Lampung Province - Indonesia. The experiment, there are 7 kinds of experimental composition, made of plot shape with size 230 mm, 65 mm in thickness, 114 mm height mould using manual press machine with 10 tons power and burning at 1400°C for 5 hours. Refractory brick product is done by physical test in the form of porosity, specific gravity, compressive strength and XRF and SEM characteristics. The result of XRF characteristic of refractory brick composition of 1 to 5 compared to the refractory brick type SK 34 in the market and the result of composition 1 is a composition close to refractory brick composition type SK 34 namely SiO2 is 54.21 %, Al2O3 is 25.38 % and test Physical of Bulk density is 2.25 g/cm3, porosity is 18.98 % and compressive strength is 325 kg/cm2.

  5. Inclusive outreach practices in Palaeontology: Inclusive-Coworking

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Frank, Alejandra; Gomez-Heras, Miguel; Fesharaki, Omid

    2017-04-01

    Previous experiences with people with both physical and intellectual functional diversity around palaeontological issues have demonstrated the important value of science outreach directed to people with disabilities. The aforementioned practices act twofold: as a learning tool and also improving the quality of life of the participants and thus, their self-image. All these pioneer experiences were the first step in a process of developing new attitudes contributing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of United Nations, where among the 17 goals proposed an effective social inclusion of people with disabilities is required. For this, real inclusive practices in geological outreach are imperious. A close cooperation with all the parts (researchers and participants), in a kind of coworking attitude is needed. This Inclusive-Coworking is considered in the sense of social gathering in order to share equal values and look for the synergy that this different outlook implies. And what is more important: the change of role of the previously learners into an active part of the scientific outreach, providing the adequate methodology for that. The offer of non-formal learning activities normally includes the participation of university professors and researchers in Science Week editions. During the 2016 session in Madrid, four adults with intellectual disability who were participants in the previous edition, contributed in the palaeontological workshop. They were in charge of four of the eight modules explaining the origin of fossils and how to collect them, the evolution of equids' limbs, and the main dentition types in vertebrates to the twenty 16 year old secondary students who attended the workshop. During the development of the experience all the students were pleased with the inclusive approach, and the interaction of all participants was fruitful. Although the explanations took a bit more time when made by our functional diverse fellows, all the abstracts concepts

  6. On Lipschitzian quantum stochastic differential inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.

    1990-12-01

    Quantum stochastic differential inclusions are introduced and studied within the framework of the Hudson-Parthasarathy formulation of quantum stochastic calculus. Results concerning the existence of solutions of a Lipschitzian quantum stochastic differential inclusion and the relationship between the solutions of such an inclusion and those of its convexification are presented. These generalize the Filippov existence theorem and the Filippov-Wazewski Relaxation Theorem for classical differential inclusions to the present noncommutative setting. (author). 9 refs

  7. [Precision medicine: A major step forward in specific situations, a myth in refractory cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Nicolas; Mc Leer, Anne; Sakhri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput sequencing techniques have been developed for cancerology and many clinical trials are currently structured around biomarkers that can guide specific treatment choices. This approach is characteristic of precision medicine, which is actually a concept initiated several decades ago with, for example, retinoic acid in promyelocytic leukemia. This paper will review the different types of molecular alterations and « -omics » biological analyses, bioinformatics tools, coupled drug/biomarkers already validated, the ethical issues of whole genomic sequencing of an individual as part of an inclusion in a clinical trial and finally the first results of precision medicine trials. The AcSé crizotinib program, supported by the Inca (french Cancer National Institute), is emblematic of a success of this personalized medicine illustrated by 4 points: the discovery of a cohort of patients with lung cancer with a ROS1 rearrangement characteristic of a sensitivity to crizotinib, a rapid availability of this innovation through the implementation of a temporary recommendation for use (ANSM), the obtention of a conditional marketing authorization by the pharmaceutical industry and finally, financial assumption of responsibility by French social security (HAS), despite preliminary and non-comparative data. In the case of cancers refractory to standard chemotherapy, and regarding our system of access to drugs illustrated by the PROFILER clinical trial, this approach allows the access to a therapeutic drug targeting specific biomarkers only in 7% of patients included. This does not bode well for efficient treatment and even less for survival. Allowing patients to be included in trials that identify molecular targets by molecular screening, and not being able to propose the drug of interest is a traumatic event for those patients who live in the hope of an immediate future. In refractory disease we must rethink precision medicine in a more humanistic

  8. Regge cuts in inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paige, F.E.; Trueman, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution of Regge cuts to single-particle inclusive processes is analyzed using the techniques of Gribov. The dependence of these contributions on the polarization state of the target is emphasized. A general formula is obtained and certain contributions to it are calculated. It is not possible, however, to reduce this to a simple, powerful formula expressing the total cut contribution in terms of other measurable quantities, as can be done for the cut contribution to the total cross section. The reasons for this are discussed in detail. The single-particle intermediate states, analogous to the absorption model for elastic scattering, are explicitly calculated as an illustration

  9. Teaching Competences and Inclusive Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Fernández Batanero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on teaching competencies that are conducive to good educational practices in relation to inclusion, from the perspective of teachers. The methodology employed in the study is descriptive/comprehensive, and of an exploratory nature. By means of four case studies, the perceptions of teachers from two secondary schools—characterized by the Spanish Educational Administration as having “good practices”— are examined. The techniques used for information collection in this study include documentary analysis, in-depth interviews and focus groups. The findings emphasize the importance of strategic skills, combined with innovation and creativity, among others.

  10. Theory of inclusive pionic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oset, E.; Salcedo, L.L.; Strottman, D.

    1985-01-01

    A theory is developed for all the inclusive pion nuclear reactions, quasielastic, single charge exchange, double charge exchange and absorption, around the resonance region. The theory is based on the isobar hole model and makes an expansion in the number of particle-hole excitations. Up to 3p3h for pion absorption and 2p2h for quasielastic or charge exchange, where good convergence is found, are considered. The results obtained with this theory agree remarkably well with experiment for the different reactions and different nuclei in a wide region of energies around resonance

  11. Detecting Anisotropic Inclusions Through EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina, Jan; Päivärinta, Lassi

    2017-12-01

    We study the evolution equation {partialtu=-Λtu} where {Λt} is the Dirichlet-Neumann operator of a decreasing family of Riemannian manifolds with boundary {Σt}. We derive a lower bound for the solution of such an equation, and apply it to a quantitative density estimate for the restriction of harmonic functions on M}=Σ_{0 to the boundaries of {partialΣt}. Consequently we are able to derive a lower bound for the difference of the Dirichlet-Neumann maps in terms of the difference of a background metrics g and an inclusion metric {g+χ_{Σ}(h-g)} on a manifold M.

  12. Rapid clozapine titration in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Correll, Christoph U; Nielsen, Jimmi; Burtea, Victoria; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Clozapine is effective in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder (BD). Guidelines recommend slow titration to prevent seizures, hypotension and myocarditis, but this stance is not supported by comparative data. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in BD. Analysis of a consecutive cohort of treatment-refractory BD patients with mixed/manic episode admitted on alternate days to one of two units of a psychiatric hospital. On one unit, clozapine was started at 25mg followed by 25-50mg as needed every 6h (maximum=100mg/day) on day 1, followed by increases of 25-100mg/day. On the other unit, clozapine was initiated with 25mg in day 1, followed by increases of 25-50mg/day. The primary outcome was the number of days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge, adjusted in logistic regression for the number of antipsychotics tried during the hospitalization, psychotropic co-treatments and presence of psychotic features. Patients subject to rapid (N=44) and standard (N=23) titration were similar in age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, illness severity at baseline and discharge, and highest clozapine dose. Clozapine was discontinued due to hypotension (N=1) and pneumonia (N=1) during rapid titration, and for excessive sedation (N=1) in each titration group. The number of hospital days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge was 3.8 days shorter in the rapid titration group (12.7±6.3 vs. 16.5±5.8, p=0.0077). Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective for treatment-refractory BD. The potential for shorter hospital stays justifies prospective trials of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between Corneal Thickness and Degree of Myopic Refractory Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mortazavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: corneal thickness is an important factor in refractive surgeries such as Radial Keratotomy (RK, Photo Refractive Keratotomy (PRK and Laser Insitu Keratomileusis (LASIK. This study evaluated the correlation between this factor and the degree of myopic refractory error. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 224 myopic eyes (112 patients which had undergone LASIK operation were assessed. These patients had referred to Aban Eye Clinic, Isfahan, Iran, during August and September 2002. Corneal thickness was measured by ORB SCAN Topoghraphy, and cycloplegic refraction was performed with autorefratometery and retinoscopy. Suspected keratoconus cases and hyperopic patients were excluded. Results: The patients' age was 27.2 ± 1.36 in men (N = 35 and 30.13 ± 1.04 in women (N = 77. Mean value of myopic refractory error in male patients was 5.1 ± 0.24D and in female patients was 3.8 ± 0.36D. Mean of corneal thickness was 540 ± 5.25 µM and 530 ± 5.88 µM in male and female patients respectively. There was no correlation between the degree of myopia and corneal thickness in any of the patients. Also in this research, no relations between the age and myopia were found. Right eye (P > 0.5, r = 0.124 Left eye (P > 0.5, r = 0.104. Conclusion: Based on our findings, corneal thickness and myopic refectory error do not seem to have any relations. (r = 0.039, p = 0.684. Keywords: Corneal Thickness, Cornea, Myopia, LASIK, Refractory Error

  14. Forging Inclusive Solutions: Experiential Earth Charter Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Forging Inclusive Solutions describes the aims, methodology and outcomes of Inclusive Leadership Adventures, an experiential education curriculum for exploring the Earth Charter. Experiential education builds meaningful relationships, skills, awareness and an inclusive community based on the Earth Charter principles. When we meet people where they…

  15. Measuring Inclusive Education Outcomes in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study details the results of a review of the academic and public sector literature on measuring inclusive education in large systems. It highlights some outcomes drawn from the international literature on inclusion that might be indicative of the presence and quality of inclusive education in an effort to develop a set of outcomes for…

  16. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  17. Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley Lab A-Z Index Directory Search Diversity, Equity, & Inclusion at Berkeley Lab Home Diversity & Inclusion Council Women Scientists & Engineers Council Employee Resource Groups -and culture of inclusion are key to attracting and engaging the brightest minds and furthering our

  18. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  19. Evidence for distillation in the formation of HAL and related hibonite inclusions. [from Allende, Dhajala, and Murchison chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Trevor R.; Zinner, Ernst K.; Fahey, Albert J.; Esat, Tezer M.

    1992-01-01

    New Ca- and Ti-isotopic analyses of DH-H1, 7-404, and 7-971, and Mg-isotopic analyses on DH-H1 and 7-404 are reported. O-isotopic analyses of HAL, 7-404, 7-971, and a variety of other refractory inclusions from Murchison were made in order to establish the presence or absence of FUN O-isotopic systematics. A higonite-rich residue produced by the evaporation of kaersutite was analyzed for its trace-element and isotopic abundances to see if any of the characteristics of FUN hibonite inclusions can be produced by distillation in the laboratory. These data are then used to evaluate for all four inclusions the HAL-type formation models originally proposed by Allen et al. (1980) and Lee et al. (1980). The four inclusions were found to have very similar chemical and isotopic features. All are characterized by large Ce depletions and very low Mg, Ti, and V concentrations compared to other meteoritic hibonites. All four inclusions have delta(C-48) within error of -5 per mil. Ca-, Ti-, and O-isotopic compositions are fractionated with enrichments of the heavy isotopes, and the Ti-isotopic mass fractionation is inversely correlated with Ti concentration. It is concluded that the inclusions formed primarily as distillation residues in accord with the early conclusions.

  20. Cost reduction with maintenance ECT in refractory bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, C; Frye, M A; Coudreaut, M F; Cunningham, M; Spearing, M; McGuire, M; Guze, B

    1998-03-01

    A case report of outpatient maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is presented in a patient with bipolar disorder type I refractory to conventional medication treatment but responsive to ECT. A cost comparison is made showing substantial savings when outpatient maintenance ECT is used in lieu of inpatient hospitalization with ECT. A detailed life chart illustrating multiple medication trials that failed to stabilize the patient accompanies the financial summary. This case highlights the advantages of outpatient maintenance ECT for bipolar depression particularly with regard to safety, efficacy, and significant health care cost reduction.

  1. Glatiramer Acetate-associated Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of glatiramer acetate-associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP in a female patient with multiple sclerosis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed did not find any connection between glatiramer acetate and thrombocytopenia, specifically ITP. The autoimmune reaction was resistant to conservative ITP treatment, and was eventually managed only by splenectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of glatiramer acetate-associated ITP. Physicians should be aware of this condition, and consider performing routine blood counts at the beginning of glatiramer acetate treatment.

  2. Novel Engineered Refractory Materials for Advanced Reactor Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, Steven; Eapen, Jacob; Maria, Jon-Paul; Weber, William

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of DOE-NEUP grant 10-853. The project spanned 48 months (36 months under the original grant plus a 12 month no cost extension). The overarching goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize refractory materials engineered at the atomic scale with emphasis on their tolerance to accumulated radiation damage. With an emphasis on nano-scale structure, this work included atomic scale simulation to study the underlying mechanisms for modified radiation tolerance at these atomic scales.

  3. Determination of refractory trace elements in Chinese meteorites by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Burger, M.

    1989-01-01

    Some refractory trace elements are important target elements for spallation reactions in meteorites. These elements also serve to characterize the investigated meteorites. The elements Ti, Y, Zr, Hf, W and Ta were measured after radiochemical separation in chondrites from China. After acid digestion of the irradiated samples, the group separations were obtained by precipitation reactions. The necessary radiochemical purification of the pure β emitter Y was realized on a Lewatite OC 1026 column. For all the other elements discrete gamma radiation was measured. (orig.)

  4. Welding and joining of single crystals of BCC refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka; Fujii, Tadayuki

    1989-01-01

    Welding and joining is one of key technologies for the wider utilizations of a material. In the present work, the applicability of welding and joining for a single crystal of BCC refractory metal was investigated. Electron-beam welding and tungsten-inert-gas welding by a melt-run technique, and high-temperature brazing by using brazing metals such as Mo-40%Ru alloy, vanadium or platinum were conducted for molybdenum single crystal which had been prepared by means of secondary recrystallization. 12 refs.,12 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Plasticity enhancement mechanisms in refractory metals and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Chang, H.; Czarnik, C.M.; Edwards, K.M.; Misra, A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasticity enhancement associated with surface films and precipitates or dispersoids in bcc refractory metals is operative in ordered intermetallic compounds. Some results are given for NiAl and MoSi 2 -based materials. The monotonic and cyclic plasticity of NiAl at room temperature can be enhanced by surface films. Ductile second phases also enhance the plasticity of NiAl. MoSi 2 exhibits similar effects of surface films and dispersoids, but primarily at elevated temperatures. The plasticity enhancement is associated with enhanced dislocation generation from constrained deformation at the film-substrate or precipitate/dispersoid-matrix interface of the composite systems

  6. Relationship between mechanical characteristics and thermal shock stability of refractories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov-Husovic, T.; Raic, K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal stability of the refractory material with the content of 60 % Al 2 O 3 was investigated. Water quench test (JUS.B.D8.319) was applied as experimental method for thermal stability testing. Damage of porous materials is commonly related to a modification of strength that is mostly a reduction. This is linked with characteristics related to pore space. Mechanical characteristics are considered such as compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity and resistance parameters resulting from resonance frequency measurements, as well as ultrasonic velocity. (Original)

  7. Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

  8. Crack resistance of tungsten strengthened by dispersed refractory oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for crack resistance of commercial tungsten, obtained during specimen testing at temperatures of 20 deg C to Tsub(cr) (upper boundary of temperature range of ductile-brittle transition). Comparison of s-n diagrams and temperature dependences of crack resistance are conducted for commercial tungsten and tungsten strengthened by refractory oxides. It is shown that dispersion hardening increases crack resistance in the temperature range of 20 to 2000 deg C but the upper boundary of ductile-brittle shifts to the side of higher temperatures

  9. Novel Engineered Refractory Materials for Advanced Reactor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon, Steven [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Eapen, Jacob [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Maria, Jon-Paul [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Weber, William [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-03-14

    This report summarizes the results of DOE-NEUP grant 10-853. The project spanned 48 months (36 months under the original grant plus a 12 month no cost extension). The overarching goal of this work was to fabricate and characterize refractory materials engineered at the atomic scale with emphasis on their tolerance to accumulated radiation damage. With an emphasis on nano-scale structure, this work included atomic scale simulation to study the underlying mechanisms for modified radiation tolerance at these atomic scales.

  10. Transport Policy and Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ricci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transport-related Social inclusion’ is a specific naming of the complex set of interrelationships within which accessibility plays an important role in whether a citizen achieves the level of participation in socioeconomic life that he or she seeks. It has its origins in the United Kingdom of the early 2000s, but the diversity of theoretical perspectives, research methods and practical focus shown by the contributions to the present issue on this theme bears witness to the evolution and translation this concept and term has undergone over more than a decade. Nine papers are presented, concerning applications of the concept in three continents, and including some of the poorest and richest per capita income countries on the globe. As well as developing and applying the multi-faceted theories of the processes of exclusion and techniques for the quantitative identification of inclusion, they consider important topics such as the treatment of the less abled and more frail members of society when on the move and the potential for new technological design methods and practical solutions either to enhance inclusion or deepen inequality in our societies. Collectively their conclusions reinforce the message that social exclusion remains multi-dimensional, relational and dynamic, located both in the circumstances of the excluded individual as well as in the processes, institutions and structures that permeate wider society.

  11. Effect of rigid inclusions on sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, M.N.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    The predictions of recent theoretical studies on the effect of inert, rigid inclusions on the sintering of ceramic powder matrices are examined and compared with experimental data. The densification of glass matrix composites with inclusion volume fractions of ≤0.15 can be adequately explained by Scherer's theory for viscous sintering with rigid inclusions. Inclusions cause a vast reduction in the densification rates of polycrystalline matrix composites even at low inclusion volume fractions. Models put forward to explain the sintering of polycrystalline matrix composites are discussed

  12. The Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Siim, Birte

    The objective of the book is to analyse different politics of inclusion and empowerment and the different paradigms of inclusion/exclusion in order to underline the close link between politics of scoial equality and politics of recognition of ciultural difference. Politics of inclusion is thus...... identities. Politics of empowerment has to do with the agency and mobilisation dimension of social and political change. The title of the book "Politics of Inclusion and Empowerment" address the leitmotiv: namely to discuss plussumgame between politics of inclusion and politics of empowerment...

  13. Inclusion-initiated fracture model for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, J.; Nicholson, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The fracture of ceramics initiating from a typical inclusion is analyzed. The inclusion is considered to have a thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness lower than those of the matrix and a Young's modulus higher than that of the matrix. Inclusion-initiated fracture is modeled for a spherical inclusion using a weight function method to compute the residual stress intensity factor for a part-through elliptical crack. The results are applied to an α-Al 2 O 3 inclusion embedded in a tetragonal ZrO 2 ceramic. The strength predictions agree well with experimental data

  14. Axonal inclusions in the crab Hemigrapsus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R S

    1978-10-01

    Light microscopic examination of living giant axons from the walking legs of Hemigrapsus nudus revealed intra-axonal inclusions which were usually several tens of micrometers long and about 5 micron wide. The inclusions were filled with small light-scattering particles. The inclusions were shown, by thin section electron microscopy, to be composed largely 68% by volume) of mitochondria. Each inclusion was surrounded by membrane bounded spaces which are presumed to represent a part of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Similar inclusions were not found in the leg axons of a variety of other decapod crustaceans.

  15. Response to parenteral iron therapy distinguish unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia from iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, M; Sarbay, H; Guler, S; Balci, Y I; Polat, A

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated that response to parenteral iron therapy could be helpful in distinguishing the types of iron deficiency anemia. This study analyzed responses to IV iron sucrose therapy of 15 children with unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia (URIDA). We compared the results at diagnosis, 6 weeks and 6 months after the therapy. Results were compared with responses of 11 patients' results with iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) from our previous study. Six weeks after the start of treatment, ferritin, MCV, MCH and Hb values were in normal range in 10 patients. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 2.6-3.5 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. In five patients, Hb, MCH, and MCV mean (range) values [11.2 g/dL (11-12.2), 24.5 pg (24-25.6), and 67 fL (65-70)] were nearly normal but ferritin mean (range) values [9.8 ng/mL (8-11)] were below normal. Six weeks after the start of treatment, Hb, MCH, MCV and ferritin values of patients with IRIDA were increased. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 0.8-2.7 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. IRIDA is only partially responsive to parenteral iron supplementation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the response to intravenous iron therapy for the URIDA cases improved blood parameters more effectively than hereditary IRIDA. Response to parenteral iron therapy would be helpful to distinguish unexplained refractory IDA from hereditary IRIDA for clinicians who do not have access to hepcidin or TMPRS6 mutation analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8 Before Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  17. An Arendtian perspective on inclusive education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education currently appears to be undergoing a crisis and re- examination. This paper presents a new approach to thinking about inclusiveness in the school context. Many positions within inclusive education seem to take political, social and ethical perspectives as a starting point, which...... has allowed inclusive movements and initiatives around the world to succumb to neo-liberal policy-making and has neglected the development of an educational vocabulary that is theoretically and conceptually appropriate for confronting teachers’ central concerns regarding inclusive practices....... The concepts of suspension, bearing with strangers and enlarged thought inspired by Hannah Arendt provide a basis for a re-imagining of inclusive education and for outlining a future school in which inclusiveness is embedded in the very way we think and position ourselves as teachers and pupils...

  18. Brazing refractory metals used in high-temperature nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A. J.; Woolstenhulme, C. J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) TRISO fuel experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed. (authors)

  19. Cyclosporine treatment of steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Julien; Cortot, Antoine; Bourreille, Arnaud; Coffin, Benoît; de Vos, Martine; de Saussure, Philippe; Seksik, Philippe; Marteau, Philippe; Lemann, Marc; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2009-07-01

    Cyclosporine is considered a safe and effective treatment of severe steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). However, few data are available concerning its safety profile in pregnant women. We report here the experience of 5 GETAID centers. In a retrospective study data on patients with severe UC treated with cyclosporine during pregnancy were extracted from medical records of consecutive patients treated between 2001 and 2007. Eight patients (median age 30.5 years old) were identified. At the time of flare-up the median duration of pregnancy was 11.5 weeks of gestation (range 4-25). Seven patients had pancolitis. All patients had more than 3 commonly used clinical and biological severity criteria. Three patients had severe endoscopic lesions and 5 patients had not. All patients received intravenous corticosteroids for at least 7 days before introduction of cyclosporine. Two patients received azathioprine during treatment with cyclosporine. No severe infections or other complications due to treatment were observed. Treatment was effective in 7/8 patients. One patient received infliximab due to cyclosporine therapy failure with a good outcome. No colectomy was performed during pregnancy. Seven pregnancies were conducted to term, but 1 in utero death occurred due to maternal absence of S-protein. Two newborns were premature, including 1 case of hypotrophy. No malformations were observed. In our experience, treatment with cyclosporine for steroid-refractory UC during pregnancy can be considered safe and effective.

  20. Effect of methazolamide in patients with refractory uveitic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Bin Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of methazolamide in treating refractory uveitic macular edema. METHODS: Retrospective self-controlled study was designed. A total of 15 patients(20 eyeswith refractory uveitic macular edema which used methazolamide as adjuvant therapy were enrolled in Shanghai First People's Hospital from January 2015 to June 2016. The changes of central macular thickness(CMTand best corrected visual acuity(BCVAwere observed at baseline and 2, 4, 8wk after treatment. We also focused on the incidence of complications and relapse. RESULTS: The CMT was 445.95±154.10μm, 338.83±138.34μm, 251.50±40.20μm, 244.90±35.68μm at baseline, 2, 4 and 8wk after treatment, respectively. The differences among them were statistically significant(F=15.467, PF=5.208, PCONCLUSION: Methazolamide is beneficial in improving macular edema and vision in 4wk. When the cumulative dose is more than 1400mg, we need pay attention to the complications. After discontinuing methazolamide for 1wk, macular edema relapsed in some patients, and more than half of patients recurred after 3mo. So the patients should be followed closely in 3mo after withdrawal of methazolamide.

  1. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  2. Processing of Refractory Metal Alloys for JOYO Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RF Luther; ME Petrichek

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary of the refractory metal processing experienced by candidate Prometheus materiats as they were fabricated into specimens destined for testing within the JOYO test reactor, ex-reactor testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), or testing within the NRPCT. The processing is described for each alloy from the point of inception to the point where processing was terminated due to the cancellation of Naval Reactor's involvement in the Prometheus Project. The alloys included three tantalum-base alloys (T-111, Ta-10W, and ASTAR-811C), a niobium-base alloy, (FS-85), and two molybdenum-rhenium alloys, one containing 44.5 w/o rhenium, and the other 47.5 w/o rhenium. Each of these alloys was either a primary candidate or back-up candidate for cladding and structural applications within the space reactor. Their production was intended to serve as a forerunner for large scale production ingots that were to be procured from commercial refractory metal vendors such as Wah Chang

  3. New-Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus: More Investigations, More Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Dillien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital with recurrent seizures. Status epilepticus developed that became refractory to third-line therapy with propofol and barbiturates. The patient had a very extensive diagnostic workup including autoimmune, viral and genetic investigations. A tentative immune therapy was proposed with high doses of steroids and plasma exchanges. Our patient had an inherited heterozygous single nucleotide variant in the sequence c.1280A>G [p.Lys427Arg] of the SMC3 gene that was insufficient to explain the seizures. Surprisingly, IgM antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus were positive on the serum drawn 11 days after symptom onset, as detected by ELISA and the immunofluorescence antibody (IFA technique. IgG antibodies were also positive using the IFA technique, but not with ELISA. The same investigations as well as the detection of the viral genome by the q-RT-PCR technique were negative on cerebrospinal fluid. Despite the suspicion of a viral infection, we concluded that our patient had a new-onset refractory status epilepticus of cryptogenic origin. Termination of the status epilepticus was obtained after 47 days, with a possible benefit from the introduction of ketamine.

  4. Brazing Refractory Metals Used In High-Temperature Nuclear Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.J.; Woolstenhulme, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR 1) experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed

  5. Brazing refractory metals used in high-temperature nuclear instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J. [Idaho National Laboratory, MS 3840, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840 (United States); Woolstenhulme, C. J. [EG and G Services, Inc., (United States)

    2009-07-01

    As part of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored Next Generation Nuclear Project (NGNP) currently ongoing at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the irradiation performance of candidate high-temperature gas reactor fuels and materials is being evaluated at INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The design of the first Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR-1) TRISO fuel experiment, currently being irradiated in the ATR, required development of special techniques for brazing niobium and molybdenum. Brazing is one technique used to join refractory metals to each other and to stainless steel alloys. Although brazing processes are well established, it is difficult to braze niobium, molybdenum, and most other refractory metals because they quickly develop adherent oxides when exposed to room-temperature air. Specialized techniques and methods were developed by INL to overcome these obstacles. This paper describes the techniques developed for removing these oxides, as well as the ASME Section IX-qualified braze procedures that were developed as part of the AGR-1 project. All brazes were made using an induction coil with an inert or reducing atmosphere at low pressure. Other parameters, such as filler metals, fluxes used, and general setup procedures, are also discussed. (authors)

  6. Investigation of aluminosilicate refractory for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Paul Steven

    Stationary solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been demonstrated to provide clean and reliable electricity through electro-chemical conversion of various fuel sources (CH4 and other light hydrocarbons). To become a competitive conversion technology the costs of SOFCs must be reduced to less than $400/kW. Aluminosilicate represents a potential low cost alternative to high purity alumina for SOFC refractory applications. The objectives of this investigation are to: (1) study changes of aluminosilicate chemistry and morphology under SOFC conditions, (2) identify volatile silicon species released by aluminosilicates, (3) identify the mechanisms of aluminosilicate vapor deposition on SOFC materials, and (4) determine the effects of aluminosilicate vapors on SOFC electrochemical performance. It is shown thermodynamically and empirically that low cost aluminosilicate refractory remains chemically and thermally unstable under SOFC operating conditions between 800°C and 1000°C. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the aluminosilicate bulk and surface identified increased concentrations of silicon at the surface after exposure to SOFC gases at 1000°C for 100 hours. The presence of water vapor accelerated surface diffusion of silicon, creating a more uniform distribution. Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling showed aluminosilicate remains stable in dry air, but the introduction of water vapor indicative of actual SOFC gas streams creates low temperature (active anode interface.

  7. Open and Laparoscopic Colposuspension in Girls with Refractory Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Anna Dobrowolska-Glazar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are very common in children. Standard treatments consist of urotherapy, antibiotic prophylaxis, anti-muscarinics, physical therapy, and the treatment of coexisting constipation. A small group of girls also present with stress incontinence or with stress-induced urge incontinence. In cases of persistent LUTS due to congenital bladder neck insufficiency (BNI, surgical treatment might be considered. The aim of this paper is to assess the results of open and laparoscopic colposuspension in children with refractory urinary incontinence (UI.Materials and methodsThe results of 18 open and 18 laparoscopic consecutive colposuspensions were analyzed. All patients had UI and failed conservative treatment. BNI was proven by repeated perineal ultrasound and video-urodynamic study. The laparoscopic procedure was performed preperitoneally and the open procedure was via a transverse lower abdominal incision. The same postoperative protocol was used in both groups.ResultsThe mean operation time was 65 min for the open and 90 min for the lap procedure (p < 0.05. Full success was achieved in 7/18 in the open and in 8/18 in the lap group and partial response was seen in 3/18 and in 5/18, respectively (p = 0.64. No intraoperative complications occurred in this cohort.ConclusionOpen and laparoscopic colposuspension can be used to treat refractory UI in children with BNI when non-invasive methods fail.

  8. Mechanical and Physicochemical Evaluation of Alkaleri Fireclay for Refractory Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Ajala Amkpa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical, chemical and physical property of Alkaleri fireclay was investigated for its appropriateness for refractory application. The chemical composition was performed and analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometer Bench top XRF analyzer technique. Chemical property result indicated that the clay contained 67.4 % silica (SiO2, 30.06 % aluminum (Al2O3, and other impurities. The clay was subjected to mechanical activation through sintering process at varied sintering temperatures of 900 °C, 1000 °C, 1100 °C and 1200 °C. At the best sintering temperature of 1200 °C, the cold crushing strength (CCS was 17.82 MPa, in the physical properties; apparent porosity was 22.8 %, bulk density was 1.8 g/cm3, and firing shrinkage was 8.9 %. The Alkaleri clay belongs to alumino-silicate fireclay group and therefore, suitable materials for refractory application of ladle, kiln dryer, boilers, cook stoves, furnace lining and bricks.

  9. Thermodynamics of carbon deoxidation and aluminium deoxidation of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.P.; Sundaram, C.V.

    1975-01-01

    Carbon has been used for removing the last traces of oxygen from many refractory metals by evaporation of CO at high temperature and vacuum. Similar purification can also be achieved employing aluminium deoxidation by evaporation of Al 2 Osub(g). In the present paper a theoretical thermodynamic approach has been attempted to evaluate the deoxidation tendencies of refractory metals of groups IV to VI by these two processes. Expressions have been theoretically derived, relating the concentration product of carbon and oxygen in the metal (which is a measure of the carbon deoxidation tendency of the metal) with temperature and pressure, for various M-C-O systems. Similarly the relative vapour pressure values of Alsub(2)Osub(g),Alsub(g)andMO(g) (suboxide of the metal) over various M-Al-O systems have been calculated as a function of aluminium and oxygen contents of the metal. From these analyses, it has been shown that a substantial amount of oxygen can be removed from M-Al-O alloys by aluminium deoxidation. The estimated values are compared with the reported values based on experiment. (author)

  10. Bevacizumab: an option for refractory epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Arno; Steiner, Normann; Gunsilius, Eberhard

    2015-08-01

    Recurrent epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients significantly decreases their quality of life. Treatment in therapy refractory patients is limited although various options have been tested so far. Herein, one patient is described that was treated for HHT for over 20 years with only intermediate benefits. As epistaxis duration and frequency increased continuously, bevacizumab 5 mg/kg was administered every 2 weeks. During the time of treatment (six doses) and up to 3 month afterwards clinical symptoms, blood pressure, cardiac output, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), bleeding duration and frequency were assessed as criteria for treatment benefit. Duration and frequency of epistaxis decreased immediately after the first application resulting in reduced need of blood transfusions. After completion of six cycles, a further decrease in frequency and duration of bleeding was noted. Cardiac output and PAH decreased or remained stable, respectively, during time and after treatment. No increase in blood pressure could be found but a significant increase in heart rate was experienced after completion of all six applications. Unfortunately, the patient died due to a cerebral abscess. Bevacizumab led to an improvement of HHT related epistaxis, refractory to other treatments.

  11. External bioresorbable airway rigidification to treat refractory localized tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostidi, François; Reinhard, Antoine; Monnier, Philippe; Sandu, Kishore

    2016-11-01

    Our study evaluates the efficacy of extraluminal bioresorbable plates to treat refractory localized airway malacia in patients undergoing corrective surgery for complex multilevel laryngotracheal stenosis. Retrospective case series. Secondary malacic airway segments were characterized (severity, site, type) by a dynamic transnasal flexible laryngotracheobronchoscopy before surgery. Extraluminal bioresorbable plates were used to stabilize the malacic segment through a transcervical approach under intraoperative flexible endoscopic guidance. Results were evaluated subjectively and by a postoperative dynamic endoscopy. We report our experience in seven patients (6 children, 1 adult). External tracheal stiffening allowed complete or partial resolution of refractory proximal airway malacia in six of seven complex cases described (result in one case is awaited). It allowed quick decannulation in four of seven patients who experienced multiple previous failures. Decannulation failures were due to recurrence of stenosis. With up to 2 years of follow-up, we report no direct complications related to the presence of extraluminal bioresorbable plates around the airway. Extraluminal biodegradable tracheal stiffening represents a valid therapeutic option in select cases of upper airway malacia. It can be highly useful in cases of complex multilevel airway obstructions. External stiffening needs to be planned on a case-to-case basis according to the type of malacia and must be performed under endoscopic guidance. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:2605-2610, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Atopy: a risk factor of refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi-Xiao; Li, Jing; Tian, Ye; Liu, Quang-Hua; Bao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of pathogen DNA copies with clinic and laboratory features among children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia. A total of 95 enrolled children with MP pneumonia were assigned into the high-MP-load group (>10 6 /mL) and the low-MP-load group (≤10 6 /mL) according to MP-DNA copies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Clinical characteristics and any allergy history were collected. Aeroallergens and food allergens were detected with a skin test. Serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. BALF levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA. Compared with the low-MP-load group, 72.7% in the high-MP-load group developed refractory MP pneumonia who failed to respond to at least 1-week treatment with macrolides (72.7% vs 41.9%, P = 0.005). More children in the high-load group than those in the low-load group presented with extrapulmonary manifestations, lung consolidation, pleural effusion and atopic conditions including any allergy history, positive findings of aeroallergen test and increased serum IgE and ECP (P  0.05). Atopy may be a risk factor for the presence and severity of refractory MP pneumonia due to the high pathogen load in airway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A review of social inclusion measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Tim; Nicholas, Angela; Pirkis, Jane

    2013-10-01

    Social inclusion is crucial to mental health and well-being and is emphasised in Australia's Fourth National Mental Health Plan. There is a recognition that a measure of social inclusion would complement the suite of outcome measures that is currently used in public sector mental health services. This paper is an initial scope of candidate measures of social inclusion and considers their suitability for this purpose. We identified potential measures through searches of PsycINFO and Medline and a more general Internet search. We extracted descriptive and evaluative information on each measure identified and compared this information with a set of eight criteria. The criteria related to the measure's inclusion of four domains of social inclusion outlined in Australia's Fourth National Mental Health Plan, its usability within the public mental health sector and its psychometric properties. We identified 10 candidate measures of social inclusion: the Activity and Participation Questionnaire (APQ-6); the Australian Community Participation Questionnaire (ACPQ); the Composite Measure of Social Inclusion (CMSI); the EMILIA Project Questionnaire (EPQ); the Evaluating Social Inclusion Questionnaire (ESIQ); the Inclusion Web (IW); the Social and Community Opportunities Profile (SCOPE); the Social Inclusion Measure (SIM); the Social Inclusion Questionnaire (SIQ); and the Staff Survey of Social Inclusion (SSSI). After comparison with the eight review criteria, we determined that the APQ-6 and the SCOPE-short form show the most potential for further testing. Social inclusion is too important not to measure. This discussion of individual-level measures of social inclusion provides a springboard for selecting an appropriate measure for use in public sector mental health services. It suggests that there are two primary candidates, but neither of these is quite fit-for-purpose in their current form. Further exploration will reveal whether one of these is suitable, whether another

  14. Inclusion, children's groups, music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla; Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    2016-01-01

    portrayal of the qualities of musical interplay that promotes well-being in group settings and, thus, the inclusion of vulnerable students. Therefore, we open the chapter with a focus on musicality and on the importance of applying a musical approach in relation to the children.......Music has a rare ability to affect us directly. Pulse and rhythms make us move, and notes and harmonies inspire and express our inner emotions in a direct and immediate way that goes beyond what words or even other art forms can rarely achieve (Panksepp & Trevarthen, 2009). Music creates...... a delightful build-up of tension or soothes us, and its narrative character gives rise to mental imagery or memories. Music brings people together and helps build communities across languages and common divides. And – not least – music captures children’s immediate attention, so when the music starts, so do...

  15. Interprofessional development in inclusive schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Blaabjerg; Højholdt, Andy; Arndal, Lars Stubbe

    educators, both initiatives of which support the subject-oriented education at school. These changes have challenged the way [education/school] professionals work and how they see their own and each other's roles in the school system (EVA 2013). The changes have also increased the need for collaborative...... in the classroom.4. Changing teaching methods: Students with weak school affiliation or special needs would benefit from a change in teaching methods that takes some of the competencies possessed by child and youth educators and uses them in the classroom. As a further step, it is relevant to open up students......Recent political reforms in the Danish school system have lengthened the school day and integrated child and youth educators into aspects of the teaching programme as part of a common European strategy of inclusion. The school day now contains homework cafes and lessons with child and youth...

  16. Inclusive Design for Assistive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/focus/background: Design for Assistive Technology (AT) requires a special focus on user-requirements during product development. Inclusive Design theory and methodology thus has been relevant to AT design processes. Research in AT design has both drawn from and added to the ID knowledge...... the question of whether AT design processes fit neatly into a model created for a different context . Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight/nine designers of assistive technology. This provided raw data concerning the processes used by the designers in a range of products including...... a wheelchair for children, a washbasin system, a rollator and breathing apparatus for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. The interviews conducted showed that there was required a different emphasis in the means by which users´ requirements were incorporated into the design process...

  17. Irradiation history of meteoritic inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel

    Understanding the formation and earliest evolution of our solar system is a longstanding goal shared by cosmochemistry, astronomy and astrophysics. Meteorites play a key role in this pursuit, providing a ground truth against which all theories must be weighed. Chondritic meteorites are in essence...... extraterrestrial sediments that contain Calcium-Aluminium-rich Inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules that formed as individual objects during the earliest stages of solar system evolution. They later accreted together to form large bodies, after spending up to several million years in individual orbit around the proto...... of presolar and protosolar materials, as well as evidence for the former presence of over 10 extinct shortlived radionuclei of varying stability and provenance that play a key role in deciphering early solar system evolution. Some shortlived radionuclei, such as 60Fe (T½ 2.5 Myr), must have formed...

  18. Difference, inclusion, and mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Lourdes; Healy, Lulu; Skovsmose, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The round-table discussion on Difference, Inclusion and Mathematics Education was in included in the scientific programme of VI SIPEM in recognition and celebration of the emerging body of research into the challenges of building a culture of mathematics education which values and respects...... the diversity of learners in different educational contexts – in Brazil and beyond. This paper presents the contributions to the discussion, which focus on the problematisation of the term “inclusion”, explorations of how the practices of previously marginalized students can bring new resources to the teaching...... and learning of mathematics and reflections upon the potentially discriminatory nature of the structures which currently mould school mathematics. The paper aims to serve as material for the developing research agenda of the thirteenth working group of the Brazilian Society of Mathematics Education, which met...

  19. STUDENTS’ RESPONSES TO INCLUSIVE DESIGN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    raw data on how students broke down the design problem into a variety of tasks: problem solving, data gathering and ideation among others. The work thus provides insight into how the problem is resolved into design solutions. The results provide some quantitative insight into how time is allocated......This paper looks at how students’ design process responds to the requirements of inclusive design. The background to the students´ brief was the concept of welfare technology. People wish to retain their customary life-style even as ageing brings with it a reduction in physical capability: loss...... of muscle strength and manual dexterity or deterioration of eyesight and hearing. They wish to remain in their familiar home and to be able to equip it with such necessary enhancements that help them cope with the minimum of outside support. At the Aarhus School of Architecture, Institute of Design...

  20. Rapid pacing results in changes in atrial but not in ventricular refractoriness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderwoerd, BA; Van Gelder, IC; Tieleman, RG; Bel, KJ; Crijns, HJGM

    It is well known that atrial tachycardia causes atrial electrical remodeling, characterized by shortening of atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) and loss of physiological adaptation of AERP to rate. However, the nature and time course of changes in ventricular effective refractory periods

  1. Iron Refractory Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Rare Cause of Iron Deficiency Anaemia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, T

    2018-01-01

    We describe the case of a 17-month-old boy with a hypochromic microcytic anaemia, refractory to oral iron treatment. After exclusion of dietary and gastrointestinal causes of iron deficiency, a genetic cause for iron deficiency was confirmed by finding two mutations in the TMPRSS6 gene, consistent with a diagnosis of iron-refractory iron deficiency anaemia (IRIDA).

  2. RESULTS OF OUTPATIENT PROGRAM ON EFFECTIVE THERAPY OF REFRACTORY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Batyushin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To increase in efficacy of antihypertensive therapy in patients with refractory arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients with refractory HT were revealed during first month of program. The causes of refractory HT were analyzed. Combined antihypertensive therapy was prescribed to reach target level of blood pressure (BP. This therapy lasted 24 weeks and included angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, thiazid diuretic (indapamide and dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (nifedipine XL.Results. 200 patients with refractory HT were revealed. True refractory HT took place in 59,9% of patients and pseudo refractory HT – in 40,1% of patients. Lack of diuretics or combined antihypertensive therapy were the main reason of insufficient BP control. Proposed 3-drugs therapy resulted in reduction of systolic BP from 190 to 132 Hg mm and diastolic BP from 104 to 81 Hg mm. Target level of BP was reached in 94% patients. There were no side effects which demanded to stop therapy.Conclusion. High incidence of pseudorefractory HT (40,1% is revealed. Significant prevalence of renal disturbances especially chronic interstitial inflammatory could be responsible for refractory HT development. Use of 3-drugs therapy (ACE inhibitor, indapamide and nifedipine XL provides effective control of BP in refractory and pseudorefractory HT.

  3. Development of electro fused aggregates for use in refractories for the burning zone of cement kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Luis Leonardo Horne Curimbaba

    2006-01-01

    Electro fused aggregates are largely used in refractory production due to the better performance reached when they are employed. In this work electro fused aggregates were designed for application in refractories for the burning zone of cement kilns. Initially reaction evaluation was conducted aiming the identification of the most prone refractory systems when single refractory phases react with Portland cement phases at high temperatures. In the next step, raw materials of the best refractory systems were electro fused to generate different aggregate compositions. The electro fused aggregates properties were evaluated and the classified ones were used to produce refractory bricks for the burning zone of cement kilns. General characteristics of these bricks were measured and compared with a standard magnesia-spinel refractory. Aggregates of the system Mg O - TiO 2 - Ca O, more specifically aggregates belonged to the compatibility triangle Mg O - Mg 2 TiO 4 - CaTiO 3 , showed suitable characteristics for development of refractories for the burning zone cement kilns. (author)

  4. A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, D.A.J.E.; de Kinderen, R.J.A.; Vles, J.S.H.; de Louw, A.J.A.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Majoie, H.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet (KD) during the first 4 months of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in refractory epilepsy patients aged 1–18 years. Methods: Children and adolescents with refractory epilepsy, not eligible for epilepsy surgery, were

  5. Antipsychotic Polypharmacy in a Treatment-Refractory Schizophrenia Population Receiving Adjunctive Treatment With Electroconvulsive Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Hageman, Ida; Bauer, Jeanett

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is frequent, but its pattern is unknown in treatment-refractory schizophrenia-spectrum patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).......Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is frequent, but its pattern is unknown in treatment-refractory schizophrenia-spectrum patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)....

  6. RESULTS OF OUTPATIENT PROGRAM ON EFFECTIVE THERAPY OF REFRACTORY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Batyushin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To increase in efficacy of antihypertensive therapy in patients with refractory arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. Patients with refractory HT were revealed during first month of program. The causes of refractory HT were analyzed. Combined antihypertensive therapy was prescribed to reach target level of blood pressure (BP. This therapy lasted 24 weeks and included angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor, thiazid diuretic (indapamide and dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (nifedipine XL.Results. 200 patients with refractory HT were revealed. True refractory HT took place in 59,9% of patients and pseudo refractory HT – in 40,1% of patients. Lack of diuretics or combined antihypertensive therapy were the main reason of insufficient BP control. Proposed 3-drugs therapy resulted in reduction of systolic BP from 190 to 132 Hg mm and diastolic BP from 104 to 81 Hg mm. Target level of BP was reached in 94% patients. There were no side effects which demanded to stop therapy.Conclusion. High incidence of pseudorefractory HT (40,1% is revealed. Significant prevalence of renal disturbances especially chronic interstitial inflammatory could be responsible for refractory HT development. Use of 3-drugs therapy (ACE inhibitor, indapamide and nifedipine XL provides effective control of BP in refractory and pseudorefractory HT.

  7. Genetics of refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, A.M.; Gemert, Geert-Jan van; Vegte-Bolmer, Marga G. van de; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1998-01-01

    We previously selected a line of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi refractory (resistant) to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, using in vitro infections with P. falciparum gametocytes. This report presents data on the genetic background of refractoriness. The results of

  8. Ten patients with refractory status epilepticus in an intensive care department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; van Schijndel, RJM; Heimans, JJ; Schreuder, WO

    1998-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious disease, associated with a high morbidity and mortality, particularly if refractory to initial therapy. We describe the clinical manifestations and outcome in ten cases with refractory SE admitted to our medical intensive care unit. Three of these selected group

  9. Defining refractory migraine: results of the RHSIS Survey of American Headache Society members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Elliott A; Peterlin, B Lee; Lake, Alvin E; Lipton, Richard B; Hanlon, Alexandra; Siegel, Sherry; Levin, Morris; Goadsby, Peter J; Markley, Herbert G

    2009-04-01

    To gauge consensus regarding a proposed definition for refractory migraine proposed by Refractory Headache Special Interest Section, and where its use would be most appropriate. Headache experts have long recognized that a subgroup of headache sufferers remains refractory to treatment. Although different groups have proposed criteria to define refractory migraine, the definition remains controversial. The Refractory Headache Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society developed a definition through a consensus process, assisted by a literature review and initial membership survey. A 12-item questionnaire was distributed at the American Headache Society meeting in 2007 during a platform session and at the Refractory Headache Special Interest Section symposium. The same questionnaire was subsequently sent to all American Headache Society members via e-mail. A total of 151 responses from AHS members form the basis of this report. The survey instrument was designed using Survey Monkey. Frequencies and percentages of the survey were used to describe survey responses. American Headache Society members agreed that a definition for refractory migraine is needed (91%) that it should be added to the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 (86%), and that refractory forms of non-migraine headache disorders should be defined (87%). Responders believed a refractory migraine definition would be of greatest value in selecting patients for clinical drug trials. The current refractory migraine definition requires a diagnosis of migraine, interference with function or quality of life despite modification of lifestyle factors, and adequate trials of acute and preventive medicines with established efficacy. The proposed criteria for the refractory migraine definition require failing 2 preventive medications to meet the threshold for failure. Although 42% of respondents agreed with the working definition of refractory migraine, 43% favored increasing the

  10. Performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchins, D.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Koenig, R.A.; Vavruska, J.S.; Warner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A refractory evaluation project was initiated in 1979 to study the performance of six selected refractory materials within the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI). Determining refractory resistance to thermal shock, chemical attack, and plutonium uptake was of particular interest. The experimental refractories were subjected to a variety of waste materials, including transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes, highly chlorinated compounds and alkaline metal salts of perchlorate, chlorate, nitrate and oxylate, over the six year period of this study. Results of this study to date indicate that the use of high alumina, and possibly specialty plastic refractories, is advisable for the lining of incinerators used for the thermal destruction of diverse chemical compounds. 12 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-01-01

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar

  12. The Role of Refractory Dissolved Organic Matter in Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda

    The ocean assimilates a large amount of atmospheric CO2 and is potentially a buffer for climate change. A fraction of the assimilated CO2 is incorporated into algal biomass and further converted into refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM). Carbon bound in refractory DOM has the potential...... studies the prokaryotic production and degradation of oceanic refractory DOM and discusses the reasons for the persistent nature of this large DOM fraction. The first two papers investigate the microbial carbon pump, i.e. prokaryotic transfor-mation of organic carbon into refractory DOM. The results show...... DOM compounds in the ocean are rare—possibly too rare to sustain viable uptake and assimilation. Hence, the dilute concentration of individual compounds is a possible explanation for the apparent refractory nature of most DOM in the ocean. Understanding the mechanisms that control the quality...

  13. Refractory burning mouth syndrome: clinical and paraclinical evaluation, comorbiities, treatment and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Ljubisavljevic, Srdjan; Deligianni, Christina I

    2017-12-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition characterized by persistent intraoral burning without related objective findings and unknown etiology that affects elderly females mostly. There is no satisfactory treatment for BMS. We aimed to observe the long-term efficacy of high velanfaxine doses combined with systemic and topical administered clonazepam in a particular subgroup of BMS patients who do not respond to current clinical management. Eight (66.1 ± 6.2 years old females) out of 14 BMS patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were treated with venlafaxine (300 mg/d) and clonazepam (5 mg/d) for 35.4 ± 12.1 (mean ± SD) months. The average duration of the symptoms at baseline was 4.3 ± 1.4 years and the overall mean daily pain intensity score was 8.6 ± 1.3 (VAS); pain was in tongue and within the oral mucosa, accompanying by oral and facial dysesthesia. In five patients tasting was abnormal. All patients had positive history of concomitant primary headache. The average score of Hamilton Rating scale for Anxiety and Depression was 21 ± 4.2, and 26.1 ± 2.9, respectively. Previous ineffective treatments include anticonvulsants and anti-depressants. All patients responded (more than 50% decrease in VAS) after three months treatment (mean VAS 3.2 ± 2.2) with no remarkable adverse events. BMS deserves bottomless psychiatric evaluation and management when current available treatments fail. Treatment with venlafaxine combined with topical and systemic clonazepam may be effective in refractory BMS cases but further investigation in a large-scale controlled study is needed to confirm these results.

  14. Influence of thermal treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a HC cast refractory steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatica, D; Garin, J; Mannheim, R

    2008-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatments at 750 ( o C) on the microstructure and hardness of a HC cast refractory steel was studied. Samples were extracted from blocks obtained from the melting of this steel, which were heated to 750 ( o C) for 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hours and cooled in water. The microstructural analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction, optic and scanning electron microscopy. The phases in each of the samples were quantified using X-ray diffraction, by the direct comparison method, using the DIFRACC-AT, PROFILE FITTING, LATTICE and LAZY-PULVERIX programs. Ferrite was also measured with a magnetic inductor. The phases that were present were ferrite, austenite and Cr 23 C 6 chrome carbides, with a small percentage of molybdenum carbides, slag and non metallic inclusions. As a result of the thermal treatment, the ferrite increased, the austenite decreased and the chrome carbides increased, although their presence varied during the first hours of treatment, displaying a sustained increase only after the 24 hours of heating. Brittle phases, like the sigma phase, did not occur, corroborated by other authors who have noted that for this phase to form there must be preexisting Cr 7 C 3 chrome carbide, as well as Cr 23 C 6 . Temperature impact tests were held in order to determine the temperature of ductile-brittle transition. Unnotched test pieces were submitted to impact trials in a temperature range of 20 to 200 ( o C). This steel does not have a clear transition temperature, but ranges from 50 ( o C) to 80 ( o C )

  15. Behavioral effects and somnolence due to levetiracetam versus oxcarbazepine - a retrospective comparison study of North Indian patients with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Garima; Gupta, Anupama; Agarwal, Priya; Poornima, Shivani

    2016-11-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is often chosen early in the treatment of refractory epilepsy; however, its adverse effects have largely been studied as part of clinical trials. Oxcarbazepine and valproate (VPA) are the other commonly used AEDs and, hence, serve as good comparators. This study was conducted to evaluate behavioral abnormalities and somnolence among patients with epilepsy being treated with LEV and/or OXC compared with those receiving VPA. Data of consecutive patients attending our intractable epilepsy clinic over a 2 1/2-year period were reviewed, and patients with at least one seizure a month, who had been initiated on either or a combination of LEV, VPA, or OXC, were included for analysis. Data regarding behavioral adverse effects, daytime somnolence (EDS), and weight changes were collected apart from those regarding any major effect necessitating dose reduction or discontinuation of the AED. Among a total of 445 patients screened, 292 (93 F, median age: 21years [range: 8-54]; 237 focal and 55 generalized epilepsy) fulfilled inclusion criteria. Median epilepsy duration was 11years. Levetiracetam had been introduced in 114 patients, VPA in 134, and OXC in 151 during the study period. Twenty-three were on LEV+OXC, 27 on LEV+VPA, and 33 on VPA+OXC. Behavioral disturbances (irritability, obsessive manifestations, aggressiveness, and frank psychosis) were observed in 43 patients; 23 on introduction of LEV (20.2%); LEV was discontinued in 10 (9%). Daytime somnolence was reported by 28 patients, 15 on OXC (10%); 8 received oral modafinil for the same, while none discontinued this AED. Only one patient on LEV and 3 on VPA reported EDS. Menstrual disturbances were reported by 9, weight gain by 3, and severe hair loss by 2 females on VPA. Behavioral disturbances with levetiracetam are common among patients with refractory epilepsy while somnolence is common with oxcarbazepine. Antiepileptic drugs should be selected with this in perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  16. Use of the ketogenic diet to manage refractory epilepsy in CDKL5 disorder: Experience of >100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Zhan; Wong, Kingsley; Olson, Heather E; Bergin, Ann M; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2017-08-01

    Pathogenic variants involving the CDKL5 gene result in a severe epileptic encephalopathy, often later presenting with features similar to Rett syndrome. Cardinal features of epilepsy in the CDKL5 disorder include early onset at a median age of 6 weeks and poor response to antiepileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet (KD) was first introduced in the 1920s as a treatment option for refractory epilepsy in children. This study investigated use of the KD in the CDKL5 disorder and its influences on seizures. The International CDKL5 Disorder Database, established in 2012, collects information on individuals with the CDKL5 disorder. Families have provided information regarding seizure characteristics, use, and side effects of the KD treatment. Descriptive statistics and time to event analyses were performed. Clinical vignettes were also provided on patients attending Boston Children's Hospital. Data regarding KD use were available for 204 individuals with a pathogenic CDKL5 variant. Median age of inclusion in the database was 4.8 years (range = 0.3-33.9 years), with median age of 6 weeks (range = 1 day-65 weeks) at seizure onset. History of KD use was reported for 51% (104 of 204) of individuals, with a median duration of use of 17 months (95% confidence interval = 9-24). Changes in seizure activity after commencing KD were reported for two-thirds (69 of 104), with improvements in 88% (61 of 69). Nearly one-third (31.7%) experienced side effects during the diet. At ascertainment, only one-third (32%) remained on the diet, with lack of long-term efficacy as the main reason for diet cessation (51%, 36 of 70). Benefits of KD in the CDKL5 disorder are in keeping with previous trials on refractory epilepsies. However, poor long-term efficacy remains as a significant barrier. In view of its side effect profile, KD administration should be supervised by a pediatric neurologist and specialist dietician. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Budget Impact Analysis to Estimate the Cost Dynamics of Treating Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease With Radiofrequency Energy: a Payer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, David; Scotti, Dennis J; Buck, Daniel; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2016-05-01

    A minimally invasive endoscopic treatment that utilizes radio-frequency energy (RFE) has received increased attention as an appropriate middle-ground approach in the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and as an alternative to complicated and invasive surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a longitudinal budget impact analysis from the payer perspective to estimate the direct medical costs of treatment for the refractory GERD patient population and to estimate the budgetary impact of further extending the RFE treatment option to other target populations. A retrospective analysis of claims designed to assess the longitudinal costs and budget impact on payer expenditures associated with managing and treating GERD surgically (Nissen fundoplication [NF]), endoscopically (RFE), or medically was performed. Both Medicare and commercially insured claims databases were interrogated for such population-level analyses. At current adoption rates (less than 1% of procedures), RFE demonstrated overall cost savings ranging from 7.3% to 50.5% in the 12-month time period following the index procedure (inclusive of procedure costs) when compared to medical management and fundoplication across the commercial and Medicare patient populations. Increasing the total number of RFE procedures to 2% of total cases performed generated per-member, per-month (PMPM) savings of $0.28 in the Medicare population and $0.37 in the commercially insured population. Further increases yielded higher PMPM savings. Adding to the clinical importance of RFE in filling the gap between medical and surgical management, this economic analysis demonstrates to payers that the adoption of RFE can create notable savings to their plans when compared to surgery or medical management.

  18. Efficacy of peg-interferon based treatment in patients with hepatitis C refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, S.; Devrajani, B.R.; Kalhoro, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of peg-interferon-based therapy in patients refractory to previous conventional interferon-based treatment and factors predicting sustained viral response (SVR). Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Unit IV, Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro, from July 2009 to June 2011. Methodology: This study included consecutive patients of hepatitis C who were previously treated with conventional interferon-based treatment for 6 months but were either non-responders, relapsed or had virologic breakthrough and stage = 2 with fibrosis on liver biopsy. All eligible patients were provided peg-interferon at the dosage of 180 mu g weekly with ribavirin thrice a day for 6 months. Sustained Viral Response (SVR) was defined as absence of HCV RNA at twenty four week after treatment. All data was processed on SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 450 patients enrolled in the study, 192 were excluded from the study on the basis of minimal fibrosis (stage 0 and 1). Two hundred and fifty eight patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and 247 completed the course of peg-interferon treatment. One hundred and sixty one (62.4%) were males and 97 (37.6%) were females. The mean age was 39.9 +- 6.1 years, haemoglobin was 11.49 +- 2.45 g/dl, platelet count was 127.2 +- 50.6 10/sup 3/ /mm/sup 3/, ALT was 99 +- 65 IU/L. SVR was achieved in 84 (32.6%). The strong association was found between SVR and the pattern of response (p = 0. 001), degree of fibrosis and early viral response (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Peg-interferon based treatment is an effective and safe treatment option for patients refractory to conventional interferon-based treatment. (author)

  19. Covered metal stent or multiple plastic stents for refractory pancreatic ductal strictures in chronic pancreatitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yonghua; Liu, Mingdong; Chen, Min; Li, Yunhong; Lu, Ying; Zou, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Refractory chronic pancreatitis has been proposed as a challenge for endoscopists following routine single plastic stenting. However, data on the efficacy and safety of further endoscopic stenting are still controversial. The current systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of placement of fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) and multiple plastic stents. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and WANFANG Database were used to search relevant trials. Published studies were assessed by using well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The process was independently performed by two investigators. A total of 5 studies provided data of 80 patients. Forest plots and publication bias were not carried out because few studies were relevant and screened studies were all case series. The technical success rate was 100% both in placement of FCSEMS and multiple plastic stents. The functional success rate after placement of FCSEMS was 100%, followed by multiple plastic stents (94.7%). Complications occurred 26.2% after FCSEMS placement, which was not described in detail in multiple plastic stents. The stent migration rate was 8.2% for FCSEMS and 10.5% for multiple plastic stents. Reintervention rate was 9.8% for FCSEMS and 15.8% for multiple plastic stents. Pain improvement rate was 85.2% for FCSEMS and 84.2% for multiple plastic stents. FCSEMS appeared to be no significant difference with multiple plastic stents in treatment of refractory chronic pancreatitis. We need to develop more investigations. Copyright © 2014 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tocilizumab treatment for refractory uveitis-related cystoid macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adán, Alfredo; Mesquida, Marina; Llorenç, Victor; Espinosa, Gerard; Molins, Blanca; Hernández, Maria V; Pelegrín, Laura

    2013-11-01

    This retrospective study investigated the efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ), a fully humanized antibody that binds both to soluble and membrane bound IL-6 receptors, for the treatment of uveitis-related cystoid macular edema (CME) refractory to immunomodulatory therapy. Five refractory patients with uveitis-related CME who received TCZ between January and August 2012 were included. All patients received 8 mg/kg TCZ at 4-week intervals. Data regarding patient demographics, use of immunosuppressive drugs, biologic agents or intravitreal therapies prior to TCZ infusions were collected. Main outcome measure was central foveal thickness (CFT) measured by optical coherence tomography at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures were degree of anterior and posterior chamber inflammation (Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group criteria) and visual acuity (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [log-MAR]) at month 6. Adverse events (AEs) related to TCZ therapy were also assessed. Eight eyes from five patients (all females) were included. Mean age was 49.4 years (range, 30-68). Mean follow-up was 8.4 months (range, 6-12). Before TCZ, all patients received and failed conventional immunosuppressive therapy and had received at least another biologic agent. Uveitis diagnoses were Birdshot chorioretinopathy (n = 3), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (n = 1), and idiopathic panuveitis (n = 1). Mean evolution of CME was 13.4 years (range, 2-30). Mean baseline CFT (95% confidence interval) was 602 ± 236 μm at baseline, 386 ± 113 μm at month 1 (p = 0.006), 323 ± 103 μm at month 3 (p = 0.026), and 294.5 ± 94.5 μm at month 6 (p = 0.014). Median best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved from 0.66 ± 0.57 at baseline to 0.47 ± 0.62 at month 6 (p = 0.035). After 6 months, an improvement of ≥ 2 lines of BCVA was observed in 50% of eyes (p = 0.028) remained stable in 25% and worsened in none of the patients. Sustained uveitis remission was