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Sample records for hibiscus sabdariffa seed

  1. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

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    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  2. Toxicity of Dietary Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed to Wistar Rats

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    Amgad A. H. Al Bahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds after fermentation are commonly known as Furundu with high quality proteins consumed as substitute to meat mainly in the Western part of the country. The raw seed, 10, 15 and 20 % of the standard diet was fed to Wister rats for periods up to 12 weeks. These doses were found to be non-toxic but not lethal to the treated rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed on any of the vital organs, but the main features were depression of growth and diverse pathological changes on the liver, kidneys and intestines which were correlated with highly significant (P<0.001 elevation of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and bilirubin (P<0.01 concentration in addition to a significant decrease (P<0.01 in cholesterol concentration. No change was observed in the total protein, globulin and urea concentrations of the test groups and albumin concentration in Groups 1 and 2 fed on diet containing 10 and 15% H. sabdarrifa seed. These findings were accompanied by leukocytosis and significantly lower red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration. Due to the elevated Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the normal values of the mean corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in all the treatment groups the toxicity of H. Sabdariffa seed to Wistar rats resulted in macrocytic normochromic type of anaemia.

  3. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.;

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  4. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  5. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds as unconventional nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mohamhed

    2012-05-22

    May 22, 2012 ... The composition of roselle seed from oil, protein, ash, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids was determined and ... (Robert, 1996); in Sudan, it is used for edible oil production and ..... Experimental Design and Analysis in Scientific.

  6. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

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    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  7. Antioxidant Effect and Water-Holding Capacity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed Protein Hydrolysates

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    Fatoumata Tounkara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestion of proteins extracted from Roselle seed on the production of bioactive peptides. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract different protein fractions namely globulin, albumin and glutelin. The proteins were digested using pepsin (1 h followed by pancreatin (1 h in order to produce hydrolysates with good antioxidant activity. The prepared hydrolysates were as effective as antioxidants in model systems, in scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and was also influenced by the type of protein fraction. The albumin fraction hydrolysates prepared showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by Glutelin and Globulin hydrolysates respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. All of the prepared hydrolysates were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a meat model system. Albumin hydrolysates showed the highest improved meat cooking ability followed by Glutelin and Globulin respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. The molecular weight distribution analysis of the hydrolysates was determined and most of the peptides were found between 1000 Da and below. The study findings suggest that Roselle seed protein hydrolysates can be applied as functional food ingredients and that their composition determines their functional properties thus their potential application in the food and feed industries.

  8. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed at Subcritical Conditions with Statistical Analysis

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    N. I. Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roselle seeds are the waste product of roselle processing, but they are now labeled as a polyphenol source with great herbal quality. In this work, polyphenols were extracted using ethanol-water (70% (v/v in a closed vessel under microwave irradiation. The main objective was to determine the optimal parameters statistically. The influence of extraction time (4–10 min, microwave power (100–300 W, and solvent/solid ratio (25–100 mL/g was studied. The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Without temperature control, the subcritical conditions could occur and the highest flavonoid content (14.4251 mg QE/g was achieved at 158°C and 16.4 bar. Although the optimum MAE conditions (10 min, 300 W, and 97.7178 mL/g resulted in the highest yield (65.0367% and phenolic content (18.2244 mg GAE/g, low flavonoids content (6.4524 mg QE/g was unexpectedly obtained due to degradation at 163°C.

  9. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

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    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  10. Wound healing potential of formulated extract from hibiscus sabdariffa calyx.

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    Builders, P F; Kabele-Toge, B; Builders, M; Chindo, B A; Anwunobi, Patricia A; Isimi, Yetunde C

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (Pextract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin.

  11. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

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    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  12. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

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    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  13. Histological and Biochemical Evaluation of the Kidney following Chronic Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa

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    U. U. Ukoha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been used traditionally as herbal medicine and has been documented to have a broad range of therapeutic effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of aqueous extract of flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the histology of the kidney and some biochemical indices of renal function in male Wistar rats. Twenty (20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four (4 groups of five rats each. The extract was administered orally in doses 200, 500, and 800 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. The kidney was harvested and processed histologically and blood samples were taken for biochemical assays. The histological results showed dose dependent pathological states and the biochemical analysis revealed a dose dependant variation in renal indices. These results suggest that chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be toxic to the kidney.

  14. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

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    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  15. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse

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    Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin conte...

  16. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...

  17. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

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    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  18. Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces against hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad Mohamed Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Hibiscus sab-dariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyces employed in Sudanese folk medicine against five hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR A. baumannii). Methods: The antibacterial activity of 80% methanol extract (v/v) of H. sabdariffa calyces was evaluated by agar disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected A. baumannii strains was tested. Results: In the present investigation, the methanol extract from the calyces of H. sabdariffa exhibited significant antibacterial properties against the non-MDR A. baumannii as well as the MDR A. baumannii strains with a zone of inhibition ranging from (11.3 ± 0.3) to (13.6 ± 0.3) mm. The relative percentage inhibition of H. sabdariffa extract (10 mg/disc) with respect to gentamicin (10 mg/disc) had potent antibacterial properties and was much more effective than gentamicin. Values of mini-mum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 25 to 50 and 50 to 100 mg/mL, respectively, revealing the potential bactericidal properties of the extract. Conclusions: According to the present study, the calyces of H. sabdariffa can be used as a substitute source of the current ineffective synthetic antibiotics used against MDR A. baumannii.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces against hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Emad Mohamed Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa calyces employed in Sudanese folk medicine against five hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR A. baumannii. Methods: The antibacterial activity of 80% methanol extract (v/v of H. sabdariffa calyces was evaluated by agar disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected A. baumannii strains was tested. Results: In the present investigation, the methanol extract from the calyces of H. sabdariffa exhibited significant antibacterial properties against the non-MDR A. baumannii as well as the MDR A. baumannii strains with a zone of inhibition ranging from (11.3 ± 0.3 to (13.6 ± 0.3 mm. The relative percentage inhibition of H. sabdariffa extract (10 mg/disc with respect to gentamicin (10 mg/disc had potent antibacterial properties and was much more effective than gentamicin. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 25 to 50 and 50 to 100 mg/mL, respectively, revealing the potential bactericidal properties of the extract. Conclusions: According to the present study, the calyces of H. sabdariffa can be used as a substitute source of the current ineffective synthetic antibiotics used against MDR A. baumannii.

  20. Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.

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    Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

    2011-11-01

    Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants.

  1. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

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    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  2. Thermal stability of anthocyanin extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin.

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    Mourtzinos, Ioannis; Makris, Dimitris P; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Michali, Iliana; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2008-11-12

    The thermal stability of anthocyanin extract isolated from the dry calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was studied over the temperature range 60-90 degrees C in aqueous solutions in the presence or absence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD). The results indicated that the thermal degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled by the Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy for the degradation of H. sabdariffa L. anthocyanins during heating was found to be approximately 54 kJ/mol. In the presence of beta-CD, anthocyanins degraded at a decreased rate, evidently due to their complexation with beta-CD, having the same activation energy. The formation of complexes in solution was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance studies of beta-CD solutions in the presence of the extract. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the inclusion complex of H. sabdariffa L. extract with beta-CD in the solid state was more stable against oxidation as compared to the free extract, as the complex remained intact at temperatures 100-250 degrees C where the free extract was oxidized. The results obtained clearly indicated that the presence of beta-CD improved the thermal stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in H. sabdariffa L. extract, both in solution and in solid state.

  3. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

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    Nawaphat Taweebot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae calyx extract (HSE was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage of mobile sperms and viable sperms when compared to the tetracycline treated group (p H. Sabdariffa. calyx extract may be used as protective agent againsttetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in mice.

  4. Z-scan and optical limiting properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa dye

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maaza, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available to the difference between the normalized peak, and valley transmittances, Tp-v=Tp−Tv. Such a quantity is given by ΔTp-v =0.406 (1- S) 0.25 |0| [17]. Figure 4 reports such characteristic asymmetric profiles of the various Hibiscus Sabdariffa liquid solutions...). 2. C. Pradeep, S. Mathew, B. Nithyajam P. Radhakrishnan and V.P.N. Nampoori, Appl Phys A: Materials Science & Processing, DOI 10.1007/s00339-013-7814-0 (2013). 3. F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, Nonlinear and Quantum Optics-Laser Physics, Vol. 16, No...

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES FROM HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L CALYX EXTRACT FROM INDONESIA AND THAILAND

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    Nurkhasanah*, Tedjo Yuwono, Laela Hayu Nurani, Muhammad Ikhwan Rizki and Krisana Kraisintu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L calyx has been reported to have an antioxidant activity. Antocyanidin is the major compound of rosella and has low bioavailability as an ionic form. Rosella extract is an ucceptable due to high acidity. Development of chitosan nanoparticle from Hibiscus sabdariffa extract were expected to improve the bioavailability and the acidity problem. We studied the optimum pH and composition ratios of chitosan, extract and tripolyphosphate (TPP to develop chitosan-nanoparticle of rosella extract. We used rosella calyx both from Indonesia and Thailand to compare the physical characteristic the extract and nanoparticles. Rosella was extracted using 60% ethanol and water, followed by evaporation using evaporator and dried by freezedryer. The optimum formation of chitosan-nanoparticles of rosella extract were observed including pH formation and composition ratios between extract: chitosan: TPP. The physical charactersitics of nanoparticles were observed using transmission electron microscope (TEM and particle size analyzer (PSA. We found that optimum composition of extract: chitosan : TPP ratios were 2 : 1 : 0.1, with optimum formation of chitosan in acetate buffer pH 4. The characteristic of nanoparticles were spherical shapes with particles size range 60 to 300 nm, polydispersity index around 0.3 and zeta potential 39.19 to 62.26 mV. The nanoparticles has high entrapment efficiency of flavonoid active compound of 81.98 to 83.83%.

  6. Chemistry and quality of Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) for developing the natural-product industry in Senegal.

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    Juliani, H R; Welch, C R; Wu, Q; Diouf, B; Malainy, D; Simon, J E

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess and improve the quality of the hibiscus calyces from Senegal over 2 production seasons (2004 to 2005), to develop and adapt new procedures for the determination of hibiscus anthocyanins and analysis of the 2 major ones, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. The foreign matter, total ashes, and acid insoluble ashes showed that the calyces harvested in 2005 were produced following hygienic practices, while the color assessment of the calyces and analysis of hibiscus active principles also showed higher amounts of anthocyanins in 2005. A protocol to measure anthocyanins by pH-differential UV-Vis spectrophotometry was adapted to measure the hibiscus anthocyanins from a water extract. The spectrophotometric method for quantitation of total anthocyanins showed a close correlation (r(2)= 0.82) when compared with the HPLC method, suggesting the use of the colorimetric method in quality control programs as an affordable alternative method to assess anthocyanin content in hibiscus. New and raised standards for the cleanliness and active principle content in hibiscus are also proposed. This study demonstrated that the implementation of a quality control program and the application of agricultural good practices in the production and processing of hibiscus calyces can lead to higher quality natural plant products.

  7. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

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    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  8. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3 γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Chieh Wang; Shiow-Fen Lee; Chau-Jong Wang; Chao-Hsin Lee; Wen-Chin Lee; Huei-Jane Lee

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glut...

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against uropathogenic strains isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

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    Issam Alshami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the antimicrobial effect and biofilm forming capacity of the uropathogenic strains that have been isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs in the presence of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa extract. Methods: Six Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients with recurrent UTIs. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to H. sabdariffa extracts were tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by using the broth microdilution method in accordance to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Time-kill curves were plotted against the eight isolates based on the MIC results. The biofilm forming capacity of the isolates were evaluated using the microtiter plate assay. Detection of biofilms was done using the crystal violet staining method. Results: Various levels of the extracts MIC were observed against all the uropathogenic isolates. MIC values ranged from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL, and MBC values ranged from 8 to 64 mg/mL. Both the time-kill experiment and MBC-MIC ratio demonstrated that the extracts' effect was in general, bacteriostatic. The biofilm capacity inhibition assay results showed that extracts inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. The level of biofilm inhibition however, had varied among the bacterial strains and ranged from 8%-60% reduction in optical density. Conclusions: The results of the study support the effective potential of H. sabdariffa extract to prevent recurrent UTIs and to emphasize the significance of the plant extract, in order to approach it as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  10. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

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    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers, when used together with hardwood (core fibers, gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.

  11. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issam Alshami; Ahmed E Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract.Methods:In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results: Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. Methods:The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1μmol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10μmol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. Results:It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P <0.05) increased the viability of the cells which was suppressed by cadmium when compared to quercetin dihydrate. The extract also reduced the cadmium-mediated production of the markers of macrophage-activation when compared to quercetin dihydrate. In both experiments, the activity of the extract was concentration-dependent (P <0.05). Conclusion:The findings show that H. sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages.

  13. The consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried calyx ethanolic extract reduced lipid profile in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Orta-Flores, Zaida; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia; Sánchez-Ricaño, Ramón; Infanzón, Rosa M; Trujillo, Patricia R L

    2005-12-01

    The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4 weeks with either a basal diet, containing high cholesterol (1%), cholic acid (0.25%), lard oil (10%), or a supplemental diet with H. sabdariffa extract at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels (SD(5), SD(10), SD(15)). Weight gain and faeces dry weight were both very significantly less (p hibiscus acid racemization, (+)-HCA to (-)-HCA, mediated by intestinal flora enzymes possibly explains the significant triacylglycerol decrease in all experimental groups. VLDL, the precursor of LDL, is composed predominantly of triacylglycerols, suggesting that the significant decrease in LDL is related to observed triacylglycerol synthesis inhibition. Five percent H. sabdariffa extract addition showed the best results in the reduction of serum lipids under study conditions.

  14. Variations in chemical fingerprints and major flavonoid contents from the leaves of thirty‐one accessions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Ferchaud, Vanessa; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng; Chin, Kit L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been used as traditional folk medicines for treating high blood pressure and fever. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa L. throughout the world. To assess the chemical variations of 31 different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., fingerprinting analysis and quantitation of major flavonoids were performed by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. A quadrupole‐time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (Q‐TOF‐MS) was applied for the characterization of major compounds. A total of 9 compounds were identified, including 6 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acids. In the fingerprint analysis, similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate the 31 accessions of H. sabdariffa L. Based on the results of PCA and SA, the samples No. 15 and 19 appeared much different from the main group. The total content of five flavonoids varied greatly among different accessions, ranging from 3.35 to 23.30 mg/g. Rutin was found to be the dominant compound and the content of rutin could contribute to chemical variations among different accessions. This study was helpful to understand the chemical variations between different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., which could be used for quality control. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26394363

  15. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

  17. Antitumoral Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrida, Alessio; Maggioni, Daniele; Cassetti, Arianna; Nicolini, Gabriella; Cavaletti, Guido; Miloso, Mariarosaria

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite therapeutic improvements, some cancers are still untreatable. Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances for cancer prevention and treatment. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is a plant, belonging to Malvaceae family, widespread in South Asia and Central Africa. HS extract (HSE) used in folk medicine, gained researchers' interest thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. In the present study, we initially assessed HSE effect on a panel of human tumor cell lines. Then we focused our study on the following that are most sensitive to HSE action cell lines: Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells (RPMI 8226) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC-25). In both RPMI 8226 and SCC-25 cells, HSE impaired cell growth, exerted a reversible cytostatic effect, and reduced cell motility and invasiveness. We evaluated the involvement of MAPKs ERK1/2 and p38 in HSE effects by using specific inhibitors, U0126 and SB203580, respectively. For both SCC-25 and RPMI 8226, HSE cytostatic effect depends on p38 activation, whereas ERK1/2 modulation is crucial for cell motility and invasiveness. Our results suggest that HSE may be a potential therapeutic agent against MM and OSCC.

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  19. Effect of the temperature on the spray drying of Roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Palomares, Salvador; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio; Andrade-González, Isaac

    2009-03-01

    The effect of the drying temperature on the volatile components and sensory acceptance of the Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) extract in powder was investigated. The Roselle extraction was carried out by maceration with 7 L of 30% ethanol (v/v), 560 g of fresh Roselle calyces for 168 h. The Roselle extracts were spray dried at different temperatures 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 degrees C, giving different outlet values about yield and final moisture. The volatile compounds in Roselle extract and dried samples were performed using needles of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS HP-5890). Twenty volatile compounds were identified in the extracts among them terpenoids, esters, hydrocarbons and aldehydes. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified in the powder sample, but only ten were present in the Roselle extract. This indicates that some compounds were lost and some others were generated due to a degradation process. An acceptability sensory analysis showed that the best powder sample was the Roselle extract dehydrated using temperature between 190 degrees C and 200 degrees C (pspray drying temperature of the Roselle extracts has an effect on the volatile compounds losses.

  20. Phenolic compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa and influence of organic residues on its antioxidant and antitumoral properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASN. Formagio

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx methanolic extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper® under three modes of application. The total phenolic content in the each extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for aluminium chloride flavonoids. The antioxidant parameters were analyzed using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. free radical scavenging assay. An antitumor colorimetric assay using sulforhodamine B. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in leaf extracts (389.98 and 104.52 mg g–1, respectively and calyx extracts (474.09 and 148.35 mg g–1, respectively from plants cultivated with organosuper®, although these values did not differ significantly from those observed for the other treatments. The average IC50 of leaves (43.48 μg mL–1 and calyces (37.15 μg mL–1 demonstrated that both have substances that may contribute to free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against a leukemia line (K-562, with IC50 values of 0.12 mg mL–1 (organosuper® and 1.16 mg mL–1 (poultry litter, with concentration-dependent, cytotoxic and cytocidal effects.

  1. Entomofauna asociada al cultivo de jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Betzabeth Cecilia PÉREZ TORRES; Agustín ARAGÓN GARCÍA; Néstor BAUTISTA MARTÍNEZ; Tapia Rojas, Ana María.; Jesús Francisco LÓPEZ-OLGUÍN

    2009-01-01

    En Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla, mediante muestreos realizados cada 15 días de junio a septiembre del 2007, se efectuaron colectas en tres parcelas cultivadas con jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), utilizando un aspirador entomológico manual y una red de golpeo. Se revisaron los tallos, nudos, entre nudos, hojas (haz y envés) y flores para hacer un diagnóstico de la entomofauna. Un total de 1,856 ejemplares fueron colectados, de los cuales se determinaron 17 especies, comprendidas en 6 órdenes, 1...

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts from Different Hibiscus sabdariffa Accessions and Simultaneous Determination Five Major Antioxidant Compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS

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    Jin Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2 and Taiwan (No. 5. The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.

  3. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

  4. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Guzman, S. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Brown, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 {mu}m, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 {mu}m and 250 {mu}m, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)

  5. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0% in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods.

  6. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa fruit extracts in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line

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    Norliyana Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy. Objective: This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts toward human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and its antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Total antioxidant activities of extracts were assayed using 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total phenolic content (TPC were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin-Ciocalteu′s reagent, respectively. Cytotoxic activity in vitro was investigated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: B. racemosa extract exhibited high antioxidant activities compared to H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay (inhibitory concentration [IC 50 ] 15.26 ± 1.25 μg/mL and ί-carotene bleaching assay (I% 98.13 ± 1.83%. B. racemosa also showed higher TPC (14.70 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g and TFC (130 ± 1.18 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/g compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g and 40.75 ± 1.15 mg QE/g, respectively. In MTT assay, B. racemosa extract also showed a higher cytotoxic activity (IC 50 57.61 ± 2.24 μg/mL compared to H. sabdariffa. Conclusion: The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known for oxidizing activities indicated an important role among the contents of these plants extract. B. racemosa methanol extract have shown potent cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7. Following these promising results, further fractionation of the plant extract is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for the development of potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use.

  7. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 2: SAS-AQ AND NSSC-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Cannabis sativa, and Hibiscus sabdariffa, fast growing productive annual plants, could provide fiber necessary to partially alleviate the world’s fiber deficit. The present study aimed at producing high yield pulp and the best mechanical strength properties with minimum impact on environment by SAS-AQ, and NSSC-AQ pulping processes. A total alkali of 13% (as Na2O, an alkali ratio of 0.80, and a Na2SO3 charge 11.70% (as Na2O were found optimum to reduce maximum kappa number. A lower kappa number and good strength properties were achieved by increasing total alkali and Na2SO3 charge. SAS-AQ pulps showed good response towards CEHH bleaching. The NSSC-AQ pulping was conducted at a total alkali charge of 8% (as Na2O by varying the ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate (100:0-0:100, and cooking time (60-120 min at 1600C. A ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 60:40 was suitable for corrugating medium (cooking time 60 min, while a ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 70:30 showed better strength properties (longer cooking time.

  8. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  9. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid dan Aktivitas Katalase Tikus yang Terpapar Karbon Tetraklorida

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    Zuraida ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemberian rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn diharapkan melindung hepar tikus dari kerusakkan akibat stres oksidatif pada keracunan karbon tetraklorida (CCl 4. Senyawa yang sering dijadikan petunjuk adanya kerusakan tersebut adalah malondialdehid (MDA. Rosella mengandung vitamin C, flavonoid, polifenol dan beta karoten. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh pemberian ekstrak rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn terhadap MDA dan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post test Only Control Group Design. Sampel 24 ekor tikus Strain Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, berat 150-200 gr. Sampel diambil secara acakdan dibagi 4 kelompok terdiri dari kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (CCl 4, perlakuan 1 (CCl 4 dan ekstrak rosella 250 mg/kg bb dan perlakuan 2 (CCl4  dan ekstrak rosella 500 mg/kg bb. Pemberian CCl 4secara oral dosis tunggal, setelah 24 jam kemudian diberi ekstrak rosella secara oral selama 14 hari. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anova, tingkatkepercayaan 95%.Pemberian ekstrak rosella secara statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan rerata kadar MDA dan katalase antar kelompok (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak rosella dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dan meningkatkan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Kata kunci: karbon tetraklorida, MDA, katalase, rosella Abstract Administering roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn is expected to protect rat liver from damage caused by oxidative stress in CCl4 poisoning. Rosella contains vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenol and beta carotene. Compounds which was often used as marker of the damage caused by free radicals wa MDA. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on MDA and catalase activity of rats exposed to CCl4. Experimental research design with Post test Only Control Group Design. Samples of 24 male Wistar Strain rats were 2-3 months old. weighing 150-200 gr

  10. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Gula dan Ragi Dalam Pembuatan Cuka Dari Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L Terhadap Mutu Cuka Rosella

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    Firdausni Firdausni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosellla (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L has been traditionally used as nutritious functional beverages. Rosella flowers contain flavonoid secondary metabolites, terpenoids, and vitamin C, which are considered as antioxidant. Research aims to see the effect of sugar and yeast  on quality of vinegar. The study was conducted with the treatment of sugar utilization (10, 15, 20, 25 %, fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2, 4, 6 g and fermentation time until three weeks. Rosella vinegar as a results of fermentation further was analyzed the pH, acetic acid content, extract content and antioxidant activity test consisted of qualitative test of phenolic, flavonoid, and % inhibition. Result of the optimal research was obtained in the treatment of sugar utilization 20% and the addition of yeast 6 g with analysis result of pH 2.67, acetic acid 14.80%, extract content 7.15%, and % inhibition 31%, moreover it contained phenolic and flavonoidscompounds qalitatively.ABSTRAKRosellla (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L telah digunakan secara tradisional sebagai minuman yang berkhasiat fungsional. Bunga rosella mengandung flavonoid metabolit sekunder, terpenoid, dan vitamin C yang berfungsi sebagai antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pemakaian gula dan ragi  terhadap mutu cuka. Penelitian dilakukan dengan perlakuan penggunaan gula pasir (10, 15, 20, 25 %, fermentasi dengan ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2, 4, 6 g dan waktu fermentasi  sampai tiga minggu. Hasil fermentasi berupa cuka rosella selanjutnya diuji pH, kandungan asam asetat, kadar sari dan uji aktifitas antioksidan yang terdiri dari uji kualitatif fenolik, flavonoid, dan % inhibisi. Hasil penelitian optimal diperoleh pada perlakuan penggunaan gula 20% dan penambahan ragi 6 g dengan hasil analisis pH 2,67, asam asetat 14,80%, kadar sari 7,15% dan % inhibisi 31% serta secara kualitatif mengandung senyawaan fenolik dan flavonoid.

  11. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Herranz-López, María; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-08-07

    Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS), free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine) were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS), and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols.

  12. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS

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    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS, free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS, and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols.

  13. Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-López, María; Olivares-Vicente, Mariló; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different key molecular targets at the cell, as well as through epigenetic modifications. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS)-derived polyphenols are known to ameliorate various obesity-related conditions. Recent evidence leads to propose the complex nature of the underlying mechanism of action. This multi-targeted mechanism includes the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, transcription factors, hormones and peptides, digestive enzymes, as well as epigenetic modifications. This article reviews the accumulated evidence on the multiple anti-obesity effects of HS polyphenols in cell and animal models, as well as in humans, and its putative molecular targets. In silico studies reveal the capacity of several HS polyphenols to act as putative ligands for different digestive and metabolic enzymes, which may also deserve further attention. Therefore, a global approach including integrated and networked omics techniques, virtual screening and epigenetic analysis is necessary to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of HS polyphenols and metabolites involved, as well as their possible implications in the design of safe and effective polyphenolic formulations for obesity. PMID:28825642

  14. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.

  15. Planting time for maximization of yield of vinegar plant calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Época de plantio para maximização daprodução de cálices de vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

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    Nilmar Eduardo Arbex de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, a medicinal plant, at four planting times in Lavras - MG. The treatments were four planting times (October 18th, November 15th, December 18th 2001 and January 15th 2002 and a harvest was proceeded when practically there were no developing calyxes, almost at the end of the plant cycle. The numbers of calyxes per plant, the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes and quality were taken into account. It follows that planting time influenced yield per plant and the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes, differing from each other by Tukey test at 5%. In October planting, there was a higher yield (2,522kg/ha with a yield 5.24 as high relative to the planting of the month of January (481 kg/ha. The planting s in the month of November to December showed yields of 1,695 and 1,093 kg/ha of dry calyxes, respectively and in relation to the same months of January, yield was of 3.52 to 2.27 times more. Harvest must be done as soon as the calyxes are ripe in order to preserve quality.Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade de cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa L., planta medicinal, em quatro épocas de plantio em Lavras - M.G. Os tratamentos foram quatro épocas de plantio (18 de outubro; 15 de novembro; 18 de dezembro de 2001 e 15 de janeiro de 2002 e realizada uma colheita quando praticamente não existiam cálices em desenvolvimento, quase no final do ciclo da planta. Foram considerados os números de cálices por planta, as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices e a qualidade. Concluiu-se que a época de plantio influenciou o rendimento por planta e as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices, diferindo entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. No plantio de outubro, houve maior rendimento (2.522 kg/ha, com produção de 5,24 vezes a mais em relação ao plantio do mês de janeiro (481 kg/ha. Os plantios nos meses de novembro e dezembro tiveram produções de 1.695 e 1.093 kg.ha-1 de c

  16. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

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    To-Wei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE in vivo. Method: Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD, HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results: Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  17. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts.

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa increases hydroxocobalamin oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in vitamin B12 deficiency with neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Loukili, Mouna; Soudy, Imar D; Rtibi, Kaies; Özel, Aslihan; Limas-Nzouzi, Nicolas; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Eto, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability and clinical benefits of oral new formulation (HB12 ) of hydroxocobalamin (Hdrx) with Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS). First, in an observational study, a cohort of 30 vitamin B12 -deficient patients (vit B12 vitamin B12 level increased from 55.1 ± 36.9 to 1330 ± 335.5 pg/mL at day 10 and 431.0 ± 24.27 pg/mL at day 90, without overt adverse effects. In mice ileum, (i) intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in dose-dependent manner with HB12 . The apparent permeability of Hdrx was Papp = 34.9 ± 4.6 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of 3 mg/mL (HB12 B) compared to the control Papp = 6.2 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) cm/s. (ii) Total transepithelial electrical conductance (Gt ) increased in dose-dependent manner with HB12 , Gt = 161.5 ± 10.8 mS/cm² with HB12 B (Hdrx 1 mg + HS 3 mg) compared to the control Hdrx, Gt = 28.7 ± 4.0 mS/cm². In conclusion, the clinical study suggests that injections are not required when Hdrx is given orally. Intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in vitro when it was used concomitantly with HS. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  19. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae comercializadas en Costa Rica

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    Melissa Agüero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compuestos fenólicos por el método de  Folin-Ciocalteu y se cuantificó la actividad antioxidante con el método de DPPH. Todas las marcas comerciales demostraron presencia de compuestos fenólicos, incluyendo antocianinas; sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y actividad anti-radical, entre los diferentes productores de tisanas. Por ello, se concluye que en el mercado costarricense, el perfil en compuestos fenólicos de las tisanas en estudio varía de acuerdo con el productor.

  20. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

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    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  1. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

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    R Rajendran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472

  2. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae comercializadas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Agüero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compuestos fenólicos por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu y se cuantificó la actividad antioxidante con el método de DPPH. Todas las marcas comerciales demostraron presencia de compuestos fenólicos, incluyendo antocianinas; sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y actividad anti-radical, entre los diferentes productores de tisanas. Por ello, se concluye que en el mercado costarricense, el perfil en compuestos fenólicos de las tisanas en estudio varía de acuerdo con el productor.

  3. Actividad hipotrigliceridémica de un extracto de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. al administrarse antes y durante las comidas

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    Rodrigo Castañeda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available a elevación de los lípidos sanguíneos se ha convertido en un riesgo común de enfermedades cardiovasculares,en especial en el caso del colesterol y triglicéridos, también a problemas pancreáticos, de la córnea, bazo e hígado.Hibiscus sabdariffa L., es una especie medicinal de la familia Malvaceae, su efecto sobre la reducción de los lípidos séricos se ha mencionado en varios estudios. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la actividad de un extracto acuoso de los cálices de H. sabdariffa, para reducir los lípidos séricos en dos grupos de individuos, con valores de triglicéridos mayores de 150 mg/dL, al recibir una dosis de 15 mg de antocianinas totales al día, dividida en tres veces, por un periodo de dos meses para establecer su influencia, dependiendo del momento de su administración, un grupo recibiéndola antes de la comida y otro durante la misma. El extracto de H. sabdariffa mostró un efecto hipotrigliceridémico significativo (p = 0.034, al finalizar el tratamiento, únicamente al administrar el extracto antes de las comidas. Al mismo tiempo, no se observó alteración en los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol contenido en las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y colesterol contenido en las proteínas de alta densidad en ninguno de los dos grupos evaluados. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos acuosos de H. sabdariffa podrían ser utilizados para ejercer una acción en los triglicéridos plasmáticos, dependiente del consumo de alimentos, y del momento de administración.

  4. Hibiscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also used to make jams, spices, soups, and sauces. The flowers are used to make medicine. Hibiscus ... mild to moderate high blood pressure. However, an analysis of results from various clinical studies suggests that ...

  5. Actividad hipotrigliceridémica de un extracto de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) al administrarse antes y durante las comidas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Castañeda; Sully Margot Cruz; Armando Caceres

    2015-01-01

    a elevación de los lípidos sanguíneos se ha convertido en un riesgo común de enfermedades cardiovasculares,en especial en el caso del colesterol y triglicéridos, también a problemas pancreáticos, de la córnea, bazo e hígado.Hibiscus sabdariffa L., es una especie medicinal de la familia Malvaceae, su efecto sobre la reducción de los lípidos séricos se ha mencionado en varios estudios. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la actividad de un extracto acuoso de los cálices de H. ...

  6. INCLUSIÓN DE HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA EN ALIMENTOS EXPERIMENTALES PARA MACROBRACHIUM TENELLUM: EFECTOS EN LA PIGMENTACIÓN, CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA.

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    Martín A. Aréchiga P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la naturaleza, los pigmentos tienen la principal función de colorear; sin embargo, también tienen efectos sobre el estado de salud y desarrollo de los organismos. Los compuestos sintéticos dirigidos a incrementar la coloración en organismos con importancia comercial, representan entre el 15 al 20% del costo de la dieta. Por lo anterior, la investigación sobre pigmentos de origen natural (más baratos y menos tóxicos se ha incrementado sustancialmente en los últimos años. Las antocianinas pueden ser utilizadas como una alternativa para la pigmentación de organismos. En este estudio se utilizaron los cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa, planta popular que acumula antocianinas que proporciona su característico color rojo. Langostinos Macrobrachium tenellum fueron alimentados con dietas que incluían cálices de H. sabdariffa (jamaica bajo los siguientes tratamientos: i pigmento extraído con agua, ii pigmento extraído con etanol acidificado [0.1 M HCl (v/v], y iii harina de cálices. El efecto pigmentante de las dietas experimentales se comparó con langostinos sometidos a una dieta control sin pigmentos añadidos y con langostinos extraídos del medio silvestre. Los langostinos alimentados con la dieta de inclusión de polvo de jamaica mostraron la mayor expresión de eritróforos (color rojo en el exoesqueleto del pleon (abdomen y ganancia en longitud y peso, después de 60 días. Estos resultados sugieren que H. sabdariffa puede ser utilizado como complemento alimenticio natural, puesto que tiene un efecto positivo en los parámetros de crecimiento y pigmentación.

  7. Comparative study of the anti-oxidant activity of the total polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., Glycine max L. Merr., yellow tea and red wine through reaction with DPPH free radicals

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    T. Andzi Barhé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of the evaluation of extracts of Glycine max L. Merr and Hibiscus L. Sabdariffa as antioxidants. A comparative study was performed with extracts of yellow tea and commercial red wine, two foods known for their antioxidant activity. The method applied is free radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°. The antioxidant properties were identified and measured by the determining the anti-radical activity reducing index, expressed in percentage % RSA (Radical Scavenger Activity, and by the determination of the colouring intensity (IC50. All results are compared to those of ascorbic acid as reference antioxidant. The results indicate the following order for the antioxidant power of the extracts tested. % RSA (tea > % RSA (Glycine max % > RSA (red wine % > RSA (Sabdariffa Hibiscus, and colouring intensities (IC50 ranging from 4.62 μM (ascorbic acid to 1.10 μM (Hibiscus sabdariffa correlated with their chemical structure and the content of phenolic compounds.

  8. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 Pathway

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    Chun-Tang Chiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells.

  9. PENENTUAN KUANTITATIF ZAT WARNA KARMOSIN,PONCEAU 4R DAN MERAH ALURA YANG DITAMBAHKAN DALAM MINUMAN AGREM (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn [Quantitative Determination of Carmoisine, Ponceau 4R and Allura Red Colouring Agents Added Into Softdrink Containing the Aqueous Extract of (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn

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    Embit Kartadarma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic food-colouring agent is stiil commonly used in soft drink to enhance the colour of the food and to make foods more attractive, particularly for the drink containing natural colour. Addition of colour is legally permitted by the govermment, however, the product sometime contain the substance more than the permissible maximum dosage, and it may possibly cause iillhealth to the consumer. Preparation of soft drink containing the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa fruits gave less intense colour due to the colour. The quantity of the synthetic food colour in soft drink must be determined quantitatively for food safety and the presence of natural colour in the products may affect the results. Determination of three synthetic colouring agents, carmoisine, ponceau 4R and allura red added into soft drink containing the aqueous extract of hisbicus sabdariffa was carried out. Result showed that the determination of such colouring agents can only be achivied after adjusting the pH up to 4.5 and the recovery of carmoisine, ponceau 4R and allura red were 99.8: 100.2 and 100.0%, with the accuracy of 0.1;0.3 and 0.1% and the precission of 0.1; 0.3 and 0.1% respectively.

  10. A polyphenol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatic steatosis by attenuating the mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hsin; Kuo, Chih-Yi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Yi-Ru; Hung, Chi-Nan; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is the major contributor to acetaminophen (AAP)-caused liver damage. It promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress and collapses the mitochondrial membrane potential to cause cell death. We have previously shown that a polyphenol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HPE) potentiated the antioxidative effect. We further examined in this study the possible mechanism of HPE against AAP-caused liver damage. BABL/c mice were orally fed with HPE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) for two weeks prior to an i.p. injection of 1000 mg/kg of AAP. The mice were decapitated 6 h after the AAP injection to collect the blood and liver for further determination. The results show that pretreating with HPE increased the level of glutathione (GSH), decreased the level of lipid peroxidation, and increased catalase activity in the liver. A histopathological evaluation shows that HPE could decrease AAP-induced liver sterosis accompanied by a decreased expression of AIF, Bax, Bid, and p-JNK in the liver. An in vitro assay revealed that HPE could reduce AAP-induced death of BABL/c normal liver cells (BNLs), reverse the lost mitochondrial potency and improve the antioxidative status, similarly to the results of the in vivo assay. We show in this study that HPE possessed the ability to protect the liver from AAP-caused injury. The protective mechanism might be regulated by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuating the mitochondrial dysfunction.

  11. Analysis of fatty acids from Hibiscus sabdariffa L.calyx by GC-MS%玫瑰茄花萼中脂肪酸成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰涛; 赵婷; 邹艳敏; 邹烨; 郑大恒; 曲洪媛; 李峰; 仰榴青

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the fatty acids from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx by gas chromatogra-phy-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS). Methods; To extract oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx by soxhlet extraction method. After methyl esterification, the oil was analyzed by GC -MS. Results: The oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx was composed of seventeen fatty acids . The main fatty acids of the oil were linoleic acid (45.03%), oleic acid (23.62%), palmitic acid (22.91%), stearic acid (3.41%), (10E)10-nona-decenoic acid (1. 91%), palmitoleic acid (0. 84%), eicosanoic acid (0. 53%) and myristic acid (0.34%) , respectively. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was up to 71.40%. Conclusion; Unsatu-rated fatty acids, rich in Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Oil, are of high nutrition for human health.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对玫瑰茄花萼中提取的油脂进行脂肪酸组成分析.方法:采用索氏提取法提取玫瑰茄花萼中的油脂,甲酯化后运用GC-MS联用技术进行分离和结构鉴定.结果:玫瑰茄花萼油脂中含有17种脂肪酸,其中主要的脂肪酸为亚油酸(45.03%)、油酸(23.62%)、棕榈酸(22.91%)、硬脂酸(3.41%)、(10E)-10-十九烯酸(1.91%)、棕榈油酸(0.84%)、花生酸(0.53%)和肉豆蔻酸(0.34%).其中不饱和脂肪酸含量高达71.40%以上.结论:玫瑰茄油脂中富含不饱和脂肪酸,具有较高的营养价值和保健功能.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages.

  13. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

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    Jamaludin Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell (RBC membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each: control group (N, roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.

  14. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn

    2017-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms. Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined, and APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). E4 (p=0.008) and homozygous B1B1 (p=0.010) carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C concentrations after HS consumption; in addition, B2 carriers who consumed HS showed significantly decreased triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p=0.039). Regarding GP consumption, non-E4 carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C (p=0.009) and FBG (p=0.042) concentrations. Furthermore, B2 carriers had significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.045), HDL-C (p=0.004), and FBG (p=0.026) concentrations. HS consumption may have beneficial effects with respect to TG concentrations in the B2 carriers, but it may adversely affect HDL-C concentrations in homozygous B1B1 and E4 carriers. In contrast, GP consumption may have favorable effects on TC and FBG concentrations but not on HDL-C concentrations for B2 and/or non-E4 carriers.

  15. Anti hypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. F.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The anti hypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Anti hypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The anti hypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC{sub 5}0 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 {+-} 8.9 {mu}g ml{sup 1}. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml{sup -}1. The extracts showed weak Fe{sup 2}+ chelating ability. IC{sub 5}0 were 150 {+-} 13 {mu}g ml{sup -}1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Antihypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

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    Eslami, Bahman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The antihypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 ± 8.9 μg ml-1. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml-1. The extracts showed weak Fe2+ chelating ability. IC50 were 150 ± 13 μg ml-1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts.La actividad antihipóxica y antioxidante de semillas de Hibiscus esculentus fue investigada empleando ocho ensayos in vitro. La actividad antihipóxica fue investigada en dos modelos, uno de caracter hemínico y otro circulatorio. Los efectos fueron pronunciados en ambos modelos de hipoxia. Los efectos antihipóxicos fueron dependientes de la dosis. Los resultados indican que los extractos tienen un efecto protector contra la letabilidad inducida por hipoxia en ratones. Los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante en algunos modelos. El IC50 para la actividad captadora de radicales fue 234 ± 8.9 μg ml-1. Los extractos muestran una débil actividad captadora de óxido nítrico comprendida entre 0.1 y 1.6 mg ml-1. Los extractos muestran una débil capacidad quelatante de Fe2+. El IC

  17. Detection of somaclonal variation in micropropagated Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tissue culture techniques offers several advantages such as production of disease- free plants ..... Current Issues in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, pp 247-252. (Kluwer ... Natural cross-pollination in Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

  18. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de cálices deshidratados de 64 variedades de jamaica (hibiscus sabdariffa l. en función de fenólicos y antocianinas totales

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    Raquel Enedina Medina-Carrillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. es una planta rica en compuestos bioactivos, tales como polifenoles, flavonoides, vitaminas, fibra y anto- cianinas. Se comercializa principalmente en forma de cálices deshidratados con los que se preparan infusiones acuosas que promueven efectos benéficos en la salud. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antioxidante (actividad antirradical y capacidad de reducción de iones hierro de los extractos acuosos de 64 variedades de jamaica, la concentración de compuestos bioactivos (compuestos fenólicos totales y antocianinas monoméricas totales y la correlación que existe entre ellos. Se encontró que la actividad antioxidante de los extractos está prin- cipalmente correlacionada con la concentración de antocianinas monoméricas totales y en menor medida con los compuestos fenólicos totales.

  19. Ekspresi COX-2 dan Jumlah Neutrofil Fase Inflamasi pada Proses Penyembuhan Luka Setelah Pemberian Sistemik Ekstrak Etanolik Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa (studi in vivo pada Tikus Wistar

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    Endah Kusumastuti

    2014-06-01

    sebagai bahan anti-inflamasi.  Expression of COX-2 and The Number of Neutrophil in Inflammation stage of Wound Healing Process after Systemic Administration of Ethanolic Extract Rosela. Inflammation is an initial stage of body’s natural response to tissue damage.The use  empirically plants often used for traditional medicine because it is easily found in the community and fewer side effects. Flavanoid presence of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa is thought to have anti inflammatory effects. This study aimed to know the effect of systemic administration of Roselle ethanolic extract toward COX-2 expression and neutrophils number in the inflammatory phase of wound healing processes. Roselle was obtained from plantations in Bulusari hamlet, Tarokan, Kediri, EastJava. Making roselle extract was performed in LPPT unit 1 UGM Yogyakarta by percolation ways. Wistar rats were given a total of 36 injuries with ɵ 3 mm punch biopsy of the buccal mucosa. Subjects were divided into three groups, each group of 12 rats. The division consists of the negative control group (saline, positive control (ibuprofen 20 mg/kg and treatment (roselle extract 500 mg/kg. Giving drink suitable group once daily for four days. On day 1, the 2nd, 3rd and fourth rats were sacrificed, and mucosal tissue injury was made histological preparat. Hematoxylin eosin staining (HE was performed to observe the number of neutrophils. COX-2 expression was found in preparations for immunohistochemical staining using rabbit polyclonal COX-2 antibody (Lab Vision, USA. The number of neutrophils and expression of COX-2 is calculated under a light microscope data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and LSD. The results showed that the expression of COX-2 and neutrophil number were least in the treatment group compared to the control. Clinical observation on day four also appears around the wound has completely closed the subject after administration of roselle drink. It was concluded that the ethanolic extract of roselle can

  20. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hua Wong; Wai Yan Tan; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines.Methods:kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope.Results:The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected.Conclusions:KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

  1. Effect of different processing techniques on Indonesian Roselle (Hibiscus radiates seed constituents

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    Abdalbasit Adam Mariod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Roselle seeds are waste that is left behind during processing of roselle for juices or other roselle related products. Disposing of waste is highly undesirable both economically and environmentally. Roselle seeds contain high amount of protein, crude fibers, fats, and carbohydrates.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different processing techniques  (roasting using oven/microwave, and boiling on In- donesian roselle (Hibiscus radiates seed constituents. Methods.Three treatments were carried out to prepare the samples:The seeds were roasted at 130 and 150°C for 30 min (HOR, microwave roasting for 10, 20 and 30 min HMR10, HMR20, HMR30 of roselle seeds. Hibiscus seeds (3×200 g were put into boiling tap water (100°C (HB in a 500 ml beaker on magnetic stirred hot plate at a ratio of 1:4 seed: water for 40 min until the pieces were  well cooked and tender. Proximate chemical analysis was determined following the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Hibiscus different samples were analysed in triplicate and the results were reported as means. Total  carbohydrate content was calculated from the difference. The fatty acids of the oil samples were analysed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu, GC-2010A series, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan equipped with a flame ionization detector and a BPX70 capillary column of  30 m × 0.32 mm i.d. (SGE, Melbourne, Australia. The tocopherol content of the oil samples was measured by HPLC (Cecil  Instruments Ltd., Cambridge, England. Results.  Proximate composition of untreated, roasted and boiled hibiscus seeds showed that, roasting and boiling temperatures can increase fat and fiber content, microwave and boiling showed higher fat content when compared with oven roasting treatment. Protein content of HU was significantly lower (p HMR > HOR. Protein content of HB, HMR and HOR increased significantly as com- pared with HU. The carbohydrate values of

  2. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

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    Doa’a Anwar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from hospitalized patients’ different sources (pus and wound and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective.

  3. Effets comparés des cendres de Chromolaena odorata (L. King R.M. & H.E. Rob et d'un engrais minéral soluble dans l'eau (NPK 15 15 15 sur la croissance et le rendement de l'oseille de Guinée (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognalaga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Effects of Chromolaena odorata L. King R.M. & H.E. Rob Ashes and a Soluble Mineral Fertilizer (NPK 15 15 15 on the Growth and Yield of Guinea Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.. The low levels of nutrients observed in the lateritic soils of Gabon are a concern. A trial conducted in vegetation pots was laid out in a Fisher randomized complete block design with 20 treatments and 3 replicates. The experiment aimed at comparing the growth and yield of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. under different fertilization modalities: a water soluble mineral fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 added at four doses (0-0-0; 16-7-13; 19-8-16; 23-10-19 mg.kg-1 soil; Chromolaena odorata ashes at 0; 500; 667; 834; 1000 mg.kg-1 soil; and comparing the interactions between ash doses (C and NPK doses (M. The C. odorata ash supply increased significantly the diameter of the stems, the height of the stems and the leaf area up to a dose of 667 mg.kg-1 soil. Among the compared doses, the one of 23-10-19 mg.kg-1 soil (M3 induced the highest effect on the plant growth parameters. The highest growth (167±68 g. fresh vegetal matter per pot was obtained with the combination of 667 mg.kg-1 ashes at and 19-8-16 mg.kg-1 NPK (C2M2.

  4. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

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    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  5. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, gen...

  6. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  7. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  8. 玫瑰茄花萼乙醇提取物的抗痛觉敏感、抗炎及止泻作用的实验研究%Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activities of ethanolic calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.(Malvaceae) in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Khadem Ali; Ayesha Ashraf; Nripendra Nath Biswas; Utpal Kumar Karmakar; Shamima Afroz

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activities of the ethanolic calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, in mice.Methods: In the present study, the dried calyxes of H.sabdariffa were subjected to extraction with 95% ethanol and the extract was used to investigate the possible activities. Antinociceptive activity of the extract was evaluated by using the acetic acid-induced writhing test. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract was tested by using the xylene-induced ear edema model mice. Castor oil-induced diarrheal model mice were used to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the extract.Results: In acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract produced inhibited writhing in mice siginificantly compared with the blank control (P<0. 01). The extract showed significant inhibition of ear edema formation in xylene-induced ear edema model mice in a dose-related manner compared with the blank control (P<0. 01). The extract demonstrated a significant antidiarrheal activity against castor oil-induced diarrheal in mice in which it decreased the frequency of defecation and increased the mean latent period at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (P<0.01).Conclusion; The above mentioned findings indicate that the calyx extract of H.sabdariffa possesses significant antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal activities that support its uses in traditional medicine.%目的:研究玫瑰茄(Hibiscus sabdariffa)花萼的乙醇提取物的抗痛觉敏感、抗炎及止泻作用.方法:使用95%乙醇提取玫瑰茄花萼干品用于测定其功效.用小鼠扭体实验检测其抗痛觉敏感作用,二甲苯致耳水肿模型小鼠检测其抗炎症作用,蓖麻油致腹泻模型小鼠检测其止泻作用.结果:在乙酸致小鼠扭体实验中,玫瑰茄花萼的乙醇提取物对小鼠扭体的抑制与空白对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P%0.01),对二甲苯致耳水肿模型小鼠的耳水肿的抑制

  9. (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) roots by differential display

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... PCR, polymerase chain reaction. ... A DDRT-PCR reaction was performed in a 25 µL volume containing 0.5 µL of Taq ... V for 90 min and analyzed under UV light. .... less Na+ and Cl- and showed improved photosynthesis in.

  10. “SOBO” (Hibiscus Sabdariffa-Ros

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KAYCEE

    fleshly, and cup shaped calyxes plant. ... used as vegetables, refreshing drinks source of oils and food preservatives (Wong ... good health care services. ... Table 2: Percentage distribution of respondents' based on sources of information ... vitamin and mineral salt deficiency diseases such as scurvy, rickets, skin lesions,.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Hibiscus trionum L. (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Sibel Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hibiscus plants have different uses, some are used as foods (H. esculenta L., and some species as remedy in traditional medicine (H. sabdariffa L. as well as a colorant for herbal teas. The only species that grows naturally in Turkey is H. trionum L. The plant especially infests soy and corn fields, and therefore it is considered to be a noxious weed. The plant is also found to be a host for Potato Virus Y (PVY and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. Infestation of the crop fields by this plant shows that it germinates easily. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quiet easy. Though, seed oil yield is low (4.7% since linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67,5%, it can still be used as a source of unsaturated fatty acids. The other major fatty acids are palmitic, oleic and stearic acids in the studied seed oil .

  12. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  13. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2013-01-01

    toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform...... a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis....

  14. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  15. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  16. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the ... Zobo drink, a non alcoholic local beverage is produced ..... treatment on the shelf life of fermented African oil bean seed (Ugbu),.

  17. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cold pressor test (CPT) and handgrip exercise (HGE) were performed in ... The blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured digitally. ... In the presence of HS, CPT-induced changes (ΔMAP=10.1±1.7mmHg; ΔHR= ...

  18. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    t/ha) and four levels of nitrogen fertiliser (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N/ha) laid out in a randomized complete block design ... Thus, 2.5 t/ha manure and 50 kg N/ha were considered adequate for calyx production in ..... Soc. Proceeding. 26: 245-254.

  19. Fermentation Potentials of Citrus Limon and Hibiscus Sabdariffa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MASANAWA

    The standardized fermentation showed significant change in pH (α=0.05>p 0.00). The FT-IR ... Stems are reddish in color and up to 3.5m tall. Leaves are dark ... Leaf juice is used to treat conjunctivitis. ..... agricultural soil". Journal of Basic.

  20. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on blood pressure and electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-27

    Feb 27, 2015 ... with two modifications. 20 g of dry calyces were weighed and ground in an electric mill ..... by membrane stabilization and stimulation of vascular. Na+-K+ ATPase ... liquid chromatography that is a more sensitive and accurate ...

  1. The Aqueous Calyx Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa Lowers Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    *Address for correspondence: mojiminiyi@yahoo.co.uk. Manuscript Accepted: .... digital sphygmomanometer (HuBDIC Co. Ltd., .... data from our laboratory suggest that responses to .... composition, protein quality and health benefits. Food ...

  2. Anti-hypercholesterolemic effect of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinusL.) seed on high-fat diet Sprague dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ng Shy Kai; Tee Ai Nee; Elaine Lai Chia Ling; Tan Chin Ping; Long Kamariah; Nyam Kar Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the antihypercholesterolemic effects of kenaf seed samples and compare with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug on serum lipids profiles and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the rat.Methods:Kenaf seed oil(KSO), microencapsulated kenaf seed oil(MKSO), kenaf seed extract(KSE) and defatted kenaf seed meal(DKSM) were prepared and phytochemicals screening on these samples were done prior in vivostudy.Phenolic compounds inKSE were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography.There were40(divided in eight diet groups of5) maleSprague dawley rats adapted to normal standard diet or hypercholesterolemic diet(HD) with or without the treatment of these kenaf samples for32 days.Results:All the kenaf samples exhibited to contain most of the major phytochemicals.KSE possessed gallic acid, tannic acid, catechin, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid, syringic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, naringin acid, and protocatechuic acid.The significant higher(P<0.05) serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol andMDA levels inHD group without treatment than the normal control group suggested the hypercholesterolemia was induced by the incorporation of cholesterol into diet.KSE exhibited higher cholesterol-lowering properties due to the significant lower(P<0.05) in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol andMDA levels.KSE showed the highest efficiency of cholesterol-lowering activity, followed byKSO,MKSO andDKSM.Conclusions:DKSM,MKSO, KSO andKSE appeared to have comparable anti-hypercholesterolemic effect with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug.Hence, kenaf seed could be used as an alternative natural source to replace the synthetic hypocholesterolemic drugs.

  3. Study on the Germination of the Treated Hibiscus tiliaceus Seeds%人工处理黄槿种子萌发的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严廷良; 刘强

    2012-01-01

    Hibiscus tiliaceus L. Seeds were treated by different concentrations of Gibberellin(GA) and Salicylic acid (SA) and placed in different soil types for germination. Seed germination was observed in pot experiment and field experiment. The results showed that the germination rate was 38.0 % and the germination potential was 35.3 % in the original soil when the seeds were treated by 200 Μl/L GA. The germination rate was 42.6% and the germination potential was 32.0% in the original soil when the seeds were treated by 400 Μl/L SA. In the pot experiment, both germination rate and germination potential reached the highest at the GA concentration of 20 Μl/L, the germination rate was 39.4% and the germination potential was 36.0%. The germination rate and the germination potential were both the highest value at the SA concentration of 10 u,L/L, the germination rate was 30.6% and the germination potential was 22.7%. In the field experiment, the germination rate and the germination potential reached the highest at the concentration of 400 Μl/L salicylic acid and 400 Μl/L GA, the germination rate was 26.5% and the germination potential was 18.3% for the GA treatment. The germination rate was 33.5% and the germination potential was 26.7% for the SA treatment. The best conditions for the hibiscus seed germination were obtained through the experiments. It provided the technical reference for the coastal forest construction of Casuarina equisetifolia L. Mixed planting with H. Tiliaceus.%采用不同体积分数的赤霉素、水杨酸溶液处理黄槿种子之后,将种子播入不同的土壤基质中,从野外林地试验和盆栽试验中观察种子的萌发情况.结果表明,在原土盆栽试验中,体积分数为200μL/L的赤霉素处理可使发芽率达到38.0%、发芽势达到35.3%;400 μL/L的水杨酸处理可使发芽率达到42.6%、发芽势达到32.0%.在沙土盆栽试验中,20 μL/L的赤霉素处理可使发芽率和发芽势

  4. Effects of Plant Density, Seeding and Harvest Time on the Growth of Two Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L. Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Barbanti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf is an annual C3 multipurpose crop for the fibre and energy industry, whose growth has been widely investigated in the tropics, but not at relatively-high latitudes. This work aimed at evaluating the effects of two genotypes (Tainung 2 and Everglades 41, two plant densities (20 and 40 plants m-2, two seeding times (S1 and S2 and two harvest times (H1 and H2 on growth and its relations with climatic factors over three years (2003-2005 in Northern Italy (c. 45° N. Fitting curves for whole-plant dry biomass (DB and dry stems (DS on heat sums always gave a reliable description of the growth pattern along the season, explaining over 90% of the total variation. In general, the best-fitting models were the sigmoid and the exponential one for DB and DS, respectively. Among the four studied factors, only seeding time originated consistent growth differences among years, whereas the two varieties showed an equivalent behaviour, as well as the two densities. Furthermore, the thinner density allowed savings in the cost of seed at no prejudice for yield potential. S1 in general showed higher asymptotic yields than S2 in 2003 and 2004, while S2 consistently grew faster than S1 in all the three years. RUE showed a generally low value (e.g., 1.35 g MJ-1 for DB in S1, indicating a moisture constraint on crop growth, especially in the first year. As for the correlations, three traits, plant height, base stem diameter and fresh biomass, resulted significantly associated to DB and DS, with correlation coefficients (r ranging from 0.65 to 0.90; a higher degree of association with DB and DS was achieved by the multiple linear regressions of the same three traits (adj. R2 of about 0.85. A high dependence of DB and especially of DS on associated heat and rain (adj. R2 0.76 and 0.86, respectively was also observed in the variable environmental conditions among the three years, which attributes a non-negligible power of prediction to the two environmental

  5. Physico Chemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Roselle Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye Idrissa Cissouma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to extract phenolic compounds from defatted Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffaL. seed and assess their antioxidant potential. Water, ethanol (30%, methanol (30% and acetone (30% were used as solvent for extraction. The proximate composition, total phenolic content and extraction yield were analyzed. Antioxidant efficacies of Roselle seed extract were tested by using 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl, 2, 2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiaz oline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging capacities and reducing power analysis. Roselle seeds were found to be rich in protein (27.745%, carbohydrates (40.45% and oil (20.83%. The total phenolic content ranged from 1.66±0.03 to 1.99±0.01 (GAE mg/g using water and 30% acetone respectively. The highest inhibitory capacity on DPPH and ABTS radicals was observed in 30% acetone extract and was at 3 mg/mL for DPPH and 6 mg/mL for ABTS respectively. Ethanol extract showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging ability value of 66.36 at 20 mg/mL, followed by methanol (57.27, acetone (56.36 and water (30. The reducing potential of the different extracts was concentration dependent and increased with increase in concentration. These results indicate that substantial antioxidant activity can be obtained from Roselle seed phenolic compounds extract by using 30% acetone.

  6. Cambio de peso vivo de caprinos en agostadero y consumo voluntario del suplemento semilla de jamaica (hibiscus saddariffa (Change weight live of kids in tropical forest and voluntary intake of the supplement jamaica seed (hibiscus saddariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Pérez, Jaime: nick: olivaares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El estudio se realizo en el 2004, en la época de estiaje en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México, el objetivo fue evaluar el cambio de peso en caprinos suplementados con semilla entera de Jamaica bajo pastoreo en agostadero. El experimento fue un diseño completamente al azar, se utilizaron 18 caprinos machos híbridos Pelibuey con Nubia, distribuidos en dos grupos, un testigo y un experimental a los que se les aplicaron los tratamientos T1= pastoreo en agostadero y T2= pastoreo en agostadero mas semilla entera de Jamaica a libre acceso por media hora previa al pastoreo. Las variables de estudio fueron el cambio de peso vivo y el consumo voluntario de semilla de Jamaica. A los datos que registro la variable cambio de peso vivo, se les aplico un análisis de varianza y la prueba de Tukey para comparación de medias entre grupos (Steel y Torrie, 1988. El grupo de animales experimentales presentaron en promedio, una mayor ganancia de peso total y diario por animal (P<0.05 con 1.44ª kg y 0.024ª kg respectivamente y la menor ganancia fue para el grupo de animales testigo con 0.27b kg y 0.004b kg respectivamente para ganancia de peso total y diario por animal. El consumo voluntario de semilla entera de jamaica fue en promedio de 0.116 kg MS por animal por día. Se concluye que la semilla de jamaica representa un recurso nutritivo empleado como suplemento para el ganado caprino bajo pastoreo en agostadero en época de estiaje en ambientes tropicales. The study one carries out in the 2004, in the low water time in the tropic of Guerrero, Mexico, the objective was to evaluate the change of weight in kids suplementation with whole seed of Jamaica under in tropical forest shepherding. The experiment was a complete randomized design, 18 male hybrid kids Pelibuey with Nubia, distributed in two groups, a witness and an experimental one to those that were applied the treatments T1 = shepherding in agostadero and T2 = shepherding in agostadero but

  7. Cambio de peso vivo de caprinos en agostadero y consumo voluntario del suplemento semilla de jamaica (hibiscus saddariffa - Change weight live of kids in tropical forest and voluntary intake of the supplement jamaica seed (hibiscus saddariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Pérez, Jaime: nick: olivaares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizo en el 2004, en la época de estiaje en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México, el objetivo fue evaluar el cambio de peso en caprinos suplementados con semilla entera de Jamaica bajo pastoreo en agostadero. El experimento fue un diseño completamente al azar, se utilizaron 18 caprinos machos híbridos Pelibuey con Nubia, distribuidos en dos grupos, un testigo y un experimental a los que se les aplicaron los tratamientos T1= pastoreo en agostadero y T2= pastoreo en agostadero mas semilla entera de Jamaica a libre acceso por media hora previa al pastoreo. Las variables de estudio fueron el cambio de peso vivo y el consumo voluntario de semilla de Jamaica. A los datos que registro la variable cambio de peso vivo, se les aplico un análisis de varianza y la prueba de Tukey para comparación de medias entre grupos (Steel y Torrie, 1988. El grupo de animales experimentales presentaron en promedio, una mayor ganancia de peso total y diario por animal (P<0.05 con 1.44ª kg y 0.024ª kg respectivamente y la menor ganancia fue para el grupo de animales testigo con 0.27b kg y 0.004b kg respectivamente para ganancia de peso total y diario por animal. El consumo voluntario de semilla entera de jamaica fue en promedio de 0.116 kg MS por animal por día. Se concluye que la semilla de jamaica representa un recurso nutritivo empleado como suplemento para el ganado caprino bajo pastoreo en agostadero en época de estiaje en ambientes tropicales. The study one carries out in the 2004, in the low water time in the tropic of Guerrero, Mexico, the objective was to evaluate the change of weight in kids suplementation with whole seed of Jamaica under in tropical forest shepherding. The experiment was a complete randomized design, 18 male hybrid kids Pelibuey with Nubia, distributed in two groups, a witness and an experimental one to those that were applied the treatments T1 = shepherding in agostadero and T2 = shepherding in agostadero but whole

  8. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  9. Awareness and utilization of “Sobo” ( Hibiscus sabdariffa-roselle ) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Sobo” is an indigenous non-alcoholic drink made from hot extract of Roselle calyces ... It was recommended that extension activities should be invigorated, with a ... and at the expense of carbonated soft drinks with it usual high sugar content.

  10. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  11. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author).

  12. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

  13. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Ferrara, Anna Maria; Calatayud, Vicent; Cerveró, Júlia; Giannetti, Fabio; Sanz, María José; Manning, William J

    2009-03-01

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation.

  14. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Carvajal-Zarrabal

    2009-01-01

    , and . Only did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to . The opposite occurred in group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The responses were similar to , with the exception of food consumption. In both and groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents.

  15. Control de plagas de la jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. con Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. en Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aragón-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el ciclo agrícola comprendido entre los meses de julio a diciembre de 2005, se generó en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, una metodología para el control de plagas insectiles que afectan el follaje del cultivo de jamaica. En el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó una parcela ubicada en el mismo municipio, en la que se sembrójamaica criolla -de acuerdo a la tecnología agrícola de la zona- y se controlaron las plagas, realizando cuatro aplicaciones de extracto acuoso de Gliricidia sepium (Jacq., alternándolas con cuatro aplicaciones de jabón neutro. Para verificar la efectividad del tratamiento, los parámetros evaluados fueron: porcentaje de infestación, daños causados por insectos y producción. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la parcela a la cual se consideró como testigo, presentó un porcentaje de infestación del 79%; mientras que la parcela que se le aplicó el tratamiento presentó un 21% de infestación. En cuanto a los daños, en la parcela testigo se presentó en promedio 30.08% de daño por planta y la parcela donde se realizó el control sólo 14.89%. La producción en la parcela tratada fue de 793 kg/ha, presentándose un incremento en la producción con respecto al testigo, del 116%. En los tres parámetros evaluados se observó diferencia significativa ( = 0.05 entre tratamientos. Con la aplicación del tratamiento, se evitan los daños a las plantas, observándose un incremento en la producción.

  16. 'USS Alabama', 'USS Mississippi', 'USS Missouri', 'USS Tennessee' and 'USS Texas' Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five new Chinese hibiscus cultivars are products from a planned hibiscus breeding program conducted by the inventors at Poplarville, MS. The goal of the research is to produce new clones with a combination of desirable horticultural traits. Desirable floral traits include early bloom, uniform flower...

  17. Indigenous perception and characterization of Yanyanku and Ikpiru: two functional additives for the fermentation of African locust bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noël; Kayodé, Polycarpe; Da Gbadji, Rachelle; Hounhouigan, D Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Indigenous perception, processing methods, and physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Yanyanku and Ikpiru, two additives used to produce fermented African locust bean condiments, Sonru and Iru, were evaluated. According to producers, these additives accelerate the fermentation and soften the texture of the condiments. Yanyanku is produced by spontaneous fermentation with either Hibiscus sabdariffa or Gossypium hirsutum or Adansonia digitata seeds, whereas only Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds are used for Ikpiru. Both additives, with pH values ranging between 6.2 and 10 and Bacillus spores varying between 5.5 and 8.9 Log(10) (CFU/g), could be considered as softening additives or enrichment inocula to produce condiments.

  18. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2016-05-01

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites.

  19. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... 3College of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China. Accepted ... commerce for economic and environmental reasons. Hibiscus ..... sinensis leaves and tea from a lowland plantation in Malaysia. Food.

  20. The Influences of Lime Powder (Citrus aurantifolia, S. on Hibiscus Leaf Tea Quality (Hibiscus rosasinensis, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of the study is to look the influence of different lime powder concentration level addition tohibiscus leaf dip drink’s quality. Then, the Second influence of different lime powder for tea hibiscus leaf which accepted as best sensory analysis. The study was conducted from August to September 2014 in the Agricultural Technology Laboratory and Tablet preparation laboratory Pharmacy, University of Andalas, Padang Indonesia. This study is used complete randomized design (CRD consisting of 4 treatments and 3 replications. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA statistically and Duncan’s New Multiple Range (DNMRT at5% significance level. The Treatment in this study is the addition of lime powder by 55%, 65%, 75%, and85%. Observations of hibiscus leaf powder and lime powder such us water levels, ash levels, vitamin C and antioxidants, while product tea hibiscus leaf such water levels, ash levels, vitamin C, antioxidants, poly phenols, sensory analysis, and total plate count of it. The result of the study is showed that the addition of lime powder influence on water levels, ash levels, vitamin C, and antioxidants. Based sensory analysis and chemical analysis, the best beverage products hibiscus leaves are dipped in treatment A (addition of lime powder 55% with a 45% level of liking the taste, flavor and color of 75% and 55% chemical step, vitamin C 0.15%, 1.58% total poly phenols, antioxidant activity of 35.51%, total plate count was 2.83 × 103 cfu/ml, 7.76% water levels and ash levels of 9.87%.

  1. Biological and molecular detection of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza POURRAHIM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2011, ten leaf samples of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with virus-like symptoms including diffuse mottling, numerous chlorotic spots and chlorotic ring spots, were collected from Guilan province, North Iran. The results of mechanical inoculation of sap from these leaves onto different indicator hosts showed local lesions (chlorotic or necrotic on Gompherena globosa, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Gossypium hirsutum, while Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf showed systemic chlorotic ring spot symptoms. Purified preparations of the isolated virus contained isometric particles approximately 28–30 nm in diameter. A specific band of about 1.3 kb was amplified from all symptomatic leaves using Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV specific primers. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the IRN.HCRSV (JX865593 isolate shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identity (96.5% with NC-003608 (Singapore and the least nt sequence identity (91.5% with DQ392986 (Taiwan isolates. The phylogenetic tree showed at least two subgroups for HCRSV isolates in which the Iranian isolate was grouped with Singapore HCSRV (NC-003608. This is the first report of HCRSV in H. rosa-sinensis in Iran.

  2. Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus caudatus ... and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), using standard analytical methods The result ... content (74.8%) and lipid content (5.5%), while Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) contain ...

  3. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  4. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Pommereau

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February–March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420–440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale.

    The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

  5. WITHDRAWN: Corrigendum to "Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia" [Microb Pathog (2011) 325-337].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

    2012-06-01

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2012.05.010;. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn.

  6. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages.

  7. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced....... They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains...

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Okoduwa, Stanley I. R.; Mbora, Lovina O.; Adu, Matthew E.; Ameh A. Adeyi

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results o...

  9. Silver Nano Scaffold Formation by Flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Shabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscusrosa sinensis grows for their showy flowers and are used as landscape shrubs. Hibiscusrosa sinensis also has too many medicinal properties. Flowers are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Inourstudy the flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis has been used for the synthesis of silver nano scaffold formation and its reduction by the flowers. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles occurred under the exposure of the flower extract to 1mM (AgNO3, Silver nitrate aqueous solution. During this process the complete reduction of nanoparticles was observed nearly 48hours of reaction at 30°C under vigorous shaking conditions. The colour change is noted in the reaction mixture and observed during the process of incubation period, it may be due to the formation of the silver nanoparticles which are able to produce the colour in the reaction mixture may be due to their specific properties of surface Plasmon resonance. The colour change was made confirmed by visualization and the characterization by FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Thus we conclude that the reduction process and capping may be having occurred due to the presence of many flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, some aminoacids and proteins. In conclusion, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract appears capable of forming silver nanoparticles. It can be concluded that, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract was able to form the silver nano scaffold and may be probably due to its antioxidants potential, some flavonoids, terpenes etc. This study is a preliminary effort and requires further investigation at different levels.

  10. Research on Salt-tolerance of Perennial Hibiscus moscheutos%多年生宿根花卉芙蓉葵耐盐性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文成; 孙昌禹; 孙宇; 郭艳超; 薛志忠; 李克晔; 封晓辉

    2013-01-01

    为了给芙蓉葵在滨海盐渍地播种育苗和重盐碱地园林绿化应用提供科学依据,分别以芙蓉葵种子、幼苗和1 a生越冬根为试材,在人工模拟盐胁迫强度条件下,研究了不同浓度 NaCl溶液处理对芙蓉葵种子发芽期和苗期耐盐性,以及越冬根萌生苗耐盐性的影响。结果表明:0.2%盐度胁迫会促进芙蓉葵种子萌发,随着NaCl浓度的增大,种子初始萌发时间延长,发芽率和萌发初期生长均受到抑制,且抑制程度均随盐胁迫浓度的增大而逐渐增强,盐度>0.6%后会显著抑制种子萌发,但每天给予12 h光照可以显著提高发芽率;盐胁迫会抑制芙蓉葵幼苗生长,且抑制作用随盐胁迫浓度的增大而逐渐增强,不影响其正常形态性状的最高盐胁迫浓度为0.6%,当盐胁迫浓度超过该阈值后,会使芙蓉葵幼苗的观赏价值明显降低;芙蓉葵越冬根发芽期的耐盐能力较强,盐度>1.2%后成活率显著下降。根据生理指标测定和幼苗外观形态观测结果,推断芙蓉葵种子萌发和幼苗生长的耐盐阈值是0.6%,越冬根正常萌发的耐盐阈值是1.2%。%In order to provide a scientific basis for Hibiscus moscheutos sowing and raising seedlings in the coastal saline soil and landscaping applications in heavy saline soil , taking Hibiscus moscheutos seeds, seedlings and overwintering roots as test materials, the effects of different concentrations of NaCl solution treatments on Hibiscus moscheutos seeds germination and seedlings salt tolerance , and overwintering roots sprouting salinity tolerance were studied in the artificial simulating salt stress conditions.The results showed that 0.2% salinity stress could promote Hibiscus moscheutos seed germination, with the increasing of NaCl concentration , the initial time of seed germination was extended, the germination rate and germination growth were inhibited and the degree of

  11. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  12. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-12-12

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.

  13. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  14. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4 in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats.

  15. Notice to Nurserymen of the Naming and Release for Propagation of Sahara Sunset, A New African Hibiscus Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus asetosella 'Sahara Sunset' is an African hibiscus released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service that was Developed by Dr. Cecil Pounders at the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. ‘Sahara Sunset’ is a tropical shrub (USD...

  16. Breeding of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for garden use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Simonsen, Maria Boye; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2013-01-01

    -sinensis for increased chilling tolerance by conventional breeding is unlikely because there is a lack of genetic information in relation to this trait within this species. In the Hibiscus genus, cold hardiness is available, but only in a few species. Attempts to create cold tolerant Hibiscus plants resembling H. rosa......Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is an ornamental shrub in tropical and subtropical regions. Limitation of its use as an outdoor ornamental plant in a temperate climate is due to chilling sensitivity. Cold hardiness is a highly complex trait, involving multiple genes. Improvement of H. rosa......-sinensis suitable for Nordic climate have not been successful so far. In ornamental breeding wide hybridization is a major source of genetic variation, and can also be a promising approach to introgress cold hardiness in H. rosa-sinensis. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the possibilities...

  17. Breeding of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for garden use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Simonsen, Maria Boye; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is an ornamental shrub in tropical and subtropical regions. Limitation of its use as an outdoor ornamental plant in a temperate climate is due to chilling sensitivity. Cold hardiness is a highly complex trait, involving multiple genes. Improvement of H. rosa......-sinensis for increased chilling tolerance by conventional breeding is unlikely because there is a lack of genetic information in relation to this trait within this species. In the Hibiscus genus, cold hardiness is available, but only in a few species. Attempts to create cold tolerant Hibiscus plants resembling H. rosa......-sinensis suitable for Nordic climate have not been successful so far. In ornamental breeding wide hybridization is a major source of genetic variation, and can also be a promising approach to introgress cold hardiness in H. rosa-sinensis. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the possibilities...

  18. Fullerene-based symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Andrade

    Full Text Available The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid's "Elements" book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process.

  19. Assessment of Pb uptake, translocation and immobilization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of sand tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Wai Mun; ANG Lai Hoe; LEE Don Koo

    2008-01-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of lead (Pb) on sand tailings was investigated. A pot experiment employing factorial design with two main effects of fertilizer and lead was conducted in a nursery using sand tailings from an ex-tin mine as the growing medium. Results showed that Pb was found in the root, stem, and seed capsule of kenaf but not in the leaf.Application of organic fertilizer promoted greater biomass yield as well as higher accumulation capacity of Pb. In Pb-spiked treatments,roots accumulated more than 85% of total plant Pb which implies that kenaf root can be an important sink for bioavailable Pb. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) X-ray microanalysis confirmed that electron-dense deposits located along cell walls of kenaf roots were Pb precipitates. The ability of kenaf to tolerate Pb and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the immobilization of Pb in the roots and hence the restriction of upward movement (translocation factor< 1). With the application of fertilizer, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated site.

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera, Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica, and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley I. R. Okoduwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera, Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica, and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly.

  1. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  2. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  3. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  4. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  5. ‘Hapa White’, 'Hapa Pink', and 'Hapa Red' Interspecific Hybrid Hibiscus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus mutabilis, also known as confederate rose, is native to southeastern China, but it is also grown as an ornamental throughout the southeastern United States and is hardy in USDA zone 7 to 9. It is popular for its large, soft, gray-green foliage during the summer, and large, showy flowers pro...

  6. Cytotoxic Activity of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of Hibiscus rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the ... and stem of Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared using cold extraction method. ... (MTS) and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide ...

  7. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  8. INDIKATOR TITRASI ASAM-BASA DARI EKSTRAK BUNGA SEPATU (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L Indicator of Acid-Base Titration from the Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuryanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Titration acid-base needs indicator  to show the change of color on interval of hydrogen exponent/degree of acid (pH. Indicator of synthetic which always be used have disadvantages like chemical pollution,  stock and expensive of pro- duction  cost. The research has been carried out to substitute the synthetic indicator with herbal indicator extracted from flower crown of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L extract. The herbal indicator was extracted from the flower crown Hibiscus rosa sinensis L using a mixture methanol-acetic acid. Then it was evaluated with phenolphthalein and methyl orange(E merck comparer to titration the acid-base, they are strong acid-strong base, weak base-strong acid and weak acid-strong base. The result of research show that herbal indicator  of flower crown Hibiscus rosa sinensis L to show theequivalent point in all titrations give peer result with the comparison. With the research result hoped that indicatortitration acid-base flower crown Hibiscus rosa sinensis L is able to as replace synthetic indicator  (metyl orange andphenolphtalein which always be used before. ABSTRAK Titrasi asam-basa memerlukan indikator untuk menunjukkan perubahan warna pada setiap interval derajad keasaman (pH. Indikator sintetis yang digunakan selama ini mempunyai beberapa kelemahan seperti polusi kimia, ketersediaan dan biaya produksi mahal. Upaya penelitian sudah dilakukan untuk menggantikan indikator sintetis dengan indikator dari ekstrak mahkota bunga sepatu. Indikator herbal tersebut dibuat dengan cara mengekstrak mahkota bunga Hibiscus rosa sinensis L dengan mengunakan pelarut metanol-asam asetat. Kemudian dievaluasi dengan indikator pembanding fenolftalein dan metil oranye (produksi E merck untuk titrasi asam-basa yaitu asam kuat-basa kuat, basa lemah-asam kuat dan asam lemah-basa kuat. Dari hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa indikator dari mahkota bunga sepatu untuk menunjukkan titik ekivalen dalam titrasi tersebut memberikan hasil yang

  9. Phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus caesius using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Quratul; Naveed, Muhammad Na; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Farman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-09-01

    Various species in genus Hibiscus are traditionally known for their therapeutic attributes. The present study focused on the phytochemical analysis of a rather unexplored species Hibiscus caesius (H. caesius), using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The analysis revealed five major compounds in the aqueous extract, viz. vanillic acid, protocatechoic acid, quercetin, quercetin glucoside and apigenin, being reported for the first time in H. caesius. Literature suggests that these compounds have important pharmacological traits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and hepatoprotective etc. however, this requires further pharmacological investigations at in vitro and in vivo scale. The above study concluded the medicinal potential of H. caesius.

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  11. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  12. Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.) as a photosensitizer on nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rosyida, N. A.; Supriyanto, E.; Saputro, S.; Hanif, Q. A.; Rinawati, L.

    2016-02-01

    Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) as a photosensitizer in nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated. Ultravisible visible absorption spectra of anthocyanin show an ability absorbing light in the visible region. While the nanostructed-TiO2 powder in this research was prepared by sol-gel method following annealled at a temperature of 600°C. Subsequently, the TiO2 nanostructures were characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. The difractogram X-ray results shown that TiO2 was built from f anatase and rutile phase. Element analysis of synthesized TiO2 by X-ray Fluorecence (XRF) shown the TiO2 content of 98,67 wt%. TiO2 layer prepared at different thickness showed the average size of cavity about 0.83 µm. These several thickness of solar cells were fabricated and were immersed into anthocyanin for 24 hours to gain sensitized TiO2 photoanode for Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). These DSSCS performance were measured using I-V Keithley 2602A. The results exhibited that the sample with a TiO2 layer thickness of 4.75 ± 0.8 µm has the highest efficiency.

  13. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Karthikeyan K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.

  14. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  15. Multi-locus DNA barcoding identifies matK as a suitable marker for species identification in Hibiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Stalin, Nithaniyal; Balaji, Raju; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hibiscus L. includes several taxa of medicinal value and species used for the extraction of natural dyes. These applications require the use of authentic plant materials. DNA barcoding is a molecular method for species identification, which helps in reliable authentication by using one or more DNA barcode marker. In this study, we have collected 44 accessions, representing 16 species of Hibiscus, distributed in the southern peninsular India, to evaluate the discriminatory power of the two core barcodes rbcLa and matK together with the suggested additional regions trnH-psbA and ITS2. No intraspecies divergence was observed among the accessions studied. Interspecies divergence was 0%-9.6% with individual markers, which increased to 0%-12.5% and 0.8%-20.3% when using two- and three-marker combinations, respectively. Differentiation of all the species of Hibiscus was possible with the matK DNA barcode marker. Also, in two-marker combinations, only those combinations with matK differentiated all the species. Though all the three-marker combinations showed 100% species differentiation, species resolution was consistently better when the matK marker formed part of the combination. These results clearly showed that matK is more suitable when compared to rbcLa, trnH-psbA, and ITS2 for species identification in Hibiscus.

  16. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

  17. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to ligh

  18. Wilt, crown, and root rot of common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) caused by a novel Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to identify the causal agent using multilocus molecular phylogenetics and to complete K...

  19. Growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) under different agricultural inputs and management practices in central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danalatos, N.G.; Archontoulis, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) cultivars Tainung 2 and Everglades 41 were determined under three irrigation applications (low: 25%, moderate: 50% and fully: 100% of maximum evapotranspiration; ETm), four nitrogen dressings (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg hat), two sowi

  20. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  2. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  3. Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2017-06-15

    The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and  butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was  demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control.   Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol

  5. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanzella Cláudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  7. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  8. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmood Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  9. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  11. Chemical constituents from Hibiscus tiliaceus%黄槿化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小坡; 张俊清; 裴月湖; 许旭东; 谭银丰; 康胜利; 刘明生

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究黄槿Hibiscus tiliaceus枝叶的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱分离化合物,并通过理化数据测定和波谱技术分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从黄槿枝叶70%乙醇提取物中分离得到14个化合物,分别鉴定为木栓酮(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、香草醛(3)、syriacusinA(4)、hibiscolactone (5)、莨菪亭(6)、臭矢菜素C(7)、反式丁烯二酸(8)、山柰酚(9)、槲皮素(10)、胡萝卜苷(11)、壬二酸(12)、丁二酸(13)、芦丁 (14).结论 化合物7、9、10为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物3~5、8、12~14为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents from the twigs and leaves of Hibiscus tiliaceus (Li medicine). Methods Compounds were isolated by repeated chromatography on silica gel and alumina gel column. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results Fourteen compounds were isolated and identified as friedelin (1), fi-sitosterol (2), vanillin (3), syriacusin A (4), hibiscolactone (5), scopoletin (6), cleomiscosin C (7), fiimaric acid (8), kaempferol (9), quercetin (10), daucosterol (11), azelaic acid (12), succinic acid (13), and rutin (14). Conclusion This is the first report on the isolation of compounds 7, 9, and 10 from the plants of Hibiscus Linn., and compounds 3-5,8, and 12-14 from this plant.

  12. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  13. STUDI VARIASI UKURAN SERBUK SARI KEMBANG SEPATU (HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS L. DENGAN WARNA BUNGA BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI MADE DENNI APRIANTY

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study conducted to know variety of : long of axis polar, equatorial plane diameters, and P/E index of ten Kembang Sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. with differnt colour flowers. Acetolysis method and 1 % Safranin staining used to make pollens slides, micrometri were used to measured long of polar axis and diameter of pollens. The result of this research showed : pollen structure have: 90,10 ± 3,02 ^im to 117,42 ± 1,37 l^m axis polar long, 89,66 ± 3,13 |^m to 112,92 ± 0,94 (xm equatorial plane diameter, and 0,99 to 1,04 P/E index. Based on these data is indicated that the type of the pollen are prolat sferoidal (except bud type red corolla, and white flower polypantoporat type appertura and periporat ornamentation exine .

  14. Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3β- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13β-olide (1), 3β- acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxy-olean-28,13β-olide (2), 19α-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17β,19β-lupan-3β-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 μM). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies.

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the roots of Hibiscus esculentus Linn.

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    Sunilson J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Hibiscus esculentus Linn roots inhibited the formation of oxygen derived free radicals invitro with IC 50 of 620 µg/ml, 2300 µg/ml, 870 µg/ml and 610 µg/ml. [Fe 2+ /ascobate system], 730 µg/ml, [Fe 3+ /ADP/ascorbate system], for superoxide radical production, hydroxyl radical generation, nitric oxide radical formation and lipid peroxide formation respectively. The oral administration of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, significantly reduce CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged from the serum and tissue activity of marker enzymes [Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]. These results were comparable with standard drug silymarin [20 mg/kg, P.O.

  16. Pollen and Anther Cultures as Potential Means in Production of Haploid Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

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    Dwi Susanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus for human needs. It is annual upright plant that produces high biomass, has good adaptability to its environment and inexpensive to be grown. Kenaf has been cultivated in many countries since long time ago mainly for fibers. In Malaysia, however, this plant is considered new and cultivated especially in the eastern parts of Peninsular to replace tobacco plantations that have been no longer supported by the government. This plant has potential to be bred to improve the quality and the adaptability. One of the potential breeding methods to improve the plant is by the production of hybrid varieties. These varieties are superior over the inbred varieties because of the heterosis effect (hybrid vigor ofF1heterozygous. Hybrid varieties can be produced by reciprocal combinations of crosses among homozygous lines. Homozygous lines conventionally can bachieved by repeated selfing till seven or more generations that need a lot of times. The production of haploid plants in vitro followed by chromosome doubling is a ‘short-cut’ method to produce homozygous lines in relatively short time compared to conventional methods. The objective of this study is to produce haploid lines through pollen and anther cultures in vitro. The population of haploid plantlets from this research will be induced for diploidization to produce homozygous-heterogeneous population as a basis for the production of hybrid varieties. Preliminary result showed that callus can easily be induced from the anthers compared those from the pollen grains.

  17. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

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    M. Kaleemullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2 value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and

  18. Phytochemical, Physico-chemical & Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf, Stem and Flower bud of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus hispidissimus belongs to the family Malvaceae (Mallow family. The plant has wide range of medicinal uses. Considering the ethno medicinal value of Hibiscus hispidissimus, the present work has been taken up to document the physico-chemical composition, phytochemical details and spectrophotometric characteristics of the plant. The work has been carried out on ethanolic extract of leaf, stem and flower bud of H. hispidissimus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponis, tannins, glycosides, diterpenes and quinones. Spectroscopic characteristics were analyzed and found to have wide range of compounds including steroids, alkaloids, pigments like chlorophyll a and b, phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, flavanoids like anthocyanins, flavanols, flvanones and isoflavones.

  19. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Flower Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Rats-a Dose Response Study

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    Mirunalini SANKARAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ was administered as a single dose (40 mg/kg to induce diabetes. The hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis extract (HRSEt was investigated in a dose dependent manner such as (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt by evaluating various biochemical parameters. The levels of blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, TBARS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid profiles were found to be significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared to control groups. Administration of extract in the treated groups showed altered changes in the above mentioned parameters and found that among the three doseses, 250 mg/kg showed best result when compared to other two doses. HRSEt possess antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. However the detailed mechanism(s of action will require elucidating in further studies.

  20. Acclimation of croton and hibiscus seedlings in response to the application of indobultiric acid and humic acid for rooting

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative propagation of ornamental plants can be accelerated by applying plant growth regulators. Amongst them, the use of auxins, plant hormones with physiological effects on cell elongation and rooting have stood out. Alternatively, the application of humic acids, bioactive fraction of soil organic matter, also results in increases in rooting cuttings of ornamental plants. The objective of this work was to study the growth characteristics and the nutritional contents of croton and hibiscus plants during acclimation of seedlings in response to different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA and humic acid (HA applied to cuttings for rooting. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, and the apical stem cuttings were treated with solutions with concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg L-1of IBA and 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg L-1 of C from HA. At 45 days of rooting in carbonized rice husk, they were individually transferred to plastic bags of 2.0 dm3 containing a mixture of soil: sand: manure (2: 1: 1 as substrate. At 90 days of acclimation, the plants were collected for measurement of growth and nutritional variables. The results showed that the application of the IBA stimulates the absorption of nutrients and growth of croton cuttings and transplanted hibiscus, contributing to formation of vigorous seedlings. A similar response occurred with the application of HA in hibiscus cuttings

  1. Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboy; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull,and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes. Methods: The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig cells were obtained by common methods, whereas a novel technique was used to purify Leydig cells from bull testes. Results: Bull testes from the slaughter house were a cheap source of pure Leydig cells. In culture, these cells produced testosterone for 5-6 days, which can be stimulated by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Basella alba extracts significantly enhanced testosterone production in bull and rat Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Hibiscus macranthus showed no androgenic effect but was shown to inhibit testosterone production at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Leydig cells purified from bull testes can be used as an alternative tool in experimental animal research. Certain fractions of Basella alba extract demonstrated androgenic potential whereas Hibiscus macranthus extracts did not.

  2. JMBR VOLUME 14 NO 1 - JUNE 2015.cdr- CORRESPONDENCE.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FinePrint

    JMBR: A Peer-review Journal of Biomedical Sciences. June 2015, Vol. 14 No ... EFFECT OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA CALYX EXTRACT ON. STRESSED ... intermediary hormone between the. 5 .... lipolysis in adipose tissue, through activation ...

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    from a commonly available indigenous raw material, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. The said ... The microbial loads of the experimental tea and control were ..... treatment before packaging if it were to be ... reported that good preservation of canned.

  4. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes.

  5. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  6. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianrui Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs of the relative retention times (RRT and relative peak areas (RPA of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent.

  7. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  8. Estudio fitoquímico de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W.

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    Ingrid Márquez Hernández

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio fitoquímico preliminar de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W. Se practicó un tamizaje fitoquímico sobre material seco y fresco, en el que se obtuvieron resultados positivos para mucílagos, sustancias reductoras, antocianinas, aminoácidos, taninos y flavonoides. Se determinó que las antocianinas se afectan durante el proceso de secado. Para la realización del estudio químico se maceró el material vegetal con 4 menstruos (fracciones A, B, C y D. A partir de las fracciones A y B se aisló el producto HE1, el cual se analizó por espectroscopia ultravioleta, infrarroja, de resonancia magnética nuclear protónica, de carbono 13, mediante uso de técnicas especiales y por espectrometría de masas, lo que permitió identificarlo como el flavonoide gossypitrina. La fracción C se sometió a un fraccionamiento según el método de absorción-desorción sobre silicagel, lo que permitió la detección de rutina y quercetina. Los flavonoides identificados se reportan por primera vez para la especie.A preliminary phytochemical study of Hibiscus elatus species was undertaken. A phytochemical sieving of fresch dry material made it possible to obtain positive results for mucilages, reducing substances, anthocyamins, aminoacids, tanines and flavonoids. Anthocyamines were determined to be affected during dryng process. For carry ing uot the chemical study, the plant was mecrated into 4 solvents (A, B, C and D fractions. Taking A and B fractions as a basis, product HE1 was isolated and analyzed by ultra - violet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, proton and carbon 13 spectroscopies as well as special techniques and mass spectrometry. This resulted in the identification of this product as gossypitrin flavonoid. Fraction C was fractioned by silicagel absorption - desorption methods which allowed us to detec rutin and quercetin. The identified flavonoids are reported for the first time in this species.

  9. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

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    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  10. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

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    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  11. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruban P; Gajalakshmi K

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results: The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coliviz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions: The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.

  12. Combination of Dragon Fruit, Hibiscus and Bitterleaf as Dye Sensitizer to Increase Efficiency of DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asful Hariyadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC from natural products was being prominently developed in recent years. The main advantage of DSSC was its fabrication which did not require high process technology, so the production cost was lower than solar cells from crystalline materials. There were important materials in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell technology, such as: Zinc Oxide as an electrode, electrolyte solution and plant pigments as dye sensitizer to absorb light energy and convert it into a source of electrical energy. In this study, the combination of multiple dye mixture had been investigated to achieve high external quantum efficiency as sensitizers. Furthermore, each sample would be tested to determine the characteristics of natural dye and to calculate the power flow and efficiency of the electricity generated by each variable of dye solution. There would be four variables in this study, which was the composition (% v/v of the three main sources of natural dyes; hibiscus, bitter leaf and dragon fruit, respectively first (50% : 25% :25%, second (25% : 50% : 25%, third (25% : 25% : 50% and fourth (33,33% : 33,33% : 33,33%. The result of the study showed that efficiency of variable 1 to 4 was 1.9076%, 2.8739%, 0.8566% and 0.8344%, respectively

  13. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction.

  14. Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization and indeterminate flowering in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Min; Kim, Seungill; Koo, Namjin; Shin, Ah-Young; Yeom, Seon-In; Seo, Eunyoung; Park, Seong-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Myung-Shin; Park, Jieun; Jang, Insu; Kim, Pan-Gyu; Byeon, Iksu; Kim, Min-Seo; Choi, JinHyuk; Ko, Gunhwan; Hwang, JiHye; Yang, Tae-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Lee, Je Min; Lim, Ki-Byung; Lee, Jungho; Choi, Ik-Young; Park, Beom-Seok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao. Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology. PMID:28011721

  15. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  16. Phytotreatment of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Hibiscus cannabinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, O P; Agamuthu, P; Abdul Aziz, A R

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, especially by used lubricating oil, is a growing problem in developing countries, which poses a serious threat to the environment. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils offers environmental friendly and a cost effective method for their remediation. Hibiscus cannabinus was studied for the remediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% used lubricating oil and treated with organic wastes [banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] for a period of 90 days under natural conditions. Loss of 86.4 and 91.8% used lubricating oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil and treated with organic wastes respectively at the end of 90 days. However, 52.5 and 58.9% oil loss was recorded in unamended soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil, respectively. The plant did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil but shows appreciable accumulation of Fe and Zn in the root and stem of H. cannabinus at the end of the experiment. The first order kinetic rate of uptake of Fe and Zn in H. cannabinus was higher in organic wastes amendment treatments compared to the unamended treatments, which are extremely low. The results of this study suggest that H. cannabinus has a high potential for remediation of hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soil.

  17. Accumulation of Kaempferitrin and Expression of Phenyl-Propanoid Biosynthetic Genes in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS, chalcone isomerase (HcCHI, and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.

  18. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  19. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudapati Sreedevi

    Full Text Available Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.. Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively. Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  20. Calidad seminal en ovinos pelibuey con inclusión de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    José Maza Gamboa; Luis Fernando Navarrete Sierra; Alfonso Aguiar Loría; Roberto Zamora Bustillos; Héctor Magaña Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    La alimentación de los ovinos en el trópico representa del 48 a 90 % de los costos de producción, además, el uso de granos hace dependientes a los ovinocultores del mercado internacional. Ganancias de peso moderadas se han obtenido con follaje de plantas arbustivas, sin embargo, algunas plantas como el Tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) presentan compuestos que pueden actuar como fito-estrógenos, lo que puede comprometer el uso potencial en la alimentación de sementales ovinos pelibuey. Método:...

  1. Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hasson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P<.05 protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 μg/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 μg/mL. The extract significantly (P<.001 inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 μg/mL. All rabbits (n=10 and guinea pigs (n=10 were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n=3 treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg died. However, all guinea pigs (n=21 treated with venom (5 mg/kg and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg survived. Guinea pigs (n=3 treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg and guinea pigs (n=21 venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100% blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

  2. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  3. Effects of extracts from Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba mixture on testosterone production in vitro in adult rat testes slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Silvère Ngouela; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Félicité M. Tchouanguep; Serge Carreau

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To find an in vitro system for the measurement of the androgenic effects of different extracts of Hibiscus macranthus (Malvaceae) and Basella alba (Basellaceae). Methods: The production of testosterone from testes slices incubated in two media, either Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Dubecco's Modified Eagle's medium-F12 Ham nutrient mixture (DME/Ham F12), under a mixture of 5 % CO2 in 95 % air was determined either in the presence or absence of cofactors and Hibiscus macranthus plus Basella alba (HMBA)extracts. Results: The testosterone production was increased in testes slices incubated in DME/Ham F12 medium in response to the cofactors (49 %) and aqueous extracts (34 %-60 % according to dilutions). Under the same atmospheric conditions, there was no positive response of the testes slices to either cofactor or HMBA extract stimulation in Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % BSA. In further investigations related to the effect of HMBA, the DME/Ham F12 medium was used. The results obtained from the in vitro test showed that the activity was present mainly in methylene chloride and methanol, since these extracts induced an increase in testosterone production by testes slices. Conclusion: The testes slice system is suitable to be used for further in vitro investigations of the isolation of androgenic bioactive components of plants.

  4. Formulation Development and Characterization of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinesis Dry Leaves Mucilage as Smart Polymer for Pharmaceutical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The present investigation was to extract the Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis dry leaves mucilage and prove to be a smart polymer in pharmaceutical formulations. Firstly to formulate and optimize controlled-release floating tablets of Nizatidine (NF1-NF5 using HPMC K 100M and Hibiscus dry leaves mucilage (5-10% along with gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate by direct compression technique. Results revealed that increase the mucilage concentration decrease the release of drug from floating tablets. The NF1 formulation, NF2, NF3 and NF4, and NF5 showed fickian type (n - 0.36, anomalous/non-fickian type (n - 0.5-1.0 and super case II transport mechanism ("n" - 1.449 respectively and secondly to formulate Mesalamine core tablets using Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis dry leaves mucilage (5-20% and to be coated with Eudragit L 100 mixture by dip coating technique (MFI-MFIV to target the drug release in colon. Release study showed that the MFI and MFII showed first order release (“n” - 0.45, MFIII showed matrix model with the “n” value of 0.5 (fickian diffusion, and MFIV showed peppas model (n - <0.6 respectively. It was concluded that the mucilage plays well in both the acidic and alkaline environment of the GI tract, controlled drug release with floating and colon targeting to solve the issues of those particular targets.Industrial relevance. In certain drug like Nizatidine, the therapeutic efficacy is improved if the gastric residence time of the dosage form is increased at the absorption site and if the drug is highly soluble in aqueous environment, it is necessary to reduce/controls the drug release from the formulations. Hibiscus-Rosa Sinesis leaf mucilage exhibit excellent retarding effect on drug release from the floating tablets. Colon targeted tablets manufactured with conventional excipients, upon reaching the colon, the tablet bursts as it comes in contact with water causing dose dumping that can pose a significant risk to patients

  5. Seed Treatment. Bulletin 760.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Harvey C.

    This manual gives a definition of seed treatment, the types of seeds normally treated, diseases and insects commonly associated with seeds, fungicides and insecticides used, types of equipment used for seed treatment, and information on labeling and coloring of treated seed, pesticide carriers, binders, stickers, and safety precautions. (BB)

  6. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marécal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar

  7. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  8. Methanol leaves extract Hibiscus micranthus Linn exhibited antibacterial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, Berhan; Mishra, Bharat; Tsegaw, Asegedech; Shewamene, Zewdneh

    2017-06-26

    Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Wound and wound infections are also major health problem. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and wound healing and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the antibacterial and wound healing activities of 80% methanol extract of Hibiscus micranthus leaves using disc diffusion methods and rat excision model respectively. In vitro antibacterial screening was carried out against S. aureus, S.pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis bacterial strains using disc-well diffusion assay. Would healing activity was done in rats divided into four groups each consisting of six animals. Group I was served as a negative control (ointment base), Group II served as a positive control Nitrofurazone (NFZ 0.2% ointment), Groups III and IV was treated 5 and 10% extracts respectively. The acute oral toxicity test and skin sensitivity test were also performed before conducting the actual study. The extract was analyzed for secondary metabolites using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening have revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, phenols, diterpines, anthraquinones and the absence of glycosides, terpinoides and triterpines. Based on acute oral toxicity test the extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 2 g/kg. In addition, acute dermal toxicity test indicated no sign of skin irritation. The leaves extract exhibited varying degrees of sensitivity with zones of inhibition ranging from 14.00 ± 0.333 (S.pyogenes) to 22.67 ± 1.202 mm (S.aureus). It was found that S. aureus and S. pneumonia (p wound healing study, the 5 and 10% w/w extract exhibited significant wound contraction rate of 99.30% and 99.13% as compared to NFZ ointment and simple ointment

  9. A DISTRIBUTIONAL AND CYTOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PRESENTLY RECOGNIZED TAXA OF HIBISCUS SECTION FURCARIA (MALVACEAE Distribución y citología de los taxones reconocidos actualmente de Hibiscus sección Furcaria (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized
    taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands
    of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome
    number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a
    remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some
    distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic
    monograph of Hibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have
    appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome
    numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a
    census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and
    chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is
    available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level,
    followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and
    hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids
    Hibiscus sección Furcaria es un grupo natural de plantas que actualmente incluye 109 taxones
    reconocidos. Los taxones habitan en África al sur del Sahara, India, sudeste de Asia, Malasia,
    Australia, Islas del Pacífico, el Caribe, América del Norte, Central y Sudamérica. El número
    básico de cromosomas es x = 18. En la naturaleza, los niveles de ploidía varían de diploide a
    decaploide. Los taxones exhiben una remarcable diversidad genómica. Han sido identificados
    al menos 13 genomas, algunos distribuidos

  10. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of apple, hibiscus, olive, and hydrogen peroxide formulations against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine L; Patel, Jitendra; Jaroni, Divya; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial pathogens implicated in foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce in the last decade. In an effort to discover natural antimicrobials for use on fresh produce, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial plant extract-concentrate formulations on four types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. enterica serovar Newport. The leafy greens tested included organic romaine and iceberg lettuce, and organic adult and baby spinach. Each leaf sample was washed, dip inoculated with Salmonella Newport (10(6) CFU/ml), and dried. Apple and olive extract formulations were prepared at 1, 3, and 5% concentrations, and hibiscus concentrates were prepared at 10, 20, and 30%. Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 2 min and individually incubated at 4°C. After incubation, samples were taken on days 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. Our results showed that the antimicrobial activity was both concentration and time dependent. Olive extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity, resulting in 2- to 3-log CFU/g reductions for each concentration and type of leafy green by day 3. Apple extract showed 1- to 2-log CFU/g reductions by day 3 on various leafy greens. Hibiscus concentrate showed an overall reduction of 1 log CFU/g for all leafy greens. The maximum reduction by hydrogen peroxide (3%) was about 1 log CFU/g. The antimicrobial activity was also tested on the background microflora of organic leafy greens, and reductions ranged from 0 to 2.8 log. This study demonstrates the potential of natural plant extract formulations to inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens.

  12. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  13. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  14. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  15. Barley seed aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temp

  16. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  17. Antimicrobial Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extracts Against Pathogenic Oral Microorganisms--An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the antimicrobial potential and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis extracts as potential anti-pathogenic agents in dental caries. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using the agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both test organisms. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At lower concentrations, hot ethanol Jasminum grandiflorum (10 μg/ml) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (25 μg/ml) extracts were found to have statistically significant (P≤0.05) antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC values of 6.25 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively. A proportional increase in their antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition) was observed. Both extracts were found to be antimicrobially active and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy.

  18. Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associado ao superbrotamento do hibisco (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. no Estado de São Paulo Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associated with hibiscus witches' broom in the State of São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de hibisco com superbrotamento e definhamento seguido de morte têm sido observadas nos municípios de São Paulo, Campinas e Piracicaba. Como os sintomas são sugestivos daqueles induzidos por fitoplasmas, o presente trabalho buscou identificar o possível fitoplasma associado com a doença. Assim, 14 plantas sintomáticas de hibisco foram coletadas em Piracicaba (SP e submetidas ao PCR duplo com os primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 e ao exame em microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. A identificação foi realizada por análise de RFLP com as enzimas de restrição BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI e TaqI. Testes de transmissão foram conduzidos com enxertia de ramos e uso de Cuscuta subinclusa. Os resultados de nested-PCR revelaram a presença consistente de fitoplasmas em todas as plantas sintomáticas e foram confirmados pela observação de corpúsculos pleomórficos no floema, através da microscopia eletrônica. A análise de RFLP mostrou que o fitoplasma encontrado em hibisco pertence ao grupo 16SrXV, o mesmo grupo do Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense. O fitoplasma foi transmitido de planta doente para sadia, tanto pela enxertia como pela C. subinclusa, demonstrando ser o agente do superbrotamento do hibisco.Ornamental hibiscus have been affected by shoot proliferation and decline followed by death in several cities in São Paulo State, especially São Paulo, Campinas and Piracicaba. As the symptoms are suggestives of those induced by phytoplasmas, the present work aimed to identify the possible phytoplasma associated with the disease. Fourteen symptomatic hibiscus were sampled in Piracicaba, submitted to nested-PCR with the primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 and processed by transmission electron microscopy. The identification was made by RFLP analyses with the restriction enzymes BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI, and TaqI. Transmission assays were performed by grafting and Cuscuta subinclusa. The presence

  19. Seed vigour and seed lot quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Slavoljub S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses seed vigour as the most important seed characteristic the seed lot quality depends on. In Serbian, the terms such as vigor, viability and germ inability are used in various ways, depending on the author, which leaves room to possible misunderstanding in interpretation of research results and misuse of expert terminology. The modest lexical fund, compared to that of the English language, for instance, greatly contributes to the problem, and so does the absence of terminological standardization. Since the current technology and research level in seed science and technology requires appropriate terminology, this article offers an outline of basic seed traits related expert terminology as a foundation of future seed research and technology development. .

  20. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Genotypes. plant popUlation, seed production. seed quality. sesame. ..... (68%). Greater standard gennination and EWSG occurred in seed produced in 2001 .... Table 7: Heritability (H2B) and genetic advance (GA) of seed quality ...

  1. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities)

  2. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  3. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  4. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  5. Seed development and carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be

  6. Seed Development and Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed is the fertilized and matured ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms and represents a crucial stage in the life cycle of plants. Seeds of diverse plant species may display differences in size, shape and color. Despite apparent morphological variations, most mature seeds consist of three major com...

  7. Seed development and carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittich, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds assure the plant the onset of a next generation and a way of dispersal. They consist of endosperm and an embryo (originating from gametophytic tissue), enveloped by a seed coat (sporophytic tissue). Plants generate different types of seeds. For instance, the endosperm may either be consumed by

  8. Seeds and Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Sara; Sorenson, Crista; Heineman, Bethany; Workman, Ashley Walker

    2010-01-01

    To be certified organic you must order organic seed. If for some reason organic seed is not available for a certain plant or variety, you have to write a paragraph stating that organic seed is not available and why that the certain plant or variety is needed for your system.

  9. Tillage and residue burning affects weed populations and seed banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, S; Sindel, B M; Jessop, R S

    2006-01-01

    An integrated weed management approach requires alternative management practices to herbicide use such as tillage, crop rotations and cultural controls to reduce soil weed seed banks. The objective of this study was to examine the value of different tillage practices and stubble burning to exhaust the seed bank of common weeds from the northern grain region of Australia. Five tillage and burning treatments were incorporated in a field experiment, at Armidale (30 degrees 30'S, 151 degrees 40'E), New South Wales, Australia in July 2004 in a randomized block design replicated four times. The trial was continued and treatments repeated in July 2005 with all the mature plants from the first year being allowed to shed seed in their respective treatment plots. The treatments were (i) no tillage (NT), (ii) chisel ploughing (CP), (iii) mould board ploughing (MBP), (iv) wheat straw burning with no tillage (SBNT) and (v) wheat straw burning with chisel ploughing (SBC). Soil samples were collected before applying treatments and before the weeds flowered to establish the seed bank status of the various weeds in the soil. Wheat was sown after the tillage treatments. Burning treatments were only initiated in the second year, one month prior to tillage treatments. The major weeds present in the seed bank before initiating the trial were Polygonum aviculare, Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. Tillage promoted the germination of other weeds like Hibiscus trionum, Medicago sativa, Vicia sp. and Phalaris paradoxa later in the season in 2004 and Convolvulus erubescens emerged as a new weed in 2005. The MBP treatment in 2004 reduced the weed biomass to a significantly lower level of 55 g/m2 than the other treatments of CP (118 g/m2) and NT plots (196 g/m2) (P < 0.05). However, in 2005 SBC and MBP treatments were similar in reducing the weed biomass. In 2004, the grain yield trend of wheat was significantly different between CP and NT, and MBP and NT (P < 0.05) with maximum yield of 5898

  10. A survey on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Alcea rosea L. and Malva neglecta Wallr as antibacterial agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad; Haniyeh Koochak; Esmaeil Darabpour; Hossein Motamedi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To guide for selection of plants with antibacterial activity for further phytochemical works on the isolation and identification of the active compounds. Methods: Ethanolic extracts of 3 species from Malvaceae family were evaluated by agar disc diffusion method for antibacterial activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes). The extracts were obtained from aerial parts of Hibiscus rosa (H. rosa)-sinensis (leaf and flower), Alcea rosea (A. rosea) L. (leaf and flower) and Malva neglecta (M. neglecta) Wallr (flower). Results:These extracts had inhibitory effects at different concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 g/mL) against above mentioned bacteria. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain. The highest inhibitory zone was showed by ethanolic extract of M. neglecta against Staphylococcus epidermidis (22 mm) and followed by ethanolic extract from flower of H. rosa against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values against Staphylococcus epidermidis were equal (MIC=MBC=5 mg/mL for M. neglecta extract and for H. rosa extract MIC=MBC=20 mg/mL). Conclusions:These findings suggest that these native plants have good antibacterial properties that can be used for infection control and treatment and could also be as new source for antibiotics discovery and infection treatment.

  11. Morus alba o Hibiscus rosa-sinensis como sustituto parcial de soya en dietas integrales para conejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Lara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los conejos pueden aprovechar los nutrientes contenidos en los forrajes y subproductos agrícolas eficientemente gracias a la fermentación cecal y a la cecotrofía. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la tasa de crecimiento y el rendimiento de la canal en conejos alimentados con minibloques de harina de morera (Morus alba o tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en sustitución parcial de pasta de soya; y determinar el consumo y digestibilidad de la dieta. Para esto, se utilizaron 18 conejos de 30 días de edad, distribuidos al azar en tres dietas experimentales (n=6, ac (alimento convencional, mbm (minibloque con 30% de morera y, mbt (minibloque con 27% de tulipán, durante nueve semanas. La ganancia diaria y el rendimiento en canal fue mejor (p0.10 en los tres grupos. Es factible sustituir parcialmente la proteína de la soya por harina de hojas de morera o tulipán, aunque presentan una menor respuesta productiva con respecto a la alimentación convencional.

  12. Studies on chemical constituents of Hibiscus mutabilis%木芙蓉叶化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉韵; 陆阳; 陈泽乃

    2003-01-01

    目的研究木芙蓉叶Hibiscus mutabilis的化学成分.方法采用硅胶柱、C18反相柱、聚酰胺柱色谱分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和光谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果从木芙蓉叶中分离得到10个化合物.根据波谱分析和理化数据,鉴定出其中9个化合物分别为:二十四烷酸(tetracosanoic acid,I)、β-谷甾醇(β-sitoster01,Ⅱ)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,Ⅲ)、水杨酸(salicylic acid,Ⅳ)、大黄素(emodin,Ⅴ)、芸香苷(rutin,Ⅵ)、山奈酚-3-O-β-芸香糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside,Ⅶ)、山奈酚-3-O-β刺槐双糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-robinobinoside,Ⅷ)及山奈酚-3-O-β-D-(6-E-对羟基桂皮酰基)-葡萄糖苷[kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6-E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-glucopyranoside,Ⅸ].结论除Ⅱ和Ⅵ外,其他化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  13. Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90.

  14. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  15. The seed nuclear proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.

  16. EFFECT OF SOYBEAN SEED SIZE ON SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atin Yulyatin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seed is a seed that is rapidly deteriorate or decrease in viability and vigor, especially if stored in conditions that are less optimum savings. Soybean seed size can affect the quality of the seed. Seed quality is characterized by germination of seeds. Grain size effect on soybean utilization. Large seed size tends to be used as an industrial raw material utilization while small seed size as a seed planted back. Purpose of this study was to determine whether soybean seed size can affect the quality of the seeds while in storage. The experimental design used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD using soybean seed size is a large size (Grobogan, medium (Kaba, and small (Willis is repeated four times. Parameter observations are normal seeds, dirt seed, weight of 100 grains, moisture content, germination. Data were tabulated and analyzed using the F test, if significantly different then tested further by DMRT level of 5 percent. Large size seed has the normal number of seeds, seed dirt, moisture content higher than medium and small seed size. But has a lower germination than seeds of medium and small size. To maintain the water content of <11 percent should be larger seed size is more frequent than the dried seed medium and small sizes.

  17. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Kubica, Marcin; Pissis, Solon P; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing shortest left-seed array, longest left-seed array and checking for seeds of a given length. The algorithm for the last problem is used to compute the seed array of a string (i.e., the shortest seeds for all the prefixes of the string) in $O(n^2)$ time. We describe also a simpler alternative algorithm computing efficiently the shortest seeds. As a by-product we obtain an $O(n\\log{(n/m)})$ time algorithm checking if the shortest seed has length at least $m$ and finding the corresponding seed. We also correct some important details missing in th...

  18. Hot seeding using large Y-123 seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scruggs, S J; Putman, P T; Zhou, Y X; Fang, H; Salama, K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Road, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    There are several motivations for increasing the diameter of melt textured single domain discs. The maximum magnetic field produced by a trapped field magnet is proportional to the radius of the sample. Furthermore, the availability of trapped field magnets with large diameter could enable their use in applications that have traditionally been considered to require wound electromagnets, such as beam bending magnets for particle accelerators and electric propulsion. We have investigated the possibility of using large area epitaxial growth instead of the conventional point nucleation growth mechanism. This process involves the use of large Y123 seeds for the purpose of increasing the maximum achievable Y123 single domain size. The hot seeding technique using large Y-123 seeds was employed to seed Y-123 samples. Trapped field measurements indicate that single domain samples were indeed grown by this technique. Microstructural evaluation indicates that growth can be characterized by a rapid nucleation followed by the usual peritectic grain growth which occurs when large seeds are used. Critical temperature measurements show that no local T{sub c} suppression occurs in the vicinity of the seed. This work supports the suggestion of using an iterative method for increasing the size of Y-123 single domains that can be grown.

  19. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  20. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  1. Does the informal seed system threaten cowpea seed health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.; Oguntade, O.; Lava Kumar, P.; Stomph, T.J.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most smallholder farmers in developing countries depend on an informal Seed System (SS) for their seed. The informal SS is often criticized because farmer-produced seed samples are not tested for seed health, thus accepting the risk of planting infected seeds. Here we aimed at assessing the quality

  2. Free radical scavenging activity of three different flowers-Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Quisqualis indica and Senna surattensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hazem Mohamed Mahmoud Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa-sinensis), Quisqualis indica (Q. indica) and Senna surattensis (S. surattensis) for their antioxidant activity by different methods in addition to total phenolic, flavonoid and pigment contents. Methods: Antioxidant activity of water, ethanol and absolute ethanol extracts of three flowers; H. rosa-sinensis, Q. indica and S. surattensis was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating activity, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as well as total antioxidant capacity. Total flavonoids, total phenols and total pigments including chlorophylls and carotenoids were measured for the three flowers. Results: The results showed that the highest total antioxidant capacity at concentration of 500 mg/L was found in S. surattensis as 0.479 ± 0.001. Scavenging activity of H. rosa-sinensis, Q. indica and S. surattensis flower extracts against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed the highest activity of (90.20 ± 0.29)% with 500 mg/L. Phytochemical screening of the three flowers extracts were carried out for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids, amino acid and mucilages. H. rosa-sinensis showed the total phenolic in water extract of (235.77 ± 14.31) mg/100 g, the other two flowers Q. indica and S. surattensis had the total phenolic in ethanol ex-tracts of (937.70 ± 25.06) and (850.30 ± 13.81) mg/100 g, respectively. On the other hand total flavonoids were identified in absolute ethanol extracts in the three flowers [(32.83 ± 1.34), (49.24 ± 4.87) and (2.79 ± 0.23) mg/100 g, respectively]. Conclusions: The extracts in the constituents of the three flowers could be used as ad-ditives as supplement fractions in foods.

  3. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  4. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes, that carry introgression fragments at the position of seed longevity quantitative trait loci and as a result display different levels of seed longevity, was investigated. Seeds at two physiological states, after-ripened seeds that had the full germination ability and aged (stored) seeds of which the germination ability was severely reduced, were compared. Aged dry seed proteomes were markedly different from the after-ripened and reflected the seed longevity level of the four genotypes, despite the fact that dry seeds are metabolically quiescent. Results confirmed the role of antioxidant systems, notably vitamin E, and indicated that protection and maintenance of the translation machinery and energy pathways are essential for seed longevity. Moreover, a new role for seed storage proteins (SSPs) was identified in dry seeds during ageing. Cruciferins (CRUs) are the most abundant SSPs in Arabidopsis and seeds of a triple mutant for three CRU isoforms (crua crub cruc) were more sensitive to artificial ageing and their seed proteins were highly oxidized compared with wild-type seeds. These results confirm that oxidation is involved in seed deterioration and that SSPs buffer the seed from oxidative stress, thus protecting important proteins required for seed germination and seedling formation. PMID:26184996

  5. Crystallization on prestructured seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungblut, Swetlana; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The crystallization transition of an undercooled monodisperse Lennard-Jones fluid in the presence of small prestructured seeds is studied with transition path sampling combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Compared to the homogeneous crystallization, clusters of a few particles arranged into a face- and body-centered cubic structure enhance the crystallization, while icosahedrally ordered seeds do not change the reaction rate. We identify two distinct nucleation regimes-close to the seed and in the bulk. Crystallites form close to the face- and body-centered structures and tend to stay away from the icosahedrally ordered seeds.

  6. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  7. Effects of tallowtree seed coat on seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shu-xian; GU Hong-biao; MAO Yan; YIN Tong-ming; GAO Han-dong

    2012-01-01

    We measured physiological parameters including water uptake,in-vitro embryo germination ratio,and seed coat structure observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to explore the influence of seed coat on the germination of seeds of tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum (Linn) Roxb.).Tallow tree seeds had good water permeability.We found that germination of cabbage seeds was inhibited when cabbage seeds were soaked in extracted solutions from tallow tree seed coat.Seed coat structure at the side of the radicle appeared to be a barrier to seed germination.We tested methods to break tallow tree seed dormancy.Dormancy of tallow tree seeds was overcome by soaking the seeds in 500 mg·L-1 or 1000 mg·L-1 GA3,followed by 100 days of cold stratification.

  8. Green Synthesis Methods of CoFe2O4 and Ag-CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Using Hibiscus Extracts and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Gingasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silver-cobalt ferrite (Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower and leaf. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements were used for the characterization of the obtained oxide powders. The antimicrobial activity of the cobalt ferrite and silver-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungal strains, was investigated by qualitative and quantitative assays. The most active proved to be the Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through self-combustion using hibiscus leaf extract, which exhibited very low minimal inhibitory concentration values (0.031–0.062 mg/mL against all tested microbial strains, suggesting their potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  9. Study on Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids in Hibiscus Manihot%金花葵花总黄酮提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 王刚

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究提取金花葵花总黄酮的最佳工艺条件.方法:采用乙醇回流提取的方法,并利用正交实验优化工艺条件.结果:乙醇回流最佳提取工艺为14倍量70%乙醇回流1次,120 min/次,金花葵花中总黄酮的含量为4.38%.结论:优化提取工艺简单、稳定、可行.%Objective: To study the optimal extraction technology of total flavonoids in Hibiscus manihot. Methods : To adopt the ethanol refluxing extraction method, the conditions of ethanol circumfluence extraction were optimized by orthogonal test. Results : The ethanol circunifluence extracting method was the best.The optimal extraction technology was as follows: solid-liquid ratio 1 : 14, 70% ethanol, refluxing and extracting for 120 min, 2 times. The total flavonoids in Hibiscus manihot was 4.38%. Conclusion: This optimized process is simple, stable and efficient.

  10. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Warley Marcos; Aragão Fernando Antônio Souza de

    2004-01-01

    A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1) aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C...

  11. (Psidium guajava), hibiscus (Hibiscus-rosa sinensis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons ... therefore is a microhabitat on the surface of plant's leaf ..... culture-independent assessment of bacteria in the apple.

  12. What Are Chia Seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet? Chia seeds come from the desert plant Salvia hispanica , a member of the mint family. Salvia hispanica seed is often sold under its common name "chia" as well as several trademarked names. Its origin is believed to be in ... plant, Salvia columbariae (golden chia), were used primarily by Native ...

  13. Seed thioredoxin h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    , for example chloroplastic f- and m-type thioredoxins involved in regulation of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The cytosolic h-type thioredoxins act as key regulators of seed germination and are recycled by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase. The present review on thioredoxin h systems in plant seeds focuses...

  14. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and redu

  15. Seed germination and vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Duval, Manuel; Gallardo, Karine; Catusse, Julie; Bally, Julia; Job, Claudette; Job, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Germination vigor is driven by the ability of the plant embryo, embedded within the seed, to resume its metabolic activity in a coordinated and sequential manner. Studies using "-omics" approaches support the finding that a main contributor of seed germination success is the quality of the messenger RNAs stored during embryo maturation on the mother plant. In addition, proteostasis and DNA integrity play a major role in the germination phenotype. Because of its pivotal role in cell metabolism and its close relationships with hormone signaling pathways regulating seed germination, the sulfur amino acid metabolism pathway represents a key biochemical determinant of the commitment of the seed to initiate its development toward germination. This review highlights that germination vigor depends on multiple biochemical and molecular variables. Their characterization is expected to deliver new markers of seed quality that can be used in breeding programs and/or in biotechnological approaches to improve crop yields.

  16. The earliest seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, W.H.; Rothwell, G.W.; Scheckler, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Lagenostomalean-type seeds in bifurcating cupule systems have been discovered in the late Devonian Hampshire Formation of Randolph County, West Virginia, USA (Fig. 1). The associated megaflora, plants from coal balls, and vertebrate and invertebrate faunas demonstrate that the material is Famennian; the microflora indicates a more specific Fa2c age. Consequently, these seeds predate Archaeosperma arnoldii1 from the Fa2d of northeastern Pennsylvania, the oldest previously reported seed. By applying precision fracture, transfer, de??gagement, and thin-section techniques to selected cupules from the more than 100 specimens on hand, we have determined the three-dimensional morphology and histology of the seeds (Fig. 2a-h, k) and cupule systems. A comparison with known late Devonian to early Carboniferous seeds reveals that ours are more primitively organized than all except Genomosperma2,3. ?? 1981 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. Magnetic stimulation of marigold seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, I.; Mukhtar, K.; Qasim, M.; Basra, S. M. A.; Shahid, M.; Haq, Z.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds on germination, early seedling growth and biochemical changes of seedlings were studied under controlled conditions. For this purpose, seeds were exposed to five different magnetic seed treatments for 3 min each. Most of seed treatments resulted in improved germination speed and spread, root and shoot length, seed soluble sugars and a-amylase activity. Magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT maximally improved germination, seedling vigour and starch metabolism as compared to control and other seed treatments. In emergence experiment, higher emergence percentage (4-fold), emergence index (5-fold) and vigorous seedling growth were obtained in seeds treated with 100 mT. Overall, the enhancement of marigold seeds by magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT could be related to enhanced starch metabolism. The results suggest that magnetic field treatments of French marigold seeds have the potential to enhance germination, early growth and biochemical parameters of seedlings.

  18. Physalis peruviana seed storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  19. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  20. Healthy food trends -- chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seeds are tiny, brown, black or white seeds. They are almost as small as poppy seeds. They come from a plant in the mint ... minerals. Chia seeds are also rich in essential fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6. Essential fatty ...

  1. Seed collection notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains tables, lists, and notes related to tallgrass prairie seed collection on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1992.

  2. on oil palm seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    germinating seeds in improper sealed/ broken storage polyethylene bags attracted adult flies which gained ... an alcoholic beverage or processed into various types of ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study ..... The life history of Megaselia.

  3. Tomato seeds for LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tomato seeds are prepared for their launch aboard the Langley's Long Duration Exposure Facility. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 119), by James Schultz.

  4. Prescribed seed plantings

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains memos, notes, and tables related to tallgrass prairie seed harvesting on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in 1995.

  5. OKRA(HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS)AND FENUGREEK(TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACEUM)MUCILAGE:CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION AS FLOCCULANTS FOR TEXTILE EFFLUENT TAEATMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srinivasan; Anuradha Mishra

    2008-01-01

    The use of new food grade polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Hibiscus esculentus and Trigonella foenum graceum,commonly called Okra and Fenugreek,respectively,as flocculants was described.These polysaccharides were used for removal of solids (suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)) and dyes from real textile effluents and aqueous solutions of different class of synthetic dyes.Influences of varying polysaccharide concentration,contact time and pH on removal of pollutant from the textile wastewater were investigated.Results showed that polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Okra and Fenugreek were capable of removing 90%-94% of SS,30%-44% of TDS and 30%-35% of dye using a very low concentration of polysaccharide.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of solid waste material obtained before and after the treatment with polysaccharides were used as a supportive evidence to explain the mechanism of flocculation.

  6. ADSORPTION POTENTIALITES OF BIO-SORBENTS DERIVED FROM PROSOPIS CINERARIA AND HIBISCUS ROSA-SIN ENSIS IN THE REMOVAL OF METHYL ORANGE DYE FROM POLLUTED WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Karimulla

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, stems and their ashes of Prosopis cineraria and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis have been explored for their surface sorption abilities towards Methyl Orange Dye using simulated waters. Various physicochemical parameters such as pH, time of equilibration and sorbent concentrations are optimized for evoking the sorption potentialities of the plant materials for the maximum extraction of the Methyl Orange Dye from waters. The surface sorption nature is found to pH sensitive and % of removal is maximum near pH:3.0% removal of the Dye is more with ashes than respective bio-materials. Co-anions, in fivefold excess, are found to beinterfering in the order: trivalent anion>divalent > monovalent while co-cations have shown relatively less interference on the extraction of the Dye at optimum conditions of extraction. The adoptability of the methodologies developed is tested with some real industrial effluents.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun Guan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species.

  8. Seed dispersal in fens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, B.; Van Diggelen, R.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and reducing genetic exchange. Species in fragmented wetlands may have lower reproductive success, which can lead to biodiversity loss. While fens may have always been relatively isolated from each other, they have become increasingly fragmented in modern times within agricultural and urban landscapes in both Europe and North America. Dispersal by water, animals and wind has been hampered by changes related to development in landscapes surrounding fens. Because the seeds of certain species are long-lived in the seed bank, frequent episodes of dispersal are not always necessary to maintain the biodiversity of fens. However, of particular concern to restoration is that some dominant species, such as the tussock sedge Carex stricta, may not disperse readily between fens. Conclusions: Knowledge of seed dispersal can be used to maintain and restore the biodiversity of fens in fragmented landscapes. Given that development has fragmented landscapes and that this situation is not likely to change, the dispersal of seeds might be enhanced by moving hay or cattle from fens to damaged sites, or by reestablishing lost hydrological connections. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  9. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  10. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  11. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29) Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Fakurazi, Sharida; Ismail, Norsharina; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Tahir, Paridah

    2013-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  12. Cytotoxic Activity of Kenaf Seed Oils from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction towards Human Colorectal Cancer (HT29 Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Abd Ghafar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β-sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.

  13. Muskmelon seed priming in relation to seed vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of important factors may affect seed priming response, including seed quality. Effects of seed vigor on seed priming response were investigated using seed lots of two muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cultivars. Seeds of muskmelon, cvs. Mission and Top Net SR were artificially aged at 43°C for 0, 20 and 40 hours. Seeds were primed for six days in darkness at 25°C in KNO3 (0.35 mol L-1 aerated solution. Aged seeds germinated poorly at 17°C. Priming increased germination rate at 17 and 25°C and germination percentage at 17°C. An interaction effect on germination performance between vigor and priming was observed, especially at low temperature. Priming increased germination performance in seeds of low vigor, and the response was cultivar dependent.

  14. Seed coat color and seed weight contribute differential responses of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinwook; Hwang, Young-Sun; Kim, Sun Tae; Yoon, Won-Byong; Han, Won Young; Kang, In-Kyu; Choung, Myoung-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and variation of targeted metabolites in soybean seeds are affected by genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we used 192 soybean germplasm accessions collected from two provinces of Korea to elucidate the effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight on the metabolic variation and responses of targeted metabolites. The effects of seed coat color and seeds dry weight were present in sucrose, total oligosaccharides, total carbohydrates and all measured fatty acids. The targeted metabolites were clustered within three groups. These metabolites were not only differently related to seeds dry weight, but also responded differentially to seed coat color. The inter-relationship between the targeted metabolites was highly present in the result of correlation analysis. Overall, results revealed that the targeted metabolites were diverged in relation to seed coat color and seeds dry weight within locally collected soybean seed germplasm accessions.

  15. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Montoux

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February–March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA, a surface acoustic wave (SAW and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%, followed by SAGE II (7%, MIPAS (10%, SAOZ (20–25% and SCIAMACHY (35%, all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20–25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1–100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%.

    In the lower stratosphere between 16–20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16–18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4–5

  16. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, T.Y.; Chin, C.J.; Lu, S.C.; Yiacoumi, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [and others

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration consists of two steps: heterogeneous particle flocculation of magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in a stirred tank and high-gradient magnetic filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic-seeding filtration (HGMF). The effects of various parameters affecting magnetic seeding filtration are theoretically and experimentally investigated. A trajectory model that includes hydrodynamic resistance, van der Waals, and electrostatic forces is developed to calculate the flocculation frequency in a turbulent-shear regime. Fractal dimension is introduced to simulate the open structure of aggregates. A magnetic-filtration model that consists of trajectory analysis, a particle build-up model, a breakthrough model, and a bivariate population-balance model is developed to predict the breakthrough curve of magnetic-seeding filtration. A good agreement between modeling results and experimental data is obtained. The results show that the model developed in this study can be used to predict the performance of magnetic-seeding filtration without using empirical coefficients or fitting parameters. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Environ: E00798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00798 Red sorrel Medicinal herb Citrate [CPD:C00158] [DR:D00037], Malate [CPD:C007... Potassium [CPD:C00238] [DR:D08403] Hibiscus sabdariffa [TAX:183260] Malvaceae (mallow family) Red sorrel calyx Medicinal

  18. ANTI-SYNCHRONIZATION OF PAN AND LIU CHAOTIC SYSTEMS BY ACTIVE NONLINEAR CONTROLNATURAL FIBER BONE PLATES-A WORLDWIDE PATENT SEARCH REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. D. CHANDRAMOHAN,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This invention concentrates on the biomaterials progress in the field of orthopaedics. An effort to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of biocomposite materials based on bio epoxy resin and natural fibers such as Agave sisalana; Musa sepientum; Hibiscus sabdariffa and its application in bone grafting substitutes.

  19. and spider plant (Cleome gynandra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... scarbrum, Solanum american, Solanum nigrum and. Solanum villosum. ..... Productivity and Chemical Constituents of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) ... Shanhua, Taiwan: AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center. Kimiywe J ... and quality attributes of Solanum villosum (black night shade) in. Keiyo district, Rift ...

  20. Review of traditional and non-traditional medicinal genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU collection evaluated for flavonoid concentrations and anthocyanin indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-traditional medicinal species include velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), Desmodium species, Termanus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. and the traditional species consists of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). There is a need to identify plant sources of flavonoids and anthocyanins since they have s...

  1. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    protect cells against oxidative stress in rats (Wang et al., 2000) and ... building for easy and effective cross-ventilation, and the cages were ... Graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa alters erythrocyte membrane stability in rabbit. 114 ..... Haematological and serum biochemical response ... Vitamin C in human health and disease ...

  2. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depaoli, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This task will investigate the capabilities of magnetic-seeding filtration for the enhanced removal of magnetic and nonmagnetic particulates from liquids. This technology appies to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatant. Magnetic-seeding filtration can be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal-size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes.

  3. Farmers, seeds and varieties : supporting informal seed supply in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, M.H.; Bishaw, Z.; Beshir, A.; Boef, de W.S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethiopia is characterized by an enormous diversity in agro-ecosystems, crops and varieties, with the informal seed systems dominant in seed supply for almost all crops. The book addresses strategies and approaches through which professionals can support informal seed supply, and links these with the

  4. Restoration seed reserves for assisted gene flow within seed orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.S. Echt; B.S. Crane

    2017-01-01

    Changing climate and declining forest populations imperil the future of certain forest tree species. To complement forest management and genetic conservation plans, we propose a new paradigm for seedling seed orchards: foster genetic mixing among a variety of seed sources to increase genetic diversity and adaptive potential of seed supplies used for forest restoration...

  5. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Visser, Marco D.; Kays, Roland; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  6. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  7. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  8. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, Ben T.; Visser, Marco D.; Kays, Roland; Jansen, Patrick A.

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  9. Quantifying seed dispersal kernels from truncated seed-tracking data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, B.T.; Visser, M.D.; Kays, R.; Jansen, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Seed dispersal is a key biological process that remains poorly documented because dispersing seeds are notoriously hard to track. While long-distance dispersal is thought to be particularly important, seed-tracking studies typically yield incomplete data sets that are biased against long-distance

  10. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  11. The importance of good seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    The importance of seed to human culture and conservation of the natural world is briefly discussed. The effect of seed on seedling quality and cost is described through several examples and illustrations.

  12. Hibiscus and Wild Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Woodcut artist Zheng Shuang convinces the audience through her display of poetic emotion Benefiting from training in watercoior paintings early in life, strict literary sketch training as well, as 10 years study at the Central Academy of Fine Aris, Zheng has mare than 30 years teaching experience at the Ouangzhou Academy of Fine Aris "I"m a roadside grass, a wild flower," Zheng Shuang describes herself She said she often talks to nature-the mountains, the trees, the flowers and the

  13. Genetics and Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreedi...

  14. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented 9.1

  15. Genetics of Forest Seed Handling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    High genetic quality seed is obtained from seed sources that match the planting site, have a good outcrossing rate, and are superior in some desirable characters. Non-degraded natural forests and plantations may be used as untested seed sources, which can sometimes be managed to promote outbreeding...

  16. Characterization of amaranth seed oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    The oil fractions of Amaranthus caudatus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. seeds were studied after different treatments of the seeds. The oil contents were 7.1 and 8.5% for raw A. caudatus L. and A. cruentus L. seeds, and consisted of 80.3¿82.3% of triacylglycerols (TAGs). Phospholipids represented

  17. Magnetic-seeding filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira

    1997-10-01

    Magnetic-seeding filtration is a technology under development for the enhanced removal of magnetic and non-magnetic particulates from liquids. This process involves the addition of a small amount of magnetic seed particles (such as naturally occurring iron oxide) to a waste suspension, followed by treatment with a magnetic filter. Non-magnetic and weakly magnetic particles are made to undergo nonhomogeneous flocculation with the seed particles, forming flocs of high magnetic susceptibility that are readily removed by a conventional high-gradient magnetic filter. This technology is applicable to a wide range of liquid wastes, including groundwater, process waters, and tank supernatants. Magnetic-seeding filtration may be used in several aspects of treatment, such as (1) removal of solids, particularly those in the colloidal size range that are difficult to remove by conventional means; (2) removal of contaminants by precipitation processes; and (3) removal of contaminants by sorption processes. Waste stream characteristics for which the technology may be applicable include (1) particle sizes ranging from relatively coarse (several microns) to colloidal particles, (2) high or low radiation levels, (3) broad-ranging flow rates, (4) low to moderate solids concentration, (5) cases requiring high decontamination factors, and (6) aqueous or non-aqueous liquids. At this point, the technology is at the bench-scale stage of development; laboratory studies and fundamental modeling are currently being employed to determine the capabilities of the process.

  18. The SEED Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  19. 7 CFR 201.15 - Weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seeds. 201.15 Section 201.15 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.15 Weed seeds. The percentage of weed seeds shall include seeds of plants considered weeds in the State into which the seed is offered for transportation or...

  20. Tree Seed Technology Training Course: Student Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, F. T.; And Others

    This manual is intended primarily to train seed collectors, seed-plant managers, seed analysts, and nursery managers, but can serve as a resource for any training course in forest regeneration. It includes both temperate and tropical tree species of all intended uses and covers the following topics: seed biology, seed collection, seed handling,…

  1. 7 CFR 201.30 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.30 Section 201.30 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.30 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard seed,...

  2. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed.

  3. Crop protection by seed coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanfar, S; Modarres-Sanavy, S A M

    2005-01-01

    Providence of sufficient and healthy food for increasing human population clears the importance of notice to increasing crop production in company with environmental loss reduction. Growth and yield of every plant with sexual reproduction, depends on germination & emergence of sown seeds. Seed is a small alive plant that its biological function is protection and nutrition of embryo. Biological, chemical and physiological characteristics of seed, affect on plant performance & its resistance to undesirable environmental conditions, and even on its total yield. So attention to seed and try to increase its performance is so important. One of the factors that cause reduction in germination percentage and seedling establishment, is seed disease. It's possible to control these diseases by treating the seed before planting it. Coating the seed with pesticides, is one of the ways to gain this goal. Seed coating is a technique in which several material as fertilizers, nutritional elements, moisture attractive or repulsive agents, plant growth regulators, rhizobium inocolum, chemical & pesticide etc, add to seed by adhesive agents and cause to increase seed performance and germination. Seed coating, leads to increase benefits in seed industry, because seeds can use all of their genetic vigor. This technique is used for seeds of many garden plants, valuable crops (such as corn, sunflower, canola, alfalfa,...) and some of the grasses. In this technique that was first used in coating cereal seeds in 1930, a thin and permeable layer of pesticide is stuck on seed surface and prevent damage of seedborn pathogens. This layer is melted or splited after absorption of moisture and suitable temperature by seed, and let the radical to exit the seed. In this approach materials are used accurately with seed, evaporation & leakage of pesticide and also adverse effects of some pesticides on seeds are diminished, and these factors cause to increase the accuracy and performance of pesticide

  4. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  5. Calidad seminal en ovinos pelibuey con inclusión de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maza Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación de los ovinos en el trópico representa del 48 a 90 % de los costos de producción, además, el uso de granos hace dependientes a los ovinocultores del mercado internacional. Ganancias de peso moderadas se han obtenido con follaje de plantas arbustivas, sin embargo, algunas plantas como el Tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis presentan compuestos que pueden actuar como fito-estrógenos, lo que puede comprometer el uso potencial en la alimentación de sementales ovinos pelibuey. Método: doce sementales ovinos Pelibuey, de 24±3 meses de edad, con un peso de 44±5 kg y una condición corporal de 2.3 +0.3 en una escala de 1 a 5 fueron asignados a 2 tratamientos (n=6 durante 45 días. En dietas con base en pasto de corte (Pennisetum purpureum x P. Typhoides var. CT-115, para el tratamiento 1 (T1, se utilizó alimento comercial (500 g d-1 por ovino con 16% de PC; y para el tratamiento 2 (T2, 20% de Tulipán (451 g MS/ kg MV, ~1.6 kg d-1 por ovino. Al finalizar la prueba se evaluó la calidad seminal, las variables de respuesta fueron: volumen del eyaculado (Vol, ml y a través del Análisis de Semen Asistido por Computadora (CASA la concentración espermática (CE, Millones por ml y ocho parámetros de motilidad individual: velocidad curvilínea (VCL, μ/s, velocidad rectilínea (VSL, μ/s, velocidad promedio (VAP, μ/s, índice de linealidad (LIN, %, índice de rectitud (STR, %, índice de oscilación (WOB, %, amplitud media del desplazamiento lateral de la cabeza (ALH, μ y frecuencia de batido de cola (BCF, Hz. Para determinar las diferencias entre las medias para tratamientos para Vol y CE, VCL, VSL y VAP se utilizó una t de Student; para los parámetros de motilidad individual se realizó una reducción de factores y una clasificación en dos fases de los índices obtenidos para caracterizar las subpoblaciones espermáticas por motilidad. Los análisis fueron realizados con el software SPSS 15.0 para Windows Resultados: no se

  6. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  7. Seed trait and rodent species determine seed dispersal and predation: evidences from semi-natural enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Yi X; Wang Z.; Liu C; Liu G.

    2015-01-01

    Seed traits affect seed dispersal by animals. However, the combined role of seeds and dispersers in determining seed dispersal is not well explored. We attempted to test how seed traits and predators determine seed dispersal and predation interaction in a rodent-mediated seed dispersal system. Semi-natural enclosure experiments were conducted to investigate seed dispersal and predation of five sympatric tree species with different seed traits, Juglans mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Pinus kor...

  8. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  9. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  10. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  11. Seed-to-seed-to-seed growth and development of Arabidopsis in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce M; Busse, James S; Stankovic, Bratislav

    2014-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana was grown from seed to seed wholly in microgravity on the International Space Station. Arabidopsis plants were germinated, grown, and maintained inside a growth chamber prior to returning to Earth. Some of these seeds were used in a subsequent experiment to successfully produce a second (back-to-back) generation of microgravity-grown Arabidopsis. In general, plant growth and development in microgravity proceeded similarly to those of the ground controls, which were grown in an identical chamber. Morphologically, the most striking feature of space-grown Arabidopsis was that the secondary inflorescence branches and siliques formed nearly perpendicular angles to the inflorescence stems. The branches grew out perpendicularly to the main inflorescence stem, indicating that gravity was the key determinant of branch and silique angle and that light had either no role or a secondary role in Arabidopsis branch and silique orientation. Seed protein bodies were 55% smaller in space seed than in controls, but protein assays showed only a 9% reduction in seed protein content. Germination rates for space-produced seed were 92%, indicating that the seeds developed in microgravity were healthy and viable. Gravity is not necessary for seed-to-seed growth of plants, though it plays a direct role in plant form and may influence seed reserves.

  12. Seeds of the Future

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Five of the global issues most frequently debated today are the decline of biodiversity in general and of agrobiodiversity in particular, climate change, hunger and malnutrition, poverty and water. These issues are connected with each other, and should be dealt with as such. Most of our food comes from seeds (even when we eat meat, we indirectly eat plants, which come from seeds) and food affects our health. The evolution of plant breeding, the science which is responsible for the type and the diversity of seed that farmers plant, and hence for the diversity of food that we eat, helps us understand how agrobiodiversity has decreased. An agro-ecological model of agriculture could be solution to the most important problems affecting the planet, but is often criticized for not being able to produce enough food for a growing population casting doubts on whether food security and food safety can be compatible objectives. Participatory and evolutionary plant breeding, while benefiting from advances in molecular g...

  13. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  14. Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro production of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

    2004-04-01

    In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.

  15. Seed storage behavior of forest tree species seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carlota Nery

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of five forest species were classified according to their physiological storage behavior. Seeds of Casearia sylvestris Swart (Salicaceae, Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae, Guarea kunthiana A. Juss. (Meliaceae, Eremanthus incanus Less. (Asteraceae, Protium heptaphyllum March. (Burseraceae were collected and taken to the laboratory, where they were processed and submitted to both rapid and slow drying, storage and assayed for viability. After physiological classification regarding storage behavior, it was observed that seeds of C. sylvestris and E. incanus presented orthodox behavior. Seeds of G. kunthiana and P. heptaphyllum were classified as recalcitrant and Q. grandiflora as an intermediate, which did not tolerate low moisture content.

  16. Differential seed handling by two African primates affects seed fate and establishment of large-seeded trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Kaplin, Beth A.

    2011-11-01

    We examined the influence of seed handling by two semi-terrestrial African forest primates, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) and l'Hoest's monkeys ( Cercopithecus lhoesti), on the fate of large-seeded tree species in an afromontane forest. Chimpanzees and l'Hoest's monkeys dispersed eleven seed species over one year, with quantity and quality of dispersal varying through time. Primates differed in their seed handling behaviors with chimpanzees defecating large seeds (>0.5 cm) significantly more than l'Hoest's. Furthermore, they exhibited different oral-processing techniques with chimpanzees discarding wadges containing many seeds and l'Hoest's monkeys spitting single seeds. A PCA examined the relationship between microhabitat characteristics and the site where primates deposited seeds. The first two components explained almost half of the observed variation. Microhabitat characteristics associated with sites where seeds were defecated had little overlap with those characteristics describing where spit seeds arrived, suggesting that seed handling in part determines the location where seeds are deposited. We monitored a total of 552 seed depositions through time, recording seed persistence, germination, and establishment. Defecations were deposited significantly farther from an adult conspecific than orally-discarded seeds where they experienced the greatest persistence but poorest establishment. In contrast, spit seeds were deposited closest to an adult conspecific but experienced the highest seed establishment rates. We used experimental plots to examine the relationship between seed handling, deposition site, and seed fate. We found a significant difference in seed handling and fate, with undispersed seeds in whole fruits experiencing the lowest establishment rates. Seed germination differed by habitat type with open forest experiencing the highest rates of germination. Our results highlight the relationship between primate seed handling and deposition site and seed

  17. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  18. Effects of Three Plant Growth Regulators on the Physiological Indices of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis%3种植物生长调节剂对七彩朱槿生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉舒中; 王美英; 李悦; 杨振德; 雷世满; 吕文玲

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂对七彩朱槿生长影响的生理机制.[方法]采用L16(43)的正交试验设计,研究多效唑( PP333)、矮壮素(CCC)、比久(B9)3种植物生长调节剂对盆栽七彩朱槿叶绿素含量以及POD、CAT、NR的影响.[结果]叶施与根施生长调节剂对七彩朱槿的生理影响效果不同.叶施生长调节剂对叶绿素含量、POD和CAT的影响大于根施;而根施对NR的促进作用大于叶施,含高浓,度CCC(4000mg/L)的(14)、(15)、(16)处理的NR明显高于对照.3种生长调节剂中,CCC对七彩朱槿NR的影响最显著,其中根施CCC处理的影响达极显著水平.[结论]合理使用植物生长调节剂,不仅能起到化学修剪的作用,同时可以增强七彩朱槿的光合作用能力、抗性以及对氮肥的利用能力.%[Objective] The research aimed to explore the physiological mechanism that plant growth regulators made effects on the growth of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis. [Method] The experiments were conducted as the orthogonal design of L16 (4 ) to study the effects of three plant growth regulators , namely PP333, CCC, B9, on th e chlorophyll content, POD, CAT and NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis grown in pot. [Result] The effects on the physiological indices of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis between foliar fertilization and root fertilization of PP333 ,CCC and B9 were different. The effects on the chlorophyll content, POD and CAT made by foliage fertilization were more obvious than by root fertilization, but it was opposite to NR, and the values of NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis treated by the (14), (15) and (16) combinations, which all contained CCC in high concentration (4 000 mg/L) ,were significantly higher than CK. Among the three plant growth regulators, CCC had made the most significant effect on NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis, especially by the way of root fertilization, and the difference could reach extremely significant level compared with the others. [Conclusion] Rational use

  19. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  20. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  1. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-01-01

    Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  2. 7 CFR 201.50 - Weed seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weed seed. 201.50 Section 201.50 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.50 Weed seed. Seeds (including bulblets or tubers) of plants shall be considered weed seeds when recognized as weed seeds by the law or rules and...

  3. 7 CFR 201.21 - Hard seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hard seed. 201.21 Section 201.21 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.21 Hard seed. The label shall show the percentage of hard...

  4. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  5. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  6. 19 CFR 10.57 - Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize... Provisions Potatoes, Corn, Or Maize § 10.57 Certified seed potatoes, and seed corn or maize. Claim for classification as seed potatoes under subheading 0701.10.00, as seed corn (maize) under subheading...

  7. Seed dormancy and seed longevity: from genetic variation to gene identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Seed dormancy and seed longevity are the most important survival traits in the soil seed bank. Both traits are induced during seed maturation and evolved to assure seed survival during environmental conditions that cannot support the regular course of life. Seed dormancy is related to the timing of

  8. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  9. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  10. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  11. The conservation physiology of seed dispersal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graeme D. Ruxton; H. Martin Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    ...—dispersal interactions. We argue that large-bodied seed dispersers may be particularly important for plant conservation because seed dispersal of large-seeded plants is often more specialized and because large-bodied...

  12. Insecticide seed treatments for sugarbeet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest feeding and vectoring of viruses cause serious problems in sugarbeet production worldwide. In order to ameliorate pest and disease problems on sugarbeet, two seed treatments, Poncho Beta (60 g a.i. clothianidin + 8 g a.i. beta-cyfluthrin/100,000 seed) and Cruiser Tef (60 g a.i. thiamethoxam + 8...

  13. Efficient computation of spaced seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie Silvana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most frequently used tools in bioinformatics are those searching for similarities, or local alignments, between biological sequences. Since the exact dynamic programming algorithm is quadratic, linear-time heuristics such as BLAST are used. Spaced seeds are much more sensitive than the consecutive seed of BLAST and using several seeds represents the current state of the art in approximate search for biological sequences. The most important aspect is computing highly sensitive seeds. Since the problem seems hard, heuristic algorithms are used. The leading software in the common Bernoulli model is the SpEED program. Findings SpEED uses a hill climbing method based on the overlap complexity heuristic. We propose a new algorithm for this heuristic that improves its speed by over one order of magnitude. We use the new implementation to compute improved seeds for several software programs. We compute as well multiple seeds of the same weight as MegaBLAST, that greatly improve its sensitivity. Conclusion Multiple spaced seeds are being successfully used in bioinformatics software programs. Enabling researchers to compute very fast high quality seeds will help expanding the range of their applications.

  14. Seed dispersal: Size does matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Many small seed-eating rodents bury their food in an erratic manner called scatter-hoarding because they are unable to defend one large hoard. This process has a complicated influence on seed dispersal,as shown in the work by ZHANG Zhibin at the CAS Institute of Zoology and hisco-workers.

  15. Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Hasson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant’s acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24 g/kg tested. All guinea pigs (n=3 when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75 μg alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n=18 treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n=18 treated with venom and the plant extract below 400 mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75 μg alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently at concentrations between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60% compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage.

  16. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana S Nade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods : The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT and passive avoidance test (PAT were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. Results : The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL. EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GSH. Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion : The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders.

  17. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  18. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Gao

    Full Text Available The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K, arginine (R and histidine (H that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  19. Temperature- and Relative Humidity-Dependent Life History Traits of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvales: Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H S; Yang, L; Huang, L F; Wang, W L; Hu, Y; Jiang, J J; Zhou, Z S

    2015-08-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a worldwide distributive invasive pest, originated from the United States, and it was first reported in Guangdong province, China, in 2008. The effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the life history traits of P. solenopsis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvales: Malvaceae) were studied at seven constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, and 35°C) and three RHs (45, 60, and 75%). The results showed that temperature, RH, and their interactions significantly influenced the life history traits of P. solenopsis. First instar was the most sensitive stage to extreme temperatures with very low survival rates at 15 and 35°C. At 25-32.5°C and the three RHs, the developmental periods of entire immature stage were shorter with values between 12.5-18.6 d. The minimum threshold temperature and the effective accumulative temperature for the pest to complete one generation were 13.2°C and 393.7 degree-days, respectively. The percentage and longevity of female adults significantly differed among different treatments. It failed to complete development at 15 or 35°C and the three RHs. Female fecundity reached the maximum value at 27.5°C and 45% RH. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (R0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 27.5°C and 45% RH (0.22 d(-1), 244.6 hatched eggs, and 1.25 d(-1), respectively). Therefore, we conclude that 27.5°C and 45% RH are the optimum conditions for the population development of the pest.

  20. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  1. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  2. Farmer’s seed sources and seed quality: 2. seed health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The study assessed the health quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed samples collected from formal and informal sector in Ethiopia and Syria. In Ethiopia, several seed-borne fungi were found on wheat samples: Cochliobolus sativum, Fusarium avenaceum, F. graminea

  3. Wheat seed system in Ethiopia: Farmers' varietal perception, seed sources, and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and information on farmers' perception and its influence on adoption of modern wheat varieties, awareness and source of new wheat production technology, wheat seed sources, and on-farm seed-management practices remain sporadic in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to understand the

  4. Wheat and barley seed system in Syria: farmers' varietal perceptions, seed sources and seed management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 206 wheat and 200 barley farmers were interviewed in northeastern Syria to understand farmer perceptions and practice relating to modern varieties, seed sources and seed quality. Wheat farmers had better awareness and grew modern varieties (87%), applied fertilizers (99.5%), herbicides

  5. Seed storage oil mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian A

    2008-01-01

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

  6. A system for generating virtual seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sako Y.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed analysts need to identify seeds, and seed catalogs are used as a reference to accomplish this task. Conventional seed catalogs supply two-dimensional photographs and hand-drawn diagrams. In this study, a new, three-dimensional representation of seeds is developed to supplement these traditional photographs and drawings. QuickTime VR is a promising method for viewing three-dimensional objects on a computer screen. It permits manipulation of an object by rotating and viewing it from any pre-specified angle at an interactive speed, allowing the viewer the sense of examining a hand-held object. In this study, QuickTime VR object movies of seeds were created as interactive "movies" of seeds that can be rotated and scaled to give the viewer the sensation of examining actual seeds. This approach allows the examination of virtual seeds from any angle, permitting more accurate identification of seeds by seed analysts.

  7. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    When seed producers and seed users are geographically or functionally separated, seeds are transferred from producers to users. In market-oriented systems, transfer includes the pricing of seed, which reflects the procurement cost and seed quality. Physiological quality is documented via the seed...... testing records. Genetic quality is documented as documents on origin or seed source. New types of tree planting by smallholders imply special problems in distribution and supply systems since production systems for tree seeds have large areas while many consumers have small space for planting....... A centralized forest seed supply contains large central units with good facilities for production and procurement but is far from seed users. Alternative decentralized systems with many small producers may have problems meeting high standards of seed quality and dealing with central regulations....

  8. Seed dispersal of desert annuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D Lawrence; Flores-Martinez, Arturo; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Becerra, Judith X

    2008-08-01

    We quantified seed dispersal in a guild of Sonoran Desert winter desert annuals at a protected natural field site in Tucson, Arizona, USA. Seed production was suppressed under shrub canopies, in the open areas between shrubs, or both by applying an herbicide prior to seed set in large, randomly assigned removal plots (10-30 m diameter). Seedlings were censused along transects crossing the reproductive suppression borders shortly after germination. Dispersal kernels were estimated for Pectocarya recurvata and Schismus barbatus from the change in seedling densities with distance from these borders via inverse modeling. Estimated dispersal distances were short, with most seeds traveling less than a meter. The adhesive seeds of P. recurvata went farther than the small S. barbatus seeds, which have no obvious dispersal adaptation. Seeds dispersed farther downslope than upslope and farther when dispersing into open areas than when dispersing into shrubs. Dispersal distances were short relative to the pattern of spatial heterogeneity created by the shrub and open space mosaic. This suggests that dispersal could contribute to local population buildup, possibly facilitating species coexistence. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that escape in time via delayed germination is likely to be more important for desert annuals than escape in space.

  9. [Metabolic control of seed germination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catusse, Julie; Strub, Jean-Marc; Job, Claudette; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Job, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    We have used proteomics to better characterize germination and early seedling vigor in sugarbeet. Our strategy includes (1) construction of proteome reference maps for dry and germinating seeds of a high-vigor reference seed lot; (2) investigation of the specific tissue accumulation of proteins (root, cotyledon, perisperm); (3) investigation of changes in protein expression profiles detected in the reference seed lot subjected to different vigor-modifying treatments, e.g. aging and/or priming. More than 1 000 sugarbeet seed proteins have been identified by LC/MS-MS mass spectrometry (albumins, globulins and glutelins have been analyzed separately). Due to the conservation of protein sequences and the quality of MS sequencing (more than 10 000 peptide sequences have been obtained), the success rate of protein identification was on the average of 80%. This is to our knowledge the best detailed proteome analysis ever carried out in seeds. The data allowed us to build a detailed metabolic chart of the sugarbeet seed, generating new insights into the molecular mechanisms determining the development of a new seedling. Also, the proteome of a seed-storage tissue as the perisperm is described for the first time.

  10. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  11. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BERTIN

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... 3Plant Husbandry and Horticulture Unit, University of Liège - Gembloux Agro Bio Tech. Passage ... Central Africa (Bisognin, 2002; Enujiugha and Ayodele-. Oni, 2003). ... seed fermentation process (Harper and Lynch, 1980;.

  12. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  13. 7 CFR 946.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 946.12 Section 946.12 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 946.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all... supervision of the official seed potato certifying agency of the State of Washington or other...

  14. 7 CFR 947.12 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 947.12 Section 947.12 Agriculture... Definitions § 947.12 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes means and includes all potatoes officially certified and tagged, marked or otherwise appropriately identified under the supervision of the official seed...

  15. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds g

  16. Embryo growth in mature celery seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, van der P.

    1989-01-01

    Germination of celery seeds is slow, due to the need for embryo growth before radicle protrusion can occur. Germination rate was correlated with embryo growth rate. Celery seeds with different embryo growth rates were obtained with fluid density separation of a seed lot. Low density seeds

  17. 7 CFR 948.6 - Seed potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed potatoes. 948.6 Section 948.6 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 948.6 Seed potatoes. Seed potatoes or seed means any potatoes...

  18. Towards a better monitoring of seed ageing under ex situ seed conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Ahmed, Zaheer; Diederichsen, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring seed viability in a large volume of ex situ seed germplasm conserved in genebanks is a challenging task for germplasm conservation. This review summarizes the recent development of tools for assessing seed ageing, and highlights seed biology research with ageing signals that hold potential for use in seed deterioration assessments

  19. Seed mass and mast seeding enhance dispersal by a neotropical scatter-hoarding rodent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, PA; Bongers, F; Hemerik, L

    2004-01-01

    Many tree species that depend on scatter-hoarding animals for seed dispersal produce massive crops of large seeds at irregular intervals. Mast seeding and large seed size in these species have been explained as adaptations to increase animal dispersal and reduce predation. We studied how seed size a

  20. Variation in quality of individual seeds within a seed lot of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illipronti, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aimed at increasing insight into the sources of variation in quality attributes of individual seeds within a soybean seed lot, into the relations between physical attributes and performance of seeds in seed tests and in controlled seed production

  1. Kauri seeds and larval somersaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Steen Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    The trunk morphology of the larvae of the kauri pine (Agathis) seed infesting moth Agathiphaga is described using conventional, polarization, and scanning electron microscopy. The pine seed chamber formed by the larva is also described and commented on. The simple larval chaetotaxy includes more...... of the minute posture sensing setae, proprioceptors, than expected from the lepidopteran larval ground plan. The excess of proprioceptors is suggested to be necessary for sensory input concerning the larval posture within the seed chamber. The trunk musculature includes an autapomorphic radial ventral...... musculature made up of unique multisegmental muscles. The combined presence of additional proprioceptors and the unique ventral musculature is proposed to be related to the larval movement within the confined space of the seed chamber, especially to a proposed somersault movement that allows the larva...

  2. Ethylene, seed germination, and epinasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, E R; Freebairn, H T

    1969-07-01

    Ethylene activity in lettuce seed (Lactuca satina) germination and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) petiole epinasty has been characterized by using heat to inhibit ethylene synthesis. This procedure enabled a separation of the production of ethylene from the effect of ethylene. Ethylene was required in tomato petioles to produce the epinastic response and auxin was found to be active in producing epinasty through a stimulation of ethylene synthesis with the resulting ethylene being responsible for the epinasty. In the same manner, it was shown that gibberellic acid stimulated ethylene synthesis in lettuce seeds. The ethylene produced then in turn stimulated the seeds to germinate. It was hypothesized that ethylene was the intermediate which caused epinasty or seed germination. Auxin and gibberellin primarily induced their response by stimulating ethylene production.

  3. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  4. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  5. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  6. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  7. Seed governance. From seed aid to seed system security in fragile areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietberg, P.I.; Gevers, H.; Hospes, O.

    2014-01-01

    Intergovernmental agencies and development organizations, including Cordaid, consider interventions directed at seed security of utmost importance to support smallholders recovering from conflict situations and disasters, and to contribute to revitalisation of local agricultural production and food

  8. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  9. Equilibrium relative humidity as a tool to monitor seed moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2010-01-01

    The importance of seed moisture in maintaining high seed viability is well known. The seed storage chapters in the Tropical Tree Seed Manual (Hong and Ellis 2003) and the Woody Plant Seed Manual (Bonner 2008a) give a detailed discussion and many references on this point. Working with seeds in an operational setting requires a test of seed moisture status. It is...

  10. Dust seed production and dispersal in Swedish Pyroleae species

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Veronika A.; Müller, Gregor; Eriksson, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Dust seeds are the smallest seeds in angiosperms weighing just about a few micrograms. These seeds are characteristic of most orchids, and several studies have been performed on seed features, fecundity and dispersal of orchid dust seeds. In this study we examine seed features, seed production and seed dispersal in another plant group with dust seeds, the Pyroleae Monotropoideae, Ericaceae), focusing on six species: Pyrola chlorantha, P. minor, P. rotundifolia, Chimaphila umbellata, Moneses u...

  11. Clone variation of seed traits, germination and seedling growth in Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. clonal seed orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A clonal seed orchard (CSO of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at Hoshiarpur, India consisting of 20 clones originating from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Uttarakhand was the source of seeds for variability studies. There was lot of variation in seed size, seed weight, germination percent, germination value and growth rate in nursery of different clones over the years. Seed length, seed width and seed weight were positively correlated to each other but seed size had no effect on germination percent and germination value under laboratory conditions. However, seed weight was found positively correlated with germination percent in nursery with the seed lot of 2008 collection. The genetic parameters for seed traits and seedling growth also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard clones. Heritability values were found to be over 50 percent for seed weight and seed length. However, only seed weight showed high heritability value coupled with more genetic gain across the years, which indicate the presence of good amount of heritable additive component in seed weight. There was no consistency in the seed characters, germination and seedling growth parameters studied across the two years. Effect of clones was dominant and accounted for variation in seed size, seed weight, seed germination and growth parameters. Seed size or seed weight should not be used as criteria for grading of bulked seed lots of different clones, as it can narrow down genetic diversity by rejecting small seeds. The impact of these genetic differences in handling of seed lots during bulking and grading for mass propagation of nursery planting stock of D. sissoo is also discussed.

  12. Pre-dispersal predation effect on seed packaging strategies and seed viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Tutor, David; Torices, Rubén; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An increased understanding of intraspecific seed packaging (i.e. seed size/number strategy) variation across different environments may improve current knowledge of the ecological forces that drive seed evolution in plants. In particular, pre-dispersal seed predation may influence seed packaging strategies, triggering a reduction of the resources allocated to undamaged seeds within the preyed fruits. Assessing plant reactions to pre-dispersal seed predation is crucial to a better understanding of predation effects, but the response of plants to arthropod attacks remains unexplored. We have assessed the effect of cone predation on the size and viability of undamaged seeds in populations of Juniperus thurifera with contrasting seed packaging strategies, namely, North African populations with single-large-seeded cones and South European populations with multi-small-seeded cones. Our results show that the incidence of predation was lower on the single-large-seeded African cones than on the multi-small-seeded European ones. Seeds from non-preyed cones were also larger and had a higher germination success than uneaten seeds from preyed cones, but only in populations with multi-seeded cones and in cones attacked by Trisetacus sp., suggesting a differential plastic response to predation. It is possible that pre-dispersal seed predation has been a strong selective pressure in European populations with high cone predation rates, being a process which maintains multi-small-seeded cones and empty seeds as a strategy to save some seeds from predation. Conversely, pre-dispersal predation might not have a strong effect in the African populations with single-large-seeded cones characterized by seed germination and filling rates higher than those in the European populations. Our results indicate that differences in pre-dispersal seed predators and predation levels may affect both selection on and intraspecific variation in seed packaging.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different so...

  14. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, ZS; Jansen, PA; Zhang, ZB

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques - thread-marking and wire tin-tagging - affected seed fate by placing

  15. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Z.; Jansen, P.A.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques – thread-marking and wire tin-tagging – affected seed fate by placing

  16. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Z.; Jansen, P.A.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques – thread-marking and wire tin-tagging – affected seed fate by placing

  17. Using seed-tagging methods for assessing post-dispersal seed fate in rodent-dispersed trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, ZS; Jansen, PA; Zhang, ZB

    2006-01-01

    Seed tagging is widely used for tracking seeds during dispersal by seed-caching animals. No studies, however, have fully examined the effects of seed tagging on post-dispersal seed fate. We studied how two seed tagging techniques - thread-marking and wire tin-tagging - affected seed fate by placing

  18. Interspecific Variation in Primary Seed Dispersal in a Tropical Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Osvaldo Calderón; Richard Condit; Stephen P. Hubbell

    2008-01-01

    1. We investigated the relationships of seed size, dispersal mode and other species characteristics to interspecific variation in mean primary seed dispersal distances, mean annual seed production per...

  19. The biomechanics of seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2016-12-07

    From a biomechanical perspective, the completion of seed (and fruit) germination depends on the balance of two opposing forces: the growth potential of the embryonic axis (radicle-hypocotyl growth zone) and the restraint of the seed-covering layers (endosperm, testa, and pericarp). The diverse seed tissues are composite materials which differ in their dynamic properties based on their distinct cell wall composition and water uptake capacities. The biomechanics of embryo cell growth during seed germination depend on irreversible cell wall loosening followed by water uptake due to the decreasing turgor, and this leads to embryo elongation and eventually radicle emergence. Endosperm weakening as a prerequisite for radicle emergence is a widespread phenomenon among angiosperms. Research into the biochemistry and biomechanics of endosperm weakening has demonstrated that the reduction in puncture force of a seed's micropylar endosperm is environmentally and hormonally regulated and involves tissue-specific expression of cell wall remodelling proteins such as expansins, diverse hydrolases, and the production of directly acting apoplastic reactive oxygen. The endosperm-weakening biomechanics and its underlying cell wall biochemistry differ between the micropylar (ME) and chalazal (CE) endosperm domains. In the ME, they involve cell wall loosening, cell separation, and programmed cell death to provide decreased and localized ME tissue resistance, autolysis, and finally the formation of an ME hole required for radicle emergence. Future work will further unravel the molecular mechanisms, environmental regulation, and evolution of the diverse biomechanical cell wall changes underpinning the control of germination by endosperm weakening.

  20. Laser Phase Errors in Seeded FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratner, D.; Fry, A.; Stupakov, G.; White, W.; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Harmonic seeding of free electron lasers has attracted significant attention from the promise of transform-limited pulses in the soft X-ray region. Harmonic multiplication schemes extend seeding to shorter wavelengths, but also amplify the spectral phase errors of the initial seed laser, and may degrade the pulse quality. In this paper we consider the effect of seed laser phase errors in high gain harmonic generation and echo-enabled harmonic generation. We use simulations to confirm analytical results for the case of linearly chirped seed lasers, and extend the results for arbitrary seed laser envelope and phase.

  1. Seed rain and seed bank reveal that seed limitation strongly influences plant community assembly in grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndís Marteinsdóttir

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important factor in plant community assembly, but assembly studies seldom include information on actual dispersal into communities, i.e. the local propagule pool. The aim of this study was to determine which factors influence plant community assembly by focusing on two phases of the assembly process: the dispersal phase and the establishment phase. At 12 study sites in grazed ex-arable fields in Sweden the local plant community was determined and in a 100-m radius around the centre of each site, the regional species pool was measured. The local seed bank and the seed rain was explored to estimate the local propagule pool. Trait-based models were then applied to investigate if species traits (height, seed mass, clonal abilities, specific leaf area and dispersal method and regional abundance influenced which species from the regional species pool, dispersed to the local community (dispersal phase and which established (establishment phase. Filtering of species during the dispersal phase indicates the effect of seed limitation while filtering during the establishment phase indicates microsite limitation. On average 36% of the regional species pool dispersed to the local sites and of those 78% did establish. Species with enhanced dispersal abilities, e.g. higher regional abundance, smaller seeds and dispersed by cattle, were more likely to disperse to the sites than other species. At half the sites, dispersal was influenced by species height. Species establishment was however mainly unlinked to the traits included in this study. This study underlines the importance of seed limitation in local plant community assembly. It also suggests that without information on species dispersal into a site, it is difficult to distinguish between the influence of dispersal and establishment abilities, and thus seed and microsite limitation, as both can be linked to the same trait.

  2. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  3. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  4. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  5. Updated Methods for Seed Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Cervantes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in seed characters includes differences in seed size and shape. Seed shape is an important trait in plant identification and classification. In addition it has agronomic importance because it reflects genetic, physiological, and ecological components and affects yield, quality, and market price. The use of digital technologies, together with development of quantification and modeling methods, allows a better description of seed shape. Image processing systems are used in the automatic determination of seed size and shape, becoming a basic tool in the study of diversity. Seed shape is determined by a variety of indexes (circularity, roundness, and J index. The comparison of the seed images to a geometrical figure (circle, cardioid, ellipse, ellipsoid, etc. provides a precise quantification of shape. The methods of shape quantification based on these models are useful for an accurate description allowing to compare between genotypes or along developmental phases as well as to establish the level of variation in different sets of seeds.

  6. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed

  7. Seed technology training in the year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality will remain the centerpiece of successful agricultural programs in the year 2000. As new changes occur in agriculture driven by advancements in biotechnology, seed enhancement technologies, a more diverse seed user clientele, and communication technologies, successful seed companies will require a knowledgeable and informed workforce to assure high seed quality. A new approach to seed technology training is professed that relies on the establishment of a three-institution consortium to achieve this objective. Advantages of the consortium are identified that emphasize the unique strengths of each institution, their geographic advantages representing major climactic/agricultural zones in the world, and differing approaches to seed technology training that are facilitated by increasing ease of global communication. This may be a better way to conduct seed technology training in the year 2000.

  8. Inheritance of fresh seed dormancy in groundnut

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... The study showed that seed dormancy is controlled by monogenic inheritance with dormancy ..... Fertilizer Assoc Washington D. C.. John CM ... Dormancy release in Virginia-type peanut seeds by plant growth regulators.

  9. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  10. How seed orchard culture affects seed quality: experience with the southern pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have influenced significantly the quality of southern pine seeds produced when compared to collections from native stands. Seed orchard management practices such as fertilization can increase seed size and reduce seed dormancy. These result in the need for less complex pregermination treatments. Repeated cone collections from the same clones...

  11. Effect of seed maturity on sensitiviy of seed towards physical sanitation treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Rop, N.; Jalink, H.; Forsberg, G.; Kromphardt, C.; Werner, S.; Koch, E.

    2006-01-01

    Physical sanitation methods are used by the seed industry to prevent transmission of seed-borne diseases, but sensitivity varies between seed lots. The effect of seed maturity on the sensitivity to hot water, aerated steam and electron treatments was studied. Two Brassica oleracea L. and two Daucus

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts.

  13. Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badstue, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic

  14. Securing Access to Seed: Social Relations and Sorghum Seed Exchange in Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, S.

    2008-01-01

    Access to seed is crucial for farming, though few studies investigate household-level access in the informal `farmer seed systems¿ which still supply most seed in poor countries. This paper uses empirical data of seed exchange practices for sorghum in eastern Ethiopia to analyze how social

  15. Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badstue, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic diversi

  16. Handling System for Iridium-192 Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, W.; Wodicka, D.

    1973-01-01

    A complete system is proposed for safe handling of iridium-192 seeds used to internally irradiate malignant growths. A vibratory hopper feeds the seeds onto a transport system for deposit in a magazine or storage area. A circular magazine consisting of segmented plastic tubing with holes in the walls to accommodate the seeds seems feasible. The magazine is indexed to stop and release a seed for calibration and deposition.

  17. Composition of jojoba seeds and foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbiscar, A.J.; Banigan, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    The desert shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) may be browsed by cattle. The seeds have about 50% oil but the extracted meal is at present unsuitable for feeding. Simmondsin, the most prevalent toxin, is present in seed, 2.3%, and in husks, leaves and twigs. Seeds contained another toxin, Simmondsin 2'-ferulate. The contents of oil, protein, carbohydrate and amino acids in seed are tabulated. 13 references.

  18. Programmed cell death in seeds of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-12-01

    During the diversification of angiosperms, seeds have evolved structural, chemical, molecular and physiologically developing changes that specially affect the nucellus and endosperm. All through seed evolution, programmed cell death (PCD) has played a fundamental role. However, examples of PCD during seed development are limited. The present review examines PCD in integuments, nucellus, suspensor and endosperm in those representative examples of seeds studied to date. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves; Franklim Sales de Jesus Soares; Sérgio dos Santos Silva; Débora de Souza Tavares; Jeandson Silva Viana; Brenda Colleen Clifton Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds), 100°C water immersion; boiling water imm...

  20. Nutrient content of Prosopis africana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barminas, J T; Maina, H M; Ali, J

    1998-01-01

    The proximate and mineral compositions of Prosopis africana seeds used in the preparation of a local condiment in Nigeria and as animal feed were investigated. The proximate analysis showed that protein, ash and fiber values were comparable to Parkia africana seeds. However, the crude lipid content was lower than Parkia filicoidea seeds and decorticated groundnut. Phosphorus, potassium and calcium were the major mineral elements of the seeds, thereby suggesting that they could contribute partially to the overall daily intake of these elements.

  1. Spinach seed quality - potential for combining seed size grading and chlorophyll flourescence sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    might therefore improve the establishment of spinach for producers. Spinach seeds were harvested at five different times (H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5) starting 3 weeks before estimated optimum harvest time. The harvested seeds were sorted according to chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and seed size. Two harvest.......5–3.25 mm size seeds had germinated on day 3 than both their larger and smaller counterparts at the later time of harvest (H4). Seeds with a diameter below 2.5 mm displayed the lowest MGT. Commercially, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF)-sorted seeds, in combination with seed size sorting, may provide...

  2. 60Coγ射线辐照不同麻种种子的细胞学效应%Cytological Effects on Seeds of Hibiscus cannabinus and Cannabis sativa Irradiated by 60Coγ ray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立人; 吴雪琴; 魏晓飞; 李布青

    2003-01-01

    通过5种不同剂量的60Coγ射线对两个不同麻种3个品种材料的种子辐照效应研究表明,低剂量的60Coγ射线辐照能促进麻类作物根尖细胞的有丝分裂.但随着γ射线辐照剂量的增加,根尖细胞有丝分裂指数呈不同程度的下降趋势.60Coγ射线辐照能诱发根尖细胞的染色体畸变和核畸变,出现桥、断片、落后染色体、微核、双核、小核等多种畸变类型,并且辐照剂量越大,根尖细胞畸变类型越多,变异频率越高.研究结果还表明不同麻种、同一麻种不同品种对60Coγ射线的辐射敏感性不同,红麻中杂红305最强,红麻福红2号次之,大麻最弱.

  3. Low cost, high tech seed cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2013-01-01

    Clean seeds are a great asset in native plant restoration. However, seed cleaning equipment is often too costly for many small operations. This paper introduces how several tools and materials intended for other purposes can be used directly or made into simple machines to clean seeds.

  4. Farm seed opportunities : conservation, breeding and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, C.; Louwaars, N.P.; Burg, van der W.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Farm Seed Opportunities (FSO), a research project in the FP6 European Research Framework (2007-2009), was targeted to support the implementation of seed regulations on conservation varieties (directive 98/95/EC and new directives 2008/62/EC and 2009/145/CE) and to propose complementary seed

  5. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  6. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell

    2013-01-01

    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  7. Dormancy cycling in seeds: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, S.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle of most plants starts, and ends, at the seed stage. In most species mature seeds are shed and dispersed on the ground. At this stage of its life cycle the seed may be dormant and will, by definition, not germinate under favourable conditions (Bewley, 1997). Seasonal dormancy cycling

  8. Seed dormancy and germination: light and nitrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable conditions, such as th

  9. Forward genetics studies of seed phytic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the chemical composition and total amount of seed phosphorus (P) are important to the end-use quality of cereal and legume seed crops. The chemistry of seed total P largely revolves around the synthesis and storage of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Forward genetics research, beginnin...

  10. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  11. Pondberry (Lindera melissifolia) seed predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Maria Abilio; Carl Smith; Colin Tidwell; Paul Hamel; Margaret Devall; Ted Leininger

    2008-01-01

    Pondberry is an endangered, dioecious, deciduous shrub that grows in periodically flooded forests of the southeastern United States of America. Pondbeny is a clonal plant. Each female stem grows up to two meters tall and may produce many red drupes. The probability of dispersed seeds to survive to germination and beyond is unknown in the species. For this study, six...

  12. Advanced backward Raman amplification seeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Vladimir; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2010-11-01

    Next generations of ultrapowerful laser pulses, reaching exawatt and zetawatt powers within reasonably compact facilities, might be based on the backward Raman amplification (BRA) in plasmas. Amplified pulse intensities hundreds times higher than the pump intensity are already observed experimentally. More advanced BRA stages should produce even higher intensities. The largest nonfocused intensity, limited primarily by instabilities associated with the relativistic electron nonlinearity of the amplified laser pulse, is, roughly speaking, 0.1 of the fully relativistic value. It corresponds to the amplified pulse final (and shortest) duration be about the electron plasma wave period. The needed seed pulse should be at least that short then to stay ahead of the amplified pulse, rather than be shadowed by it (which would much reduce the seeding efficiency). However, at earlier BRA stages, when the amplified pulse is longer, the optimal duration of the seed pulse is also longer. This work proposes the use of self-contracting seed pulses for further optimizing the advanced BRA.

  13. Strangelet seeding from stellar evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benvenuto, O.G. (Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, 1900 La Plata (AR)); Horvath, J.E. (Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Calle 47 y 115, Casilla de Correo 67, 1900 La Plata (AR))

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a scenario for strangelets seeding in galactic environments based on the ejection of strange matter from type II super nova events. The possibility that these aggregates act in turn as triggers of future explosions of the same type is discussed, together with the expected features of their distribution and abundance.

  14. 7 CFR 201.58a - Indistinguishable seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... otherwise scarify the seed coats of the sweetclover seeds being tested. Soak seeds in water for 2 to 5 hours in a glass container. (3) Chemical reaction: When seeds have imbibed, remove excess water and add... 100 seeds each. Soak the seed in distilled water for 16 hours; then flush with tap water and...

  15. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  16. 7 CFR 201.24a - Inoculated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoculated seed. 201.24a Section 201.24a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24a Inoculated seed. Seed claimed to be inoculated shall...

  17. Myrmecochory and short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus: Ant species and seed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, J. M.; Oliveras, J.; Gómez, C.

    2009-05-01

    Benefits conferred on plants in ant-mediated seed dispersal mutualisms (myrmecochory) depend on the fate of transported seeds. We studied the effects of elaiosome presence, seed size and seed treatment (with and without passage through a bird's digestive tract) on short-term seed fate in Rhamnus alaternus. In our study, we define short-term seed, or initial, seed fate, as the location where ants release the seeds after ant contact with it. The elaiosomes had the most influence on short-term fate, i.e. whether or not seeds were transported to the nest. The workers usually transported big seeds more often than small ones, but small ants did not transport large seeds. Effect of seed size on transport depended on the ant species and on the treatment of the seed (manual extraction simulating a direct fall from the parent plant vs. bird deposition corresponding to preliminary primary dispersal). Probability of removal of elaiosome-bearing seeds to the nest by Aphaenogaster senilis increased with increasing seed weight.

  18. Nutritive and Antioxidant properties of Shade Dried Leafy Vegetables Consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Dehegnan Oulaï; Lessoy Yves Thierry Zoue; Sébastien Lamine Niamké

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are highly perishable and often subjected to post-harvest wastes. Among the various methods of preservation, the effect of shadow drying on the nutritive value and antioxidant properties of five (5) leafy vegetables species widely consumed in Northern Côte d’Ivoire was investigated. These species were Amaranthus hybridus, Andasonia digitata, Ceiba patendra, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vigna unguiculata. Experiment was conducted as follow: portions of washed and drained fresh leaf...

  19. Utilization of dried roselle calyces extract in fruit juice processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kilima, Beatrice Mgaya

    2014-01-01

    There has been an increased consumption of fruit juice as consumers have become aware of the nutritional and health benefits of fruit juices. This increased consumption goes together with the growth of varieties of fruit juices and beverages offered for sale. Among these products is roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) juice, or drink, which is a good source of anthocyanins, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid) and minerals (Ca, P, Fe). In addition, roselle is also used as flavo...

  20. Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Roselle during Cold Storage

    OpenAIRE

    El Latifa Sri Suharto; Irma Isnafia Arief3); Epi Taufik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (physical, chemical, microbiological characteristics), total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) inhibition assay of probiotic yogurt supplemented with roselle flower extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) during cold storage. The experiment used treatment for types of yogurt as follows: cow’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, goat’s milk probiotic yogurt + roselle, cow’s milk yogurt, and ...

  1. Evolution of research on recalcitrant seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbedo C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Some comments about seeds that show sensitivity to desiccation and short viability period, called recalcitrants, were made. Further studies showed that there was a gradient of sensitivity to desiccation and an intermediate class was proposed. The research demonstrated different factors related to desiccation tolerance such as ABA, proteins and sugars. It was analyzed the research of recalcitrant seeds in Brazil, that started around 1950 and nowadays the major aspects studied are recalcitrant seeds identification, seed low temperature and drying tolerance, storage capacity under different rooms and packages, chemical composition and viability during storage, fungicide treatment efficiency on seed conservation.

  2. Trade and Transfer of Tree Seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars Holger

    2016-01-01

    testing records. Genetic quality is documented as documents on origin or seed source. New types of tree planting by smallholders imply special problems in distribution and supply systems since production systems for tree seeds have large areas while many consumers have small space for planting....... A centralized forest seed supply contains large central units with good facilities for production and procurement but is far from seed users. Alternative decentralized systems with many small producers may have problems meeting high standards of seed quality and dealing with central regulations....

  3. In vitro seed to seed growth on clinostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshizaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a long term micro-gravity environment on the life cycle of plants is unknown. Whether higher plants have evolved to a stage where removal or reduction of gravity is detrimental to plant life cycle and thus fatal to the plant species, is an unanswered question in space plants which were successfully grown through the various stages of their life cycle. Attempts to grow plants as a continuous integral process from seed to seed through one generation were successful until recently. Culture of plants through multiple generations was not accomplished in space nor in ground based studies. The effect of long term simulated weightlessness by growing consecutive generations of plants continuously on clinostats using the cruciferous plants, Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heyn. and Cardamine oligosperma Nutt. is being investigated.

  4. GERMINATION STUDIES ON Tabebuia impetiginosa Mart. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Aparecido Amaral da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and seedling production of native forest tree species are an important step in ex situ conservation programs and in the reforestation with ecological purposes. Therefore, understanding seed germination and its regulation is mandatory for the complete success of the conservation programs and revegetation techniques. Thus, morphological studies, temperature requirements for seed germination and its control by gibberellins (GAs were studied in Tabebuia impetiginosa (“ipê-roxo” seeds. The best temperature for germination under constant light was 30oC. The imbibition of T. impetiginosa seeds followed the common triphasic pattern, with most of the seeds attaining phase II at 24 hours and phase III at 72 hours of imbibition. Visible germination, as radicle elongation, started at 30 hours in water-imbibed seeds and at 24 hours in GA-imbibed seeds. Seeds imbibed in Paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, failed to germinate. However, application of exogenous gibberellins overcame inhibition and allowed germination, suggesting that GAs are regulators of Tabebuia impetiginosa seed germination. The results suggested that germination in Tabebuia impetiginosa seeds is controlled by elongation of the radicle and gibberellins may play an important role in regulating it. The possible role of gibberellins is discussed.

  5. Proteome Analysis of Poplar Seed Vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Wei-Qing; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Seed vigor is a complex property that determines the seed's potential for rapid uniform emergence and subsequent growth. However, the mechanism for change in seed vigor is poorly understood. The seeds of poplar (Populus × Canadensis Moench), which are short-lived, were stored at 30 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity for different periods of time (0-90 days) to obtain different vigor seeds (from 95 to 0% germination). With decreasing seed vigor, the temperature range of seed germination became narrower; the respiration rate of the seeds decreased markedly, while the relative electrolyte leakage increased markedly, both levelling off after 45 days. A total of 81 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance (≥ 1.5-fold, P seeds with different vigor. Of the identified 65 proteins, most belonged to the groups involved in metabolism (23%), protein synthesis and destination (22%), energy (18%), cell defense and rescue (17%), and storage protein (15%). These proteins accounted for 95% of all the identified proteins. During seed aging, 53 and 6 identified proteins consistently increased and decreased in abundance, respectively, and they were associated with metabolism (22%), protein synthesis and destination (22%), energy (19%), cell defense and rescue (19%), storage proteins (15%), and cell growth and structure (3%). These data show that the decrease in seed vigor (aging) is an energy-dependent process, which requires protein synthesis and degradation as well as cellular defense and rescue.

  6. Variability in seed traits and genetic divergence in a clonal seed orchard of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ombir singh; Altaf Hussain Soft

    2012-01-01

    The variations in seed and pod traits,genetic superiority and genetic divergence were evaluated for a Clonal Seed Orchard (CSO) of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.at Bithmera,India consisting of 20 clones from different agro-climatic conditions of four northern states (Uttar Pradesh,Uttarakhand,Haryana and Rajasthan).The seeds and pods of various clones in the orchard exhibited significant variability in size,weight and other characters.Significant positive correlations were observed between seed length and seed width (p<0.05),seed length and seed thickness (p<0.01),seed length and seed weight (p<0.0l),seed thickness and seed weight (p<0.01),seed length and germination value (p<0.05).The genetic parameters for seed and pod traits also showed a wide range of variations in the orchard.Heritability values were found to be over 50 vpereent for most of the seed and pod traits.Seed weight,seed length and seed thickness showed high heritability values coupled with maximum genetic gain for these characters.Ward's minimum variance dendrogram of clones of D.sissoo showed three distinct clusters; cluster 1 was the largest with 12 better clones whereas cluster 2 and 3 consisting of seven moderate clones and one poor clone,respectively.Mean cluster values showed sufficient variation among the clusters for seed weight,germination value and seed length.The possible hybridization between best clones of cluster 1 to the disease resistant clone of cluster 2 (resistant against deadly Gandoderma lucidum root rot disease of D.sissoo) is also suggested for further breeding programmes of the species.The deployment of clone 194 (better performed and disease resistant) is also recommended in future plantation programmes of D.sissoo in northern India.

  7. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L.) developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi; A. Majd; M. Hamzeloo-Moghdam; Irian,S

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 6...

  8. Effect of electromagnetic field on okra (Hibiscus sculentus L. developmental stages and the effect of okra extract on breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hasani Sadrabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields can act as stress factors with different effects on biological systems. Due to the nutritional and medicinal values, and the increasing electromagnetic radiations, the present study was performed to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field on the developmental stages and cytotoxic properties of okra. Methods: Both dry and wet seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with the intensities of 2 and 4 mT for 60 minutes. MTT assay was applied to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of okra extract on MCF-7 cell line. The anatomical structure of leaves in both treated and untreated (control plants were examined. Results: The results showed that a field intensity of 4 mT increased the speed of germination of wet treated seeds and the stem length of dry treated seeds. MTT assay revealed no cytotoxicity of the aqueous extracts of okra pods up to the concentration of 100 μg/mL from either the treated or the control plants towards the MCF-7 cell line. Conclusion: The results suggest that the electromagnetic fields would be able to increase the speed of germination without effects on percentage of germination.

  9. (Hibiscus cannabinus) accessions in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morufat

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... (Balogun et al., 2007) or controlled illumination in vivo has been used ... Fertilizer (N-P-K 15-15-15) was applied ... Controlled environment studies: In vitro ..... Proprietary Software Release 8.2 (TS2M0), SAS Institute Inc., Cary,.

  10. Mycoflora in Exhumed Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa and Its Possible Role in Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Sánchez-Coronado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The funicular cover of the Opuntia tomentosa seed limits imbibition; germination occurs only when the funicle is weakened or the funicular valve is removed. We investigated the role of fungi in funicular weakening and seed germination. Seeds that had been either buried in one of two sites or stored in the laboratory were germinated with and without a valve. Disinfected or nondisinfected seeds and their naked embryos were cultivated on agar or PDA. None of the 11 identified fungal genera grew on the disinfected control seeds or the embryos. The mycoflora present on disinfected and nondisinfected exhumed seeds suggest that the fungal colonization occurred in the soil and differed between the burial sites. Exhumed seeds with and without a valve germinated in high percentages, whereas only the control seeds without a valve germinated. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the hyphae penetrated, cracked, and eroded the funicular envelope of exhumed seeds.

  11. Endozoochorous seed dispersal by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata): Effects of temporal variation in ranging and seed characteristics on seed shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yamato; Morimoto, Mayumi

    2016-02-01

    Variation in seed shadows generated by frugivores is caused by daily, seasonal, and inter-annual variation in ranging, as well as inter-specific variability in gut passage times according to seed characteristics. We studied the extent to which seed weight, specific gravity, and daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) and inter-annual (2004 vs. 2005) variation in ranging affected seed shadows generated by wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in northern Japan. The macaques ingested fleshy fruits of 11 species during the two year study period; Viburnum dilatatum (Caprifoliaceae: heavier seeds with higher specific gravity) and Rosa multiflora (Rosaceae: lighter seeds with lower specific gravity) were eaten frequently in both years. The travel distances of macaques after feeding on V. dilatatum and R. multiflora fruits were estimated by combining feeding locations and ranging patterns measured in the field with gut passage times of model seeds in captive animals. Median travel distances after fruit feeding were 431 (quantile range: 277-654) and 478 m (265-646), respectively, with a maximum of 1,261 m. Neither year nor time of day affected travel distances. The gut passage time of model V. dilatatum seeds was longer than that of model R. multiflora seed, but this did not affect dispersal distances. Seed shadows for both species over 2 years showed unimodal distribution (peak: 101-500 m) and more than 90%, 20%, and 3% of ingested seeds were estimated to be dispersed >100, >500, and >1000 m, respectively, the longest known distances among macaque species. R. multiflora seeds tended to be dispersed further in 2004 than 2005, but V. dilatatum seeds were not, implying that inter-annual variations in ranging pattern due to the distribution and abundance of nut fruiting could affect dispersal distance.

  12. Seed size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, H M; Cummings, C L; Kahn, L; Snow, A A

    2001-04-01

    The movement of pollen between crop and wild sunflowers (both Helianthus annuus) has led to concerns about the possible introduction of crop transgenes into wild populations. The persistence of crop traits in wild populations will depend in part on the relative fitness of crop-wild hybrid vs. wild plants. Using seeds from two large experimental field plots, we found that seeds produced by crop-wild plants were twice the size of wild seeds and differed in coloration. Head diameter, date of flowering, identity of mother plant, and levels of predispersal predation explained some variation in mean seed size. We hypothesized that postdispersal vertebrate seed predation would be affected by seed size, with hybrid seeds preferentially eaten. In each of three field trials, significantly more hybrid seeds were eaten (62% of hybrid seed; 42% of wild seed). Within the category of wild seeds, larger seeds were preferentially eaten; however among hybrid seeds, predation was not significantly related to seed size. In this study, differential predation thus reduces hybrid fitness and would presumably slow the spread of transgenes into wild populations.

  13. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Singha; Vijay Kumar Thakur

    2008-10-01

    During the last few years, natural fibres have received much more attention than ever before from the research community all over the world. These natural fibres offer a number of advantages over traditional synthetic fibres. In the present communication, a study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing material in urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer matrix has been reported. Static mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre reinforced polymer composites such as tensile, compressive and wear properties were investigated as a function of fibre loading. Initially urea–formaldehyde resin prepared was subjected to evaluation of its optimum mechanical properties. Then reinforcing of the resin with Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre was accomplished in three different forms: particle size, short fibre and long fibre by employing optimized resin. Present work reveals that mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compressive strength and wear resistance etc of the urea–formaldehyde resin increases to considerable extent when reinforced with the fibre. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG) and morphological studies (SEM) of the resin and biocomposites have also been carried out.

  14. Hierarchical mechanisms of spatially contagious seed dispersal in complex seed-disperser networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, José M; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2014-02-01

    Intra- and interspecific spatially contagious seed dispersal has far-reaching implications for plant recruitment, distribution, and community assemblage. However, logistical and analytical limitations have curtailed our understanding concerning the mechanisms and resulting spatial patterns of contagious seed dispersal in most systems and, especially, in complex seed-disperser networks. We investigated mechanisms of seed aggregation using techniques of spatial point pattern analysis and extensive data sets on mutispecific endozoochorous seed rain generated by five frugivorous mammals in three Mediterranean shrublands over two seasons. Our novel analytical approach revealed three hierarchical and complementary mechanisms of seed aggregation acting at different levels (fecal samples, seeds, pairs of seed species) and spatial scales. First, the three local guilds of frugivores tended to deliver their feces highly aggregated at small and intermediate spatial scales, and the overall pattern of fecal delivery could be described well by a nested double-cluster Thomas process. Second, once the strong observed fecal aggregation was accounted for, the distribution of mammal feces containing seeds was clustered within the pattern of all feces (i.e., with and without seeds), and the density of fecal samples containing seeds was higher than expected around other feces containing seeds in two out of the three studied seed-disperser networks. Finally, at a finer level, mark correlation analyses revealed that for some plant species pairs, the number of dispersed seeds was positively associated either at small or large spatial scales. Despite the relatively invariant patterning of nested double-clustering, some attributes of endozoochorous seed rain (e.g., intensity, scales of aggregation) were variable among study sites due to changes in the ecological context in which seeds and their dispersers interact. Our investigation disentangles for the first time the hierarchy of synergic

  15. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-09-09

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed for germination and establishment of plants. However, seed oil content as an adaptive trait in plants is poorly understood. Here, we examine the adaptive nature of seed oil content in 168 angiosperm families occurring in different biomes across the world. We also explore the role of multiple seed traits like seed oil content and composition in plant adaptation in a phylogenetic and nonphylogenetic context. It was observed that the seed oil content in tropical plants (28.4 %) was significantly higher than the temperate plants (24.6 %). A significant relationship between oil content and latitude was observed in three families Papaveraceae, Sapindaceae and Sapotaceae indicating that selective forces correlated with latitude influence seed oil content. Evaluation of the response of seed oil content and composition to latitude and the correlation between seed oil content and composition showed that multiple seed traits, seed oil content and composition contribute towards plant adaptation. Investigation of the presence or absence of phylogenetic signals across 168 angiosperm families in 62 clades revealed that members of seven clades evolved to have high or low seed oil content independently as they did not share a common evolutionary path. The study provides us an insight into the biogeographical distribution and the adaptive role of seed oil content in plants. The study indicates that multiple seed traits like seed oil content and the fatty acid composition of the seed oils determine the fitness of the plants and validate the adaptive hypothesis that seed oil quantity and quality are crucial to plant adaptation.

  16. Sunflower Seed and Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbipour, Alireza; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Mansouri, Mona

    2015-09-01

    Regardless of the overall association between diet and acne which cannot be easily ignored, there might be an association between specific nutrients and acne development or improvement. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary intake of sunflower seeds on acne severity and the pattern of acne lesions. In a randomized controlled trial, 50 patients aged 15 - 30 years old with acne vulgaris were enrolled through consecutive convenient sampling, in a dermatology clinic in Ardabil, Iran. They were randomly allocated into two trial arms. Those in the control group were asked to stop eating sunflower seeds if they did before. In the intervention group, they consumed 25 g sunflower-containing food daily for seven days. The primary outcome of interest was 10% increase/decrease in the baseline acne severity index (ASI), sustained to the end of the follow-up period on day 14. The mean ASI did not change significantly through the study period in the control group, but it increased in the sunflower group from 62 at the baseline to 86.8 after two weeks (P acne grading score (GAGS) did not significantly change in any of the groups and the difference in the change of GAGS was not significant between the groups (2.4 in the sunflower group versus 1.6 in the control group). Twenty two subjects (88%) in the sunflower group versus 9 (36%) in the control group had at least 10% increment in ASI throughout the follow-up period (P acne vulgaris; however, further evidence is needed to ban sunflower seed intake in patients with acne. Considering the observed potential negative effect in this trial, future randomized clinical trials may base their design on randomly assigning the exposed patients to give up use of sunflower seed intake.

  17. The flight of Ruellia ciliatiflora seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight; Cooper, Eric; Mosher, Molly; Wang, Yijun; Dalton, Chaelee

    2016-11-01

    The fruits of Ruellia ciliatiflora open explosively and launch mm-sized disks at speeds exceeding 10 m/s a distance of 5 m. Observations with high-speed video reveal that the seeds are launched in a streamline orientation that is maintained with a backspin of 1.5 kHz. Through a careful analysis of the high-speed videos of the seeds' flight we measure the aerodynamic forces on these spinning seeds. We find that the exceptional rotation rate both reduces drag on the seed by keeping its cross section as small as possible and generates a modest ( 0.3 g) lift on the flying seeds. To understand the aerodynamic forces we create photometrically scanned, 3D printed models of the seeds for particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a flume of tow tank. We will discuss our method for producing accurately shaped model seeds as well as preliminary PIV data on the flow of fluid around the flying seed. This work marks the start of a longer-term project that will compare the dynamics of seed launch and flight within the Acanthaceae family, which has over 2000 species in habitats ranging from rainforest to savannah that all use a similar method for launching seeds.

  18. Electrophysiology of pumpkin seeds: Memristors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Nyasani, Eunice K; Tuckett, Clayton; Greeman, Esther A; Markin, Vladislav S

    2016-01-01

    Leon Chua, the discoverer of a memristor, theoretically predicted that voltage gated ion channels can be memristors. We recently found memristors in different plants such as the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica, Aloe vera, apple fruits, and in potato tubers. There are no publications in literature about the existence of memristors in seeds. The goal of this work was to discover if pumpkin seeds might have memristors. We selected Cucurbita pepo L., cv. Cinderella, Cucurbita maxima L. cv Warty Goblin, and Cucurbita maxima L., cv. Jarrahdale seeds for this analysis. In these seeds, we found the presence of resistors with memory. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetry where a memristor should manifest itself as a nonlinear two-terminal electrical element, which exhibits a pinched hysteresis loop on a current-voltage plane for any bipolar cyclic voltage input signal. Dry dormant pumpkin seeds have very high electrical resistance without memristive properties. The electrostimulation by bipolar sinusoidal or triangular periodic waves induces electrical responses in imbibed pumpkin seeds with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in pumpkin seeds. NPPB (5-Nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid) inhibits the memristive properties of imbibed pumpkin seeds. The discovery of memristors in pumpkin seeds creates a new direction in the understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in seeds.

  19. Local evolution of seed flotation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Saez-Aguayo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis seeds rapidly release hydrophilic polysaccharides from the seed coat on imbibition. These form a heavy mucilage layer around the seed that makes it sink in water. Fourteen natural Arabidopsis variants from central Asia and Scandinavia were identified with seeds that have modified mucilage release and float. Four of these have a novel mucilage phenotype with almost none of the released mucilage adhering to the seed and the absence of cellulose microfibrils. Mucilage release was modified in the variants by ten independent causal mutations in four different loci. Seven distinct mutations affected one locus, coding the MUM2 β-D-galactosidase, and represent a striking example of allelic heterogeneity. The modification of mucilage release has thus evolved a number of times independently in two restricted geographical zones. All the natural mutants identified still accumulated mucilage polysaccharides in seed coat epidermal cells. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR relaxometry their production and retention was shown to reduce water mobility into internal seed tissues during imbibition, which would help to maintain seed buoyancy. Surprisingly, despite released mucilage being an excellent hydrogel it did not increase the rate of water uptake by internal seed tissues and is more likely to play a role in retaining water around the seed.

  20. Characteristics and composition of melon seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried melon seeds (Citrullus colocynthis L of the family Cucurbitaceae were investigated for nutritional quality and the oil seed characteristics. These melon seeds, on a dry weight basis, consisted of 52.3% of test and 47.7% of kernel. The moisture content in melon seeds was 54.5% and the mineral constituents were also determined. The oil content of seeds was very high ranging from 22.1-53.5%, due to the presence of the hulls, 22% from the seeds and 53% of the kernel, and also the crude protein content was so high as the 21.8% of the seeds. Standard procedures were applied to determine the fatty acids composition of the seed oil. The fatty acid profiles of the seed oil showed an unsaturated fatty acid content of 77.4% and the high content of 63.2% of PUFA. The predominant fatty acid was linoleic (18:2 acid in 62.2%. The presence of other fatty acids ranged in 10-14% for oleic (18:1 stearic (18:0 and palmitic (16:0 acids, respectively. Furthermore, the physical and chemical characteristics of the seed oil was also determined as iodine, acid, saponification, peroxide values and specific gravity.

  1. Seed source, seed traits, and frugivore habits: Implications for dispersal quality of two sympatric primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; González-Di Pierro, Ana Ma; Lombera, Rafael; Guillén, Susana; Estrada, Alejandro

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Frugivore selection of fruits and treatment of seeds together with seed deposition site are crucial for the population dynamics of vertebrate-dispersed plants. However, frugivore species may influence dispersal quality differently even when feeding on the same fruit species and, while animals disperse some seeds, others simply fall beneath the parent plant.• Methods: In southern Mexico, we investigated to see if within-species seed traits (i.e., length, width, weight, and volume) and germination success differed according to seed source. For five tropical tree species we obtained ingested seeds from two sources, howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces; and noningested seeds from two sources, the ground and tree crowns (with predispersed seeds used as control).• Key results: A principal components' analysis showed that traits of seeds ingested by howler monkeys differed from other sources while seeds ingested by spider monkeys were similar to noningested seeds. Howlers consumed on average the larger seeds in Ampelocera hottlei, Brosimum lactescens, and Dialium guianense. Both primate species consumed the smaller seeds in Spondias mombin, while no seed trait differences among seed sources were found in Spondias radlkoferi. For all five tree species, germination rate was greatest for seeds ingested by howler monkeys.• Conclusions: For the studied plant species, seed ingestion by howler monkeys confers higher dispersal quality than ingestion by spider monkeys or nondispersal. Dispersal services of both primate species, however, are not redundant and may contribute to germination heterogeneity within plant populations in tropical forests.

  2. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote (Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl (Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye (Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  3. Effects of rodent species, seed species, and predator cues on seed fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivy, Kelly J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Durham, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Seed selection, removal and subsequent management by granivorous animals is thought to be a complex interaction of factors including qualities of the seeds themselves (e.g., seed size, nutritional quality) and features of the local habitat (e.g. perceived predator risk). At the same time, differential seed selection and dispersal is thought to have profound effects on seed fate and potentially vegetation dynamics. In a feeding arena, we tested whether rodent species, seed species, and indirect and direct predation cues influence seed selection and handling behaviors (e.g., scatter hoarding versus larder hoarding) of two heteromyid rodents, Ord's kangaroo rat ( Dipodomys ordii) and the Great Basin pocket mouse ( Perognathus parvus). The indirect cue was shrub cover, a feature of the environment. Direct cues, presented individually, were (1) control, (2) coyote ( Canis latrans) vocalization, (3) coyote scent, (4) red fox ( Vulpes vulpes) scent, or (5) short-eared owl ( Asio flammeus) vocalization. We offered seeds of three sizes: two native grasses, Indian ricegrass ( Achnatherum hymenoides) and bluebunch wheatgrass ( Pseudoroegneria spicata), and the non-native cereal rye ( Secale cereale), each in separate trays. Kangaroo rats preferentially harvested Indian ricegrass while pocket mice predominately harvested Indian ricegrass and cereal rye. Pocket mice were more likely to scatter hoard preferred seeds, whereas kangaroo rats mostly consumed and/or larder hoarded preferred seeds. No predator cue significantly affected seed preferences. However, both species altered seed handling behavior in response to direct predation cues by leaving more seeds available in the seed pool, though they responded to different predator cues. If these results translate to natural dynamics on the landscape, the two rodents are expected to have different impacts on seed survival and plant recruitment via their different seed selection and seed handling behaviors.

  4. Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wall, S. B.; Esque, T.; Haines, D.; Garnett, M.; Waitman, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is a distinctive and charismatic plant of the Mojave Desert. Although floral biology and seed production of Joshua tree and other yuccas are well understood, the fate of Joshua tree seeds has never been studied. We tested the hypothesis that Joshua tree seeds are dispersed by seed-caching rodents. We radioactively labelled Joshua tree seeds and followed their fates at five source plants in Potosi Wash, Clark County, Nevada, USA. Rodents made a mean of 30.6 caches, usually within 30 m of the base of source plants. Caches contained a mean of 5.2 seeds buried 3-30 nun deep. A variety of rodent species appears to have prepared the caches. Three of the 836 Joshua tree seeds (0.4%) cached germinated the following spring. Seed germination using rodent exclosures was nearly 15%. More than 82% of seeds in open plots were removed by granivores, and neither microsite nor supplemental water significantly affected germination. Joshua tree produces seeds in indehiscent pods or capsules, which rodents dismantle to harvest seeds. Because there is no other known means of seed dispersal, it is possible that the Joshua tree-rodent seed dispersal interaction is an obligate mutualism for the plant.

  5. 4种真菌对木槿棉蚜毒力作用的研究%Study on Virulence of 4 Fungus Species on Aphis gossypii at Hibiscus syriacus plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪文凯

    2014-01-01

    In the tests strains of 4 fungus species including P.c, Pfu02, B and Ma4 were cultured on SDAY solid culture media, and suspension liquids were prepared separately with the conidia got in the culture. A comparative study was made on virulence of the suspension liquids on Aphis gossypii at Hibiscus syriacus plants indoors and outdoors by spraying. The test results showed that all the 4 fungus species had good indoor virulence on Aphis gossypii at Hibiscus syriacus plants and the optimal one was Strain B with the lethality rate reaching 100% while Strain Ma4 had the lowest lethality rate of 63.28%. It was also found that the strains had definite inhibiting effects on the fecundity of Aphis gossypii indoors. But due to the influence of environmental factors,the fungus strains had poor outdoor control effects on Aphis gossypii and the best was Strain B with the lethality rate being only 7.94%. The test results indicated that the fungi had good indoor application effects as microbial insecticides,but had limitations in outdoor application.%本试验利用SDAY固体培养基对P.c、Pfu02、B、Ma44种真菌菌株进行培养,用培养所得的各种分生孢子分别配制成悬浮液,采用喷雾法在室内、室外对木槿上棉蚜的毒力作用进行了比较研究。试验结果表明:4种真菌菌株在室内对木槿棉蚜均有较好的毒力作用,最理想的是菌株B,致死效果达到了100%,最差的是菌株Ma4,也达到了63.28%,同时发现对棉蚜的繁殖力有一定的抑制效果。但在室外由于环境因素的影响,对棉蚜的控制作用很差,最好的菌株B对蚜虫的致死率也只有7.94%。该试验表明,各真菌作为微生物杀虫剂在室内施用时效果理想,而在室外施用时受到一定的局限性。

  6. Microencapsulation of chia seed oil using chia seed protein isolate-chia seed gum complex coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsena, Yakindra Prasad; Adhikari, Raju; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2016-10-01

    Chia seed oil (CSO) microcapsules were produced by using chia seed protein isolate (CPI)-chia seed gum (CSG) complex coacervates aiming to enhance the oxidative stability of CSO. The effect of wall material composition, core-to-wall ratio and method of drying on the microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) and oxidative stability (OS) was studied The microcapsules produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall material had higher MEE at equivalent payload, lower surface oil and higher OS compared to the microcapsules produced by using CSG and CPI individually. CSO microcapsules produced by using CSG as wall material had lowest MEE (67.3%) and oxidative stability index (OSI=6.6h), whereas CPI-CSG complex coacervate microcapsules had the highest MEE (93.9%) and OSI (12.3h). The MEE and OSI of microcapsules produced by using CPI as wall materials were in between those produced by using CSG and CPI-CSG complex coacervates as wall materials. The CSO microcapsules produced by using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as shell matrix at core-to-wall ratio of 1:2 had 6 times longer storage life compared to that of unencapsulated CSO. The peroxide value of CSO microcapsule produced using CPI-CSG complex coacervate as wall material was <10meq O2/kg oil during 30 days of storage.

  7. Electrical condutivity test in Jacaranda micacrantha seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Fernanda Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of Jacaranda micranta Cham. seeds, by electrical conductivity test. We used three lots of seeds, stored for different periods. Electrical conductivity tests were conducted at different amounts of seeds and deionised water for soaking, and then they were associated with germination and vigour data. It was observed that the longer the seeds were storage, the greater their electrical conductivity, and therefore the lower were their germination vigour. It was also observed that different quantities of seeds and soaking water did not present significant difference, so it is recommended to use 50 seeds in 75 mL of deionised water.

  8. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Salm

    Full Text Available This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl. Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti. The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  9. Tamarind seed: properties, processing and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandini S; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2008-01-01

    Tamarind seed is an underutilized byproduct of the tamarind pulp industry. Only a small portion of the seed, in the form of tamarind kernel powder (TKP), is used as a sizing material in the textile, paper, and jute industries. Though many applications of this seed are possible, there have been hardly any other uses for it including using it as an additive in food formulations. The excellent gelling cum adhesive characteristics of the decorticated seed powder can lead to several applications in food and pharmaceutical industries which are evident by the number of research papers as well as patent applications. This article thus focuses on the possibilities of using the seed in several food and non-food industries with particular reference to physical and engineering properties, hydration behavior, rheological properties, functional and nutritional characteristics, and the processing of the tamarind seed for wider applications.

  10. MHD power generation with fully ionized seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, H.; Shioda, S.

    1977-01-01

    Recovery of power density in the regime of fully ionized seed has been demonstrated experimentally using an MHD disk generator with the effective Hall parameter up to 5.0 when the seed was fully ionized. The experiments were conducted with a shock-heated and potassium-seeded argon plasma under the following conditions: stagnation gas pressure = 0.92 atm, stagnation gas temperature = 2750 K, flow Mach number = 2.5, and seed fraction = 1.4 x 10/sup -5/. Measurements of electron-number density and spectroscopic observations of both potassium and argon lines confirmed that the recovery of power output was due to the reduction of ionization instability. This fact indicates that the successful operation of a disk generator utilizing nonequilibrium ionization seems to be possible and that the suppression of ionization instability can also provide higher adiabatic efficiency. Furthermore, the lower seed fraction offers technological advantages related to seed problems.

  11. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  12. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  13. [Seed geography: its concept and basic scientific issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shun-Li; Wang, Zong-Shuai; Zeren, Wangmu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new concept 'seed geography' was provided, and its definition, research contents, and scientific issues were put forward. Seed geography is a newly developed interdisciplinary science from plant geography, seed ecology, and phytosociology, which studies the geographic variation patterns of seed biological traits as well as their relationships with environmental factors from macroscopic to microscopic, and the seed formation, development, and change trends. The main research contents would include geography of seed mass, geography of seed chemical components, geography of seed morphology, geography of seed cell biological characteristics, geography of seed physiological characteristics, geography of seed genetic characteristics, and geography of flower and fruit. To explore the scientific issues in seed geography would help us to better understand the long-term adaptation and evolution of seed characteristics to natural environments.

  14. Transcriptional dynamics of two seed compartments with opposing roles in Arabidopsis seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.; Pearce, S.; Bolderen-Veldkamp, R.P.; Marshall, A.; Widera, P.; Gilbert, J.; Drost, H.G.; Bassel, G.; Muller, K.; King, J.R.; Wood, A.; Grosse, I.; Bentsink, L.

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination is a critical stage in the plant life cycle and the first step toward successful plant establishment. Therefore, understanding germination is of important ecological and agronomical relevance. Previous research revealed that different seed compartments (testa, endosperm, and embryo)

  15. Adaptive evolution of seed oil content in angiosperms: accounting for the global patterns of seed oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanyal, Anushree; Decocq, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the biogeographic distribution of seed oil content in plants are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in plants as seed oil is the primary energy source needed...

  16. Evaluating a seed enhancement technology (seed pillows) for sagebrush restoration efforts across a large elevation gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) restoration is needed across vast areas, especially after large wildfires, to restore important ecosystem services. Sagebrush restoration success is inconsistent with a high rate of seeding failures, particularly at lower elevations. Seed enhancement tech...

  17. Fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments conducted in laboratory, the effect of fungicides, seed dresser adjuvants and storage time in the control of Drechslera teres in seeds of barley cultivar BRS Elis, with 58% incidence, was quantified. Fungicides indicated by barley research (carboxin + thiram, difenoconazole and triadimenol compared with the mixture carbendazim + iprodione were tested. As seed dresser adjuvants, water (500m mL/100 Kg and a polymer (150 mL/100 Kg were used. Treated seeds were stored in paper bags and kept in the refrigerator at 5ºC. At 30-day intervals during six months, seeds were plated on semi-selective Reis's medium (1983. The best control was obtained by the mixtures carboxin + thiram and carbendazim + iprodione and the polymer as seed dresser. The control efficiency was improved by the storage time without negatively affecting seed germination. Due to the transmission efficiency, the fungus eradication in seeds should be pursued.

  18. Physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, A.; Nassiri, A.; Gharibzahedi, S. M. T.

    2012-04-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of moisture content on the post-harvest physical and mechanical properties of hemp seed in the range of 5.39 to 27.12% d.b. Results showed that the effect of moisture content on the most physical properties of the grain was significant (Phemp seed was not significant. However, the moisture content effect on rupture force and energy was significant (Phemp seed were significant (P<0.05).

  19. Saponaria officinalis Seeds Germination Morphology and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Yu. Ishmuratova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Saponaria officinalis seed quality, stored in different containers (paper, plastic, fabric and glass, in the different temperature conditions, under light or darkness. The morphology, biology of Saponaria officinalis seeds was described. Basing in the obtained results, we recommend to store Saponaria officinalis seeds within 3 months in paper container at the temperature of - 18˚С.

  20. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Salm

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. Th...

  1. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  2. Conference Proceedings: Seed Ecology III - The Third International Society for Seed Science Meeting on Seeds and the Environment - "Seeds and Change"; June 20-June 24, 2010; Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemary Pendleton; Susan Meyer; Bitsy Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Seed Ecology III was held in Salt Lake City, Utah in June 2010, sharing the latest research on all aspects of seed ecology. Our meeting was organized around the theme "Seeds and Change." We welcomed contributions in any area of seed ecology. Our agenda also aimed to create bridges between seed ecology and plant conservation, restoration ecology, and global...

  3. 7 CFR 361.6 - Noxious weed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds. 361.6 Section 361.6 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF SEED AND SCREENINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL SEED ACT § 361.6 Noxious weed... considered noxious weed seeds. (1) Seeds with no tolerances applicable to their introduction: Aeginetia spp...

  4. Abscisic acid and assimilate partitioning during seed development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de S.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on the transport of assimilates to seeds and the deposition of reserves in seeds. It is well-known from literature that ABA accumulates in seeds during development, and that ABA concentrations in seeds correlate rather well with seed size an

  5. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  6. Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeKrony, Dennis M.

    This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

  7. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  8. Ecological correlates of seed survival after ingestion by Fallow Deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouissie, AM; Van der Veen, CEJ; Veen, GF; Van Diggelen, R

    1. The survival and retention of seeds was studied by feeding known quantities of seeds of 25 species to four captive Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.). To test for ecological correlates, plant species were selected to represent large variation in seed size, seed shape, seed longevity and habitat

  9. 7 CFR 201.49 - Other crop seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other crop seed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.49 Other crop seed. (a) Seeds of...

  10. 7 CFR 201.64 - Pure live seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pure live seed. 201.64 Section 201.64 Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.64 Pure live seed. The tolerance for pure live seed shall be determined...

  11. 7 CFR 201.7a - Treated seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treated seed. 201.7a Section 201.7a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.7a Treated seed. The complete record for...

  12. 7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed unit. 201.47a Section 201.47a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.47a Seed unit. The seed unit is...

  13. Seed regulation: choices on the road to reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Louwaars, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    Major changes in national seed systems, including the rapid development of commercial seed enterprises, the growth of non-governmental organization (NGO) seed projects, and the concomitant decline of public sector seed provision, call for a re-examination of seed regulatory frameworks in developing

  14. Seed longevity: survival and maintenance of high germination ability of dry seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajjou, Loïc; Debeaujon, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    The seed constitutes the main vector of plant propagation and it is a critical development stage with many specificities. Seed longevity is a major challenge for the conservation of plant biodiversity and for crop success. Seeds possess a wide range of systems (protection, detoxification, repair) allowing them to survive in the dry state and to preserve a high germination ability. Therefore, the seed system provides an appropriate model to study longevity and aging.

  15. Consistent individual differences in seed disperser quality in a seed-eating fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollux, Bart J A

    2017-01-01

    Animal-mediated seed dispersal (zoochory) is considered to be an important mechanism regulating biological processes at larger spatial scales. To date, intra-specific variation in seed disperser quality within seed-dispersing animals has not been studied. Here, I employed seed feeding trials to quantify individual differences in disperser quality within the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) using seeds of two aquatic plants: unbranched bur-reed (Sparganium emersum, Sparganiaceae) and arrowhead (Sagittaria sagittifolia, Alismataceae). I found substantial variation among carp individuals in their propensity to ingest seeds and their ability to digest them, resulting in up to 31-fold differences in the probability of seed dispersal. In addition, there were significant differences in the time that seeds are retained in their digestive systems, generating a twofold difference in the maximum distance over which they can potentially disperse seeds. I propose that seed-eating animal species consist of individuals that display continuous variation in disperser quality, with at one end of the continuum individuals that are likely to eat seeds, pass them unharmed through their digestive tract and transport them over large distances to new locations (i.e. high-quality seed dispersers) and at the other end individuals that rarely eat seeds, destroy most of the ones they ingest and transport the few surviving seeds over relatively short distances (low-quality seed dispersers). Although individual differences in seed dispersal quality could be the result of a variety of factors, these results underline the ecological and evolutionary potential of such variation for both plants and animals.

  16. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  17. Microscale Insight into Microbial Seed Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Kenneth J.; Fisk, Melany C.; Lennon, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs. PMID:28119666

  18. Proteopathic tau seeding predicts tauopathy in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Brandon B; Furman, Jennifer L; Mahan, Thomas E; Yamasaki, Tritia R; Mirbaha, Hilda; Eades, William C; Belaygorod, Larisa; Cairns, Nigel J; Holtzman, David M; Diamond, Marc I

    2014-10-14

    Transcellular propagation of protein aggregates, or proteopathic seeds, may drive the progression of neurodegenerative diseases in a prion-like manner. In tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease, this model predicts that tau seeds propagate pathology through the brain via cell-cell transfer in neural networks. The critical role of tau seeding activity is untested, however. It is unknown whether seeding anticipates and correlates with subsequent development of pathology as predicted for a causal agent. One major limitation has been the lack of a robust assay to measure proteopathic seeding activity in biological specimens. We engineered an ultrasensitive, specific, and facile FRET-based flow cytometry biosensor assay based on expression of tau or synuclein fusions to CFP and YFP, and confirmed its sensitivity and specificity to tau (∼ 300 fM) and synuclein (∼ 300 pM) fibrils. This assay readily discriminates Alzheimer's disease vs. Huntington's disease and aged control brains. We then carried out a detailed time-course study in P301S tauopathy mice, comparing seeding activity versus histological markers of tau pathology, including MC1, AT8, PG5, and Thioflavin S. We detected robust seeding activity at 1.5 mo, >1 mo before the earliest histopathological stain. Proteopathic tau seeding is thus an early and robust marker of tauopathy, suggesting a proximal role for tau seeds in neurodegeneration.

  19. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  20. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K. M.; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M.; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-05-01

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25 °C to 200 °C while the time in the range from 30 to 200 minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R = 0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76 mg/100 g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08 mg/100 g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379 mg/100 g and 220.54 mg/100 g respectively.

  1. Inheritance of seed coat color in sesame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Laurentin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance mode of seed coat color in sesame. Two crosses and their reciprocals were performed: UCLA37 x UCV3 and UCLA90 x UCV3, of which UCLA37 and UCLA90 are white seed, and UCV3 is brown seed. Results of reciprocal crosses within each cross were identical: F1 seeds had the same phenotype as the maternal parent, and F2 resulted in the phenotype brown color. These results are consistent only with the model in which the maternal effect is the responsible for this trait. This model was validated by recording the seed coat color of 100 F2 plants (F3 seeds from each cross with its reciprocal, in which the 3:1 expected ratio for plants producing brown and white seeds was tested with the chi-square test. Sesame seed color is determined by the maternal genotype. Proposed names for the alleles participating in sesame seed coat color are: Sc1, for brown color; and Sc2, for white color; Sc1 is dominant over Sc2.

  2. New design of experiment combined with UV-Vis spectroscopy for extraction and estimation of polyphenols from Basil seeds, Red seeds, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hussain, Javid; Alshidani, Sulaiman; Alghawi, Said; Albroumi, Mohammed; Alameri, Saif; Jabeen, Farah; Hussain, Zahid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al Abri, Zahra K M; Farooq, Saima; Naureen, Zakira; Hamaed, Ahmad; Rasul Jan, M; Shah, Jasmin

    2017-01-26

    New experimental designs for the extraction of polyphenols from different seeds including Basil seed, Red seed, Sesame seeds and Ajwan seeds were investigated. Four variables the concentration and volume of methanol and NaOH solutions as well as the temperature and time of extraction were varied to see their effect on total phenol extraction. The temperature was varied in the range from 25°C to 200°C while the time in the range from 30 to 200minutes. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters. The estimation of polyphenols was measured through phenols reduction UV-Vis spectroscopic method of phosphotungstic-phosphomolybdic acids (Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent). Calibration curve was made by using tannic acid as a polyphenols standard in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10ppm. The regression line obtained shows the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R=0.930 and Root mean square error of cross validation (RMSEC) value of 0.0654. The Basil seeds were found containing the highest amount of total phenols i.e. 785.76mg/100g. While the Sesame seeds having the least amount i.e. 33.08mg/100g. The Ajwan seeds and the Red seeds are containing the medium amounts i.e. 379mg/100g and 220.54mg/100g respectively.

  3. Evaluation of seed vigor tests for determinig alfalfa seed quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza tavakoli kakhki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the best seed vigor test in laboratory which may provide high correlation between alfalfa seedling stablishment in the field, two experiment were conducted in field as well as in laboratory. Four alfalfa cultivars Bami, Ghareyonjeh, Hamadani and Yazdi were used. Different seed vigor tests including standard germination, germination in low tempretaure (5c , germination rate, osmotic stress, accelerated ageing and electrical conductivity tests were laid out in a randomized completely design (RCD with four replications in laboratory experiment‌. The second experiment was carried out in a randomized completely block design (RCBD and each treatment replicated four times‌. Results revealed significant differences (p≤ 0.01 among different cultivars for establishment percentage and rate. Results also showed that there were significant correlations between electrical conductivity test and establishment percentage (r= -0.65 , p ≤ 0.01 as well as establishment rate (r= -0.80 , p ≤ 0.01. Correlation coefficients for rate and emergence percentage were significant and positive (r= 0.91, p ≤ 0.01 . Stepwise method disclosed that the regression model (y=165.23 – 0.15 x r2=0.64 , (p ≤ 0.01 for predicting rate of emergence could be recommended. In this model x (dependent variable is value of electrical conductivity and y (independent variable is rate of emergence.

  4. Breaking seed coat dormancy with physical and chemical methods in tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) is an important tree crop in Africa and Asia. It is primarily propagated by grafting, which involves the generation of rootstock material. Tamarind seeds have an impermeable seed coat and need scarification for improved germination. In this study, tamarind seeds colle...

  5. Glyphosate and boron application effects on seed composition and seed boron in glyphosate-resistant soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean seed is a major source of protein and oil in the world. Seed quality is determined by the content of protein and oil. Soybean seed contains five major fatty acids, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic). Both linoleic and li...

  6. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed sample

  7. Recent trends in post-wildfire seeding in western US forests: costs and seed mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donna L. Peppin; Peter Z. Fule; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Jan L. Beyers; Molly E. Hunter; Pete Robichaud

    2011-01-01

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used post-fire rehabilitation treatments to establish ground cover for erosion control and mitigation of non-native plant species invasions. Little quantitative information is available on overall trends of post-fire seeding expenditures and seed mixes used over time in forested ecosystems in the western USA. We reviewed...

  8. Dimensional specific physical properties of fan palm fruits, seeds and seed coats (Washingtonia robusta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkuner, Yalçın; Gökbudak, Ayşe

    2016-07-01

    In this study some physical properties of fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) fruits, seeds and seed coats were determined using dimensional, bulk and single kernel physical analysis. The moisture content of whole fruits, seeds and seed coats was 12.0, 9.86 and 13.87% (d.b.), respectively. The sphericity values showed that seed shape (0.86) is close to a sphere, similar as the fruit shape (0.83), both of which were close to a scalene ellipsoid shape. The surface area values of fruits and seeds were obtained as 163.27 and 80.25 mm2, and volume values were obtained as 190.96 and 66.32 mm3, respectively. Bulk densities of fruits, seeds and seed coats were 559, 783 and 272 kg m-3, and the corresponding true densities were 1143, 1147 and 864 kg m-3, whereas the corresponding porosities were 48.87, 54.12, and 31.52%, respectively. The values of the static coefficient of friction and the angle of repose of fruits, seeds and seed coats of palm fruits were studied on aluminium, canvas, galvanised iron, plywood, PP knitted bag, PVC and stainless steel surfaces. As expected, seed coat has higher values of coefficient of static friction on the all surfaces than fruit and seed.

  9. Culling phenotypically inferior trees in seed production area enhances seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Sivakuma; B.Gurudevsingh; R.Anandalakshmi; R.R.Warrier; S.Sekaran; Mulualem Tigabu; P.C.Odén

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis after culling phenotypically inferior trees was studied in a 6-year old seed production area (SPA). A 5-ha plantation was identified, of which 2.3 ha was converted into SPA. The initial stocking, 1 612 trees·ha-1, was thinned down to 982 trees·ha-1 based on growth characteristics. The following fruiting season, seeds were collected from 10 randomly selected trees in culled and non-culled stands, and seed physical characters, germination and seedling traits were assessed. Seed weight,seed thickness and percentage germination increased by 32.1%, 4.43% and 22.37%, respectively in the culled stand compared to the non-culled stand. Culling also increased the speed of germination, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index. Heritability values were high for seed weight (0.974) and seed thickness (0.948) while medium values were observed for percentage germination (0.577) and total dry weight (0.534).Predicted genetic gain was 11.13% and 11.22% for seed weight and percentage germination, respectively. The actual gain was 32.1, 51.9 and 22.9% for seed weight, percentage germination and total dry matter,respectively. In conclusion, SPAs established by culling inferior trees could serve as sources of good quality seeds for reforestation programs until genetically improved seeds are made available.

  10. Bulk YBCO seeded with 45°-45° bridge-seeds of different lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.-H.; Durrell, J. H.; Dennis, A. R.; Cardwell, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Single grain, (RE)BCO (rare earth-barium-copper oxide) bulk superconductors in large or complicated geometries are required for a variety of potential applications, such as in motors and generators and magnetic shielding devices. As a result, top, multi-seeded, melt growth has been investigated over the past 15 years in an attempt to enlarge the size of (RE)BCO single grains specifically for such applications. Of these multi-seeding techniques, so-called bridge-seeding provides the best alignment of two seeds in a single grain growth process. Here we report, for the first time, the successful growth of YBCO (yttrium-barium-copper oxide) using a special, 45°-45°, arrangement of bridge-seeds. The superconducting properties, including trapped field, of the multi-seeded YBCO grains have been measured for different bridge lengths of the 45°-45° bridge-seeds. The boundaries at the impinging growth front and the growth features of the top, multi-seeded surface and cross-section of the multi-seeded, samples have been analysed using optical microscopy. The results suggest that an impurity-free boundary between the two seeds of each leg of the bridge-seed can form when 45°-45° bridge-seeds are used to enlarge the size of YBCO grains.

  11. Seed size, shape and vertical distribution in the soil : indicators of seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Grandin, U; Kalamees, R; Milberg, P; Poschlod, P; Thompson, K; Willems, JH

    1998-01-01

    1. We investigated the vertical distribution of seeds in the soil, using data from nine studies in five European countries. We discovered significant correlations between seed shape and distribution in the soil. 2. The classification of the longevity of seeds of plant species has been improved by

  12. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  13. Farmers' seed sources and seed quality: 1. Physical and physiological quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.; Struik, P.C.; Gastel, van A.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding farmers' seed quality problem will enable farmers to devise strategies to improve quality at the farm level. The study was conducted to assess the quality of seed used by farmers from different sources and regions. A total of 304 wheat (Trticium aestivum L. and T. durum L.) seed

  14. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied.

  15. Plasticity of seed weight compensates reductions in seed number of oilseed rape in response to shading at flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labra Fernandez, Marcelo; Struik, Paul C.; Evers, Jochem B.; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the response of the number of seeds and seed weight to the availability of assimilates is crucial for designing breeding strategies aimed to increase seed and oil yield in oilseed rape. This study aims to answer the questions: i) do seed number and seed weight in oilseed rape differ in

  16. Relationship between variation in quality of individual seeds and bulk seed quality in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Auma, E.O.; Struik, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The variation in individual seed electrical conductivity (EC) (µS cm¿¹ g¿¹) of 24 seed lots of two common bean cultivars produced at two locations was quantified using the parameters mean ¿ median, standard deviation (SD), and the range 0¿75%. Also coefficient of variation (CV) was tested, which was

  17. Dispersal of mimetic seeds of three species of Ormosia (Leguminosae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, M.S.; DeLay, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds with 'imitation arils' appear wholly or partially covered by pulp or aril but actually carry no fleshy material. The mimetic seed hypothesis to explain this phenomenon proposes a parasitic relationship in which birds are deceived into dispersing seeds that resemble bird-dispersed fruits, without receiving a nutrient reward. The hard-seed for grit hypothesis proposes a mutualistic relationship in which large, terrestrial birds swallow the exceptionally hard 'mimetic' seeds as grit for grinding the softer seeds on which they feed. They defecate, dispersing the seeds, and abrade the seed surface, enhancing germination. Any fruit mimicry is incidental. Fruiting trees of Ormosia spp. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) were observed to ascertain mechanisms of seed dispersal and the role of seemingly mimetic characteristics of the seeds in that dispersal. Seed predation and seed germination were also examined. Ormosia isthamensis and O. macrocalyx (but not O. bopiensis) deceived arboreally-foraging frugivorous birds into taking their mimetic seeds, although rates of seed dispersal were low. These results are consistent with the mimetic seed hypothesis. On the other hand, the rates of disappearance of seeds from the ground under the Ormosia trees, hardness of the seeds, and enhancement of germination with the abrasion of the seed coat are all consistent with the hard-seed for grit hypothesis.

  18. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  19. Methodological bias in the seed bank flora holds significant implications for understanding seed bank community functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plue, J; Colas, F; Auffret, A G; Cousins, S A O

    2017-03-01

    Persistent seed banks are a key plant regeneration strategy, buffering environmental variation to allow population and species persistence. Understanding seed bank functioning within herb layer dynamics is therefore important. However, rather than assessing emergence from the seed bank in herb layer gaps, most studies evaluate the seed bank functioning via a greenhouse census. We hypothesise that greenhouse data may not reflect seed bank-driven emergence in disturbance gaps due to methodological differences. Failure in detecting (specialist) species may then introduce methodological bias into the ecological interpretation of seed bank functions using greenhouse data. The persistent seed bank was surveyed in 40 semi-natural grassland plots across a fragmented landscape, quantifying seedling emergence in both the greenhouse and in disturbance gaps. Given the suspected interpretational bias, we tested whether each census uncovers similar seed bank responses to fragmentation. Seed bank characteristics were similar between censuses. Census type affected seed bank composition, with >25% of species retrieved better by either census type, dependent on functional traits including seed longevity, production and size. Habitat specialists emerged more in disturbance gaps than in the greenhouse, while the opposite was true for ruderal species. Both censuses uncovered fragmentation-induced seed bank patterns. Low surface area sampling, larger depth of sampling and germination conditions cause underrepresentation of the habitat-specialised part of the persistent seed bank flora during greenhouse censuses. Methodological bias introduced in the recorded seed bank data may consequently have significant implications for the ecological interpretation of seed bank community functions based on greenhouse data. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Decontamination of seeds for seed sprout production by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Elke Y; Diels, Ann M J; Meersseman, Katelijne; Michiels, Chris W

    2003-06-01

    Garden cress, sesame, radish, and mustard seeds immersed in water were treated with high pressure (250, 300, 350, and 400 MPa) for 15 min at 20 degrees C. After treatment, percentages of seeds germinating on water agar were recorded for up to 11 days. Of the seeds tested, radish seeds were found to be the most pressure sensitive, with seeds treated at 250 MPa reaching 100% germination 9 days later than untreated control seeds did. Garden cress seeds, on the other hand, were the most pressure resistant, with seeds treated at 250 MPa reaching 100% germination 1 day later than untreated control seeds did. Garden cress sprouts from seeds treated at 250 and 300 MPa also took about 1 day longer to reach average sprout length than sprouts from untreated control seeds did, indicating that sprout growth was not retarded once germination had occurred. Garden cress seeds were inoculated with suspensions of seven different bacteria (10(7) CFU/ml) and processed with high pressure. Treatment at 300 MPa (15 min, 20 degrees C) resulted in 6-log reductions of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli MG1655, and Listeria innocua, > 4-log reductions of Shigella flexneri and pressure-resistant E. coli LMM1010, and a 2-log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus faecalis was virtually not inactivated. For suspensions of the gram-positive bacteria, similar levels of inactivation in water in the absence of garden cress seeds were found, but the inactivation of E. coil LMM1010 and S. flexneri in water in the absence of garden cress seeds was significantly less extensive. These data suggest that garden cress seeds contain a component that acts synergistically with high hydrostatic pressure against gram-negative bacteria.