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Sample records for hibiscus mealybug hemiptera

  1. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  2. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

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    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  5. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

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    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  6. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  7. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

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    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  8. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

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    Gudapati Sreedevi

    Full Text Available Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.. Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively. Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  9. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

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    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  10. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  11. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

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    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  12. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

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    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  13. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, on Guam: Potentially a major pest

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    Aubrey Moore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  14. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

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    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  15. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

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    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  16. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  17. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

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    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  18. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

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    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  19. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

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    Ibrahim Samah Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt

  20. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  1. Molecular identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on Korean pears.

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    Park, Doo-Sang; Leem, Yu Jin; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Suh, Soo-Jung; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Oh, Hyun-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Mealybugs are under a strict regulation at foreign trades of agricultural products because they are one of the most economically damaging groups of insects on food crops and ornamental plants. However, the absence of morphological characteristics enabling the discrimination of early life stages often cause a significant delay or rejection of a shipment when infested fruit is discovered, causing significant economic loss. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for species identification was developed for six mealybug species known to infest Korean pears including two regulated insects, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) and Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa). Six sets of species-specific primers were designed based on the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions. Efficiency tests against 29 mealybug samples showed that this method could effectively discriminate different mealybug species regardless of their developmental stages. Blind tests against 11 field collected mealybug nymph samples indicated that a single polymerase chain reaction is enough to discriminate unidentified mealybugs collected on Korean pears. This new method will facilitate trade and export requirements, as well as identify the species at any stage of mealybug intercepted.

  2. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  3. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  4. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

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    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  5. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

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    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  6. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae mobile?

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    D.J. Williams

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  7. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

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    Williams, D J; Hodgson, Chris J

    2013-12-17

    It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  8. KEBERADAAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (COCKERELL (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE SEBAGAI VEKTOR PINEAPPLE MEALYBUG WILT-ASSOCIATED VIRUS (PMWAV PADA TANAMAN NANAS

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    Dewi Sartiami

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mealybug can almost be found in all pineapple fields (Ananas comosus (Linnaeus. The insect is known to be a vector of Pineapple Mealybug wilt-associated Virus (PMWaV. The insect samples taken from pineapple in Bunihayu, Jalancagak, Subang, West Java, were identified in laboratory. Mealybug-ant symbionts were also taken. The ability of this ant to carry the mealybugs from colony reared on kabocha (Cucurbita maxima to pineapple was also tested at green house level. Only one spesies of mealybug was found on pineapple, i.e. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. The mealybugs were found to colonize root, basal of stem and the leaf. Eight ant species were found to be associated with mealybug. There are four species belongs to Pseudolasius genera, two species Cardiocondyla genera, Paratrechina sp. and Dorylus sp. Paratrechina sp. showed the ability to carry D. brevipes from kabocha population to pineapple. Therefore the ants should also be controlled in the total management of PMWav.

  9. Conditioning of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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    Melissa Palma-Jiménez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the methodology for an adequate conditioning for the cleaning of mealybugs specimens and its correct observation. This work was done in the laboratory of the Research Center in Microscopic Structures (CIEMIC of the University of Costa Rica, in 2012. Four types of methodologies were implemented, which evidenced a gradual improvement of the observation of the ultrastructures through the Scanning Electron Microscopy. Every process was described in detail. The best results were showed with 10% xylene (in some cases it was feasible using 95-100% ethanol. It allowed to remove the wax from the body of the insect, avoiding its collapse, and observing the specific ultrastructures of the individual. This approach will reduce the time and cost of future taxonomic research of mealybugs.

  10. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  11. High-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus spread

    OpenAIRE

    Wetten, Andrew; Campbell, Colin; Allainguillaume, Joël

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) the most damaging virus affecting cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). The effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent and it is therefore vital that CSSV resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. In this work the efficacy of a CO1-based DNA barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by ...

  12. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  13. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

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    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsmealybug. - Highlights: > Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  15. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  16. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided.

  17. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266.

  18. Hibiscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also used to make jams, spices, soups, and sauces. The flowers are used to make medicine. Hibiscus ... mild to moderate high blood pressure. However, an analysis of results from various clinical studies suggests that ...

  19. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  20. DNA barcodes for two scale insect families, mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D-S; Suh, S-J; Hebert, P D N; Oh, H-W; Hong, K-J

    2011-08-01

    Although DNA barcode coverage has grown rapidly for many insect orders, there are some groups, such as scale insects, where sequence recovery has been difficult. However, using a recently developed primer set, we recovered barcode records from 373 specimens, providing coverage for 75 species from 31 genera in two families. Overall success was >90% for mealybugs and >80% for armored scale species. The G·C content was very low in most species, averaging just 16.3%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 10.7%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.97%. However, the latter value was inflated by high intra-specific divergence in nine taxa, cases that may indicate species overlooked by current taxonomic treatments. Our study establishes the feasibility of developing a comprehensive barcode library for scale insects and indicates that its construction will both create an effective system for identifying scale insects and reveal taxonomic situations worthy of deeper analysis.

  1. High-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of Cacao swollen shoot virus spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetten, Andy; Campbell, Colin; Allainguillaume, Joël

    2016-03-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), the most damaging virus affecting cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). The effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent, and it is therefore vital that CSSV resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. In this work, the efficacy of a CO1-based DNA barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by screening a range of mealybugs collected from cacao in seven countries. Morphologically similar adult females were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, and then, following DNA extraction, were screened with CO1 barcoding markers. A high degree of CO1 sequence homology was observed for all 11 individual haplotypes, including those accessions from distinct geographical regions. This has allowed the design of a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay capable of rapid identification of the commonly encountered mealybug pests of cacao. HRM analysis readily differentiated between mealybug pests of cacao that cannot necessarily be identified by conventional morphological analysis. This new approach, therefore, has potential to facilitate breeding for resistance to CSSV and other mealybug-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  3. Performance of the Striped Mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Variable Conditions of Temperature and Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M D; Barbosa, P R R; Silva-Torres, C S A; Torres, J B

    2014-02-01

    Mealybugs have strong associations with their host plants due to their limitations for dispersal. Thus, environmental conditions and host quality may impact the biological traits of mealybugs. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report on the biology of a Brazilian population of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which has recently been reported to infest cotton in Brazil. We evaluated the development and reproductive performance of F. virgata reared under different temperatures (25, 27, and 28°C) and mating status. The type of reproduction was also studied with insects reared on a factitious host and on cotton plants. Shorter development was obtained at 28°C as follows: nymphs generating males and females exhibited three and four instars with a mean duration of 19.1 and 20.5 days, respectively. The nymphal viability ranged from 77 to 96%, and was highest at 25°C. Females reared at 28°C initiated reproduction earlier (16.4 days), but the reproductive period was similar in all temperatures (∼16.2 days). Females produced more nymphs at 27 and 28°C (440 and 292 neonates) than at 25°C (277 neonates), although they lived longer at 25°C (63 days). Ferrisia virgata females exhibited only sexual reproduction. Thus, only mated females produced offspring, whereas unmated females died without reproducing. Therefore, the studied population of F. virgata exhibited only sexual reproduction with high survival and offspring production when fed cotton. Furthermore, pumpkin is a feasible host for mass rearing this mealybug species in the laboratory, an opening avenue for future studies.

  4. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  5. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-10-01

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied in the laboratory to understand the outcome of their recovery in field studies conducted in the United States. The developmental time of both male and female A. papayae and A. loecki was shorter than the developmental time of male and female P. mexicana. Male parasitoids of all three species had a shorter developmental time than their females. All parasitoids had a shorter developmental time in adult-female mealybugs than in second instars. Mating status (unmated and mated) had no effect on the male longevity. Unmated and mated females that were not allowed to oviposit had similar longevity and lived longer than those that were allowed to oviposit. Virgin females produced male only progeny with higher number of males from A. loecki or P. mexicana than from A. papayae. The number of females and the cumulative progeny was smaller for A. papayae than for A. loecki or P. mexicana. The progeny sex ratio (proportion of females) was not different among the parasitoids. A. papayae had the shortest reproductive period followed by A. loecki and P. mexicana, respectively. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency, recovery and establishment of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana.

  6. Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts of the mealybug subfamily phenacoccinae (hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwell, Matthew E; Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria ("Candidatus Tremblaya princeps") containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps." Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: "Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola" for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids ("Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola"), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups.

  7. Bionomics of the apefly, Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, predatory on the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Burikam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the life history, growth ratio and feeding potential of the hemipterophagous butterfly or the apefly,Spalgis epius (Westwood (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Miletinae, a promising augmentative biological control agent of thepapaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, which is an invasivealien species detected in 2008 in Thailand. The investigation was carried out under laboratory conditions at 25-30ºC and 40-60% RH using papaya mealybug reared on Thai pumpkin as its prey. The mean duration of the egg, larval and pupal stageswere 3.54±0.50, 12.01±2.40, and 10.32±0.88 days, respectively, and the mean duration from egg to adult emergence was 25.87±3.78 days. The geometric growth ratio of successive larval instars using the head capsule width as a parameter was 1.65 andconformed to Dyar’s Law. As for the predatory potential of S. epius, the total number of papaya mealybug consumed duringthe larval stage were 4,115.75±553.28 eggs, 281.25±45.08 nymphs and 77.50±16.52 female adults. The instar-specific preyconsumption from the first to fifth larval instars in the order of eggs, nymphs and female adults were 170.00±26.32, 4.25±1.71and 2.00±0.82; 654.00±67.97, 35.35±12.48 and 10.25±4.29; 1,376.75±130.95, 93.25±11.70 and 23.50±3.94; 1,426.50±252.93,110.75±15.60 and 31.00±5.25; and 31.00±5.25, 37.75±3.59 and 10.75±2.22, respectively. These findings warrant furtherinvestigation into the amenability and suitability of the entomophagous apefly, S. epius, for as an integrated pest managementstrategy for the augmentative biological control of the papaya mealybug in Thailand.

  8. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  9. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    transferência de cochonilhas de qualquer hospedeiro-fonte para cafeeiro ou citros não afetou o tempo de desenvolvimento, fecundidade e mortalidade, porém aquelas criadas e mantidas em abóbora mostraram maior fecundidade quando comparadas com qualquer outro substrato receptor. Conclui-se que a transferência do substrato, seja cafeeiro, seja citros, não influencia significativamente o comportamento alimentar e o desenvolvimento de P. citri, embora possa existir preferência inicial pelo hospedeiro-fonte.Mealybug probing behavior studied by Electrical Penetration Graphs (EPG method showed that either they do not reach the phloem or this is delayed to 9 hours. However, the phloem phase was reached earlier and more frequently when the mealybugs were reared on the same host used for monitoring. This result indicates the presence of host conditioning so far not reported for mealybugs. This study aimed to detect the effect of the previous experience of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on host choice, probing behavior and development. The citrus mealybug was reared on coffee (Coffea arabica L., citrus (Citrus sinensis L. and squash (Cucurbita maxima L. whose were named as source hosts, and transferred to coffee or citrus as receptor host plants. The study included choice tests, electrical penetration graphs (EPG and development studies. The choice test between coffee and citrus in the first 72 hours showed that mealybugs reared on coffee showed a preference to settle on coffee. When the source plant was citrus the insects showed a trend, even not significant, to select citrus over coffee. On the other side, those mealybugs taken from a squash culture did not show any preference neither for coffee nor citrus. The probing behavior monitoring showed that the phloem phase, considered important in plant acceptance, was more frequent in coffee plants, regardless using coffee or citrus as source plants. Those insects transferred from squash to

  10. A morphological and molecular characterization of vine mealybug populations (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae from Tunisia

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    Ramzi Mansour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Some vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret populations in Tunisian vineyards have been morphologically and genetically characterized. The morphological examination was based on the main distinctive characteristics of species of Planococcus, namely the number and distribution of the multilocular disc pores and tubular ducts on the adult female. This showed the existence of two different vine mealybug populations in Tunisia. Likewise, in the molecular analyses, two separate clades were revealed in the neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, supporting the morphological studies and suggesting that there are two distinct populations of P. ficus on grapevine in Tunisia.

  11. Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the efficiency and establishment of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) to control the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus was made in 2005 and 2006, at three locations in Homestead (Miami-Dade County), Florida. In each ...

  12. Systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov is presented. Nine species are treated, including D. millari which is described as new. The 8 previously described species are: Delottococcus aberiae (De Lotto), D. confusus (De Lotto), D. elisabethae (Brain), D. euphorbiae (E...

  13. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  14. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates

  15. A review of the legged mealybugs on bamboo (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) occurring in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Tsai, Ming-Yu; Wu, San-An

    2014-12-23

    Twenty-two species of legged mealybugs occur on bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in China. These species are reviewed and two of them are described for the first time: Dysmicoccus luoyangensis Li & Wu, sp. nov. and Trionymus indocalamus Li & Wu, sp. nov. Two new combinations are established: Pseudococcus bambusicola Takahashi and Kaicoccus bambusus Wu are transferred to genus Formicococcus Takahashi as F. bambusicola (Takahashi) comb. nov. and F. bambusus (Wu) comb. nov., respectively. Formicococcus bambusicola, Heliococcus bambusae (Takahashi), Neoripersia miscanthicola Takahashi and Trionymus formosanus Takahashi are redescribed and reillustrated based on type specimens. Brief notes are provided for Balanococcus kwoni Pellizari & Danzig, B. zhejiangensis Li & Wu, Dysmicoccus dengwuensis Ferris, D. indocalamus Wu, Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri, Ferrisicoccus angustus Ezzat & McConnell, Heliococcus lingnaniae Wang, H. takae (Kuwana), Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius, Miscanthicoccus miscanthi (Takahashi), Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi), Paraporisaccus guizhouensis Lu & Wu, Paraserrolecanium fargesii Wu, Pseudantonina magnotubulata Borchsenius and Trionymus bambusae (Green). A key to the species of legged mealybugs on bamboo occurring in China is given. A list of bamboo mealybugs worldwide is also provided. 

  16. Molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Chilean vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M C G; Germain, J-F; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2012-10-01

    Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) was the most common species, followed by Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado and Pseudococcus cribata González. Molecular variability at the COI and ITS2 loci was observed in both P. viburni and P. cribata. A comparison of haplotypes of P. viburni worldwide provides support for a recent hypothesis that this species is native to South America, a finding with direct consequences for management. Neither Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) nor Planococcus ficus Signoret were found.

  17. Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

    2012-10-01

    Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa.

  18. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-04-19

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World.

  19. Effect of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the reproduction and development of the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeding on green coleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendorp, Brian K; Cloyd, Raymond A; Swiader, John M

    2009-12-01

    Mealybugs are major insect pests of greenhouses, interiorscapes, and conservatories because they feed on a wide-range of horticultural crops. Furthermore, mealybugs are difficult to regulate with insecticides due to the presence of a nearly impervious protective waxy covering, which means that alternative management strategies are required. As such, this study, involving two replicated experiments, was designed to determine the value of applying silicon-based fertilizers, as potassium silicate, to coleus, Solenstemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants as a way to prevent outbreaks of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The first experiment evaluated the effects of different application methods (foliar and drench), at 50 ppm silicon, using the commercially-available product, ProTek 0-0-3 The Silicon Solution. The second experiment entailed applying the silicon-based fertilizer as a drench to the growing medium at different rates (0, 100, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm silicon). We determined the effects of the silicon-based fertilizer treatments on citrus mealybug life history parameters including number of eggs laid by the adult female, body size, and developmental time from first instar to ovipositing adult female. Furthermore, we used a plant alkaline fusion technique to assess the concentration (milligrams per kilogram or ppm) of silicon in the coleus plant tissues at variable time intervals (days). In general, this technique involved dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colormetric analysis. The silicon-based fertilizer application treatments, in both experiments, did not negatively affect any of the citrus mealybug life history parameters measured. In the first experiment, citrus mealybug female egg load ranged from 199.5 (drench application) to 219.4 (combination spray and drench application), and developmental time (days) from first instar crawler to ovipositing female ranged from

  20. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato leaves infested with an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Juan; Lu, Yao-Bin; Huang, Fang; Li, Ming-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Herbivore injury has indirect effects on the growth and performance of host plants through photosynthetic suppression. It causes uncertain reduction in photosynthesis, which likely depends on the degree of infestation. Rapid light curves provide detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport as well as the overall photosynthetic performance of a plant. We examined the effects of different intensities of infestation of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on the relative chlorophyll content and rapid light curves of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves using a chlorophyll meter and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement system, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. After 38 d of P. solenopsis feeding, relative chlorophyll content of tomato plants with initial high of P. solenopsis was reduced by 57.3%. Light utilization efficiency (α) for the initial high-density treatment was reduced by 42.4%. However, no significant difference between initial low-density treatment and uninfested control was found. The values of the maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance for initial high-density treatment were reduced by 82.0 and 69.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for low-density treatment were reduced by 55.9 and 58.1%, respectively. These data indicated that changes were induced by P. solenopsis feeding in the relative chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of infested tomato plants. The results indicating that low initial infestation by P. solenopsis caused no change in relative leaf chlorophyll content or light utilization efficiency could have been because the plants rapidly adapted to P. solenopsis feeding or because of compensatory photosynthesis.

  1. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  2. Adjuvants to improve aerial control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) using entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, S; Malan, A P

    2015-03-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is a highly destructive pest of citrus, occurring only in the aerial parts of plants. Humidity will be one of the key factors to consider when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents. Different adjuvants can be added to suspensions of EPNs, to improve control as a foliar application. An aqueous suspension containing Heterorhabditis zealandica and 0.3% Zeba® significantly increased P. citri mortality by 22% at 80% relative humidity (RH) with a temperature cycle starting at 22°C for 14 h and 11°C for 11 h. The same polymer formulation was tested for Steinernema yirgalemense and mortality of P. citri increased by 21% at 60% RH and by 27% at 80% RH. The addition of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to H. zealandica suspensions did not significantly retard application run-off on citrus leaves. The combination of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba®, however, was able to significantly retard sedimentation, increasing the average number of nematodes deposited on 2-cm2 leaf discs by 10 nematodes. In an aqueous suspension, nematodes settle rapidly to the bottom, resulting in an uneven distribution of nematodes. Xanthan gum, at a concentration of 0.2%, was highly effective at retarding sedimentation, with 72% of the initial nematode number still in suspension after 1 h. Zeba®, at a concentration of 0.3%, despite not being as effective as Xanthan gum, nevertheless still retarded sedimentation significantly. This is the first report of the potential of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to improve EPN performance against P. citri when used above ground in citrus orchards.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

    2009-02-01

    The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing.

  4. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  5. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  6. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  7. EPG waveform characteristics of solenopsis mealybug stylet penetration on cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, F.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Y.; Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a polyphagous insect known to cause severe damage to cotton (especially transgenic varieties) in South Asia, and currently poses a serious threat in Asia and potentially elsewhere. Stylet penetration behavior of

  8. Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

  9. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum, the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  10. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Muhammad Khan

    Full Text Available The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

  11. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-01-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

  12. Using a kairomone-based attracting system to enhance biological control of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae by Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae in Sicilian vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mansour

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The “potato trap” technique was applied for the fi rst time in Italian (Sicily vineyards in an attempt to assess: a the impact of the kairomonal activity of the vine mealybug sex pheromone (S-(+-lavandulyl senecioate (LS on the parasitism of mealybugs by the encyrtid Anagyrus sp. near pseudococci, b the influence of two commonly used insecticides on the parasitization activity of A. sp. near pseudococci towards mealybugs, and c the efficiency of the release of A. sp. near pseudococci in enhancing parasitism rates of mealybugs. The number of captured A. sp. near pseudococci females in LS baited traps was significantly higher than that in unbaited traps. The minimal number of days for the first parasitoid emergence in LS baited traps was almost 3 days earlier, compared to unbaited control, suggesting a faster host detection by the encyrtid when LS is applied. These findings resulted in a significant increase in parasitism of mealybugs by A. sp. near pseudococci in LS baited traps relative to unbaited traps suggesting that the LS is used by the encyrtid as kairomone to ensure greater potential for host searching activity. Insecticide treatments significantly affected parasitization activity of A. sp. near pseudococci on mealybugs when compared to an untreated control with parasitoid release. The buprofezin, chlorpyriphos-methyl and untreated control with no parasitoid release treatments had statistically similar numbers of emerged parasitoids from exposed mealybugs. The obtained results provide evidence that, in the absence of conventional insecticides applications, the use of the LS could be a promising tool to improve and strengthen biological control of mealybugs by A. sp. near pseudococci within Sicilian vineyard conditions.

  13. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  14. Is the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata, a vector of huanglongbing bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) present in striped mealybugs feeding on Las-infected periwinkle plants. In November 2010, specimens of a common greenhouse pest, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Pseudococcidae; Hemiptera), were collected from Las-infected periw...

  15. Temperature- and Relative Humidity-Dependent Life History Traits of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvales: Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H S; Yang, L; Huang, L F; Wang, W L; Hu, Y; Jiang, J J; Zhou, Z S

    2015-08-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a worldwide distributive invasive pest, originated from the United States, and it was first reported in Guangdong province, China, in 2008. The effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the life history traits of P. solenopsis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvales: Malvaceae) were studied at seven constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, and 35°C) and three RHs (45, 60, and 75%). The results showed that temperature, RH, and their interactions significantly influenced the life history traits of P. solenopsis. First instar was the most sensitive stage to extreme temperatures with very low survival rates at 15 and 35°C. At 25-32.5°C and the three RHs, the developmental periods of entire immature stage were shorter with values between 12.5-18.6 d. The minimum threshold temperature and the effective accumulative temperature for the pest to complete one generation were 13.2°C and 393.7 degree-days, respectively. The percentage and longevity of female adults significantly differed among different treatments. It failed to complete development at 15 or 35°C and the three RHs. Female fecundity reached the maximum value at 27.5°C and 45% RH. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (R0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 27.5°C and 45% RH (0.22 d(-1), 244.6 hatched eggs, and 1.25 d(-1), respectively). Therefore, we conclude that 27.5°C and 45% RH are the optimum conditions for the population development of the pest.

  16. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps.

  17. 外来有害生物—扶桑绵粉蚧的危害及其研究概况%Harm of new invasive pest, Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and its research status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朗; 黄立飞; 姜建军; 王伟兰; 杜晓利

    2012-01-01

    扶桑绵粉蚧是我国新发现的重要外来农林害虫,对农业生产构成极大威胁,我国于2009年把其列为检疫性有害生物.文章详细概述了扶桑绵粉蚧在国内外的的分布、寄主植物和危害特点及其生活史等生物学、生态学特性,提出了包括加强检疫、加强对发生区的控制等防控措施,并指出今后须对扶桑绵粉蚧的分子鉴定、不同地理种群的遗传多样性、种间种内的关系、早期预防及预测方法适生区及潜在发生区域的风险评估等进行深入研究.%Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae) is a new invasive pest,owing to its potential damages and rapid spread,it has been considered as an important quarantine pest in China since 2009.For improving the precaution of this new invasive pest by all kinds of people,the biological and ecological characterisitcs of this Mealybug,viz.,distribution at home and abroad,host plants,harm characters and life cycle were introduced in this paper, and the control measures such as quaratntine and control in happening areas of this Mealybug were also put forward.In future,the molecular identification,genetic diversity of different geography populations,descendiblity relationships in different populations,early prevention and quick forecasting method, suitable life region,risk evaluation of potential diffusing area and rout distribution of P.solenopsis should be further studied.

  18. The native ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum, improves the survival of an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, by defending it from parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong-Dong; Michaud, J.P.; Li, Pan; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic ants can protect their partners from natural enemies in nature. Aenasius bambawalei is an important parasitoid of the the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. We hypothesized that mutualism between native ants and mealybugs would favor survival of mealybugs. To test this, we examined effects of tending by the native mutualistic ant Tapinoma melanocephalum on growth of P. solenopsis colonies on Chinese hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in a field setting. Ant workers with access to honeydew of mealybugs lived much longer than those provisioned only with water in the laboratory, and number of ant workers foraging increased significantly with growth of mealybug colonies in the field. In later observations, there were significant differences in densities of mealybugs between ant-tended and -excluded treatments. Survival rate of mealybugs experiencing parasitoid attack was significantly higher on ant-tended plants than on ant-excluded plants. When the parasitoid was excluded, there was no difference in survival rate of mealybugs between ant-tended and -excluded plants. In most cases, ants directly attacked the parasitoid, causing the parasitoid to take evasive action. We conclude that native ants such as T. melanocephalum have the potential to facilitate invasion and spread of P. solenopsis in China by providing them with protection from parasitoids. PMID:26503138

  19. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A ...

  20. Interactions of light intensity, insecticide concentration, and time on the efficacy of systemic insecticides in suppressing populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Williams, Kimberly A; Byrne, Frank J; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2012-04-01

    The impact of light intensity on the uptake and persistence of the systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, were evaluated in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) and yellow sage (Lantana camara L.). Insecticide residues were measured in leaves sampled from the treated plants at four time intervals after treatment to determine the relationship between insecticide concentration and efficacy against two insect pests: sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso. The insecticides were evaluated at their respective label rate and at the comparable label rate of the other insecticide under two different light environments: ambient and shade. The uptake of dinotefuran into yellow sage was more rapid at both treatment rates than both rates of imidacloprid, resulting in higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.8-100) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. Additionally, plants that received both rates of dinotefuran had fewer whitefly pupae (whitefly nymphs (89.5-99.6) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. However, despite efficient uptake, the efficacy of both systemic insecticides was less for citrus mealybug where percent mortality values were <50% among all the treatments across the 4 wk. The use of the two systemic insecticides evaluated in regards to pest management in horticultural cropping systems is discussed.

  1. Host -instar selection of Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera : Encyrtidae ) for mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae )%班氏跳小蜂对寄主龄期选择的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何嫏芬; 冯东东; 李盼; 许再福

    2012-01-01

    The parasitoid, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat, has been recently reported as the predominant natural enemy of the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley ( Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). In this study, the 2nd instar nymph, 3nd instar nymph and female adults of the mealybug were exposed to A. bambawalei in the free choice and restrictive choice experiments to investigate the effect of the stages on the parasitism, development, sex ratio and body size of the progeny of A. bambawalei. The 3rd instar nymph of P. solenopsis was the most suitable life stage for oviposition by A. bambawalei in both experiments , while the parasitization of P. solenopsis female adult by A. bambawalei resulted in the highest female ratio of progeny. In both experiments, the three stages had no significant effect on the developmental time of female progeny of A. bambawalei; however, the developmental time of male progeny of A. bambawalei from P. solenopsis female adult was longer than that from 2nd and 3rd instars hosts. Progeny of A. bambawalei reared from P. solenopsis female adult are bigger than those from 2 nd and 3 rd instars nymph in both experiments.%班氏跳小蜂Aenasius bambawalei Hayat是扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley的优势种寄生蜂.本文研究了在限制选择和自由选择的条件下,扶桑绵粉蚧的2龄若虫、3龄若虫和雌成虫对该蜂的寄生率、发育历期、子代性比和个体大小的影响.结果表明:在两种选择条件下,班氏跳小蜂对扶桑绵粉蚧3龄若虫的寄生率显著高于对雌成虫和2龄若虫的寄生率,但寄生粉蚧雌成虫的子代雌雄性比显著高于寄生3龄若虫或2龄若虫的性比;在两种选择条件下,雌蜂在寄主三种虫龄(态)上的发育历期差异不显著,但是雄蜂在粉蚧雌成虫中的发育历期显著长于寄生2龄若虫或3龄若虫的发育历期;在两种选择条件下,寄生于粉蚧雌成虫的子代雌蜂和雄蜂的个

  2. Convergent patterns in the evolution of mealybug symbioses involving different intrabacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Gitta; Schulz, Frederik; Toenshoff, Elena R; Volland, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Omri M; Belkin, Shimshon; Horn, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    Mealybugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) maintain obligatory relationships with bacterial symbionts, which provide essential nutrients to their insect hosts. Most pseudococcinae mealybugs harbor a unique symbiosis setup with enlarged betaproteobacterial symbionts ('Candidatus Tremblaya princeps'), which themselves contain gammaproteobacterial symbionts. Here we investigated the symbiosis of the manna mealybug, Trabutina mannipara, using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the intrabacterial symbiont of T. mannipara represents a novel lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the tentative name 'Candidatus Trabutinella endobia'. Combining our results with previous data available for the nested symbiosis of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, we show that synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins and translation-related functions partition between the symbiotic partners in a highly similar manner in the two systems, despite the distinct evolutionary origin of the intrabacterial symbionts. Bacterial genes found in both mealybug genomes and complementing missing functions in both symbioses were likely integrated in ancestral mealybugs before T. mannipara and P. citri diversified. The high level of correspondence between the two mealybug systems and their highly intertwined metabolic pathways are unprecedented. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the only known intracellular symbiosis between two bacteria and suggests that the evolution of this unique symbiosis included the replacement of intrabacterial symbionts in ancestral mealybugs.

  3. Transmissão experimental do Grapevine virus B pela cochonilha Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae Transmission of the Grapevine virus B by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Kuniyuki

    2006-06-01

    to verify the transmission of both GVB isolates from infected to healthy plants by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus. The transmission of the virus was determined by visual analysis of symptoms, ELISA and RT-PCR. In all transmission experiments, grape indicator plants that had been exposed to presumably viruliferous mealybugs reacted in 8-12 months with a typical symptoms of GCB. Healthy LN-33 plants, maintained around one GCB-C affected LN-33 plant, highly infested by the mealybug, became infected with incidence of 54.2% after four years. Experimental inoculation of healthy LN-33 plants with viruliferous mealybugs resulted in infection rates of 46.2% for GVB-C and 40.0% for GVB-I, after three years. Although P. longispinus occurs eventually in São Paulo State vineyards, preventive control measures for this insect must be taken on areas where healthy clones of scion and rootstock varieties are maintained.

  4. Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs preshipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (= PFR 97®) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs before shipping plant products was assessed under laboratory conditions. Hibiscus leaves were dipped into beakers filled with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 g of PFR 97® / L of water and t...

  5. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  6. Bionomics of mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae) on cotton%扶桑绵粉蚧生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艺勇; 黄芳; 吕要斌

    2011-01-01

    A serious invasive exotic mealybug pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, has been recently found in China, with a great potential threat to cotton production. In the laboratory, we studied the developmental duration, reproduction and morphology of the mealybug on cotton. The results showed that there are five stages (egg, 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar nymph and adult) in the life cycle of female, while in the male there are six stages (egg, 1st and 2nd instar nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and adult). The egg stage was short; the nymphal stage of the female lasted 15 -20 days and the total life span of the female was about 47 -59 days,while in the male the nymphal and pupal stage together lasted about 17 -22 days and the total life span of the male was about 20 - 26 days. The longevity of the female was much longer than the male. P. solenopsis has strong fecundity with an egg laying amount per female adult ranging from 200 to 862 ( average 458 eggs). Egg, elongate-oval in shape, orange in colour and slightly transparent. First instar nymph,yellowish green in colour, and moves very fast. Second instar nymph, the protuberances on marginal surface of body become visible, anal lobes protrudent; male and female can be differentiated by the dark spots on body surface in late-2nd instar stage. Third instar female nymph, similar to adult female, covered by a thin layer of white waxy powder, with dark dorsomedial bare spots on intersegmental areas of thorax and abdomen from 1 st to 4th segment, these areas forming 1 pair of dark longitudinal lines on dorsum. Adult female, oval in shape, covered with a thick layer of white waxy powder; several pairs of dark spots present under the waxy powder on thorax and abdomen, with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments, posterior 2 -3 pairs longer.Male pupa covered in loose white silky cocoon. Adult male, small and blackish brown in colour; antennae long and thin; one pair of transparent fore wings with hind wings degenerated into poiser; and two pairs of

  7. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported occurring in several countries causing severe losses in economically important crops, including cotton. Based on information reported by farmers in the regions of the Southwest and Middle São Francisco, Bahia and also in the regions of the Agreste and Semi-arid of the Paraiba State, high infestations of cotton mealybugs have occurred in these regions during the cotton season of 2007 and 2008. The cotton mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis and this represents the first record of this insect attacking cotton in Brazil.

  8. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  9. A survey of mealybugs infesting South-Brazilian wine vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson J. Morandi Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are important pests of the grapevine Vitis spp. and are responsible for direct and indirect damage to production. The main mealybug species present in wine grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil were identified and their incidence evaluated. Bunch-samples (n = 50 from 131 vineyards located in the Serra Gaúcha Region (RS of Brazil were analyzed at harvest, and the occurrence of mealybugs in the roots was evaluated at the time of eradication of plants for replanting. Mealybugs were reared in laboratory until adulthood for species determination. The species Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1983, Dysmicoccus sp., Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813, Pl. minor(Maskell, 1897, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, 1875 and Pseudococcus sp. were identified in bunches. Dysmicoccus sp., D. umbambae Granara de Willink, 2009, Pl. citri and Pseudococcus sp. were found in the roots. Pl. citri (31.4% and Dysmicoccus sp. (22.7% were the most common species found in wine grape bunches in the Serra Gaúcha Region.

  10. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata.

  11. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata.

  12. Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

  13. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  14. Survey on the natural enemies of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Guangdong and Hainan, China%广东和海南扶桑绵粉蚧的天敌调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华燕; 何娜芬; 郑春红; 李盼; 易晴辉; 许再福

    2011-01-01

    An investigation on natural enemies of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley was carried out in Guangdong and Hainan Provinces from July, 2009 to December, 2010. Four species of ladybirds, which were identified to be Cryptolaemus rnontrouzieri Mulsant, Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) and Nephus quadrimaculatus ( Kamiya), had been found to feed on P. solenopsis. In addition, four species of parasitoids viz. Acerophagus coccois Smith, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat, Prochiloneurus nagasakiensis (Ishii) and an undescribed species Allotropa sp. were documented to attack P. solenopsis. Six species of the eight natural enemies were briefly described and illustrated.%自2009年7月至2010年12月,我们对广东和海南的扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley的天敌进行调查,共发现8种天敌.其中,捕食性天敌有4种,分别是孟氏隐唇瓢虫Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant、双带盘瓢虫Lemnia bilagiata(Swartz)、六斑月瓢虫Menochilus sexmaculatus(Fabricius)和圆斑弯叶毛瓢虫Nephus quadrimaculatus(Kamiya);寄生性天敌有4种,分别是松粉蚧抑虱跳小蜂Acerophagus coccois Smith、班氏跳小蜂Aernasius bambawalei Hayat、长崎原长缘跳小蜂Prochiloneurus nagasakiensis(Ishii)和粉蚧广腹细蜂Allotropa sp..文内简要描述了6种天敌的主要鉴别特征,并提供了一些形态特征图.

  15. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy.

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    Aleixandre Beltrà

    Full Text Available Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa, sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain.

  16. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H.; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  17. 不同温度下康氏粉蚧实验种群生命表%Life table of the experimental population of Comstock mealybug,Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐盼; 徐志宏; 李绍进; 许渭根; 李罕琼; 盛仙俏; 金文灶; 王莹莹; 赵亦曼

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of temperature on the population growth of Comstock mealybug, Pseudococcus comstocki, the life table of the experimental population of P. comstocki at six different temperatures (17℃, 20℃ , 23℃, 26℃, 29℃ and 32℃) was constructed. The results showed that the generation duration decreased with the temperature increasing from 17℃ to 29℃. The longest generation durations of females and males were 121. 27 d and 89. 64 d at 17℃ , respectively, while the shortest were 52. 10 d and 36. 01 d at 29℃ , respectively, and the relationship between the development and temperature could be simulated by the Logistic model. The developmental threshold temperature and the effective accumulated temperature of females were 8. 691, and 1 020. 90 day-degrees, and those of males were 10.27℃ and 659.04 day-degrees, respectively. At 26℃ , the survival rate and population trend index were the highest, being 81. 94% and 322. 27, respectively. The temperature of 26℃ was the most suitable for the population growth. While at 17℃ and 29℃ , the survival rates were 64. 85% and 67.23% , and the population trend indexes were 69. 91 and 42. 19, respectively. At 32℃, growth retardation appeared in the 1st instar nymphs. It is concluded that high and low temperatures are not suitable for the population growth of P. comstocki and high temperatures have stronger effects than low temperatures.%为了探索温度对康氏粉蚧Pseudococcus comstocki发育和繁殖的影响,经室内实验,建立了康氏粉蚧在17℃,20℃,23℃,26℃,29℃和32℃下的实验种群生命表.结果表明:在17 ~ 29℃温度范围内,随着温度的升高康氏粉蚧的世代发育历期缩短,在17℃下雌雄世代的发育历期最长(分别为121.27 d和89.64 d),而29℃时仅分别为52.10 d和36.01 d,且其温度与发育速率的关系符合Logistic模型.雌虫世代的发育起点温度为8.69℃,有效积温为1 020.90日·度;雄虫世

  18. The phloem-sap feeding mealybug (Ferrisia virgata carries 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations that do not cause disease in host plants.

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    Marco Pitino

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB, the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Trioza erytreae (Triozidae, and Cacopsylla (Psylla citrisuga (Psyllidae. In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24 × 10(7 to 1.07 × 10(4 Las cells per mealybug. We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants.

  19. The Phloem-Sap Feeding Mealybug (Ferrisia virgata) Carries ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Populations That Do Not Cause Disease in Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitino, Marco; Hoffman, Michele T.; Zhou, Lijuan; Hall, David G.; Stocks, Ian C.; Duan, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las) is the primary causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. There are three known insect vectors of the HLB-associated bacteria, and all are members of the Hemiptera: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae), Trioza erytreae (Triozidae), and Cacopsylla (Psylla) citrisuga (Psyllidae). In this study, we found that another hemipteran, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was able to acquire and retain Las bacteria. The bacterial titers were positively correlated with the feeding acquisition time on Las-infected leaf discs, with a two-weeks feeding period resulting in Ct values ranging from 23.1 to 36.1 (8.24×107 to 1.07×104 Las cells per mealybug). We further discovered that the prophage/phage populations of Las in the mealybugs were different from those of Las in psyllids based on Las prophage-specific molecular markers: infected psyllids harbored the Las populations with prophage/phage FP1 and FP2, while infected mealybugs carried the Las populations with the iFP3 being the dominant prophage/phage. As in the psyllids, Las bacteria were shown to move through the insect gut wall to the salivary glands after being ingested by the mealybug based on a time-course quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay of the dissected digestive systems. However, Las populations transmitted by the mealybugs did not cause disease in host plants. This is the first evidence of genetic difference among Las populations harbored by different insect vectors and difference among Las populations with respect to whether or not they cause disease in host plants. PMID:24465578

  20. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  1. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Malausa

    Full Text Available Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae. The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  2. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  3. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%).

  4. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  5. Testes em condições para o controle de Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae em cafeeiro com nematóides entomopatogênicos do gênero Heterorhabditis(Rhabditida, Heterorhabditidae Tests for the control of coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae with Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida, Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane S. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os nematóides entomopatogênicos (NEPs apresentam potencial para o controle biológico de pragas e têm sido usados com sucesso, em vários países, no controle de pragas de solo e de ambientes crípticos, como a cochonilha-da-raiz-do-cafeeiro Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley. Testes de laboratório demonstram que estes agentes apresentam alta virulência sobre este inseto, no entanto, são necessários testes que avaliem a eficiência dos NEPs em condições de casa-de-vegetação e campo, sendo este o objetivo do presente trabalho. O experimento em condição de casa-de-vegetação para o controle da cochonilha foi realizado em vasos infestados, usando dois isolados do nematóide e dois métodos de aplicação (cadáver infectado e suspensão aquosa, conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com cinco repetições. O experimento em condições de campo foi conduzido em blocos casualisados (6 blocos, para avaliar a eficiência de dois isolados heterorhabditídeos no controle da cochonilha-da-raiz-do-cafeeiro. Os resultados mostraram que, em casa-de-vegetação, o método de suspensão aquosa apresentou melhores resultados para os dois isolados, sendo que JPM3 aplicado em suspensão aquosa foi o melhor tratamento, apresentando eficiência de controle de 70%. No experimento de campo, apenas o tratamento com o inseticida Actara 250 WG (thiamethoxam, usado como padrão de comparação, e JPM3, aplicado em suspensão aquosa, diferiram da testemunha, apresentando 81 e 65% de eficiência de controle, respectivamente.Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs have potential for biological pest control and have been successfully used in several countries in soil and cryptic pests control, as for example the coffee root mealybug Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley. Laboratory tests demonstrated that these agents are highly virulent to the insect, but semi-field and field tests are needed to determine their efficiency. Greenhouse tests were made in infested pots

  6. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus Syriacus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heui Sub; Lee, Ki Woon; Im, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Hibiscus(Hibiscus syracuse L.) has been know as a national flower of Korea science old times. Although there are some ancient records that the Hibiscus had been planted in large quantities in Korea, Japanese had dug out all the good plants of Hibiscus in this country during their colonial period. But Hibiscus has such a characteristics of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as a hybrid naturally and have heterogeneous genes. Therefore many good characters can be taken out from the surviving plants. Many domestic 78 varieties of Hibiscus syracuse were collected and propagated 26 varieties cuttings. Radiosensitivity of gamma-ray irradiated Hibiscus syracuse were investigated the germination rate, survival rate, plant height was with the increase of 4 kR better than control. The radiation doses of 10-12 kR are recommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus. 6 figs, 11 tabs, 41 refs. (Author).

  7. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  8. Two new species of mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Moghaddam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polystomophora arakensis Moghaddam and Phenacoccus salviacus Moghaddam are described and illustrated in detail from Iran. The species P. arakensis was collected from the roots of Atraphaxis sp. (Family: Polygonaceae and P. salviacus was collected from the leaves of Salvia bracteata (Family: Labiatae. The genera Phenacoccus and Polystomophora are briefly reviewed and a key to the Iranian species of Phenacoccus is provided.

  9. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four host plant species under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Osborne, Lance S; Epsky, Nancy D

    2008-06-01

    Life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, on three ornamental plants [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha wilkesiana (Muell.-Arg.), and Plumeria rubra L.] and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) was studied under laboratory conditions. Mealybugs were able to develop, survive, and reproduce on all four hosts; however, there were differences in the life history parameters. Adult females that developed on acalypha and parthenium emerged approximately 1 d earlier than those that developed on hibiscus and plumeria. Adult males had a longer developmental time on plumeria than on the other hosts. Survival of first- and second-instar nymphs and cumulative adult survival were lowest on plumeria. Longevity was not affected by hosts for males and females and averaged 2.3 +/- 0.1 and 21.2 +/- 0.1 d, respectively. On plumeria, 58.9 +/- 1.7% of the adults were females, which was a higher female percentage than on the other hosts. No egg production occurred in virgin females. Prereproductive and reproductive periods of the females were not affected by hosts and averaged 6.3 +/- 0.1 and 11.2 +/- 0.1 d, respectively. Mean fecundity of 186.3 +/- 1.8 eggs on plumeria was lower than on the other three plant species. Life history parameters of P. marginatus on hibiscus, acalypha, plumeria, and parthenium show its ability to develop, survive, and reproduce on a wide variety of plant species.

  10. Ontogenesis and Adaptability of Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Different Varieties of Cotton%不同类型棉花品种对扶桑绵粉蚧个体发育特征及其适应性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新宁; 崔旭红; 陈玲; 黄伟峰; 郑丹; 商晗武

    2012-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis feeding on six varieties of transgenic or non-trans-genic Bt cotton was investigated. Correlations between the development and reproduction of Ph. solenopsis and the amounts of soluble sugar, soluble protein and gossypol in cotton were also analyzed. The results showed that the cotton mealybug could complete its life cycle on both transgenic and non-transgenic cotton plants, but there were significant differences among the six cotton varieties in the development time, fecundity, and mortality of Ph. solenopsis. Variety CCRI 41 was the best for cotton mealybug, which had the best fecundity, longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), and finite rate of increase (X.) and the lowest doubling time (DT) on this strain. In contrast, CCRI 59 was the most unsuitable variety for cotton mealybug, which had the lowest fecundity, longevity, Ro, rm, and X and the highest mortality and DT on this cultivar. There was a positive correlation between gossypol content offender leaves and the duration of 2nd instar nymphs and negative correlations between gossypol content of both tender and mature leaves and adult longevity and fecundity, which implied that gossypol slowed the growth and development of Ph. solenopsis and inhibited both reproduction and survival of the mealybug.%研究了转基因、非转基因等6个不同棉花品种以及棉叶中可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白、棉酚含量对扶桑绵粉蚧生长发育、繁殖特性的影响,结果表明:扶桑绵粉蚧在各品种棉花上都能危害,且在发育历期、产卵量和存活率等方面均存在明显差异.中棉所41上扶桑绵粉蚧产卵量、寿命、净增殖率R0、内禀增长率rm与周期增长率λ数值最大,种群加倍时间DT值最小,为该虫最适宜棉花品种;而中棉所59上产卵量、寿命、R0、rm、λ值最小,死亡率与DT值最大,为该虫最不适宜品种.嫩叶棉酚含量与2龄若

  11. Toxic effects of four insecticides on mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) fed on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvales: Malvaceae)%4种杀虫剂对取食朱槿的扶桑绵粉蚧的毒杀作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟兰; 陈红松; 黄立飞; 姜建军; 杨朗

    2014-01-01

    扶桑绵粉蚧已入侵广西,并在朱槿上成功定殖,且对朱槿造成一定的为害,研究杀虫剂对其毒杀作用,可为其大暴发时的应急防治提供参考.采用浸叶法测定了丙溴磷、毒死蜱、吡虫啉、印楝油对取食朱槿的扶桑绵粉蚧的毒杀效果,用Probit Analysis建立毒力回归方程,比较了扶桑绵粉蚧对不同杀虫剂的敏感性.结果表明,印楝油对扶桑绵粉蚧的直接毒杀作用较弱,药后3d最高浓度(10 mL/L)对一龄若虫的致死率仅为66.43%,对其他3个虫龄几乎无直接毒杀作用;另外3种化学杀虫剂均具较强的毒杀作用,药后3d,大多数试验浓度的校正死亡率在50.00%以上,最高浓度的死亡率均超过90.00%;不同虫龄的敏感性顺序为一龄>二龄>三龄>雌成虫,药剂的敏感性顺序为丙溴磷>吡虫啉>毒死蜱.说明化学杀虫剂对扶桑绵粉蚧的直接毒杀效果显著,但不同虫龄对不同药剂的敏感性差异较大,田间用药宜根据虫龄结构,选择合适的药剂、剂量和时机.

  12. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)%The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfeng ZHANG; Yingping XIE; Jiaoliang XUE; Xiaohong FU; Weimin LIU

    2012-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy,we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug,Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae).We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular,quinquelocular,and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts,recording characteristics of their structure,size and distribution.We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers—the procuticle,epidermis and basement membrane—and four sub-layers of the procuticle—the epicuticle,exocuticle,endocuticle and formation zone.The waxsecreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis.All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells.These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage.Synthesized by the glandular cells,the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  13. Phylogeography of pink pineapple mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) reveals the history of pineapple introduction and cultivation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y B; Zhan, R L; Sun, G M; Wu, J B; Zhao, Y L

    2015-08-19

    The pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a widespread plant-sucking insect of considerable concern because it transmits the pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus. Its distribution is closely linked with its host, the pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill] because of its wingless and parthenogenetic characteristics. To investigate the history of D. brevipes introduction and the cultivation of pineapple in China, samples of D. brevipes were collected from the main pineapple production region in China, and from Thailand, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analyzed. Homologous sequences of D. brevipes COI from Brazil, Thailand, and Philippines that are deposited in GenBank were compared. Phylogenetic analyses suggest there are close genetic relationships between PPM populations from Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, and from Thailand and China, which probably originate from South America. It is suggested that most PPMs in China were introduced from South America by way of Southeast Asia, being accompanied by the pineapple seedling. Conversely, some PPMs represented by Haplotype-WN from Wanning of China, and Lampang of Thailand were found to differ greatly from populations in Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, and China. It is possible that another route was used for the introduction and distribution of pineapple, or that pineapple might have originated in Southeast Asia.

  14. Studies on mutation breeding of hibiscus syriacuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sub; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Hibiscus has been known as a national flower of Korea. Hibiscus has ahch a characteristic of self-incompatibility that all the plants exist as natural hybrids and have heterogeneous genes. Thirth two domestic varieties were propagated. Radiosensitivity of H. syriacus irradiated with gamma ray was investigated in plant cuttings. The plant height was reduced by 45 percent in 5 kR irradiated group compared to control group. The radiation dose of 5 kR could be rrecommended for mutation breeding of Hibiscus cuttings. Promising mutant lines were selected form the varieties of Hwarang Wolsan 176, I1pyondansim and Emille. 6 tabs., 2 figs., 13 refs., 4 ills. (Author).

  15. Detection of somaclonal variation in micropropagated Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tissue culture techniques offers several advantages such as production of disease- free plants ..... Current Issues in Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology, pp 247-252. (Kluwer ... Natural cross-pollination in Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

  16. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  17. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  18. Chemistry of the pheromones of mealybug and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2015-07-01

    This article comprehensively reviews the syntheses of all known sex pheromones of scales and mealybugs, describes how they were identified, and how the synthetic pheromones are used in insect management.

  19. The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Parsa

    Full Text Available Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India, or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam. Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response.

  20. Effect of Honey Solution and Water Acquisition on Survival of Starved Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Feifei; Lu, Yaobin; Zhang, Pengjun; Zhang, Jinming; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Weidi; Lin, Wencai; Bei, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of honey solution and water access on feeding behavior and survival of starving solenopsis mealybugs, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The electrical penetration graph technique and an artificial membrane system were used to check whether P. solenopsis could imbibe free water or other liquid, such as the honey solution used here, in its natural environment. The recorded electrical penetration graph waveforms revealed that P. solenopsis could continuously imbibe water-honey solution for several hours, which indicated that honey solution and water acquisition could possibly occur when P. solenopsis had access to such liquids in its natural environment. Waveforms of water-honey solution feeding alternated between two distinct feeding phases in a regular pattern, which was assumed to reflect inherent habits of feeding attempts. The effects of honey solution and water acquisition on survival of P. solenopsis was also examined. Comparison between P. solenopsis in different treatments (starved, water feeding, honey solution feeding, and cotton plant feeding) suggested that 1) P. solenopsis could accept but did not favor feeding on water or the honey solution, and 2) this feeding could prolong its survival, but had no effect on body size. PMID:25373148

  1. Chemistry and quality of Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) for developing the natural-product industry in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliani, H R; Welch, C R; Wu, Q; Diouf, B; Malainy, D; Simon, J E

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess and improve the quality of the hibiscus calyces from Senegal over 2 production seasons (2004 to 2005), to develop and adapt new procedures for the determination of hibiscus anthocyanins and analysis of the 2 major ones, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. The foreign matter, total ashes, and acid insoluble ashes showed that the calyces harvested in 2005 were produced following hygienic practices, while the color assessment of the calyces and analysis of hibiscus active principles also showed higher amounts of anthocyanins in 2005. A protocol to measure anthocyanins by pH-differential UV-Vis spectrophotometry was adapted to measure the hibiscus anthocyanins from a water extract. The spectrophotometric method for quantitation of total anthocyanins showed a close correlation (r(2)= 0.82) when compared with the HPLC method, suggesting the use of the colorimetric method in quality control programs as an affordable alternative method to assess anthocyanin content in hibiscus. New and raised standards for the cleanliness and active principle content in hibiscus are also proposed. This study demonstrated that the implementation of a quality control program and the application of agricultural good practices in the production and processing of hibiscus calyces can lead to higher quality natural plant products.

  2. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil Ocorrência de nova espécie de cochonilha em campos de algodão nos estados da Bahia e Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported occurring in several countries causing severe losses in economically important crops, including cotton. Based on information reported by farmers in the regions of the Southwest and Middle São Francisco, Bahia and also in the regions of the Agreste and Semi-arid of the Paraiba State, high infestations of cotton mealybugs have occurred in these regions during the cotton season of 2007 and 2008. The cotton mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis and this represents the first record of this insect attacking cotton in Brazil.A cochonilha do algodão, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae tem sido registrada ocorrendo em vários países, causando perdas severas em diversas culturas de interesse econômico, incluindo o algodão. De acordo com informações relatadas por agricultores familiares do Sudoeste e Médio São Francisco, Bahia e também do Agreste e Semiárido da Paraíba, ocorreram altas infestações de cochonilhas de algodão nessas regiões durante as safras de 2007 e 2008. O inseto foi identificado como P. solenopsis e representa o primeiro registro deste inseto atacando algodão no Brasil.

  3. Occurrence of new species of mealybug on cotton fields in the states of Bahia and Paraíba, Brazil Ocorrência de nova espécie de cochonilha em campos de algodão nos estados da Bahia e Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae has been reported occurring in several countries causing severe losses in economically important crops, including cotton. Based on information reported by farmers in the regions of the Southwest and Middle São Francisco, Bahia and also in the regions of the Agreste and Semi-arid of the Paraiba State, high infestations of cotton mealybugs have occurred in these regions during the cotton season of 2007 and 2008. The cotton mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis and this represents the first record of this insect attacking cotton in Brazil.A cochonilha do algodão, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae tem sido registrada ocorrendo em vários países, causando perdas severas em diversas culturas de interesse econômico, incluindo o algodão. De acordo com informações relatadas por agricultores familiares do Sudoeste e Médio São Francisco, Bahia e também do Agreste e Semiárido da Paraíba, ocorreram altas infestações de cochonilhas de algodão nessas regiões durante as safras de 2007 e 2008. O inseto foi identificado como P. solenopsis e representa o primeiro registro deste inseto atacando algodão no Brasil.

  4. 扶桑绵粉蚧组织蛋白酶B基因的克隆、原核表达和不同发育阶段表达分析%Molecular cloning, prokaryotic expression and expression at different developmental stages of cathepsin B gene in mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley ( Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梅; 董章勇; 宾淑英; 廖泓之; 林进添

    2012-01-01

    昆虫组织蛋白酶B在昆虫代谢过程中发挥重要作用.本研究利用RACE技术克隆了扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley组织蛋白酶B基因的开放阅读框(ORF)序列,命名为PsCb(GenBank登录号:JQ727999).生物信息学分析表明,该基因的开放阅读框包含927 bp的片段,编码308个氨基酸.多序列比对表明,该基因编码的蛋白在N端变异较大,在C端保守性高.组织蛋白酶B基因的系统进化树结果表明扶桑绵粉蚧组织蛋白酶独自成为一支.原核表达电泳检测到一条大约35 kDa的目的条带,与预测的蛋白分子量相符.组织蛋白酶B基因在扶桑绵粉蚧各个虫态均有表达,卵期表达量相对较低,2龄若虫期达到最高峰,然后下降.本研究为进一步研究该基因的功能并开发出组织蛋白酶抑制剂,从而研制出扶桑绵粉蚧杀卵剂和胚胎发育抑制剂等提供理论依据.%Cathepsin B plays an important role in insect metabolism. In this study, cathepsin B gene was cloned from mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis and named as PsCb ( GenBank accession no. JQ727999 ). This cDNA contains an open reading frame (ORF) which is 927 bp in length encoding 308 amino acids. Homology analysis shows that the N-terminal sequence of PsCB has larger variation, while the C-terminal sequence is conserved. Phylogenetic tree shows that PsCB is separated with other branches. Prokaryotic protein expression test showed the expressed product has the MW of 35 kDa, nearly equal to the predicted. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that PsCb mRNA was expressed in various developmental stages of P. Solenopsis. The expression level was relatively lower at the egg stage, reached a peak at the 2nd instar nymph and then declined. Our study provides a theoretical basis for further study of the gene function, the development of cathepsin inhibitors as ovicides and inhibitors of embryonic development of P. Solenopsis.

  5. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  6. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  7. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  8. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  9. Genetic differentiation among Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations living on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Sarmiento-Benavides, Sandra L; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    2010-06-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) is a dangerous pest that damages a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural, and forestry crops. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints were used to characterize the genetic variation of 11 M. hirsutus populations infesting three plant species in Nayarit, Mexico. Analysis was carried out using four primers combinations, producing 590 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis, as well as bootstrap dendrogram and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, grouped M. hirsutus populations according to their host plant. The estimated F(ST) values indicated a high differentiation in M. hirsutus populations among the three host plant species. These results were also supported by a Bayesian analysis, which indicated a population clustering robustness according to their host plant. Genetic variation among populations is not caused by geographic distances, as shown by a Mantel test.

  10. 'USS Alabama', 'USS Mississippi', 'USS Missouri', 'USS Tennessee' and 'USS Texas' Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five new Chinese hibiscus cultivars are products from a planned hibiscus breeding program conducted by the inventors at Poplarville, MS. The goal of the research is to produce new clones with a combination of desirable horticultural traits. Desirable floral traits include early bloom, uniform flower...

  11. Probing behavior of Dysmicoccus brevipes mealybug in pineapple plants

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    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences in susceptibility to viruses in plants may be partially explained by the insect vector probing behavior and by the presence of phenolic compounds, which are often associated with defense strategies. This study aimed at detecting barriers that may difficult the probing activity of the Dysmicoccus brevipes (Pseudococcidae pineapple mealybug, a vector of the pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus, as well as evaluating the phenolic content of plants, in order to verify any possible relationship with the probing behavior, by using the electrical penetration graphs (EPG technique. Seedlings of 'Smooth Cayenne' and 'Pérola' pineapple cultivars were used in the experiments. Only 28 % and 21 % of the mealybugs reached the phloem of the 'Smooth Cayenne' and 'Pérola' cultivars, respectively, over 16 h of recording, with an average of 9 h to reach the phloem vessels. The xylem phase was extended in both cultivars and represented approximately 31 % ('Smooth Cayenne' and 44 % ('Pérola' of the recording time. The phenolic contents of both cultivars were similar.

  12. Molecular evidence of polyandry in the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

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    Sofia G Seabra

    Full Text Available The occurrence of polyandry in Planococcuscitri, presumed by earlier observations of mating behavior, was confirmed using microsatellite genotyping of pools of over 400 eggs resulting from controlled crosses of one female with two males. The genetic contribution of both mated males was confirmed in 13 out of 43 crosses. In three crosses it was possible to determine that only the first male fertilized the eggs, which may be due to sperm competition or unviable sperm supply. The microsatellite analysis also allowed the confirmation of aspects of the chromosomal inheritance detected previously in cytogenetic studies in Planococcuscitri, namely that only one of the alleles is transmitted by the male, indicating that the males are functionally haploid, supporting the observation of Paternal Genome Elimination (PGE in these insects.

  13. Characterization of the mutualistic endosymbiosis between intracellular bacteria and mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    OpenAIRE

    López Madrigal, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Simbiosis, del griego sym “con” y biosis “vivir”, hace referencia a la asociación estable entre individuos de dos o más especies (simbiontes) que muestran interdependencia a cualquier nivel biológico. La ubicuidad de las asociaciones simbióticas en las ramas principales del árbol de la vida evidencia la relevancia global de éstas en la evolución de la vida. Las asociaciones más estudiadas son aquellas que se establecen entre procariotas y eucariotas que, habitualmente, suponen la ampliación d...

  14. Molecular evidence of polyandry in the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Sofia G; Brás, Patricia G; Zina, Vera; Borges da Silva, Elsa; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Mendel, Zvi; Paulo, Octávio S; Franco, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of polyandry in Planococcuscitri, presumed by earlier observations of mating behavior, was confirmed using microsatellite genotyping of pools of over 400 eggs resulting from controlled crosses of one female with two males. The genetic contribution of both mated males was confirmed in 13 out of 43 crosses. In three crosses it was possible to determine that only the first male fertilized the eggs, which may be due to sperm competition or unviable sperm supply. The microsatellite analysis also allowed the confirmation of aspects of the chromosomal inheritance detected previously in cytogenetic studies in Planococcuscitri, namely that only one of the alleles is transmitted by the male, indicating that the males are functionally haploid, supporting the observation of Paternal Genome Elimination (PGE) in these insects.

  15. Changes in the quality of zobo beverages produced from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... Quality changes in zobo beverage produced from Hibiscus sabdarifa during storage and the ... Zobo drink, a non alcoholic local beverage is produced ..... treatment on the shelf life of fermented African oil bean seed (Ugbu),.

  16. Free radical scavenging activities of pigment extract from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-01-05

    Jan 5, 2012 ... 3College of Pharmacy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China. Accepted ... commerce for economic and environmental reasons. Hibiscus ..... sinensis leaves and tea from a lowland plantation in Malaysia. Food.

  17. The Influences of Lime Powder (Citrus aurantifolia, S. on Hibiscus Leaf Tea Quality (Hibiscus rosasinensis, L.

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    Sahadi Didi Ismanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of the study is to look the influence of different lime powder concentration level addition tohibiscus leaf dip drink’s quality. Then, the Second influence of different lime powder for tea hibiscus leaf which accepted as best sensory analysis. The study was conducted from August to September 2014 in the Agricultural Technology Laboratory and Tablet preparation laboratory Pharmacy, University of Andalas, Padang Indonesia. This study is used complete randomized design (CRD consisting of 4 treatments and 3 replications. The data were analyzed by using ANOVA statistically and Duncan’s New Multiple Range (DNMRT at5% significance level. The Treatment in this study is the addition of lime powder by 55%, 65%, 75%, and85%. Observations of hibiscus leaf powder and lime powder such us water levels, ash levels, vitamin C and antioxidants, while product tea hibiscus leaf such water levels, ash levels, vitamin C, antioxidants, poly phenols, sensory analysis, and total plate count of it. The result of the study is showed that the addition of lime powder influence on water levels, ash levels, vitamin C, and antioxidants. Based sensory analysis and chemical analysis, the best beverage products hibiscus leaves are dipped in treatment A (addition of lime powder 55% with a 45% level of liking the taste, flavor and color of 75% and 55% chemical step, vitamin C 0.15%, 1.58% total poly phenols, antioxidant activity of 35.51%, total plate count was 2.83 × 103 cfu/ml, 7.76% water levels and ash levels of 9.87%.

  18. Biological and molecular detection of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis in Iran

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    Reza POURRAHIM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2011, ten leaf samples of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis with virus-like symptoms including diffuse mottling, numerous chlorotic spots and chlorotic ring spots, were collected from Guilan province, North Iran. The results of mechanical inoculation of sap from these leaves onto different indicator hosts showed local lesions (chlorotic or necrotic on Gompherena globosa, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Gossypium hirsutum, while Hibiscus cannabinus (kenaf showed systemic chlorotic ring spot symptoms. Purified preparations of the isolated virus contained isometric particles approximately 28–30 nm in diameter. A specific band of about 1.3 kb was amplified from all symptomatic leaves using Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV specific primers. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the IRN.HCRSV (JX865593 isolate shared the greatest nucleotide sequence identity (96.5% with NC-003608 (Singapore and the least nt sequence identity (91.5% with DQ392986 (Taiwan isolates. The phylogenetic tree showed at least two subgroups for HCRSV isolates in which the Iranian isolate was grouped with Singapore HCSRV (NC-003608. This is the first report of HCRSV in H. rosa-sinensis in Iran.

  19. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Zeng, Ling; Lu, Yongyue; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis) against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  20. Additions to the fauna of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea and coccoids (Hemiptera: Coccoidea from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, with illustrations and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated account with diagnostic details of the reared and collected species of insect parasitoids along with scale insects and mealybugs from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is presented. Twenty eight species of insect pests and parasitoids under two major orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera are documented, of which 16 species are reported for the first time from these islands specifically from South and Middle Andamans. The parasitic wasps reared and collected belong to six families-Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Chalcididae, Eucharitidae, Aphelinidae, and Pteromalidae, including 16 species under 12 genera. The majority of the species are primary or secondary parasitoids attacking many insect groups. The scale insects and mealybugs documented belong to four families-Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Diaspididae, and Cerococcidae, including 12 species under 11 genera. Information on the species distribution, host association, and brief taxonomical description of each species along with illustrations is provided for easy identification. Illustrations include habitus photographs of 16 species of parasitic wasps and 12 species of scales and mealybugs.

  1. Mealybug Chromosome Cycle as a Paradigm of Epigenetics

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    Giorgio Prantera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, epigenetics has had an ever-growing impact on research not only for its intrinsic interest but also because it has been implied in biological phenomena, such as tumor emergence and progression. The first epigenetic phenomenon to be described in the early 1960s was chromosome imprinting in some insect species (sciaridae and coccoideae. Here, we discuss recent experimental results to dissect the phenomenon of imprinted facultative heterochromatinization in Lecanoid coccids (mealybugs. In these insect species, the entire paternally derived haploid chromosome set becomes heterochromatic during embryogenesis in males. We describe the role of known epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, in this phenomenon. We then discuss the models proposed to explain the noncanonical chromosome cycle of these species.

  2. REGISTRO DA COCHONILHA-ROSADA-DO-HIBISCO INFESTANDO FRUTÍFERAS EM MACEIÓ, ALAGOAS, BRASIL

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    SÔNIA MARIA FORTI BROGLIO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported for the first time the occurrence of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil attacking the following fruit species: soursop (Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae, guava (Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae, mango (Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae, carambola (Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae, acerola (Malpighia glaba L. (Malpighiaceae, cajazeiro (Spondias lutea L. (Anacardiaceae and cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma gran-diflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. (Malvaceae. The percentages of injured plants were recorded for each plant species in the field. Damaged plants showed short internodes, wrinkled leaves, fruit deformation, and sooty mold developed on the honeydew excreted by the mealybugs. Infested plant structures were taken to the Laboratory of Entomology of the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Alagoas, where the mealybug species was identified through morphological characteristics. The following injury percentages were recorded on the plants: soursop (100%, guava (10%, mango (10%, carambola (100%, acerola (100%, cajá (50% and cupuaçu (100%. The mealybug collected in Maceió, AL; Brazil was identified as Maconelli-coccus hirsutus (Green, 1908 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. It was the first record of this species in the state of Alagoas and infestation by pink hibiscus mealybug on the host plants mango, acerola and cajazeiro in Brazil.

  3. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  4. Evaluation of efficacy of 18 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida) against Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth de Carvalho; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an important plant virus vector in grapevine crops in Brazil and other countries. The mealybug grows in roots and leaves of the grapes. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are efficient control agents against insects associated to the soil and could be applied with the same equipment used for chemical insecticides. The aim of this study was to select effective EPNs for controlling P. citri females in laboratory conditions (25±1°C, UR 60±10%). We tested 17 native [Steinernema rarum (6 strains), Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema sp., Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (7 strains)] and only one exotic strain (Steinernema carpocapsae ALL). The bioassays were done on Petri dishes infested with females of P. citri, which were sprayed with EPNs juveniles. The strain with larger pathogenicity and virulence in laboratory was H. bacteriophora RS33 (from 69.0% to 92.2% of mortality), native of Rio Grande do Sul.

  5. Limonene, a citrus extract, for control of mealybugs and scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Robert G

    2005-06-01

    In a series of bioassays with mealybugs, aqueous solutions of 1% limonene were tested that used from 0.50 to 1.50% all purpose spray adjuvant (APSA)-80 as an emulsifier/surfactant. The two ingredients were added to water or to 0.1% Silwet L-77, an agricultural surfactant. Using 1% limonene, 0.75% APSA-80 and 0.1% Silwet L-77, a semitransparent mixture (primarily a microemulsion) was obtained that was safe for most plants and provided good control of mealybugs when sprayed or used in 1-min dips. Used at half strength, this mixture controlled > or =99% of whiteflies, whereas the full-strength mixture controlled from 69 to 100% of mealybugs and scales, including > or =93% control of root mealybugs. In side-by-side greenhouse tests, this mixture was superior to a 2% solution of insecticidal soap or a 2% solution of horticultural spray oil. Mortality of green scales on potted gardenia plants averaged 95, 89, and 88% on plants sprayed with limonene, insecticidal soap, or horticultural oil, respectively. In a related test, these same sprays killed 44.1, 22.7, or 12.5% of third and fourth instar clustering mealybugs, respectively. Limonene has promise as a safe, natural pesticide for insect pests on tolerant plants. Although 1% limonene solutions damaged certain species of ferns, gingers and delicate flowers, they caused no damage to ornamentals with thick, waxy leaves, such as palms, cycads, and orchids.

  6. Present status of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Mariana Islands and its control by two fortuitously introduced natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Muniappan, R; Cruz, Z T; Naz, F; Bamba, J P; Tenorio, J

    2009-08-01

    The mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), attacks ornamental and fruit crops in the Mariana Islands. Insecticides cannot penetrate the heavy layers of wax that protect the insect's body. We surveyed the mealybug's locally recruited natural enemies and their effects on its population on Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian to assess the need for introduction of exotic natural enemies. We monitored population densities of M. hirsutus, those of its natural enemies, and parasitism rates for 3 yr, 2005-2007. Our surveys revealed the presence of two parasitoids, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. near mecrida (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), fortuitously introduced to the Mariana Islands with M. hirsutus. The predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) also was often found feeding on M. hirsutus. Population density of M. hirsutus was below the economic threshold at all locations. Rainfall seemed to affect mean numbers of M. hirsutus and mean numbers of eggs at some locations. On all four islands, the two parasitoids, complemented by the predator, were effectively controlling the M. hirsutus population. No evidence of hyperparasitism was recorded. Currently, economic damage by M. hirsutus is not a concern in the Mariana Islands, and additional parasitoids need not be introduced to control M. hirsutus.

  7. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Pommereau

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February–March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420–440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale.

    The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

  8. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae, is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear.Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts-hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash-were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants.Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant.

  9. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  10. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  11. Molecular identification of two closely related species of mealybugs of the genus Planococcus (Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological identification of the mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and P. minor (Maskell), two serious agricultural pests, is often complicated by the existence of intermediate forms and a lack of knowledge of the intraspecific variation that occurs in each species. In this paper, we hav...

  12. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae, Candidatus Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae this function is performed by its single endosymbiont Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola. However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species.

  13. Fire ants protect mealybugs against their natural enemies by utilizing the leaf shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiming Zhou

    Full Text Available The importance of mutualism is receiving more attention in community ecology. In this study, the fire ant Solenopsis invicta was found to take advantage of the shelters constructed by the leaf roller Sylepta derogata to protect mealybugs (Phenacoccus solenopsis against their natural enemies. This protective effect of fire ant tending on the survival of mealybugs in shelters was observed when enemies and leaf rollers were simultaneously present. Specifically, fire ants moved the mealybugs inside the shelters produced by S. derogata on enemy-infested plants. Compared with that in plants without ants, the survival of mealybugs in shelters in the presence of natural enemies in plants with ants markedly improved. Both the protection of ants and the shelters provided by leaf rollers did not affect the survival of mealybugs in the absence of enemies in plants. Ants and leaf rollers significantly improved the survival of mealybugs in predator-infested plants, whereas no such improvement was observed in parasitoid-infested ones.

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Okoduwa, Stanley I. R.; Mbora, Lovina O.; Adu, Matthew E.; Ameh A. Adeyi

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results o...

  15. Two new species of Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with taxonomic notes on some congeneric taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Aguirre, María B; Aquino, Daniel A

    2014-09-15

    Two new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Argentina, A. cachamai Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta and Tucumán Provinces) and A. quilmes Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán). Both new species are parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Anagyrus cachamai is a parasitoid of H. pungens Granara de Willink on Alternanthera paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. (Amaranthaceae), and also of a Hypogeococcus sp. on Cleistocactus baumannii and Hypogeococcus sp. on C. smaragdiflorus (Cactaceae). Anagyrus quilmes is a parasitoid of H. pungens on A. paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. Other biological traits of the new species are also reported. These parasitoids may be of importance as potential candidate biological control agents against a Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and identified as H. pungens, but possibly not belonging to that species. This mealybug threatens the native cacti in some Caribbean islands and Florida, USA, and is devastating the native columnar cacti in Puerto Rico. Illustrations and taxonomic notes on the type specimens of some other, little known described species of Anagyrus from Argentina and Chile are provided, and a key to females of the 14 species of Anagyrus known from Argentina is given. Anagyrus nigriceps (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized under A. bellator (De Santis). Lectotypes are designated for Paranusia bifasciata Brèthes, Philoponectroma pectinatum Brèthes, and Protanagyrus aciculatus Blanchard. 

  16. Genetic Variation of Cassava Mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, Based on DNA Sequences from Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsalek RATTANAWANNEE

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the genetic variation and genetic structure of the Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero, one of the most serious insect pests of cassava worldwide, in populations in Thailand, using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence based analysis. The samples of P. manihoti were collected from 28 major cassava-growing areas within 18 provinces in Thailand. Our field survey results showed that the northeastern and eastern regions of Thailand were widely and highly infested with P. manihoti. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 2 mitochondrial clades and a single nuclear clade, which corresponded to low genetic variability. This suggests that P. manihoti has a high potential to spread aggressively throughout the cassava-growing areas in Thailand that in which it was first found in 2008. In addition, the generally low genetic divergence observed may be due to the highly prevalent parthenogenetic reproduction of this insect pest species. Further research is therefore necessary to develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. In addition, the genetic structure and variability of P. manihoti populations from neighboring countries should be studied.

  17. Silver Nano Scaffold Formation by Flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Shabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscusrosa sinensis grows for their showy flowers and are used as landscape shrubs. Hibiscusrosa sinensis also has too many medicinal properties. Flowers are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Inourstudy the flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis has been used for the synthesis of silver nano scaffold formation and its reduction by the flowers. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles occurred under the exposure of the flower extract to 1mM (AgNO3, Silver nitrate aqueous solution. During this process the complete reduction of nanoparticles was observed nearly 48hours of reaction at 30°C under vigorous shaking conditions. The colour change is noted in the reaction mixture and observed during the process of incubation period, it may be due to the formation of the silver nanoparticles which are able to produce the colour in the reaction mixture may be due to their specific properties of surface Plasmon resonance. The colour change was made confirmed by visualization and the characterization by FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Thus we conclude that the reduction process and capping may be having occurred due to the presence of many flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, some aminoacids and proteins. In conclusion, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract appears capable of forming silver nanoparticles. It can be concluded that, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract was able to form the silver nano scaffold and may be probably due to its antioxidants potential, some flavonoids, terpenes etc. This study is a preliminary effort and requires further investigation at different levels.

  18. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  19. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  20. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  1. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  2. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoletti, Elena [Institut Plant Protection (IPP), National Council Research (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)], E-mail: e.paoletti@ipp.cnr.it; Ferrara, Anna Maria [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Giannetti, Fabio [Istituto per le Piante da Legno e l' Ambiente (IPLA), Corso Casale 476, 10132 Turin (Italy); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion C.E.A.M., Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9320 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300 ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30 ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation. - An Italian population of the deciduous shrub Hibiscus syriacus, a common ornamental species in temperate zones, is recommended as ozone bioindicator.

  3. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  4. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-12-12

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.

  5. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  6. Plant resources and colony growth in an invasive ant: the importance of honeydew-producing Hemiptera in carbohydrate transfer across trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Ken R; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-04-01

    Studies have suggested that plant-based nutritional resources are important in promoting high densities of omnivorous and invasive ants, but there have been no direct tests of the effects of these resources on colony productivity. We conducted an experiment designed to determine the relative importance of plants and honeydew-producing insects feeding on plants to the growth of colonies of the invasive ant Solenopsis invicta (Buren). We found that colonies of S. invicta grew substantially when they only had access to unlimited insect prey; however, colonies that also had access to plants colonized by honeydew-producing Hemiptera grew significantly and substantially ( approximately 50%) larger. Our experiment also showed that S. invicta was unable to acquire significant nutritional resources directly from the Hemiptera host plant but acquired them indirectly from honeydew. Honeydew alone is unlikely to be sufficient for colony growth, however, and both carbohydrates abundant in plants and proteins abundant in animals are likely to be necessary for optimal growth. Our experiment provides important insight into the effects of a common tritrophic interaction among an invasive mealybug, Antonina graminis (Maskell), an invasive host grass, Cynodon dactylon L. Pers., and S. invicta in the southeastern United States, suggesting that interactions among these species can be important in promoting extremely high population densities of S. invicta.

  7. Slowing the Spread of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses in Commercial Vineyards With Insecticide Control of the Vector, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, A K; Fuchs, M F; Martinson, T; Hesler, S; Loeb, G M

    2015-01-01

    Vineyards were surveyed for grapevine leafroll-associated viruses and their insect vectors in New York State's Finger Lakes region in 2006-2008. Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Erhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), European Fruit Lecanium, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), and Cottony Maple Scale, Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh and Riley) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) were identified as vector species in this region. An increase in the incidence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and GLRaV-3 was observed in 8 of the 20 vineyards surveyed, which implies transmission by these insect vectors. Two of the vineyards for which a temporal increase in disease incidence was documented were then used to evaluate the efficacy of foliar applications of horticultural oil and two classes of insecticides for control of P. maritimus and for slowing virus spread over 2 years of vine protection. Delayed dormant applications of horticultural oil contributed to control of early season crawlers; however, this was not the case for control of summer populations. Applications of acetamiprid and spirotetramat achieved control in summer populations; however, spirotetramat outperformed acetamiprid in percent reduction of treated compared with control vines and in a side-by-side trial. Vines treated with spirotetramat had a lower percentage of new vines testing positive for GLRaV-1 than control vines after 2 years, while no other spray program altered the increase in incidence of GLRaV-1 or -3.

  8. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats. The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4 in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats.

  9. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Elena; Ferrara, Anna Maria; Calatayud, Vicent; Cerveró, Júlia; Giannetti, Fabio; Sanz, María José; Manning, William J

    2009-03-01

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation.

  10. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  11. Notice to Nurserymen of the Naming and Release for Propagation of Sahara Sunset, A New African Hibiscus Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus asetosella 'Sahara Sunset' is an African hibiscus released by the United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service that was Developed by Dr. Cecil Pounders at the Thad Cochran Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS. ‘Sahara Sunset’ is a tropical shrub (USD...

  12. A laboratory and field condition comparison of life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini-Tabesh Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Life table studies are essential tools for understanding population dynamics. The life table parameters of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae feeding on the host plant, Hibiscus syriacus L. were studied under laboratory (25±1°C and relative humidity of 65±5% and a photoperiod of 16L : 8D h and field conditions (23-43°C, and relative humidity of 27-95%. The data were analysed using the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The life table studies were started with 50 and 40 nymphs in laboratory and field conditions, respectively. Under laboratory conditions, A. gossypii reared on H. syriacus had a higher survival rate, fecundity, and longevity than those reared under field conditions. When reared under field conditions, A. gossypii had a longer nymphal developmental time, shorter adult longevity, and lower fecundity than those reared under laboratory conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase (r, net reproductive rate (R0, and the finite rate of increase (λ under laboratory conditions, were higher than those obtained under field conditions. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the mean generation time T (days between field and laboratory conditions. In the present study, the results clearly showed that life table parameters of A. gossypii were significantly different under field and laboratory conditions. These results could help us to understand the A. gossypii population dynamics under field conditions. The results could also help us make better management decisions for economically important crops

  13. Biological control of mealybugs with lacewing larvae is affected by the presence and type of supplemental prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, Gerben J.; Vijverberg, Roland; Leman, Ada; Janssen, Arne

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of prey and food sources in crops has a major effect on biological pest control by generalist predators. In this study, we tested if and how supplemental prey or food affects the control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) by larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla luc

  14. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study.

  15. Suppression of jasmonic acid-dependent defense in cotton plant by the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengjun Zhang

    Full Text Available The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, has been recently recognized as an aggressively invasive pest in China, and is now becoming a serious threat to the cotton industry in the country. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms employed by cotton for defending against P. solenopsis before the pest populations reach epidemic levels. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and herbivory treatments on feeding behavior and on development of female P. solenopsis. Further, we compared the volatile emissions of cotton plants upon JA, SA, and herbivory treatments, as well as the time-related changes in gossypol production and defense-related genes. Female adult P. solenopsis were repelled by leaves from JA-treated plant, but were not repelled by leaves from SA-treated plants. In contrast, females were attracted by leaves from plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis. The diverse feeding responses by P. solenopsis were due to the difference in volatile emission of plants from different treatments. Furthermore, we show that JA-treated plants slowed P. solenopsis development, but plants pre-infested by P. solenopsis accelerated its development. We also show that P. solenopsis feeding inhibited the JA-regulated gossypol production, and prevented the induction of JA-related genes. We conclude that P. solenopsis is able to prevent the activation of JA-dependent defenses associated with basal resistance to mealybugs.

  16. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  17. Seasonal phenology of Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in commercial pistachios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2012-10-01

    The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a serious new pest of pistachios in California. It was first found near the town of Tulare in the late 1990s and has since spread to orchards in most pistachio-producing regions of the state. The seasonal phenology of F. gilli was evaluated in a commercial pistachio orchard in Tulare County during 2005 and 2006. During both seasons E gilli overwintered as small nymphs and had three complete generations per year. Mealybug population densities were low and remained as immatures in March and April; by late May adult females formed and averaged (+/- SE) 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 1.2 +/- 0.3 per 0.75 m of sample branch in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first in-season generation occurred from early June through mid-July, with mealybug densities ranging from 17.6 +/- 5.6-26.4 +/- 6.2 mealybugs per 0.75 m sample branch. The second in-season generation occurred from late July through September and had peak densities of 408.6 +/- 93.9 and 182.0 +/- 34.2 mealybugs per branch. In March and April mealybugs were located primarily on the buds and branch wood; in May the population was on branch wood as well as the rachis; from June through September the population was located primarily in the pistachio cluster. F. gilli's seasonal phenology described herein was used to develop a management program.

  18. Bioesai bioinsektisida Beauveria bassiana dari Sumatera Selatan terhadap kutu putih pepaya, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara De Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In fresh swamp areas of South Sumatra, papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae could cause severe damage to young papaya trees and decreased the fruit quality. The objective of this research was to bioassay test of the bioinsecticide Beauveria bassiana againts nymphs of P. marginatus. B. bassiana was conducted on rice medium. The bioinsecticide was formulated using dried compost, compost gram, paddy ash, paddy bran, woody powder, paddy bran mixed with woody powder, compost enriched with Trichoderma virens. Controls used were sterile water (control 1 and isolate of B. bassiana (control 2. Results showed that conidial viability of B. bassiana on control 2 was the highest (46.33%. The viability of control 2 was not significantly different from the formulations with carrier of the paddy bran, the paddy bran mixed with woody powder, and the compost enriched with T. virens. The highest nymph mortality (82.86% was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens and was significantly different from other treatments. The lowest visibly (73.48% occured on formulation of paddy ash, and was significantly different from other treatments. Mortality on control 1 on average was 29.52%, whereas control 2 averaged of 75.71%. The shortest median lethal time (LT50 (3.55 days was found on formulation of compost enriched with T. virens but the longest one (3.73 days occured on the formulation of paddy ash. Overall, the most effective bioinsecticide was the formulation of compost enriched with T. virens.

  19. Breeding of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for garden use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Simonsen, Maria Boye; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2013-01-01

    -sinensis for increased chilling tolerance by conventional breeding is unlikely because there is a lack of genetic information in relation to this trait within this species. In the Hibiscus genus, cold hardiness is available, but only in a few species. Attempts to create cold tolerant Hibiscus plants resembling H. rosa......Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is an ornamental shrub in tropical and subtropical regions. Limitation of its use as an outdoor ornamental plant in a temperate climate is due to chilling sensitivity. Cold hardiness is a highly complex trait, involving multiple genes. Improvement of H. rosa......-sinensis suitable for Nordic climate have not been successful so far. In ornamental breeding wide hybridization is a major source of genetic variation, and can also be a promising approach to introgress cold hardiness in H. rosa-sinensis. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the possibilities...

  20. Breeding of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis for garden use in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Simonsen, Maria Boye; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is an ornamental shrub in tropical and subtropical regions. Limitation of its use as an outdoor ornamental plant in a temperate climate is due to chilling sensitivity. Cold hardiness is a highly complex trait, involving multiple genes. Improvement of H. rosa......-sinensis for increased chilling tolerance by conventional breeding is unlikely because there is a lack of genetic information in relation to this trait within this species. In the Hibiscus genus, cold hardiness is available, but only in a few species. Attempts to create cold tolerant Hibiscus plants resembling H. rosa......-sinensis suitable for Nordic climate have not been successful so far. In ornamental breeding wide hybridization is a major source of genetic variation, and can also be a promising approach to introgress cold hardiness in H. rosa-sinensis. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the possibilities...

  1. Histological and Biochemical Evaluation of the Kidney following Chronic Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Ukoha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been used traditionally as herbal medicine and has been documented to have a broad range of therapeutic effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic administration of aqueous extract of flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the histology of the kidney and some biochemical indices of renal function in male Wistar rats. Twenty (20 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four (4 groups of five rats each. The extract was administered orally in doses 200, 500, and 800 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. The kidney was harvested and processed histologically and blood samples were taken for biochemical assays. The histological results showed dose dependent pathological states and the biochemical analysis revealed a dose dependant variation in renal indices. These results suggest that chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa may be toxic to the kidney.

  2. Transmission of Grapevine virus A and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 by Heliococcus bohemicus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Nymphs From Plants With Mixed Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, S; Cavalieri, V; Gribaudo, I; Sacco, D; Marzachì, C; Bosco, D

    2016-08-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) represent a serious threat for viticulture as vectors of phloem-restricted viruses associated with the grapevine rugose wood and leafroll diseases. Heliococcus bohemicus (Šulc) is known to be involved in the spread of these two viral diseases, being a vector of the Grapevine virus A (GVA) and the Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3). This study investigated the acquisition and transmission efficiency of H. bohemicus fed on mixed-infected plants. Nymphs were field-collected onto GVA, GLRaV-1, and GLRaV-3 multiple-infected grapevines in two vineyards in North-Western Italy, and were used in transmission experiments under controlled conditions. Even if most of the collected nymphs were positive to at least one virus, transmission occurred only to a low number of test grapevines. The transmission frequency of GLRaV-3 was the highest, whereas GVA was transmitted to few test plants. The transmission of multiple viruses occurred at low rates, and nymphs that acquired all the three viruses then failed to transmit them together. Statistical analyses showed that the three viruses were independently acquired and transmitted by H. bohemicus and neither synergistic nor antagonistic interactions occurred among them. GVA and GLRaVs transmission efficiencies by H. bohemicus were lower than those reported for other mealybug vectors. This finding is consistent with the slow spread of leafroll and rugose wood diseases observed in Northern Italy, where H. bohemicus is the predominant vector species.

  3. Fatty Acid Composition of Hibiscus trionum L. (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Sibel Kılıç

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hibiscus plants have different uses, some are used as foods (H. esculenta L., and some species as remedy in traditional medicine (H. sabdariffa L. as well as a colorant for herbal teas. The only species that grows naturally in Turkey is H. trionum L. The plant especially infests soy and corn fields, and therefore it is considered to be a noxious weed. The plant is also found to be a host for Potato Virus Y (PVY and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. Infestation of the crop fields by this plant shows that it germinates easily. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quiet easy. Though, seed oil yield is low (4.7% since linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67,5%, it can still be used as a source of unsaturated fatty acids. The other major fatty acids are palmitic, oleic and stearic acids in the studied seed oil .

  4. Fullerene-based symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Andrade

    Full Text Available The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid's "Elements" book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process.

  5. Wound healing potential of formulated extract from hibiscus sabdariffa calyx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builders, P F; Kabele-Toge, B; Builders, M; Chindo, B A; Anwunobi, Patricia A; Isimi, Yetunde C

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (Pextract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin.

  6. Anti hypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M. A.; Nabavi, S. F.; Nabavi, S. M.; Eslami, B.

    2010-07-01

    The anti hypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Anti hypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The anti hypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC{sub 5}0 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 {+-} 8.9 {mu}g ml{sup 1}. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml{sup -}1. The extracts showed weak Fe{sup 2}+ chelating ability. IC{sub 5}0 were 150 {+-} 13 {mu}g ml{sup -}1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. (Author) 40 refs.

  7. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers, when used together with hardwood (core fibers, gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A comparison of properties AS-AQ pulping processes with soda and kraft pulping processes of H. cannabinus, C. sativa, and H. sabdariffa was made. All the properties were found to be better than soda and kraft pulps except tear index. All of the mechanical strength properties of handsheets of AS-AQ pulp improved except tear index. Therefore, the AS-AQ pulping process can be considered as ideal for manufacturing of paper grades like greaseproof, glassine, and high-quality writing and printing paper.

  8. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  9. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofit Kol-Maimon

    Full Text Available Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret. These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1 DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1 The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2 we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera, Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica, and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley I. R. Okoduwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera, Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica, and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly.

  11. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  12. ‘Hapa White’, 'Hapa Pink', and 'Hapa Red' Interspecific Hybrid Hibiscus Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus mutabilis, also known as confederate rose, is native to southeastern China, but it is also grown as an ornamental throughout the southeastern United States and is hardy in USDA zone 7 to 9. It is popular for its large, soft, gray-green foliage during the summer, and large, showy flowers pro...

  13. Cytotoxic Activity of the Leaf and Stem Extracts of Hibiscus rosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The crude petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the ... and stem of Hibiscus rosa sinensis were prepared using cold extraction method. ... (MTS) and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide ...

  14. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  15. Antihypoxic and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslami, Bahman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus esculentus seeds were investigated employing eight in vitro assay systems. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in two models, haemic and circulatory. The effects were pronounced in both models of hypoxia. The antihypoxic effects were dose-dependent. The results indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against hypoxia induced lethality in mice. The extracts showed antioxidant activity in some models. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 234 ± 8.9 μg ml-1. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml-1. The extracts showed weak Fe2+ chelating ability. IC50 were 150 ± 13 μg ml-1. The extracts also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. Pharmacological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extracts.La actividad antihipóxica y antioxidante de semillas de Hibiscus esculentus fue investigada empleando ocho ensayos in vitro. La actividad antihipóxica fue investigada en dos modelos, uno de caracter hemínico y otro circulatorio. Los efectos fueron pronunciados en ambos modelos de hipoxia. Los efectos antihipóxicos fueron dependientes de la dosis. Los resultados indican que los extractos tienen un efecto protector contra la letabilidad inducida por hipoxia en ratones. Los extractos mostraron actividad antioxidante en algunos modelos. El IC50 para la actividad captadora de radicales fue 234 ± 8.9 μg ml-1. Los extractos muestran una débil actividad captadora de óxido nítrico comprendida entre 0.1 y 1.6 mg ml-1. Los extractos muestran una débil capacidad quelatante de Fe2+. El IC

  16. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Stocks, Ian C

    2014-10-14

    A probably adventive mealybug species, Paracoccus gillianae sp. n. is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely to have been via the horticultural trade of Agave spp. (Liliales: Agavaceae) and other host plants in the family Agavaceae. Illustrations of the adult female and male, and diagnosis from congeners in the New World and from other Paracoccus species known to feed on Agavaceae, are provided.

  17. INDIKATOR TITRASI ASAM-BASA DARI EKSTRAK BUNGA SEPATU (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L Indicator of Acid-Base Titration from the Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuryanti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Titration acid-base needs indicator  to show the change of color on interval of hydrogen exponent/degree of acid (pH. Indicator of synthetic which always be used have disadvantages like chemical pollution,  stock and expensive of pro- duction  cost. The research has been carried out to substitute the synthetic indicator with herbal indicator extracted from flower crown of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L extract. The herbal indicator was extracted from the flower crown Hibiscus rosa sinensis L using a mixture methanol-acetic acid. Then it was evaluated with phenolphthalein and methyl orange(E merck comparer to titration the acid-base, they are strong acid-strong base, weak base-strong acid and weak acid-strong base. The result of research show that herbal indicator  of flower crown Hibiscus rosa sinensis L to show theequivalent point in all titrations give peer result with the comparison. With the research result hoped that indicatortitration acid-base flower crown Hibiscus rosa sinensis L is able to as replace synthetic indicator  (metyl orange andphenolphtalein which always be used before. ABSTRAK Titrasi asam-basa memerlukan indikator untuk menunjukkan perubahan warna pada setiap interval derajad keasaman (pH. Indikator sintetis yang digunakan selama ini mempunyai beberapa kelemahan seperti polusi kimia, ketersediaan dan biaya produksi mahal. Upaya penelitian sudah dilakukan untuk menggantikan indikator sintetis dengan indikator dari ekstrak mahkota bunga sepatu. Indikator herbal tersebut dibuat dengan cara mengekstrak mahkota bunga Hibiscus rosa sinensis L dengan mengunakan pelarut metanol-asam asetat. Kemudian dievaluasi dengan indikator pembanding fenolftalein dan metil oranye (produksi E merck untuk titrasi asam-basa yaitu asam kuat-basa kuat, basa lemah-asam kuat dan asam lemah-basa kuat. Dari hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa indikator dari mahkota bunga sepatu untuk menunjukkan titik ekivalen dalam titrasi tersebut memberikan hasil yang

  18. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  19. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin conte...

  20. Recent Progress on the Mealybug Sex Pheromone%粉蚧虫性信息素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小玲; 赵小艳; 王蕊

    2011-01-01

    粉蚧虫性信息素是一种重要绿色杀虫剂,与常规的杀虫剂相比具有专一性、无毒、高效、不伤害天敌等优点,近年来受到普遍的关注.叙述了近期发现的粉蚧虫性信息素及其鉴定出的结构,同时介绍了部分粉蚧虫性信息素的合成路线.最后论述了粉蚧虫性信息素的研究现状及在国内外的发展前景.%The mealybug sex pheromone is an important green insecticide. Compared with conventional pesticides, it has many advantages, such as specificity, innocuity, high efficiency and on harm to natural enemies, which has been suffered widespread concern in recent years. The discovery and identified structure of the mealybug sex pheromone was described and the synthetic routes of some mealybug sex pheromones was also introduced, at last, the research situation and development prospect of sex pheromone at home and abroad were discussed.

  1. Design, development, and use of molecular primers and probes for the detection of Gluconacetobacter species in the pink sugarcane mealybug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; O'Shea, Michael G; Leonard, Graham J; Sly, Lindsay I

    2005-07-01

    Molecular tools for the species-specific detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens from the pink sugarcane mealybug (PSMB) Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae) were developed and used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and in fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) to better understand the microbial diversity and the numerical significance of the acetic acid bacteria in the PSMB microenvironment. The presence of these species in the PSMB occurred over a wide range of sites, but not in all sites in sugarcane-growing areas of Queensland, Australia, and was variable over time. Molecular probes for use in FISH were also designed for the three acetic acid bacterial species, and shown to be specific only for the target species. Use of these probes in FISH of "squashed" whole mealybugs indicated that these acetic acid bacteria species represent only a small proportion of the microbial population of the PSMB. Despite the detection of Glac. sacchari, Glac. diazotrophicus, and Glac. liquefaciens by PCR from different mealybugs isolated at various times and from various sugarcane-growing areas in Queensland, Australia, these bacteria do not appear to be significant commensals in the PSMB environment.

  2. Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Transmits Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistrom, C M; Blaisdell, G K; Wunderlich, L R; Almeida, R P P; Daane, K M

    2016-08-01

    Several mealybug species are vectors of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV), which cause the economically important grapevine leafroll disease in grape-producing regions worldwide. The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a new pest of grapevines in El Dorado County, located in the Sierra Foothill wine-growing region of California. GLRaV species 1, 2, 3, and 4LV have been detected in vineyards with symptomatic vines in the Sierra Foothills. We conducted controlled virus acquisition and transmission experiments using source vine accessions infected with different combinations of GLRaV. We determined that F. gilli acquired GLRaV 1, 2, 3, and 4LV, and transmitted GLRaV-3 and GLRaV-4LV to uninfected recipient vines. Like numerous other mealybug species, in addition to causing direct damage to vines, F. gilli poses a threat to the grape industry as a vector of economically damaging viruses.

  3. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus caesius using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain, Quratul; Naveed, Muhammad Na; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Farman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-09-01

    Various species in genus Hibiscus are traditionally known for their therapeutic attributes. The present study focused on the phytochemical analysis of a rather unexplored species Hibiscus caesius (H. caesius), using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The analysis revealed five major compounds in the aqueous extract, viz. vanillic acid, protocatechoic acid, quercetin, quercetin glucoside and apigenin, being reported for the first time in H. caesius. Literature suggests that these compounds have important pharmacological traits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and hepatoprotective etc. however, this requires further pharmacological investigations at in vitro and in vivo scale. The above study concluded the medicinal potential of H. caesius.

  5. Reproductive biology of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    This study characterized several parameters associated with reproductive behaviors of a Californian population of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn). Experiments with caged adults confirmed that females from this population could not reproduce parthenogenetically. Both sexes were capable of mating multiple times on the same day and on sequential days. Median times between copulations were short (< 10 min) on the first day that males were presented with females, but tended to increase with sequential copulation events. Unmated females lived for up to 19 wk, whereas mating and oviposition resulted in reduced longevity. We hypothesized that constant exposure to pheromone might stimulate males to leave their cocoons sooner and increase their activity levels compared with males that were not exposed to pheromone, resulting in shortened life-spans. However, whereas exposure to pheromone did stimulate males to emerge slightly sooner than control males, pheromone exposure had no effect on the longevity of males. The implications of the results of these experiments for pheromone-based methods of detection and control of mealybugs are discussed.

  6. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

    2014-03-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug.

  7. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  8. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 2: SAS-AQ AND NSSC-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Dutt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus cannabinus, Cannabis sativa, and Hibiscus sabdariffa, fast growing productive annual plants, could provide fiber necessary to partially alleviate the world’s fiber deficit. The present study aimed at producing high yield pulp and the best mechanical strength properties with minimum impact on environment by SAS-AQ, and NSSC-AQ pulping processes. A total alkali of 13% (as Na2O, an alkali ratio of 0.80, and a Na2SO3 charge 11.70% (as Na2O were found optimum to reduce maximum kappa number. A lower kappa number and good strength properties were achieved by increasing total alkali and Na2SO3 charge. SAS-AQ pulps showed good response towards CEHH bleaching. The NSSC-AQ pulping was conducted at a total alkali charge of 8% (as Na2O by varying the ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate (100:0-0:100, and cooking time (60-120 min at 1600C. A ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 60:40 was suitable for corrugating medium (cooking time 60 min, while a ratio of sulphite-to-carbonate 70:30 showed better strength properties (longer cooking time.

  9. Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.) as a photosensitizer on nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rosyida, N. A.; Supriyanto, E.; Saputro, S.; Hanif, Q. A.; Rinawati, L.

    2016-02-01

    Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) as a photosensitizer in nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated. Ultravisible visible absorption spectra of anthocyanin show an ability absorbing light in the visible region. While the nanostructed-TiO2 powder in this research was prepared by sol-gel method following annealled at a temperature of 600°C. Subsequently, the TiO2 nanostructures were characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. The difractogram X-ray results shown that TiO2 was built from f anatase and rutile phase. Element analysis of synthesized TiO2 by X-ray Fluorecence (XRF) shown the TiO2 content of 98,67 wt%. TiO2 layer prepared at different thickness showed the average size of cavity about 0.83 µm. These several thickness of solar cells were fabricated and were immersed into anthocyanin for 24 hours to gain sensitized TiO2 photoanode for Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). These DSSCS performance were measured using I-V Keithley 2602A. The results exhibited that the sample with a TiO2 layer thickness of 4.75 ± 0.8 µm has the highest efficiency.

  10. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Karthikeyan K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. Methods The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150–200 gms in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. Results There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. Conclusion It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.

  11. Potential of South African entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) for control of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Sonnica; Malan, Antoinette P

    2012-10-01

    Planococcus citri, the citrus mealybug, is the most important species of mealybug known to infest citrus in South Africa. Various laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control P. citri. Adult female P. citri were screened for susceptibility to six indigenous nematode species. P. citri was found to be most susceptible to Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica, causing 97% and 91% mortality, respectively. The development of nematodes after infecting adult female P. citri showed both H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense were able to complete their life cycles inside the host. Further bioassays illustrated a linear relationship between mealybug mortality and the concentration of nematodes applied, with the highest level of control using a concentration of 80 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect. As nematodes would be used as an above-ground application to control P. citri in citrus orchards, available water is a major limiting factor. Insecticidal activity proved to be dependent on the available surface moisture after nematode application. The water activity (a(w)) bioassay indicated that S. yirgalemense to be two times more tolerant to lower levels of free water, with a(w50)=0.96 and a(w90)=0.99, compared to H. zealandica with a(w50)=0.98 and a(w)90=1.0. After application, nematodes have a limited time frame in which to locate and infect hosts, as the level of available free water gradually decreases, as trees dry out. S. yirgalemense proved able to locate and infect P. citri quicker than H. zealandica. Nematode activity was not significantly affected when exposed to 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. IJs were able to infect P. citri at an exposure time as short as half an hour. Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri.

  12. 中国大陆—新入侵种—木瓜秀粉蚧%A new invasive mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), in mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江涛; 武三安

    2015-01-01

    木瓜秀粉蚧Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink是农作物和观赏植物的重要害虫,原产于墨西哥和中美洲,自1955年首次发现于墨西哥以来,已传播扩散至34个国家和地区.我国以前仅记录于台湾,本文从云南西双版纳佛肚树上采得,为该虫在大陆的首次发现.文中对其鉴别特征、寄主植物、地理分布、生物学和经济重要性进行了介绍.

  13. Mealybug Fauna of Ningxia (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)%宁夏粉蚧科昆虫研究(半翅目:蚧总科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武三安

    2009-01-01

    记述宁夏同族自治区粉蚧科Pseudococcidae昆虫24属41种,其中包括2新种:宁夏草粉蚧Fonscolombia ningxiana,sp.nov.和冰草长粉蚧Longicoccus agropyri.sp.nov.;2中国新记录种:多管刺粉蚧spinococcus multitubulatus(Danzig,1980)和孤独条粉蚧Trionymus singularis Schmutterer,1952:1新组合:赖草长粉蚧Longicoccus leymicola(Tang,1992),comb.n.(移自少粉蚧属Mirococcus Borchsenius);Puto jarudensis Tang(1992)为Ceroputopilosellae Sulc.1898的新异名.模式标本保存在山西农业大学蚧虫研究中心.

  14. A review of the mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae) of Iran, with descriptions of four new species and three new records for the Iranian fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one species in 27 genera of Pseudococcidae, plus one species of Rhizoecidae and one species of Putoidae have been recorded from Iran based on literature data and on the material in the collection of the Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum, Iran. Keys to the Iranian genera and species based on adult female morphology are provided and the distribution data of each species and their host-plants are given. Adult females of each species are illustrated in detail. The species Paracoccus burnerae (Brain), Phenacoccus pumilus (Kiritshenko) and Ph. hordei (Lindeman) are recorded for the first time in Iran. Four new species, Exallomochlus balouchestanensis Moghaddam sp. n., Peliococcus ilamicus Moghaddam sp. n., Phenacoccus karkasicus Moghaddam sp. n. and Phenacoccus iranica Moghaddam sp. n. are described.

  15. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens.

  16. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  17. Molecular detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari associated with the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) and the sugarcane leaf sheath microenvironment by FISH and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke; Fegan; Hayward; Leonard; Sly

    2000-01-01

    Molecular tools for the detection of the newly described acetic acid bacterium Gluconacetobacter sacchari from the pink sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae), and in the sugarcane leaf sheath microenvironment were developed. G. sacchari specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide primers were designed and used in PCR amplification of G. sacchari DNA directly from mealybugs, and in a nested PCR to detect low numbers of the bacteria from sugarcane leaf sheath fluid and cane internode scrapings. A sensitivity level of detection of 40-400 cells/reaction was obtained using PCR from exponentially grown bacterial cultures and of 1-10 cells in cane internode scrapings and leaf sheath fluid samples using nested PCR. The specificity of the primer set was demonstrated by the lack of amplification product formation in PCR by closely related acetic acid bacteria, including Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens, and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. A Cy3 labeled probe for G. sacchari was designed and shown to be specific for the species. Investigation of the mealybug microenvironment by whole cell fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that G. sacchari appears to represent only a minor proportion of the population of the microbiota in the mealybugs tested. This study has shown the usefulness of 16S rRNA-based molecular tools in the identification and detection of G. sacchari from environmental samples and will allow these tools to be used in further ecological research.

  18. Host stage preference and suitability of Allotropa suasaardi Sarkar & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae, a newly identified parasitoid of pink cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Akhtaruzzaman Sarkar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Allotropa suasaardi Sarkar & Polaszek (Hymenoptera: Platygasteridae has been recently reported as a gregarious endoparasitoid of the pink cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae in Thailand. With the aim of improving mass production of this parasitoid, laboratory experiments were conducted comparing the parasitoid’s preference on different host stages of mealybug, host suitability and its effect on parasitism, development, progeny fitness and sex ratio. All nymphal stages and adult of P. manihoti were parasitized by the parasitoid. However, host stage preference and suitability tests showed that the parasitoid had a significant preference for the older host stages. Percentage parasitization was higher in the third instar and early adult female stages compared with the first and second instar host. Mean developmental time for male parasitoids was shorter than for the females. Higher percentage emergence of parasitoid was observed from older mealybugs. Sex ratios of the offspring produced by the parasitoid were varied in different host stages and the ratio of female to male was higher in the older host stages. The implication of this host selection behavior for mass rearing of A. suasaardi and for evaluating it in a biological control program of the cassava mealybug are discussed.

  19. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess

  20. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), a threat to food security for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Ota, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations). We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675), correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  1. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tabata

    Full Text Available Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique

  2. Effect of different processing techniques on Indonesian Roselle (Hibiscus radiates seed constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalbasit Adam Mariod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Roselle seeds are waste that is left behind during processing of roselle for juices or other roselle related products. Disposing of waste is highly undesirable both economically and environmentally. Roselle seeds contain high amount of protein, crude fibers, fats, and carbohydrates.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different processing techniques  (roasting using oven/microwave, and boiling on In- donesian roselle (Hibiscus radiates seed constituents. Methods.Three treatments were carried out to prepare the samples:The seeds were roasted at 130 and 150°C for 30 min (HOR, microwave roasting for 10, 20 and 30 min HMR10, HMR20, HMR30 of roselle seeds. Hibiscus seeds (3×200 g were put into boiling tap water (100°C (HB in a 500 ml beaker on magnetic stirred hot plate at a ratio of 1:4 seed: water for 40 min until the pieces were  well cooked and tender. Proximate chemical analysis was determined following the standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Hibiscus different samples were analysed in triplicate and the results were reported as means. Total  carbohydrate content was calculated from the difference. The fatty acids of the oil samples were analysed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu, GC-2010A series, Shimadzu, Tokyo, Japan equipped with a flame ionization detector and a BPX70 capillary column of  30 m × 0.32 mm i.d. (SGE, Melbourne, Australia. The tocopherol content of the oil samples was measured by HPLC (Cecil  Instruments Ltd., Cambridge, England. Results.  Proximate composition of untreated, roasted and boiled hibiscus seeds showed that, roasting and boiling temperatures can increase fat and fiber content, microwave and boiling showed higher fat content when compared with oven roasting treatment. Protein content of HU was significantly lower (p HMR > HOR. Protein content of HB, HMR and HOR increased significantly as com- pared with HU. The carbohydrate values of

  3. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abba P. Obouayeba; Lydie Boyvin; Gervais M. M'Boh; Sekou Diabat and eacute;; Tanoh H. Kouakou; Allico J. Djaman; Jean D. N'Guessan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant rich in phytochemical compounds, which is the source of its biological properties. This study on the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa (AEHS) was conducted to assess its hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Methods: It was carried out with 25 Wistar rats divided into five groups. Two groups were treated with a solution of NaCl 0.9%. One group was treated with silymarin at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight (BW). Two other groups were ...

  4. Z-scan and optical limiting properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa dye

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maaza, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available to the difference between the normalized peak, and valley transmittances, Tp-v=Tp−Tv. Such a quantity is given by ΔTp-v =0.406 (1- S) 0.25 |0| [17]. Figure 4 reports such characteristic asymmetric profiles of the various Hibiscus Sabdariffa liquid solutions...). 2. C. Pradeep, S. Mathew, B. Nithyajam P. Radhakrishnan and V.P.N. Nampoori, Appl Phys A: Materials Science & Processing, DOI 10.1007/s00339-013-7814-0 (2013). 3. F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, Nonlinear and Quantum Optics-Laser Physics, Vol. 16, No...

  5. Multi-locus DNA barcoding identifies matK as a suitable marker for species identification in Hibiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovitha, Sundar; Stalin, Nithaniyal; Balaji, Raju; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hibiscus L. includes several taxa of medicinal value and species used for the extraction of natural dyes. These applications require the use of authentic plant materials. DNA barcoding is a molecular method for species identification, which helps in reliable authentication by using one or more DNA barcode marker. In this study, we have collected 44 accessions, representing 16 species of Hibiscus, distributed in the southern peninsular India, to evaluate the discriminatory power of the two core barcodes rbcLa and matK together with the suggested additional regions trnH-psbA and ITS2. No intraspecies divergence was observed among the accessions studied. Interspecies divergence was 0%-9.6% with individual markers, which increased to 0%-12.5% and 0.8%-20.3% when using two- and three-marker combinations, respectively. Differentiation of all the species of Hibiscus was possible with the matK DNA barcode marker. Also, in two-marker combinations, only those combinations with matK differentiated all the species. Though all the three-marker combinations showed 100% species differentiation, species resolution was consistently better when the matK marker formed part of the combination. These results clearly showed that matK is more suitable when compared to rbcLa, trnH-psbA, and ITS2 for species identification in Hibiscus.

  6. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

  7. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to ligh

  8. Wilt, crown, and root rot of common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) caused by a novel Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to identify the causal agent using multilocus molecular phylogenetics and to complete K...

  9. Growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) under different agricultural inputs and management practices in central Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danalatos, N.G.; Archontoulis, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    The growth and biomass productivity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus, L.) cultivars Tainung 2 and Everglades 41 were determined under three irrigation applications (low: 25%, moderate: 50% and fully: 100% of maximum evapotranspiration; ETm), four nitrogen dressings (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg hat), two sowi

  10. The Role of Leaves in Photocontrol of Flower Bud Abscission in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.; Gelder, van A.

    2000-01-01

    When compared with exposure to darkness, exposing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. 'Nairobi' plants to red light (635 to 685 nm, 2.9 μmol?m-2?s-1) delayed flower bud abscission, while exposure to far-red light (705 to 755 nm, μmol?m-2?s-1) accelerated this process. Flower bud abscission in response to

  11. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  12. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  13. A new synonymy in Alitocoris Sailer (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new synonymy in Alitocoris Sailer (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, Discocephalinae. Alitocoris manni Sailer is considered a junior synonym of Alitocoris brunneus Sailer after the comparison of the holotypes with specimens from Mexico, El Salvador and Honduras.

  14. Survey of the Pineapple Mealybugs and Their Occurrence Rule in China%菠萝粉蚧种类调查及发生规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何衍彪; 詹儒林; 刘映红; 孙光明; 李国平; 赵艳龙

    2013-01-01

    菠萝粉蚧是为害菠萝的粉蚧的统称,是菠萝凋萎病的主要传播媒介,本文对我国菠萝粉蚧的种类和发生规律进行了研究.结果表明:在我国,为害菠萝的粉蚧主要是菠萝洁粉蚧,仅在海南乐东菠萝园发现有新菠萝灰粉蚧危害;菠萝洁粉蚧目前仅限在菠萝上为害;新菠萝灰粉蚧主要为害剑麻,也为害菠萝和粉蕉;我国暂未发现2种粉蚧混合发生的现象.秋季是雷州半岛地区菠萝洁粉蚧自然种群快速增长期,12月下旬菠萝洁粉蚧自然种群数量进入高峰期;气温和降雨量是影响菠萝洁粉蚧自然种群增长的重要因子,高温、低温均不利于菠萝洁粉蚧生长和繁殖,降雨量对菠萝洁粉蚧的自然种群数量具有明显的抑制作用.%Pineapple mealybug is cosmopolitan pest of pineapple and the vector of mealybug wile of pineapple,which is a serious threat to commercial pineapple production.The identification and occurrence rule of Dysmicoccus spp.in China were studied in this paper.The results showed that the pink pineapple mealybug (PPM),Dysmicoccus brevipes was the main mealybug on pineapple in China,and only one pineapple orchard at Ledong in Hainan was found damaged by gray pineapple mealybug(GPM),Dysmicoccus neobrevipes.GPM is mostly addicted to Agave sisalana,but also found on Ananas comosus,and Musa nana occasionally.No complex occurrence of the two pineapple mealybugs was found in the investigation.The natural population of PPM developed fast in autumn,and reached the peak in December in Leichou Peninsula.Temperature and rainfall are the critical factors of population growth of PPM,cold and hot exposure are harmful to the growth and reproduction of PPM,and rainfall is obviously inhibitory on developing of the natural population of PPM.

  15. Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2017-06-15

    The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES FROM HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L CALYX EXTRACT FROM INDONESIA AND THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurkhasanah*, Tedjo Yuwono, Laela Hayu Nurani, Muhammad Ikhwan Rizki and Krisana Kraisintu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L calyx has been reported to have an antioxidant activity. Antocyanidin is the major compound of rosella and has low bioavailability as an ionic form. Rosella extract is an ucceptable due to high acidity. Development of chitosan nanoparticle from Hibiscus sabdariffa extract were expected to improve the bioavailability and the acidity problem. We studied the optimum pH and composition ratios of chitosan, extract and tripolyphosphate (TPP to develop chitosan-nanoparticle of rosella extract. We used rosella calyx both from Indonesia and Thailand to compare the physical characteristic the extract and nanoparticles. Rosella was extracted using 60% ethanol and water, followed by evaporation using evaporator and dried by freezedryer. The optimum formation of chitosan-nanoparticles of rosella extract were observed including pH formation and composition ratios between extract: chitosan: TPP. The physical charactersitics of nanoparticles were observed using transmission electron microscope (TEM and particle size analyzer (PSA. We found that optimum composition of extract: chitosan : TPP ratios were 2 : 1 : 0.1, with optimum formation of chitosan in acetate buffer pH 4. The characteristic of nanoparticles were spherical shapes with particles size range 60 to 300 nm, polydispersity index around 0.3 and zeta potential 39.19 to 62.26 mV. The nanoparticles has high entrapment efficiency of flavonoid active compound of 81.98 to 83.83%.

  17. OPTIMISATION OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AS A NATURAL COAGULANT TO TREAT CONGO RED IN WASTEWATER

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    MUN Y. YONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of coagulation is commonly practiced in water and wastewater treatment to reduce level of dissolved chemical, turbidity and so on with the usage of coagulant. Aluminium sulphate (alum is the most commonly used coagulant, however, recent studies show that residual aluminium in drinking water and sludge may induce Alzheimer’s disease and environmental issues. Natural coagulant which is environmental friendly and non-toxic is developed as an alternative to overcome these issues. In this work, Hibiscus Sabdariffa was studied as natural coagulant to treat dye wastewater containing Congo red. The seeds were extracted with different solvent such as distilled water, 0.5 M NaCl and 0.05 M NaOH to extract the coagulation agent. The working parameters were optimised using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. 0.5 M NaCl was found to have highest colour removal of 95.1 % among the solvents. In addition, Hibiscus Sabdariffa seed was found to be an effective coagulant that has 91.2 % colour removal at the optimal working condition of pH 2, 190 mg/L coagulant dosage at 400 ppm of dye concentration. It was also been identified that the performance of natural coagulant is comparable with conventional coagulant, aluminium sulphate with colour removal of 91.2 % and 92.3 % respectively.

  18. INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT

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    Hernawan Hernawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and  butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was  demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control.   Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol

  19. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

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    Vanzella Cláudia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect.

  20. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  1. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hua Wong; Wai Yan Tan; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines.Methods:kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope.Results:The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected.Conclusions:KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

  2. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mahmood Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  3. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

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    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  4. Toxicity of Dietary Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed to Wistar Rats

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    Amgad A. H. Al Bahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sudan Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds after fermentation are commonly known as Furundu with high quality proteins consumed as substitute to meat mainly in the Western part of the country. The raw seed, 10, 15 and 20 % of the standard diet was fed to Wister rats for periods up to 12 weeks. These doses were found to be non-toxic but not lethal to the treated rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed on any of the vital organs, but the main features were depression of growth and diverse pathological changes on the liver, kidneys and intestines which were correlated with highly significant (P<0.001 elevation of serum Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities and bilirubin (P<0.01 concentration in addition to a significant decrease (P<0.01 in cholesterol concentration. No change was observed in the total protein, globulin and urea concentrations of the test groups and albumin concentration in Groups 1 and 2 fed on diet containing 10 and 15% H. sabdarrifa seed. These findings were accompanied by leukocytosis and significantly lower red blood cells and haemoglobin concentration. Due to the elevated Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and the normal values of the mean corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration (MCHC in all the treatment groups the toxicity of H. Sabdariffa seed to Wistar rats resulted in macrocytic normochromic type of anaemia.

  5. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.;

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  6. Co-production of surfactin and a novel bacteriocin by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis H4 isolated from bikalga, an African alkaline Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, C. S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Ouoba, L. I. I.

    2013-01-01

    Bikalga is a Hibiscus sabdariffa seed fermented condiment widely consumed in Burkina Faso and neighboring countries. The fermentation is dominated by Bacillus subtilis group species. Ten B. subtilis subsp. subtilis (six isolates) and Bacillus licheniformis (four isolates) isolated from traditiona...

  7. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3 γ in an Experimental Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shou-Chieh Wang; Shiow-Fen Lee; Chau-Jong Wang; Chao-Hsin Lee; Wen-Chin Lee; Huei-Jane Lee

    2011-01-01

    Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glut...

  8. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93–100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  9. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  10. Chemical constituents from Hibiscus tiliaceus%黄槿化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小坡; 张俊清; 裴月湖; 许旭东; 谭银丰; 康胜利; 刘明生

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究黄槿Hibiscus tiliaceus枝叶的化学成分.方法 采用硅胶柱色谱、Sephadex LH-20柱色谱分离化合物,并通过理化数据测定和波谱技术分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果 从黄槿枝叶70%乙醇提取物中分离得到14个化合物,分别鉴定为木栓酮(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、香草醛(3)、syriacusinA(4)、hibiscolactone (5)、莨菪亭(6)、臭矢菜素C(7)、反式丁烯二酸(8)、山柰酚(9)、槲皮素(10)、胡萝卜苷(11)、壬二酸(12)、丁二酸(13)、芦丁 (14).结论 化合物7、9、10为首次从该属植物中分离得到,化合物3~5、8、12~14为首次从该植物中分离得到.%Objective To study the chemical constituents from the twigs and leaves of Hibiscus tiliaceus (Li medicine). Methods Compounds were isolated by repeated chromatography on silica gel and alumina gel column. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Results Fourteen compounds were isolated and identified as friedelin (1), fi-sitosterol (2), vanillin (3), syriacusin A (4), hibiscolactone (5), scopoletin (6), cleomiscosin C (7), fiimaric acid (8), kaempferol (9), quercetin (10), daucosterol (11), azelaic acid (12), succinic acid (13), and rutin (14). Conclusion This is the first report on the isolation of compounds 7, 9, and 10 from the plants of Hibiscus Linn., and compounds 3-5,8, and 12-14 from this plant.

  11. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  12. STUDI VARIASI UKURAN SERBUK SARI KEMBANG SEPATU (HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS L. DENGAN WARNA BUNGA BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI MADE DENNI APRIANTY

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study conducted to know variety of : long of axis polar, equatorial plane diameters, and P/E index of ten Kembang Sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. with differnt colour flowers. Acetolysis method and 1 % Safranin staining used to make pollens slides, micrometri were used to measured long of polar axis and diameter of pollens. The result of this research showed : pollen structure have: 90,10 ± 3,02 ^im to 117,42 ± 1,37 l^m axis polar long, 89,66 ± 3,13 |^m to 112,92 ± 0,94 (xm equatorial plane diameter, and 0,99 to 1,04 P/E index. Based on these data is indicated that the type of the pollen are prolat sferoidal (except bud type red corolla, and white flower polypantoporat type appertura and periporat ornamentation exine .

  13. Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3β- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13β-olide (1), 3β- acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxy-olean-28,13β-olide (2), 19α-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17β,19β-lupan-3β-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 μM). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies.

  14. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

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    Nawaphat Taweebot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae calyx extract (HSE was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage of mobile sperms and viable sperms when compared to the tetracycline treated group (p H. Sabdariffa. calyx extract may be used as protective agent againsttetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in mice.

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the roots of Hibiscus esculentus Linn.

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    Sunilson J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Hibiscus esculentus Linn roots inhibited the formation of oxygen derived free radicals invitro with IC 50 of 620 µg/ml, 2300 µg/ml, 870 µg/ml and 610 µg/ml. [Fe 2+ /ascobate system], 730 µg/ml, [Fe 3+ /ADP/ascorbate system], for superoxide radical production, hydroxyl radical generation, nitric oxide radical formation and lipid peroxide formation respectively. The oral administration of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, significantly reduce CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged from the serum and tissue activity of marker enzymes [Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]. These results were comparable with standard drug silymarin [20 mg/kg, P.O.

  16. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollen and Anther Cultures as Potential Means in Production of Haploid Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.

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    Dwi Susanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. is one of the important species of Hibiscus for human needs. It is annual upright plant that produces high biomass, has good adaptability to its environment and inexpensive to be grown. Kenaf has been cultivated in many countries since long time ago mainly for fibers. In Malaysia, however, this plant is considered new and cultivated especially in the eastern parts of Peninsular to replace tobacco plantations that have been no longer supported by the government. This plant has potential to be bred to improve the quality and the adaptability. One of the potential breeding methods to improve the plant is by the production of hybrid varieties. These varieties are superior over the inbred varieties because of the heterosis effect (hybrid vigor ofF1heterozygous. Hybrid varieties can be produced by reciprocal combinations of crosses among homozygous lines. Homozygous lines conventionally can bachieved by repeated selfing till seven or more generations that need a lot of times. The production of haploid plants in vitro followed by chromosome doubling is a ‘short-cut’ method to produce homozygous lines in relatively short time compared to conventional methods. The objective of this study is to produce haploid lines through pollen and anther cultures in vitro. The population of haploid plantlets from this research will be induced for diploidization to produce homozygous-heterogeneous population as a basis for the production of hybrid varieties. Preliminary result showed that callus can easily be induced from the anthers compared those from the pollen grains.

  18. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

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    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  19. Development and evaluation of Ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage

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    M. Kaleemullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of natural gums and mucilage is of increasing importance in pharmaceutical formulations as valuable drug excipient. Natural plant-based materials are economic, free of side effects, biocompatible and biodegradable. Therefore, Ketoprofen matrix tablets were formulated by employing Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage as natural polymer and HPMC (K100M as a synthetic polymer to sustain the drug release from matrix system. Direct compression method was used to develop sustained released matrix tablets. The formulated matrix tablets were evaluated in terms of physical appearance, weight variation, thickness, diameter, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. The difference between the natural and synthetic polymers was investigated concurrently. Matrix tablets developed from each formulation passed all standard physical evaluation tests. The dissolution studies of formulated tablets revealed sustained drug release up to 24 h compared to the reference drug Apo Keto® SR tablets. The dissolution data later were fitted into kinetic models such as zero order equation, first order equation, Higuchi equation, Hixson Crowell equation and Korsmeyer-Peppas equation to study the release of drugs from each formulation. The best formulations were selected based on the similarity factor (f2 value of 50% and more. Through the research, it is found that by increasing the polymers concentration, the rate of drug release decreased for both natural and synthetic polymers. The best formulation was found to be F3 which contained 40% Hibiscus rosa-sinensis mucilage polymer and showed comparable dissolution profile to the reference drug with f2 value of 78.03%. The release kinetics of this formulation has shown to follow non-Fickian type which involved both diffusion and erosion mechanism. Additionally, the statistical results indicated that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05 between the F3 and reference drug in terms of MDT and

  20. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

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    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  1. Phytochemical, Physico-chemical & Spectroscopic Characteristics of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf, Stem and Flower bud of Hibiscus hispidissimus Griffith

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    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Hibiscus hispidissimus belongs to the family Malvaceae (Mallow family. The plant has wide range of medicinal uses. Considering the ethno medicinal value of Hibiscus hispidissimus, the present work has been taken up to document the physico-chemical composition, phytochemical details and spectrophotometric characteristics of the plant. The work has been carried out on ethanolic extract of leaf, stem and flower bud of H. hispidissimus. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponis, tannins, glycosides, diterpenes and quinones. Spectroscopic characteristics were analyzed and found to have wide range of compounds including steroids, alkaloids, pigments like chlorophyll a and b, phenolic compounds mainly gallic acid, flavanoids like anthocyanins, flavanols, flvanones and isoflavones.

  2. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis Flower Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Rats-a Dose Response Study

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    Mirunalini SANKARAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Hibiscus rosasinensis against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ was administered as a single dose (40 mg/kg to induce diabetes. The hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosasinensis extract (HRSEt was investigated in a dose dependent manner such as (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt by evaluating various biochemical parameters. The levels of blood glucose, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, TBARS, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid profiles were found to be significantly increased in diabetic rats when compared to control groups. Administration of extract in the treated groups showed altered changes in the above mentioned parameters and found that among the three doseses, 250 mg/kg showed best result when compared to other two doses. HRSEt possess antioxidant, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity against streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. However the detailed mechanism(s of action will require elucidating in further studies.

  3. Acclimation of croton and hibiscus seedlings in response to the application of indobultiric acid and humic acid for rooting

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The vegetative propagation of ornamental plants can be accelerated by applying plant growth regulators. Amongst them, the use of auxins, plant hormones with physiological effects on cell elongation and rooting have stood out. Alternatively, the application of humic acids, bioactive fraction of soil organic matter, also results in increases in rooting cuttings of ornamental plants. The objective of this work was to study the growth characteristics and the nutritional contents of croton and hibiscus plants during acclimation of seedlings in response to different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA and humic acid (HA applied to cuttings for rooting. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, and the apical stem cuttings were treated with solutions with concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg L-1of IBA and 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg L-1 of C from HA. At 45 days of rooting in carbonized rice husk, they were individually transferred to plastic bags of 2.0 dm3 containing a mixture of soil: sand: manure (2: 1: 1 as substrate. At 90 days of acclimation, the plants were collected for measurement of growth and nutritional variables. The results showed that the application of the IBA stimulates the absorption of nutrients and growth of croton cuttings and transplanted hibiscus, contributing to formation of vigorous seedlings. A similar response occurred with the application of HA in hibiscus cuttings

  4. Effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts on testosterone production of adult rat and bull Leydig cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Nathalie Sara E. Beboy; Fabien Zelefack; Silvère Ngouela; Etienne Tsamo; Wolf-Bernhard Schill; Thomas K. Monsees

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To determine the androgenic effects of Basella alba and Hibiscus macranthus extracts in the rat and the bull,and to develop a novel in vitro test system using Leydig cells from bull testes. Methods: The effect of methanol extracts from both plants on testosterone production in isolated Leydig cells from the rat and the bull was analyzed using 125I-radioimmunoassay (125I-RIA). Rat Leydig cells were obtained by common methods, whereas a novel technique was used to purify Leydig cells from bull testes. Results: Bull testes from the slaughter house were a cheap source of pure Leydig cells. In culture, these cells produced testosterone for 5-6 days, which can be stimulated by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Basella alba extracts significantly enhanced testosterone production in bull and rat Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Hibiscus macranthus showed no androgenic effect but was shown to inhibit testosterone production at higher concentrations. Conclusion: Leydig cells purified from bull testes can be used as an alternative tool in experimental animal research. Certain fractions of Basella alba extract demonstrated androgenic potential whereas Hibiscus macranthus extracts did not.

  5. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

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    Xianrui Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD combined with similarity analysis (SA and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA. Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs of the relative retention times (RRT and relative peak areas (RPA of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent.

  6. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  7. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed.

  8. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

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    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  9. Estudio fitoquímico de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W.

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    Ingrid Márquez Hernández

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio fitoquímico preliminar de la especie Hibiscus elatus S.W. Se practicó un tamizaje fitoquímico sobre material seco y fresco, en el que se obtuvieron resultados positivos para mucílagos, sustancias reductoras, antocianinas, aminoácidos, taninos y flavonoides. Se determinó que las antocianinas se afectan durante el proceso de secado. Para la realización del estudio químico se maceró el material vegetal con 4 menstruos (fracciones A, B, C y D. A partir de las fracciones A y B se aisló el producto HE1, el cual se analizó por espectroscopia ultravioleta, infrarroja, de resonancia magnética nuclear protónica, de carbono 13, mediante uso de técnicas especiales y por espectrometría de masas, lo que permitió identificarlo como el flavonoide gossypitrina. La fracción C se sometió a un fraccionamiento según el método de absorción-desorción sobre silicagel, lo que permitió la detección de rutina y quercetina. Los flavonoides identificados se reportan por primera vez para la especie.A preliminary phytochemical study of Hibiscus elatus species was undertaken. A phytochemical sieving of fresch dry material made it possible to obtain positive results for mucilages, reducing substances, anthocyamins, aminoacids, tanines and flavonoids. Anthocyamines were determined to be affected during dryng process. For carry ing uot the chemical study, the plant was mecrated into 4 solvents (A, B, C and D fractions. Taking A and B fractions as a basis, product HE1 was isolated and analyzed by ultra - violet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, proton and carbon 13 spectroscopies as well as special techniques and mass spectrometry. This resulted in the identification of this product as gossypitrin flavonoid. Fraction C was fractioned by silicagel absorption - desorption methods which allowed us to detec rutin and quercetin. The identified flavonoids are reported for the first time in this species.

  10. The consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried calyx ethanolic extract reduced lipid profile in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Orta-Flores, Zaida; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia; Sánchez-Ricaño, Ramón; Infanzón, Rosa M; Trujillo, Patricia R L

    2005-12-01

    The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4 weeks with either a basal diet, containing high cholesterol (1%), cholic acid (0.25%), lard oil (10%), or a supplemental diet with H. sabdariffa extract at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels (SD(5), SD(10), SD(15)). Weight gain and faeces dry weight were both very significantly less (p hibiscus acid racemization, (+)-HCA to (-)-HCA, mediated by intestinal flora enzymes possibly explains the significant triacylglycerol decrease in all experimental groups. VLDL, the precursor of LDL, is composed predominantly of triacylglycerols, suggesting that the significant decrease in LDL is related to observed triacylglycerol synthesis inhibition. Five percent H. sabdariffa extract addition showed the best results in the reduction of serum lipids under study conditions.

  11. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  13. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  14. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  15. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  16. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  17. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

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    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  18. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2016-05-01

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites.

  19. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

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    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruban P; Gajalakshmi K

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods: Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results: The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coliviz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions: The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.

  1. Thermal stability of anthocyanin extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourtzinos, Ioannis; Makris, Dimitris P; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Michali, Iliana; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2008-11-12

    The thermal stability of anthocyanin extract isolated from the dry calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. was studied over the temperature range 60-90 degrees C in aqueous solutions in the presence or absence of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD). The results indicated that the thermal degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled by the Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy for the degradation of H. sabdariffa L. anthocyanins during heating was found to be approximately 54 kJ/mol. In the presence of beta-CD, anthocyanins degraded at a decreased rate, evidently due to their complexation with beta-CD, having the same activation energy. The formation of complexes in solution was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance studies of beta-CD solutions in the presence of the extract. Moreover, differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the inclusion complex of H. sabdariffa L. extract with beta-CD in the solid state was more stable against oxidation as compared to the free extract, as the complex remained intact at temperatures 100-250 degrees C where the free extract was oxidized. The results obtained clearly indicated that the presence of beta-CD improved the thermal stability of nutraceutical antioxidants present in H. sabdariffa L. extract, both in solution and in solid state.

  2. Combination of Dragon Fruit, Hibiscus and Bitterleaf as Dye Sensitizer to Increase Efficiency of DSSC

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    Asful Hariyadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC from natural products was being prominently developed in recent years. The main advantage of DSSC was its fabrication which did not require high process technology, so the production cost was lower than solar cells from crystalline materials. There were important materials in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell technology, such as: Zinc Oxide as an electrode, electrolyte solution and plant pigments as dye sensitizer to absorb light energy and convert it into a source of electrical energy. In this study, the combination of multiple dye mixture had been investigated to achieve high external quantum efficiency as sensitizers. Furthermore, each sample would be tested to determine the characteristics of natural dye and to calculate the power flow and efficiency of the electricity generated by each variable of dye solution. There would be four variables in this study, which was the composition (% v/v of the three main sources of natural dyes; hibiscus, bitter leaf and dragon fruit, respectively first (50% : 25% :25%, second (25% : 50% : 25%, third (25% : 25% : 50% and fourth (33,33% : 33,33% : 33,33%. The result of the study showed that efficiency of variable 1 to 4 was 1.9076%, 2.8739%, 0.8566% and 0.8344%, respectively

  3. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction.

  4. Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

    2011-11-01

    Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants.

  5. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

  6. Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization and indeterminate flowering in woody plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Min; Kim, Seungill; Koo, Namjin; Shin, Ah-Young; Yeom, Seon-In; Seo, Eunyoung; Park, Seong-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Myung-Shin; Park, Jieun; Jang, Insu; Kim, Pan-Gyu; Byeon, Iksu; Kim, Min-Seo; Choi, JinHyuk; Ko, Gunhwan; Hwang, JiHye; Yang, Tae-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Lee, Je Min; Lim, Ki-Byung; Lee, Jungho; Choi, Ik-Young; Park, Beom-Seok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao. Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology. PMID:28011721

  7. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  8. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces against hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad Mohamed Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Hibiscus sab-dariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyces employed in Sudanese folk medicine against five hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR A. baumannii). Methods: The antibacterial activity of 80% methanol extract (v/v) of H. sabdariffa calyces was evaluated by agar disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected A. baumannii strains was tested. Results: In the present investigation, the methanol extract from the calyces of H. sabdariffa exhibited significant antibacterial properties against the non-MDR A. baumannii as well as the MDR A. baumannii strains with a zone of inhibition ranging from (11.3 ± 0.3) to (13.6 ± 0.3) mm. The relative percentage inhibition of H. sabdariffa extract (10 mg/disc) with respect to gentamicin (10 mg/disc) had potent antibacterial properties and was much more effective than gentamicin. Values of mini-mum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 25 to 50 and 50 to 100 mg/mL, respectively, revealing the potential bactericidal properties of the extract. Conclusions: According to the present study, the calyces of H. sabdariffa can be used as a substitute source of the current ineffective synthetic antibiotics used against MDR A. baumannii.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces against hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Mohamed Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa calyces employed in Sudanese folk medicine against five hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR A. baumannii. Methods: The antibacterial activity of 80% methanol extract (v/v of H. sabdariffa calyces was evaluated by agar disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected A. baumannii strains was tested. Results: In the present investigation, the methanol extract from the calyces of H. sabdariffa exhibited significant antibacterial properties against the non-MDR A. baumannii as well as the MDR A. baumannii strains with a zone of inhibition ranging from (11.3 ± 0.3 to (13.6 ± 0.3 mm. The relative percentage inhibition of H. sabdariffa extract (10 mg/disc with respect to gentamicin (10 mg/disc had potent antibacterial properties and was much more effective than gentamicin. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 25 to 50 and 50 to 100 mg/mL, respectively, revealing the potential bactericidal properties of the extract. Conclusions: According to the present study, the calyces of H. sabdariffa can be used as a substitute source of the current ineffective synthetic antibiotics used against MDR A. baumannii.

  11. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

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    Shahid Iqbal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis, while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract, total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract, and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05. DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05. As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  12. Phytotreatment of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Hibiscus cannabinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, O P; Agamuthu, P; Abdul Aziz, A R

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination by hydrocarbons, especially by used lubricating oil, is a growing problem in developing countries, which poses a serious threat to the environment. Phytoremediation of these contaminated soils offers environmental friendly and a cost effective method for their remediation. Hibiscus cannabinus was studied for the remediation of soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% used lubricating oil and treated with organic wastes [banana skin (BS), brewery spent grain (BSG) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] for a period of 90 days under natural conditions. Loss of 86.4 and 91.8% used lubricating oil was recorded in soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil and treated with organic wastes respectively at the end of 90 days. However, 52.5 and 58.9% oil loss was recorded in unamended soil contaminated with 2.5 and 1% oil, respectively. The plant did not accumulate hydrocarbon from the soil but shows appreciable accumulation of Fe and Zn in the root and stem of H. cannabinus at the end of the experiment. The first order kinetic rate of uptake of Fe and Zn in H. cannabinus was higher in organic wastes amendment treatments compared to the unamended treatments, which are extremely low. The results of this study suggest that H. cannabinus has a high potential for remediation of hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soil.

  13. Fatty acid composition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. seeds

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    Sumaia Awad Elkariem Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus (H. sabdariffa (commonly known as “Karkadeh” in Arabic is widely used in various pharmacological applications in Sudan. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of H. sabdariffa seed extracts using rat models. In acute anti-inflammatory models, oral administration of petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seeds inhibited the hind paw edema (p<0.01 which was induced by carrageenan. The petroleum ether extract exhibited significant (p<0.01 inhibition of vascular permeability in rats induced by intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (0.6%. In cotton pellet granuloma method, the petroleum ether extract of H. sabdariffa seed showed significant inhibition of granuloma. The extract reduced (p<0.001 abdominal constrictions which was induced by injection of acetic acid (0.7%. Analysis of seed oil of H. sabdariffa using Gas Chromatography revealed the presence of three fatty acids; these were linolelaidic acid, arachidic acid, and palmitic acid. In conclusion, H. sabdariffa seeds possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat model.

  14. Antitumoral Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrida, Alessio; Maggioni, Daniele; Cassetti, Arianna; Nicolini, Gabriella; Cavaletti, Guido; Miloso, Mariarosaria

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite therapeutic improvements, some cancers are still untreatable. Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances for cancer prevention and treatment. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is a plant, belonging to Malvaceae family, widespread in South Asia and Central Africa. HS extract (HSE) used in folk medicine, gained researchers' interest thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. In the present study, we initially assessed HSE effect on a panel of human tumor cell lines. Then we focused our study on the following that are most sensitive to HSE action cell lines: Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells (RPMI 8226) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC-25). In both RPMI 8226 and SCC-25 cells, HSE impaired cell growth, exerted a reversible cytostatic effect, and reduced cell motility and invasiveness. We evaluated the involvement of MAPKs ERK1/2 and p38 in HSE effects by using specific inhibitors, U0126 and SB203580, respectively. For both SCC-25 and RPMI 8226, HSE cytostatic effect depends on p38 activation, whereas ERK1/2 modulation is crucial for cell motility and invasiveness. Our results suggest that HSE may be a potential therapeutic agent against MM and OSCC.

  15. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  16. Accumulation of Kaempferitrin and Expression of Phenyl-Propanoid Biosynthetic Genes in Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus

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    Shicheng Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS, chalcone isomerase (HcCHI, and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.

  17. Effect of the temperature on the spray drying of Roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Palomares, Salvador; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio; Andrade-González, Isaac

    2009-03-01

    The effect of the drying temperature on the volatile components and sensory acceptance of the Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) extract in powder was investigated. The Roselle extraction was carried out by maceration with 7 L of 30% ethanol (v/v), 560 g of fresh Roselle calyces for 168 h. The Roselle extracts were spray dried at different temperatures 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 degrees C, giving different outlet values about yield and final moisture. The volatile compounds in Roselle extract and dried samples were performed using needles of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS HP-5890). Twenty volatile compounds were identified in the extracts among them terpenoids, esters, hydrocarbons and aldehydes. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified in the powder sample, but only ten were present in the Roselle extract. This indicates that some compounds were lost and some others were generated due to a degradation process. An acceptability sensory analysis showed that the best powder sample was the Roselle extract dehydrated using temperature between 190 degrees C and 200 degrees C (pspray drying temperature of the Roselle extracts has an effect on the volatile compounds losses.

  18. Phenolic compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa and influence of organic residues on its antioxidant and antitumoral properties

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    ASN. Formagio

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx methanolic extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper® under three modes of application. The total phenolic content in the each extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for aluminium chloride flavonoids. The antioxidant parameters were analyzed using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. free radical scavenging assay. An antitumor colorimetric assay using sulforhodamine B. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in leaf extracts (389.98 and 104.52 mg g–1, respectively and calyx extracts (474.09 and 148.35 mg g–1, respectively from plants cultivated with organosuper®, although these values did not differ significantly from those observed for the other treatments. The average IC50 of leaves (43.48 μg mL–1 and calyces (37.15 μg mL–1 demonstrated that both have substances that may contribute to free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against a leukemia line (K-562, with IC50 values of 0.12 mg mL–1 (organosuper® and 1.16 mg mL–1 (poultry litter, with concentration-dependent, cytotoxic and cytocidal effects.

  19. Developing detection and monitoring strategies for Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Amy; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rascoe, John; Weihman, Scott; Stocks, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A pheromone-based system to locate and monitor Planococcus minor (Maskell), a pest of over 250 plants including citrus, grape, and cacao, was tested. The difficulty in distinguishing P. minor from the citrus mealybug, P. citri, makes finding and evaluating the impact of the pest challenging. Studies conducted in Puerto Rico determined that synthetic P. minor pheromone lures preaged 120 d in the field caught similar number of males as lures not aged (fresh). Molecular analysis of trapped mealybug males using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1, the internal transcriber space two locus, and 28S-D2 gene showed the pheromone traps to be species specific. Traps baited with P. minor pheromone were used to monitor the pest in south Florida and to locate potential infestations. P. minor males were found at all locations studied in South Florida and were present in low numbers (1.03 +/- 0.69 mean +/- SE/trap/14 d). Over 14,000 terminals, fruit, and flowers were visually inspected over a 6 mo period of peak trap catches before the first adult P. minor female was found. The synthetic pheromone lures proved to be an effective tool to locate and monitor this pest new to the continental United States.

  20. DNA barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera.

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    Robert G Foottit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage.

  1. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  2. Calidad seminal en ovinos pelibuey con inclusión de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en la dieta

    OpenAIRE

    José Maza Gamboa; Luis Fernando Navarrete Sierra; Alfonso Aguiar Loría; Roberto Zamora Bustillos; Héctor Magaña Sevilla

    2015-01-01

    La alimentación de los ovinos en el trópico representa del 48 a 90 % de los costos de producción, además, el uso de granos hace dependientes a los ovinocultores del mercado internacional. Ganancias de peso moderadas se han obtenido con follaje de plantas arbustivas, sin embargo, algunas plantas como el Tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) presentan compuestos que pueden actuar como fito-estrógenos, lo que puede comprometer el uso potencial en la alimentación de sementales ovinos pelibuey. Método:...

  3. Entomofauna asociada al cultivo de jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) en el municipio de Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla

    OpenAIRE

    Betzabeth Cecilia PÉREZ TORRES; Agustín ARAGÓN GARCÍA; Néstor BAUTISTA MARTÍNEZ; Tapia Rojas, Ana María.; Jesús Francisco LÓPEZ-OLGUÍN

    2009-01-01

    En Chiautla de Tapia, Puebla, mediante muestreos realizados cada 15 días de junio a septiembre del 2007, se efectuaron colectas en tres parcelas cultivadas con jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), utilizando un aspirador entomológico manual y una red de golpeo. Se revisaron los tallos, nudos, entre nudos, hojas (haz y envés) y flores para hacer un diagnóstico de la entomofauna. Un total de 1,856 ejemplares fueron colectados, de los cuales se determinaron 17 especies, comprendidas en 6 órdenes, 1...

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

  5. Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis

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    S. S. Hasson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P<.05 protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 μg/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 μg/mL. The extract significantly (P<.001 inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 μg/mL. All rabbits (n=10 and guinea pigs (n=10 were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n=3 treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg died. However, all guinea pigs (n=21 treated with venom (5 mg/kg and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg survived. Guinea pigs (n=3 treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg and guinea pigs (n=21 venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100% blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage.

  6. Thermoluminescence response of the poly mineral fraction from hibiscus sabdariffa L foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Z, E.; Guzman, S. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Brown, F. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Chernov, V.; Barboza F, M., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    Food processed by ionizing irradiation is a safe technology and has been recognized by the FAO/Who Codes Alimentarius Commission. It is an excellent method to prevent food spoilage and food borne diseases by inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and slowing down ripening. The widespread use of food irradiation treatments that include spices, dry vegetables, grains and fruits make relevant the developing of methods for identification and analyses of foodstuffs processed by irradiation. The present work focuses on the thermoluminescence property of Mexican Roselle flower previously irradiated for detection purposes. The poly mineral content of irradiated commercial Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) was extracted and analyzed by thermoluminescence (Tl). The X-ray diffraction analyses showed that quartz and albite composition for the poly mineral fraction. Different grain sizes; 10, 53, 74 and 149 {mu}m, were selected for the Tl analyses. The Tl glow curves depended on the grain sizes. The glow curves depicted two peaks around 92 and 120 C. The first peak was ascribed to quartz and the broad part of the glow curves (120-250 C) seems to correspond to the albite. Because the complex structure of the Tl glow curves from poly minerals the kinetic parameters were calculated by a fitting process using a deconvolution method based on a non-linear least-squares Levenberg-Ma quart. The values of the activation energy were found to be at 0.79-1.05 eV and 0.79-1.04 for 53 {mu}m and 250 {mu}m, respectively. The Tl properties of the samples were determined including dose response, reproducibly, fading and UV light bleaching. (Author)

  7. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. Methods:The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1μmol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10μmol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. Results:It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P <0.05) increased the viability of the cells which was suppressed by cadmium when compared to quercetin dihydrate. The extract also reduced the cadmium-mediated production of the markers of macrophage-activation when compared to quercetin dihydrate. In both experiments, the activity of the extract was concentration-dependent (P <0.05). Conclusion:The findings show that H. sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract against uropathogenic strains isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Alshami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the antimicrobial effect and biofilm forming capacity of the uropathogenic strains that have been isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs in the presence of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa extract. Methods: Six Escherichia coli and two Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients with recurrent UTIs. The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to H. sabdariffa extracts were tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC by using the broth microdilution method in accordance to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Time-kill curves were plotted against the eight isolates based on the MIC results. The biofilm forming capacity of the isolates were evaluated using the microtiter plate assay. Detection of biofilms was done using the crystal violet staining method. Results: Various levels of the extracts MIC were observed against all the uropathogenic isolates. MIC values ranged from 0.5 to 4 mg/mL, and MBC values ranged from 8 to 64 mg/mL. Both the time-kill experiment and MBC-MIC ratio demonstrated that the extracts' effect was in general, bacteriostatic. The biofilm capacity inhibition assay results showed that extracts inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. The level of biofilm inhibition however, had varied among the bacterial strains and ranged from 8%-60% reduction in optical density. Conclusions: The results of the study support the effective potential of H. sabdariffa extract to prevent recurrent UTIs and to emphasize the significance of the plant extract, in order to approach it as a potential antimicrobial agent.

  9. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra S. Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0% in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods.

  10. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  11. Effects of extracts from Hibiscus macranthus and Basella alba mixture on testosterone production in vitro in adult rat testes slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul F. Moundipa; Silvère Ngouela; Pierre Kamtchouing; Etienne Tsamo; Félicité M. Tchouanguep; Serge Carreau

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To find an in vitro system for the measurement of the androgenic effects of different extracts of Hibiscus macranthus (Malvaceae) and Basella alba (Basellaceae). Methods: The production of testosterone from testes slices incubated in two media, either Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % Bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Dubecco's Modified Eagle's medium-F12 Ham nutrient mixture (DME/Ham F12), under a mixture of 5 % CO2 in 95 % air was determined either in the presence or absence of cofactors and Hibiscus macranthus plus Basella alba (HMBA)extracts. Results: The testosterone production was increased in testes slices incubated in DME/Ham F12 medium in response to the cofactors (49 %) and aqueous extracts (34 %-60 % according to dilutions). Under the same atmospheric conditions, there was no positive response of the testes slices to either cofactor or HMBA extract stimulation in Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 0.5 % BSA. In further investigations related to the effect of HMBA, the DME/Ham F12 medium was used. The results obtained from the in vitro test showed that the activity was present mainly in methylene chloride and methanol, since these extracts induced an increase in testosterone production by testes slices. Conclusion: The testes slice system is suitable to be used for further in vitro investigations of the isolation of androgenic bioactive components of plants.

  12. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

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    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  13. Formulation Development and Characterization of Hibiscus Rosa-Sinesis Dry Leaves Mucilage as Smart Polymer for Pharmaceutical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran Lakshmanan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The present investigation was to extract the Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis dry leaves mucilage and prove to be a smart polymer in pharmaceutical formulations. Firstly to formulate and optimize controlled-release floating tablets of Nizatidine (NF1-NF5 using HPMC K 100M and Hibiscus dry leaves mucilage (5-10% along with gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate by direct compression technique. Results revealed that increase the mucilage concentration decrease the release of drug from floating tablets. The NF1 formulation, NF2, NF3 and NF4, and NF5 showed fickian type (n - 0.36, anomalous/non-fickian type (n - 0.5-1.0 and super case II transport mechanism ("n" - 1.449 respectively and secondly to formulate Mesalamine core tablets using Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis dry leaves mucilage (5-20% and to be coated with Eudragit L 100 mixture by dip coating technique (MFI-MFIV to target the drug release in colon. Release study showed that the MFI and MFII showed first order release (“n” - 0.45, MFIII showed matrix model with the “n” value of 0.5 (fickian diffusion, and MFIV showed peppas model (n - <0.6 respectively. It was concluded that the mucilage plays well in both the acidic and alkaline environment of the GI tract, controlled drug release with floating and colon targeting to solve the issues of those particular targets.Industrial relevance. In certain drug like Nizatidine, the therapeutic efficacy is improved if the gastric residence time of the dosage form is increased at the absorption site and if the drug is highly soluble in aqueous environment, it is necessary to reduce/controls the drug release from the formulations. Hibiscus-Rosa Sinesis leaf mucilage exhibit excellent retarding effect on drug release from the floating tablets. Colon targeted tablets manufactured with conventional excipients, upon reaching the colon, the tablet bursts as it comes in contact with water causing dose dumping that can pose a significant risk to patients

  14. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  15. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs.

  16. Ocorrência de cochonilhas em espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek Occurrence of mealybugs in "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. ex Reissek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vitória

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia é uma espécie medicinal nativa do Brasil que vem sendo cultivada para atender a crescente demanda do mercado. Os fatores que interferem na produção, tal como a incidência de pragas e doenças, devem ser estudados para garantir o incremento na produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência e a identificação de cochonilhas associadas a 15 acessos de espinheira-santa (Maytenus ilicifolia do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma da Embrapa Clima Temperado e do Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense. Foi registrada a quantidade de plantas infestadas em cada acesso e identificado, em laboratório, as espécies de cochonilhas infestantes. O número de plantas infestadas variou entre os acessos. Foram identificadas as cochonilhas Ceroplastes sp. e Saissetia oleae, família Coccidae. Dos 10 acessos infestados, 23 (11,3% plantas apresentaram infestação com Ceroplastes sp. e, apenas uma (0,5%, com Saissetia oleae. O acesso 133 mostrou a maior incidência de Ceroplastes sp. (33,3%, seguido do acesso 130 (25,0%. O acesso 123 foi o que apresentou menor quantidade de plantas infestadas (4,8%. Saissetia oleae ocorreu em apenas uma planta, pertencente ao acesso 136 (5,6%.Maytenus ilicifolia is a medicinal species native to Brazil which has been cultivated to meet the growing market demand. Factors that interfere with the production, such as the incidence of pests and diseases, should be studied to ensure increased productivity. The aim of this study was to record the occurrence and the identification of mealybugs associated with 15 "espinheira-santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia accessions from the Active Germplasm Bank of "Embrapa Clima Temperado" and "Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense". The quantity of infested plants in each accession was recorded and the species of infested mealybugs were identified in the laboratory. The number of infested plants varied among accessions. The identified mealybugs were Ceroplastes sp. and

  17. 78 FR 8957 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines into the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... coffeae (Green), the coffee root mealybug; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), the hibiscus mealybug... establish low- prevalence places of production, harvesting only of hard green bananas, and inspection for...; Covering bananas with pesticide bags during the growing season; Harvesting only of hard green...

  18. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  19. (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE SOBRE FRÍJOL

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    Luisa Fernanda SUAREZ GONZALEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La biología y ecología de la mosca blanca de los invernaderos, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyroridae, se encuentra ampliamente documentada. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no hay reportes acerca de la tasa de consumo de alimento por este fitófago, un parámetro necesario para modelos de simulación. Por tal motivo, el objetivo de esta investigación fue la medición indirecta del consumo de alimento por el adulto e instares inmaduros de T. vaporariorum basado en metodologías encontradas en la literatura científica. La estimación de la tasa de consumo de alimento por adultos se realizó bajo condiciones de laboratorio, utilizando como unidad experimental una planta de fríjol de dos semanas de edad. El experimento consistió de dos tratamientos: (T1 plantas libres de cualquier fitófago y (T2 plantas sometidas a infestaciones con T. vaporariorum , cada tratamiento con 20 repeticiones y una réplica en el tiempo de todo el experimento. Se registró el peso fresco diariamente en ambos tratamientos. Para el caso de los inmaduros, la unidad experimental consistió en una hoja cotiledónea de fríjol, infestada con una población determinada de inmaduros de cada instar de mosca blanca teniendo así cinco tratamientos (Instar I, II, III, IV y Control cada uno con 17 repeticiones. Se registró diariamente el peso fresco de las hojas. Se obtuvo un consumo promedio de alimento por el adulto de 0,277 ± 0,0042 mg.dia -1 . Para los dos primeros instares ninfales se estimó una tasa de consumo de 0,052 mg.dia -1 , en el tercer instar de 0,14 mg.dia -1 , y para el cuarto instar de 0,19 mg.dia -1 . Un adulto de mosca blanca puede consumir en un día seis veces su peso y un inmaduro ocho veces, gracias a su rápido metabolismo y la constante excreción de mielecilla.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  1. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marécal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar

  2. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  3. Methanol leaves extract Hibiscus micranthus Linn exhibited antibacterial and wound healing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begashaw, Berhan; Mishra, Bharat; Tsegaw, Asegedech; Shewamene, Zewdneh

    2017-06-26

    Infectious diseases are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Wound and wound infections are also major health problem. Nowadays, medicinal plants play a major role in treatment of infectious diseases and wound healing and they are easily available and more affordable as compared to synthetic compounds. The aim of this study is therefore, to investigate the antibacterial and wound healing activities of 80% methanol extract of Hibiscus micranthus leaves using disc diffusion methods and rat excision model respectively. In vitro antibacterial screening was carried out against S. aureus, S.pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis bacterial strains using disc-well diffusion assay. Would healing activity was done in rats divided into four groups each consisting of six animals. Group I was served as a negative control (ointment base), Group II served as a positive control Nitrofurazone (NFZ 0.2% ointment), Groups III and IV was treated 5 and 10% extracts respectively. The acute oral toxicity test and skin sensitivity test were also performed before conducting the actual study. The extract was analyzed for secondary metabolites using standard methods. Preliminary phytochemical screening have revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, phenols, diterpines, anthraquinones and the absence of glycosides, terpinoides and triterpines. Based on acute oral toxicity test the extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 2 g/kg. In addition, acute dermal toxicity test indicated no sign of skin irritation. The leaves extract exhibited varying degrees of sensitivity with zones of inhibition ranging from 14.00 ± 0.333 (S.pyogenes) to 22.67 ± 1.202 mm (S.aureus). It was found that S. aureus and S. pneumonia (p wound healing study, the 5 and 10% w/w extract exhibited significant wound contraction rate of 99.30% and 99.13% as compared to NFZ ointment and simple ointment

  4. Antagonistic Interactions between the African Weaver Ant Oecophylla longinoda and the Parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci Potentially Limits Suppression of the Invasive Mealybug Rastrococcus iceryoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysantus M. Tanga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ant Oecophylla longinoda Latreille forms a trophobiotic relationship with the invasive mealybug Rastrococus iceryoides Green and promotes the latter’s infestations to unacceptable levels in the presence of their natural enemies. In this regard, the antagonistic interactions between the ant and the parasitoid Anagyrus pseudococci Girault were assessed under laboratory conditions. The percentage of parasitism of R. iceryoides by A. pseudococci was significantly higher on “ant-excluded” treatments (86.6% ± 1.27% compared to “ant-tended” treatments (51.4% ± 4.13%. The low female-biased sex-ratio observed in the “ant-tended” treatment can be attributed to ants’ interference during the oviposition phase, which disrupted parasitoids’ ability to fertilize eggs. The mean foraging time, host handling time and number of successful oviposition in “ant-excluded” treatment were significantly higher compared to “ant-tended” treatments. When ant workers were allowed access to sterilized sand grains, mummified and unmummified R. iceryoides, they selectively removed the mummified mealybugs, indicating that they recognized the mummies as potential foods (1.2 ± 0.46 to 7.8 ± 1.17 mummies at 10 min intervals for 2 h. Percentage emergence from mummified R. iceryoides removed by the ants was significantly lower compared to emergence from mummies not exposed to ants. Although, host seeking parasitoids frequently evaded attacks, some were killed by the foraging ant workers (2.0 ± 0.38 to 6.0 ± 0.88 at 10 min intervals for 2 h. These results suggest for the first time that the presence of O. longinoda has a detrimental effect on the abundance, reproductive success and possibly oviposition strategy of female parasitoids, which might be a delimiting factor in field conditions if both natural enemies are to be recommended for use within the same agro-ecosystem.

  5. A DISTRIBUTIONAL AND CYTOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE PRESENTLY RECOGNIZED TAXA OF HIBISCUS SECTION FURCARIA (MALVACEAE Distribución y citología de los taxones reconocidos actualmente de Hibiscus sección Furcaria (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized
    taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands
    of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome
    number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a
    remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some
    distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic
    monograph of Hibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have
    appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome
    numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a
    census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and
    chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is
    available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level,
    followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and
    hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids
    Hibiscus sección Furcaria es un grupo natural de plantas que actualmente incluye 109 taxones
    reconocidos. Los taxones habitan en África al sur del Sahara, India, sudeste de Asia, Malasia,
    Australia, Islas del Pacífico, el Caribe, América del Norte, Central y Sudamérica. El número
    básico de cromosomas es x = 18. En la naturaleza, los niveles de ploidía varían de diploide a
    decaploide. Los taxones exhiben una remarcable diversidad genómica. Han sido identificados
    al menos 13 genomas, algunos distribuidos

  6. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  7. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.; Hayward-Jones, P. M.; Orta-Flores, Z.; Nolasco-Hipólito, C.; Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.; Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs) calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats, was investigated. Rats were fed with either a basal diet (SDC = Control diet) or the same diet supplemented with Hs extracts at 5%, 10% and 15% (SD5, SD10 and SD15). Only SD5 did not show significant increases in weight, food consumption and efficiency compared to SDC. The opposite occurred in SD15 group which showed a significant decrease for these three parameters. The SD10 responses were similar to SD15, with the exception of food consumption. In both SDC and SD5 groups, no body weight loss was observed; however, only in the latter group was there a significantly greater amount of fatty acids found in feces. A collateral effect emerging from the study is that components of Hs extract at the intermediate and greater concentrations used in this experiment could be considered possible antiobesity agents. PMID:19756159

  8. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehid dan Aktivitas Katalase Tikus yang Terpapar Karbon Tetraklorida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuraida ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Pemberian rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn diharapkan melindung hepar tikus dari kerusakkan akibat stres oksidatif pada keracunan karbon tetraklorida (CCl 4. Senyawa yang sering dijadikan petunjuk adanya kerusakan tersebut adalah malondialdehid (MDA. Rosella mengandung vitamin C, flavonoid, polifenol dan beta karoten. Tujuanpenelitian ini adalah menentukan pengaruh pemberian ekstrak rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn terhadap MDA dan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Post test Only Control Group Design. Sampel 24 ekor tikus Strain Wistar berumur 2-3 bulan, berat 150-200 gr. Sampel diambil secara acakdan dibagi 4 kelompok terdiri dari kelompok kontrol negatif, kontrol positif (CCl 4, perlakuan 1 (CCl 4 dan ekstrak rosella 250 mg/kg bb dan perlakuan 2 (CCl4  dan ekstrak rosella 500 mg/kg bb. Pemberian CCl 4secara oral dosis tunggal, setelah 24 jam kemudian diberi ekstrak rosella secara oral selama 14 hari. Data dianalisis dengan uji Anova, tingkatkepercayaan 95%.Pemberian ekstrak rosella secara statistik didapatkan perbedaan yang signifikan rerata kadar MDA dan katalase antar kelompok (p < 0,05. Disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak rosella dapat menurunkan kadar MDA dan meningkatkan aktivitas katalase tikus yang terpapar CCl 4. Kata kunci: karbon tetraklorida, MDA, katalase, rosella Abstract Administering roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn is expected to protect rat liver from damage caused by oxidative stress in CCl4 poisoning. Rosella contains vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenol and beta carotene. Compounds which was often used as marker of the damage caused by free radicals wa MDA. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn on MDA and catalase activity of rats exposed to CCl4. Experimental research design with Post test Only Control Group Design. Samples of 24 male Wistar Strain rats were 2-3 months old. weighing 150-200 gr

  9. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  10. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Gula dan Ragi Dalam Pembuatan Cuka Dari Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L Terhadap Mutu Cuka Rosella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdausni Firdausni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosellla (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L has been traditionally used as nutritious functional beverages. Rosella flowers contain flavonoid secondary metabolites, terpenoids, and vitamin C, which are considered as antioxidant. Research aims to see the effect of sugar and yeast  on quality of vinegar. The study was conducted with the treatment of sugar utilization (10, 15, 20, 25 %, fermentation with yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2, 4, 6 g and fermentation time until three weeks. Rosella vinegar as a results of fermentation further was analyzed the pH, acetic acid content, extract content and antioxidant activity test consisted of qualitative test of phenolic, flavonoid, and % inhibition. Result of the optimal research was obtained in the treatment of sugar utilization 20% and the addition of yeast 6 g with analysis result of pH 2.67, acetic acid 14.80%, extract content 7.15%, and % inhibition 31%, moreover it contained phenolic and flavonoidscompounds qalitatively.ABSTRAKRosellla (Hibiscus sabdariffa.L telah digunakan secara tradisional sebagai minuman yang berkhasiat fungsional. Bunga rosella mengandung flavonoid metabolit sekunder, terpenoid, dan vitamin C yang berfungsi sebagai antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pemakaian gula dan ragi  terhadap mutu cuka. Penelitian dilakukan dengan perlakuan penggunaan gula pasir (10, 15, 20, 25 %, fermentasi dengan ragi Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2, 4, 6 g dan waktu fermentasi  sampai tiga minggu. Hasil fermentasi berupa cuka rosella selanjutnya diuji pH, kandungan asam asetat, kadar sari dan uji aktifitas antioksidan yang terdiri dari uji kualitatif fenolik, flavonoid, dan % inhibisi. Hasil penelitian optimal diperoleh pada perlakuan penggunaan gula 20% dan penambahan ragi 6 g dengan hasil analisis pH 2,67, asam asetat 14,80%, kadar sari 7,15% dan % inhibisi 31% serta secara kualitatif mengandung senyawaan fenolik dan flavonoid.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of apple, hibiscus, olive, and hydrogen peroxide formulations against Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine L; Patel, Jitendra; Jaroni, Divya; Friedman, Mendel; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2011-10-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common bacterial pathogens implicated in foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce in the last decade. In an effort to discover natural antimicrobials for use on fresh produce, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial plant extract-concentrate formulations on four types of organic leafy greens inoculated with S. enterica serovar Newport. The leafy greens tested included organic romaine and iceberg lettuce, and organic adult and baby spinach. Each leaf sample was washed, dip inoculated with Salmonella Newport (10(6) CFU/ml), and dried. Apple and olive extract formulations were prepared at 1, 3, and 5% concentrations, and hibiscus concentrates were prepared at 10, 20, and 30%. Inoculated leaves were immersed in the treatment solution for 2 min and individually incubated at 4°C. After incubation, samples were taken on days 0, 1, and 3 for enumeration of survivors. Our results showed that the antimicrobial activity was both concentration and time dependent. Olive extract exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity, resulting in 2- to 3-log CFU/g reductions for each concentration and type of leafy green by day 3. Apple extract showed 1- to 2-log CFU/g reductions by day 3 on various leafy greens. Hibiscus concentrate showed an overall reduction of 1 log CFU/g for all leafy greens. The maximum reduction by hydrogen peroxide (3%) was about 1 log CFU/g. The antimicrobial activity was also tested on the background microflora of organic leafy greens, and reductions ranged from 0 to 2.8 log. This study demonstrates the potential of natural plant extract formulations to inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens.

  12. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  13. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  14. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  15. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  16. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  17. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  18. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  19. Antimicrobial Effect of Jasminum grandiflorum L. and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Extracts Against Pathogenic Oral Microorganisms--An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Batra, Mehak; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Daryani, Hemasha; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the antimicrobial potential and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis extracts as potential anti-pathogenic agents in dental caries. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using the agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for both test organisms. Statistical analysis was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At lower concentrations, hot ethanol Jasminum grandiflorum (10 μg/ml) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (25 μg/ml) extracts were found to have statistically significant (P≤0.05) antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. acidophilus with MIC values of 6.25 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml, respectively. A proportional increase in their antimicrobial activity (zone of inhibition) was observed. Both extracts were found to be antimicrobially active and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy.

  20. Evaluation of the Potential Nephroprotective and Antimicrobial Effect of Camellia sinensis Leaves versus Hibiscus sabdariffa (In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doa’a Anwar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and hibiscus are widely consumed as traditional beverages in Yemen and some regional countries. They are relatively cheap and the belief is that they improve health state and cure many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential protective and antibacterial activity of these two famous plants in vitro through measuring their antibacterial activity and in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers dysfunction after induction of nephrotoxicity by gentamicin. Gram positive bacteria like MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from hospitalized patients’ different sources (pus and wound and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli and P. aeruginosa were used in vitro study. In addition, the efficacy of these plants was assessed in vivo through measuring nonenzymatic kidney markers including S. creatinine and S. urea. Green tea was shown antimicrobial activity against MRSA with inhibition zone 19.67 ± 0.33 mm and MIC 1.25 ± 0.00 mg/mL compared with standard reference (vancomycin 18.00 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Hibiscus did not exhibit a similar effect. Both Hibiscus- and green tea-treated groups had nephroprotective effects as they reduced the elevation in nonenzymatic kidney markers. We conclude that green tea has dual effects: antimicrobial and nephroprotective.

  1. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Herranz-López, María; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Bermejo, Marival; Fernández Gutiérrez, Alberto; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2015-08-07

    Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS), free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine) were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS), and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols.

  2. Permeability Study of Polyphenols Derived from a Phenolic-Enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract by UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings on the capacity of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS polyphenols to ameliorate metabolic disturbances justify the necessity of studies oriented to find the potential metabolites responsible for such an effect. The present study examined the intestinal epithelial membrane permeability of polyphenols present in a phenolic-enriched Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (PEHS, free and encapsulated, using the Caco-2 cell line. Additionally, selected polyphenols (quercetin, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide, and N-feruloyltyramine were also studied in the same absorption model. The powerful analytical platform used ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultra-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-UHR-Qq-TOF-MS, and enabled the characterization of seven new compounds in PEHS. In the permeation study, only a few compounds were able to cross the cell monolayer and the permeability was lower when the extract was in an encapsulated form. Pure compounds showed a moderate absorption in all cases. Nevertheless, these preliminary results may need further research to understand the complete absorption mechanism of Hibiscus polyphenols.

  3. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  4. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  5. 饥饿对扶桑绵粉蚧存活率和产卵量的影响%Effects of starvation on survival rate and oviposition of the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis ( Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑婷; 崔旭红; 汪婷; 徐显皓; 徐栋超; 商晗武

    2011-01-01

    [背景]扶桑绵粉蚧是近年来入侵我国的重要害虫,食物是影响其生长发育及种群发展的重要因素.[方法]在室内条件下研究了饥饿对扶桑绵粉蚧不同龄期若虫和初羽化雌成虫存活率和雌成虫产卵量的影响.[结果]扶桑绵粉蚧不同虫态在饥饿条件下存活的时间存在显著差异,表现为雌成虫>2龄若虫=3龄若虫>1龄若虫.扶桑绵粉蚧各龄若虫和雌成虫随着饥饿时间的延长,存活率逐渐下降.其中,雌成虫存活率下降速度较慢,完全饥饿8d后存活率仍有50%左右;2、3龄若虫50%个体死亡需要饥饿的时间约为6d,1龄若虫约需5.5 d.饥饿会显著降低1龄若虫存活率,但对2、3龄若虫没有显著影响.扶桑绵粉蚧雌成虫饥饿4d对其产卵前期、平均每头雌虫一生的产卵量没有显著影响,但寿命显著低于对照.[结论与意义]扶桑绵粉蚧耐饥力较强,这有助于它在野外建立种群.该结果为进一步评价扶桑绵粉蚧的入侵潜能提供了依据.

  6. 扶桑绵粉蚧钙调蛋白基因的原核表达与表达谱分析%Prokaryotic expression and expression profiling of calmodulin genes in mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗梅; 宾淑英; 林进添

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探究我国重要入侵生物扶桑绵粉蚧(Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley)钙调蛋白基因(PsCam)在各虫态中的表达差异及PsCam蛋白在体外的异源表达,为进一步揭示PsCam的生理功能提供参考.[方法]克隆PsCam基因的ORF,推导其编码的氨基酸序列,采用生物信息学方法,分析扶桑绵粉蚧钙调蛋白的结构.构建PsCam原核表达载体,将其转化到大肠杆菌中进行诱导表达,并对产物进行纯化.采用实时荧光PCR方法,分析该基因在扶桑绵粉蚧各个虫态中的相对表达量.[结果]扶桑绵粉蚧钙调蛋白基因的氨基酸序列分析结果显示,该蛋白没有信号肽,具有2个EF-hand钙结合结构域,有13个Ca2+结合位点.成功构建了原核表达载体pET28a-PsCam,经诱导表达后获得了重组的Cam蛋白,目的蛋白的分子质量约为17 ku.PsCam mRNA在不同虫态的扶桑绵粉蚧中都有表达,在成熟雌虫中的表达量最低,在1龄幼虫中的表达量最高,是成熟雌虫的7.1倍.[结论]在原核表达系统中诱导表达了重组PsCam蛋白;PsCam基因在扶桑绵粉蚧不同虫态中差异表达.

  7. 外来入侵害虫棉花粉蚧雄虫生殖能力研究%Study on the male fecundity of an alien invasive pest, cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 陈芳; 陆永跃

    2014-01-01

    采用单头雄虫与不同数量雌虫配比的方法研究了棉花粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley雄虫的生殖能力.结果表明,与1-7头雌虫配比,雄虫的交配成功率分别为94.4%、91.2%、85.4%、80.7%、77.7%、69.5%、66.2%;产仔雌虫数量与雌雄性比关系符合逻辑斯蒂曲线方程Ff=5.2159EXP(-2.5304EXP(-0.421739N)),1头雄虫平均可以满足4.5头雌虫生殖需要,最多为5.22头;与单头雄虫交配后雌虫总产仔量由358.8头增大至1274.2头,其数量与雌雄性比关系符合S型增长曲线Ft=1524.589e-1.3922/N,总产仔量最大可达1525头;单雌产仔量先由358.8头上升至427.6头,其后逐渐下降至266.5头;子代性比(♀∶♂)变化无规律,为1.13-1.86;子代中雌虫数量由206.1头增大到727.4头,其数量与雌雄性比关系可由Fof=840.1124e-1 2599/N描述,最大值是840头.

  8. Development and population growth of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), under different photoperiods%不同光周期条件下棉花粉蚧的生长发育和种群增长能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 陈芳; 陆永跃

    2014-01-01

    [目的]研究阐明不同光周期条件下棉花粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley实验种群的发育历期、繁殖和数量动态规律,为制定该虫防治对策、研究治理措施等提供科学依据.[方法]以扶桑为寄主,在温度27±1℃、相对湿度70%±5%、光照强度4000 lx及不同光周期(8L:16D,10L:14D,12L:12D,14L:10D和16L:8D)条件下,观察了棉花粉蚧实验种群的生长发育特性和繁殖能力,组建了实验种群生命表.[结果]不同光周期处理下棉花粉蚧1龄若虫和3龄若虫的发育历期及雌成虫产仔量均发生了变化,但不同龄期若虫存活率之间差异不大.随着光照时间增加,棉花粉蚧1龄若虫、3龄若虫发育速率加快,8h光照时发育历期分别为5.43 d和6.35 d,而16 h光照时发育历期分别缩短至4.16d和4.75 d;整个若虫发育历期也由8h光照时的15.54 d缩短至16 h光照时的12.74 d,世代历期由27.75 d缩短至23.45 d.长光照时雌虫更早进入产仔期,也有利于雌虫繁殖后代,16 h光照时进入产仔期是18日龄,8和10h光照时均推迟至22日龄;16h光照时单雌产仔量为417.06头,明显高于12,10和8h光照时的353.59,347.61和336.00头.长光照条件下实验种群趋势指数(I)明显较大,增长潜能更大,16,10和8h光照时种群趋势指数分别为175.37,133.94和141.99.该虫生命表参数表明,随着光照时间加长净增值率(R0)呈逐渐增大趋势,8,10,12,14和16 h光照时分别为88.57,86.85,100.77,124.16和126.86;内禀增长率、周限增长率表现类似的规律,8~16h光照时内禀增长率(rm)为0.1616 ~ 0.2066,周限增长率(λ)为1.1754 ~ 1.2294;而种群倍增时间(t)则随着光照时加长而缩短,8~16h光照时为4.29 ~3.36 d.[结论]长光照有利于棉花粉蚧生长发育和繁殖,世代历期缩短,种群增长潜能变强.

  9. A NEW RECORD MEALYBUG TO CHINA (HEMIPTERA, COCCOHDEA,PSEUDOCOCCIDAE )%中国粉蚧科一新纪录种(半翅目,蚧总科,粉蚧科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏向向; 武三安

    2012-01-01

    Balanococcus tokahaihi McKenzie, 1964 , originated in Japan, was found from Beijing ( undergalss) under leaf sheath of Zoysia tenuifotia (Poaceae). In this paper, the adult female was redescribed and re-illustrated, the first-instar nymph was described and illustrated for the first time.%高桥平粉蚧Balanococcus takahashi McKenzie原产于日本,该种为我国首次记录,标本采自北京结缕草Zoysia tenuifolia叶鞘下.文中除重描雌成虫形态特征外,还首次记述和图示了该种的一龄若虫.

  10. 转换寄主前后扶桑绵粉蚧取食行为的EPG分析%EPG analysis of feeding behavior of the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) before and after host shift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳; 王飞飞; 张治军; 郦卫弟; 吕要斌

    2014-01-01

    [目的]分析扶桑绵粉蚧Phenacoccus solenopsis在发生寄主转移前后的取食行为,以据此评价其寄主适应性.[方法]利用刺吸电位(EPG)技术,量化扶桑绵粉蚧转换寄主植物前后的取食行为并进行对比分析.[结果]寄主转换后,扶桑绵粉蚧的取食行为受到显著的影响,需要耗费更多的时间到达韧皮部,总取食时间显著变短,取食效率降低.但寄主转换后,下一代成虫的取食效率提高,总刺探数、取食刺探数、总刺探时间以及到达韧皮部的效率与时间均与寄主转换前的扶桑绵粉蚧个体不存在显著差异.[结论]扶桑绵粉蚧的取食行为存在高度可塑性,这种特性利于扩大其寄主植物范围,有可能是促其成为重要农业入侵生物的原因之一.

  11. Seasonal biology of Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California Sierra foothill vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Lynn R; Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M

    2013-08-01

    The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is an emerging pest of wine grapes grown in California's Sierra foothills. A relatively new species, it had previously been recorded as a pest of pistachio, almond, and ornamentals. It was first reported on grape in El Dorado County in 2003 and has since established and spread. Nondestructive monitoring of grape vine sections was conducted in untreated vineyard plots and compared with destructive sampling conducted in grower-treated plots in 2008 and 2009 to determine F. gilli life stage seasonal presence, number of generations, location on the vine during the season, and damage potential to fruit clusters. Two generations were observed to be completed during the season. F. gilli overwintered under the bark at the base of the trunk, trunk, and cordon as second and third instars. Adults were found at the base of emerging shoots (spring) or on and under bark of old and new spurs. Live crawlers were born in June (first generation) and late August to September (second generation), and migrated to leaves to feed before moving to protected locations under bark or into fruit clusters. Lower mealybug densities and fruit damage were recorded on vines with than without insecticide treatment(s). Parasitized mealybugs were collected in low numbers and an Acerophagus sp. was the dominant parasitoid.

  12. Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associado ao superbrotamento do hibisco (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. no Estado de São Paulo Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associated with hibiscus witches' broom in the State of São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de hibisco com superbrotamento e definhamento seguido de morte têm sido observadas nos municípios de São Paulo, Campinas e Piracicaba. Como os sintomas são sugestivos daqueles induzidos por fitoplasmas, o presente trabalho buscou identificar o possível fitoplasma associado com a doença. Assim, 14 plantas sintomáticas de hibisco foram coletadas em Piracicaba (SP e submetidas ao PCR duplo com os primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 e ao exame em microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. A identificação foi realizada por análise de RFLP com as enzimas de restrição BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI e TaqI. Testes de transmissão foram conduzidos com enxertia de ramos e uso de Cuscuta subinclusa. Os resultados de nested-PCR revelaram a presença consistente de fitoplasmas em todas as plantas sintomáticas e foram confirmados pela observação de corpúsculos pleomórficos no floema, através da microscopia eletrônica. A análise de RFLP mostrou que o fitoplasma encontrado em hibisco pertence ao grupo 16SrXV, o mesmo grupo do Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense. O fitoplasma foi transmitido de planta doente para sadia, tanto pela enxertia como pela C. subinclusa, demonstrando ser o agente do superbrotamento do hibisco.Ornamental hibiscus have been affected by shoot proliferation and decline followed by death in several cities in São Paulo State, especially São Paulo, Campinas and Piracicaba. As the symptoms are suggestives of those induced by phytoplasmas, the present work aimed to identify the possible phytoplasma associated with the disease. Fourteen symptomatic hibiscus were sampled in Piracicaba, submitted to nested-PCR with the primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 and processed by transmission electron microscopy. The identification was made by RFLP analyses with the restriction enzymes BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI, and TaqI. Transmission assays were performed by grafting and Cuscuta subinclusa. The presence

  13. New species of Rhinoleucophenga, a potential predator of pineapple mealybugs Nova espécie de Rhinoleucophenga, potencial predadora da cochonilha-do-abacaxizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Paul Culik

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to describe a new species of Rhinoleucophenga (Diptera: Drosophilidae. Rhinoleucophenga capixabensis sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus infested with Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Distinguishing characters of R. capixabensis sp. nov. include hyaline wings, a strong seta on the second antennal segment, body length of about 2-3 mm, uniformly dark brown scutellum, one pair of strong prescutellar setae, ventral epandrial lobes with about 17-18 teeth, and female cerci with approximately 20 long setae.O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma nova espécie de Rhinoleucophenga (Diptera: Drosophilidae. Rhinoleucophenga capixabensis sp. nov. foi descrita com base em espécimes coletados em associação com Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae em Ananas comosus var. comosus, no Estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. As principais características de R. capixabensis sp. nov. incluem asas hialinas, uma seta forte no segundo segmento da antena, comprimento do corpo de aproximadamente 2-3 mm, escutelo uniformemente castanho-escuro, um par robusto de setas prescutelares, lobos epadriais ventrais com aproximadamente 17-18 dentes e cercos da fêmea com aproximadamente 20 setas longas.

  14. El género Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, con redescripción de dos especies The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Apiococcus Hempel (Hemiptera, Eriococcidae, with redescription of two species. Apiococcus Hempel is a genus from Brazil composed of four gall-inducing species. The adult females of two species, Apiococcus globosus Hempel and A. singularis Hempel, from Brazil, are redescribed and illustrated. Keys to the species of the genus and their galls are given.

  15. Multi-Targeted Molecular Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa Polyphenols: An Opportunity for a Global Approach to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz-López, María; Olivares-Vicente, Mariló; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Improper diet can alter gene expression by breaking the energy balance equation and changing metabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers, which can result in the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. The pleiotropic effects of dietary plant polyphenols are capable of counteracting by modulating different key molecular targets at the cell, as well as through epigenetic modifications. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS)-derived polyphenols are known to ameliorate various obesity-related conditions. Recent evidence leads to propose the complex nature of the underlying mechanism of action. This multi-targeted mechanism includes the regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways, transcription factors, hormones and peptides, digestive enzymes, as well as epigenetic modifications. This article reviews the accumulated evidence on the multiple anti-obesity effects of HS polyphenols in cell and animal models, as well as in humans, and its putative molecular targets. In silico studies reveal the capacity of several HS polyphenols to act as putative ligands for different digestive and metabolic enzymes, which may also deserve further attention. Therefore, a global approach including integrated and networked omics techniques, virtual screening and epigenetic analysis is necessary to fully understand the molecular mechanisms of HS polyphenols and metabolites involved, as well as their possible implications in the design of safe and effective polyphenolic formulations for obesity. PMID:28825642

  16. Variations in chemical fingerprints and major flavonoid contents from the leaves of thirty‐one accessions of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Xianshuang; Ferchaud, Vanessa; Jiang, Hao; Tang, Feng; Chin, Kit L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have been used as traditional folk medicines for treating high blood pressure and fever. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa L. throughout the world. To assess the chemical variations of 31 different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., fingerprinting analysis and quantitation of major flavonoids were performed by high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. A quadrupole‐time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry (Q‐TOF‐MS) was applied for the characterization of major compounds. A total of 9 compounds were identified, including 6 flavonoids and 3 phenolic acids. In the fingerprint analysis, similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate the 31 accessions of H. sabdariffa L. Based on the results of PCA and SA, the samples No. 15 and 19 appeared much different from the main group. The total content of five flavonoids varied greatly among different accessions, ranging from 3.35 to 23.30 mg/g. Rutin was found to be the dominant compound and the content of rutin could contribute to chemical variations among different accessions. This study was helpful to understand the chemical variations between different accessions of H. sabdariffa L., which could be used for quality control. © 2015 The Authors Biomedical Chromatography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26394363

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issam Alshami; Ahmed E Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract.Methods:In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results: Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.

  18. A survey on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Alcea rosea L. and Malva neglecta Wallr as antibacterial agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed Mansour Seyyednejad; Haniyeh Koochak; Esmaeil Darabpour; Hossein Motamedi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To guide for selection of plants with antibacterial activity for further phytochemical works on the isolation and identification of the active compounds. Methods: Ethanolic extracts of 3 species from Malvaceae family were evaluated by agar disc diffusion method for antibacterial activity against some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes). The extracts were obtained from aerial parts of Hibiscus rosa (H. rosa)-sinensis (leaf and flower), Alcea rosea (A. rosea) L. (leaf and flower) and Malva neglecta (M. neglecta) Wallr (flower). Results:These extracts had inhibitory effects at different concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 g/mL) against above mentioned bacteria. Escherichia coli was the most resistant strain. The highest inhibitory zone was showed by ethanolic extract of M. neglecta against Staphylococcus epidermidis (22 mm) and followed by ethanolic extract from flower of H. rosa against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) values against Staphylococcus epidermidis were equal (MIC=MBC=5 mg/mL for M. neglecta extract and for H. rosa extract MIC=MBC=20 mg/mL). Conclusions:These findings suggest that these native plants have good antibacterial properties that can be used for infection control and treatment and could also be as new source for antibiotics discovery and infection treatment.

  19. Morus alba o Hibiscus rosa-sinensis como sustituto parcial de soya en dietas integrales para conejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Lara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los conejos pueden aprovechar los nutrientes contenidos en los forrajes y subproductos agrícolas eficientemente gracias a la fermentación cecal y a la cecotrofía. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron: evaluar la tasa de crecimiento y el rendimiento de la canal en conejos alimentados con minibloques de harina de morera (Morus alba o tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en sustitución parcial de pasta de soya; y determinar el consumo y digestibilidad de la dieta. Para esto, se utilizaron 18 conejos de 30 días de edad, distribuidos al azar en tres dietas experimentales (n=6, ac (alimento convencional, mbm (minibloque con 30% de morera y, mbt (minibloque con 27% de tulipán, durante nueve semanas. La ganancia diaria y el rendimiento en canal fue mejor (p0.10 en los tres grupos. Es factible sustituir parcialmente la proteína de la soya por harina de hojas de morera o tulipán, aunque presentan una menor respuesta productiva con respecto a la alimentación convencional.

  20. Studies on chemical constituents of Hibiscus mutabilis%木芙蓉叶化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚莉韵; 陆阳; 陈泽乃

    2003-01-01

    目的研究木芙蓉叶Hibiscus mutabilis的化学成分.方法采用硅胶柱、C18反相柱、聚酰胺柱色谱分离纯化,通过理化常数测定和光谱分析鉴定化合物的结构.结果从木芙蓉叶中分离得到10个化合物.根据波谱分析和理化数据,鉴定出其中9个化合物分别为:二十四烷酸(tetracosanoic acid,I)、β-谷甾醇(β-sitoster01,Ⅱ)、胡萝卜苷(daucosterol,Ⅲ)、水杨酸(salicylic acid,Ⅳ)、大黄素(emodin,Ⅴ)、芸香苷(rutin,Ⅵ)、山奈酚-3-O-β-芸香糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-rutinoside,Ⅶ)、山奈酚-3-O-β刺槐双糖苷(kaempferol-3-O-β-robinobinoside,Ⅷ)及山奈酚-3-O-β-D-(6-E-对羟基桂皮酰基)-葡萄糖苷[kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6-E-p-hydroxycinnamoyl)-glucopyranoside,Ⅸ].结论除Ⅱ和Ⅵ外,其他化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  1. Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90.

  2. Assessment of Pb uptake, translocation and immobilization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of sand tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HO Wai Mun; ANG Lai Hoe; LEE Don Koo

    2008-01-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) for phytoremediation of lead (Pb) on sand tailings was investigated. A pot experiment employing factorial design with two main effects of fertilizer and lead was conducted in a nursery using sand tailings from an ex-tin mine as the growing medium. Results showed that Pb was found in the root, stem, and seed capsule of kenaf but not in the leaf.Application of organic fertilizer promoted greater biomass yield as well as higher accumulation capacity of Pb. In Pb-spiked treatments,roots accumulated more than 85% of total plant Pb which implies that kenaf root can be an important sink for bioavailable Pb. Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) X-ray microanalysis confirmed that electron-dense deposits located along cell walls of kenaf roots were Pb precipitates. The ability of kenaf to tolerate Pb and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the immobilization of Pb in the roots and hence the restriction of upward movement (translocation factor< 1). With the application of fertilizer, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated site.

  3. Development of functional beverages from blends of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and selected fruit juices for optimal antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, Oluwatoyin M A; Awolu, Olugbenga O; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Fagbemi, Tayo N

    2016-09-01

    The demand for functional foods and drinks with health benefit is on the increase. The synergistic effect from mixing two or more of such drinks cannot be overemphasized. This study was carried out to formulate and investigate the effects of blends of two or more of pineapple, orange juices, carrot, and Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) on the antioxidant properties of the juice formulations in order to obtain a combination with optimal antioxidant properties. Experimental design was carried out using optimal mixture model of response surface methodology which generated twenty experimental runs with antioxidant properties as the responses. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] radical scavenging abilities, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), vitamin C, total phenolics, and total carotenoids contents of the formulations were evaluated as a test of antioxidant property. In all the mixtures, formulations having HSE as part of the mixture showed the highest antioxidant potential. The statistical analyzes, however, showed that the formulations containing pineapple, carrot, orange, and HSE of 40.00, 16.49, 17.20, and 26.30%, respectively, produced optimum antioxidant potential and was shown to be acceptable to a research laboratory guidance panel, thus making them viable ingredients for the production of functional beverages possessing important antioxidant properties with potential health benefits.

  4. Potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for phytoremediation of dredging sludge contaminated by trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaoui, Sarra; Evlard, Aricia; Mhamdi, Mohamed El Wafi; Campanella, Bruno; Paul, Roger; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2013-07-01

    The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) for accumulation of cadmium and zinc was investigated. Plants have been grown in lysimetres containing dredging sludge, a substratum naturally rich in trace metals. Biomass production was determined. Sludge and water percolating from lysimeters were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. No visible symptoms of toxicity were observed during the three- month culture. Kenaf and corn tolerate trace metals content in sludge. Results showed that Zn and Cd were found in corn and kenaf shoots at different levels, 2.49 mg/kg of Cd and 82.5 mg/kg of Zn in kenaf shoots and 2.1 mg/kg of Cd and 10.19 mg/kg in corn shoots. Quantities of extracted trace metals showed that decontamination of Zn and Cd polluted substrates is possible by corn and kenaf crops. Tolerance and bioaccumulation factors indicated that both species could be used in phytoremediation.

  5. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  6. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  7. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bemisia afer (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Xiao, Na; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Colvin, John; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The length of the Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 14,968 bp and consists of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. Apart from one serine transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Ser) which is absent, the synteny is consistent with the mitogenomes of other whitefly species. The overall base composition of the heavy strand for A, G, T and C is 28.96, 18.97, 36.7 and 15.37%, respectively, with a slight AT bias. Two rare codons (GTG and TTG) are employed as start codons by some PCGs. B. afer is a group of cryptic species. This first mitogenome cloned from African cassava B. afer, therefore, both enrich the whitefly molecular resource and will aid the sequencing of the other species' mitogenomes. It will contribute significantly to resolving the systematics of the B. afer complex.

  10. Planting time for maximization of yield of vinegar plant calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Época de plantio para maximização daprodução de cálices de vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilmar Eduardo Arbex de Castro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the yield of calyxes of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, a medicinal plant, at four planting times in Lavras - MG. The treatments were four planting times (October 18th, November 15th, December 18th 2001 and January 15th 2002 and a harvest was proceeded when practically there were no developing calyxes, almost at the end of the plant cycle. The numbers of calyxes per plant, the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes and quality were taken into account. It follows that planting time influenced yield per plant and the fresh and dry biomasses of calyxes, differing from each other by Tukey test at 5%. In October planting, there was a higher yield (2,522kg/ha with a yield 5.24 as high relative to the planting of the month of January (481 kg/ha. The planting s in the month of November to December showed yields of 1,695 and 1,093 kg/ha of dry calyxes, respectively and in relation to the same months of January, yield was of 3.52 to 2.27 times more. Harvest must be done as soon as the calyxes are ripe in order to preserve quality.Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade de cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa L., planta medicinal, em quatro épocas de plantio em Lavras - M.G. Os tratamentos foram quatro épocas de plantio (18 de outubro; 15 de novembro; 18 de dezembro de 2001 e 15 de janeiro de 2002 e realizada uma colheita quando praticamente não existiam cálices em desenvolvimento, quase no final do ciclo da planta. Foram considerados os números de cálices por planta, as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices e a qualidade. Concluiu-se que a época de plantio influenciou o rendimento por planta e as fitomassas frescas e secas dos cálices, diferindo entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5%. No plantio de outubro, houve maior rendimento (2.522 kg/ha, com produção de 5,24 vezes a mais em relação ao plantio do mês de janeiro (481 kg/ha. Os plantios nos meses de novembro e dezembro tiveram produções de 1.695 e 1.093 kg.ha-1 de c

  11. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on high fat diet–induced obesity and liver damage in hamsters

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    To-Wei Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with an increase in adipogenesis and often accompanied with fatty liver disease. Objective: In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa water extract (HSE in vivo. Method: Eight-weeks-old male mice were divided into six groups (n=8 per group and were fed either normal feed, a high fat diet (HFD, HFD supplemented with different concentrations of HSE, or HFD supplemented with anthocyanin. After 10 weeks of feeding, all the blood and livers were collected for further analysis. Results: Mesocricetus auratus hamster fed with a high-fat diet developed symptoms of obesity, as determined from their body weight change and from their plasma lipid levels. Meanwhile, HSE treatment reduced fat accumulation in the livers of hamsters fed with HFD in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of HSE reduced the levels of liver cholesterol and triglycerides, which were elevated by HFD. Analysis of the effect of HSE on paraoxonase 1, an antioxidant liver enzyme, revealed that HSE potentially regulates lipid peroxides and protects organs from oxidation-associated damage. The markers of liver damage such as serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels that were elevated by HFD were also reduced on HSE treatment. The effects of HSE were as effective as treatment with anthocyanin; therefore the anthocyanins present in the HSE may play a crucial role in the protection established against HFD-induced obesity. Conclusions: In conclusion HSE administration constitutes an effective and viable treatment strategy against the development and consequences of obesity.

  12. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts.

  13. Free radical scavenging activity of three different flowers-Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Quisqualis indica and Senna surattensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hazem Mohamed Mahmoud Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa-sinensis), Quisqualis indica (Q. indica) and Senna surattensis (S. surattensis) for their antioxidant activity by different methods in addition to total phenolic, flavonoid and pigment contents. Methods: Antioxidant activity of water, ethanol and absolute ethanol extracts of three flowers; H. rosa-sinensis, Q. indica and S. surattensis was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating activity, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as well as total antioxidant capacity. Total flavonoids, total phenols and total pigments including chlorophylls and carotenoids were measured for the three flowers. Results: The results showed that the highest total antioxidant capacity at concentration of 500 mg/L was found in S. surattensis as 0.479 ± 0.001. Scavenging activity of H. rosa-sinensis, Q. indica and S. surattensis flower extracts against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed the highest activity of (90.20 ± 0.29)% with 500 mg/L. Phytochemical screening of the three flowers extracts were carried out for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids, amino acid and mucilages. H. rosa-sinensis showed the total phenolic in water extract of (235.77 ± 14.31) mg/100 g, the other two flowers Q. indica and S. surattensis had the total phenolic in ethanol ex-tracts of (937.70 ± 25.06) and (850.30 ± 13.81) mg/100 g, respectively. On the other hand total flavonoids were identified in absolute ethanol extracts in the three flowers [(32.83 ± 1.34), (49.24 ± 4.87) and (2.79 ± 0.23) mg/100 g, respectively]. Conclusions: The extracts in the constituents of the three flowers could be used as ad-ditives as supplement fractions in foods.

  14. Hibiscus sabdariffa increases hydroxocobalamin oral bioavailability and clinical efficacy in vitamin B12 deficiency with neurological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Loukili, Mouna; Soudy, Imar D; Rtibi, Kaies; Özel, Aslihan; Limas-Nzouzi, Nicolas; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Eto, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bioavailability and clinical benefits of oral new formulation (HB12 ) of hydroxocobalamin (Hdrx) with Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS). First, in an observational study, a cohort of 30 vitamin B12 -deficient patients (vit B12 vitamin B12 level increased from 55.1 ± 36.9 to 1330 ± 335.5 pg/mL at day 10 and 431.0 ± 24.27 pg/mL at day 90, without overt adverse effects. In mice ileum, (i) intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in dose-dependent manner with HB12 . The apparent permeability of Hdrx was Papp = 34.9 ± 4.6 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of 3 mg/mL (HB12 B) compared to the control Papp = 6.2 ± 0.7 × 10(-6) cm/s. (ii) Total transepithelial electrical conductance (Gt ) increased in dose-dependent manner with HB12 , Gt = 161.5 ± 10.8 mS/cm² with HB12 B (Hdrx 1 mg + HS 3 mg) compared to the control Hdrx, Gt = 28.7 ± 4.0 mS/cm². In conclusion, the clinical study suggests that injections are not required when Hdrx is given orally. Intestinal bioavailability of Hdrx increased in vitro when it was used concomitantly with HS. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Antagonistic Effects of Fertilizer on Photochemical Efficiency of Hibiscus cannabinus L. (Kenaf Planted on Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales Soil

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    Mohd-Hazimy Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Hibiscus cannabinus L. or Kenaf is a highly productive, warmseasonal C3 annual crop and is one of the potential candidates to substitute kenaf fiber as raw product for pulp and paper production. It survives well on less fertile soils including those of Beach Ridges Interspersed with Swales (BRIS soil. Approach: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of fertilizer on photochemical efficiency of H. cannabinus L. planted on BRIS soil using chlorophyll fluorescence technique. NPK with the ratio of 12:12:36 + 2MgO + TE (Trace-elements are mineral substances that act as an essential nutrients at a very low concentration and the micronutrient of the trace elements compositions are Boron, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum and Zinc were used for fertilizer treatment. Three levels of fertilizer treatments were applied in three plots; high (1960 kg plot-1, medium (1260 kg plot-1 and low (700 kg plot-1 respectively each plot comprising 106, 000 plants and were planted in 20 lines. Photochemical efficiency in terms of Fv/Fm ratio was determined under water deficit condition, fertilizer toxicity and interaction of both factors. Results: Contrasting trends for photochemical parameters were observed between different fertilizer levels where antagonistic effects were found between the three fertilizer treatments. The mean values ranged for minimal fluorescence (Fo were from 256.27-273.06, maximal fluorescence (Fm were from 970-1110.5, variable fluorescence (Fv were from 705-854.23 and the ratio of Fv/Fm (photochemical efficiency were from 0.72-0.77, respectively. Hitherto, for stress level, percentage for the low fertilizer level was 23.5% as compared to medium with 26.8 and 27.6% for high fertilizer level. Conclusion: The present study revealed that an appropriate amount of fertilizer is required to maximize the yield production cost effectively.

  16. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae comercializadas en Costa Rica

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    Melissa Agüero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compuestos fenólicos por el método de  Folin-Ciocalteu y se cuantificó la actividad antioxidante con el método de DPPH. Todas las marcas comerciales demostraron presencia de compuestos fenólicos, incluyendo antocianinas; sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y actividad anti-radical, entre los diferentes productores de tisanas. Por ello, se concluye que en el mercado costarricense, el perfil en compuestos fenólicos de las tisanas en estudio varía de acuerdo con el productor.

  17. Research on Salt-tolerance of Perennial Hibiscus moscheutos%多年生宿根花卉芙蓉葵耐盐性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文成; 孙昌禹; 孙宇; 郭艳超; 薛志忠; 李克晔; 封晓辉

    2013-01-01

    为了给芙蓉葵在滨海盐渍地播种育苗和重盐碱地园林绿化应用提供科学依据,分别以芙蓉葵种子、幼苗和1 a生越冬根为试材,在人工模拟盐胁迫强度条件下,研究了不同浓度 NaCl溶液处理对芙蓉葵种子发芽期和苗期耐盐性,以及越冬根萌生苗耐盐性的影响。结果表明:0.2%盐度胁迫会促进芙蓉葵种子萌发,随着NaCl浓度的增大,种子初始萌发时间延长,发芽率和萌发初期生长均受到抑制,且抑制程度均随盐胁迫浓度的增大而逐渐增强,盐度>0.6%后会显著抑制种子萌发,但每天给予12 h光照可以显著提高发芽率;盐胁迫会抑制芙蓉葵幼苗生长,且抑制作用随盐胁迫浓度的增大而逐渐增强,不影响其正常形态性状的最高盐胁迫浓度为0.6%,当盐胁迫浓度超过该阈值后,会使芙蓉葵幼苗的观赏价值明显降低;芙蓉葵越冬根发芽期的耐盐能力较强,盐度>1.2%后成活率显著下降。根据生理指标测定和幼苗外观形态观测结果,推断芙蓉葵种子萌发和幼苗生长的耐盐阈值是0.6%,越冬根正常萌发的耐盐阈值是1.2%。%In order to provide a scientific basis for Hibiscus moscheutos sowing and raising seedlings in the coastal saline soil and landscaping applications in heavy saline soil , taking Hibiscus moscheutos seeds, seedlings and overwintering roots as test materials, the effects of different concentrations of NaCl solution treatments on Hibiscus moscheutos seeds germination and seedlings salt tolerance , and overwintering roots sprouting salinity tolerance were studied in the artificial simulating salt stress conditions.The results showed that 0.2% salinity stress could promote Hibiscus moscheutos seed germination, with the increasing of NaCl concentration , the initial time of seed germination was extended, the germination rate and germination growth were inhibited and the degree of

  18. Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ in an Experimental Animal Model

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    Shou-Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies point out that oxidative stress maybe a major culprit in diabetic nephropathy. Aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE has been demonstrated as having beneficial effects on anti-oxidation and lipid-lowering in experimental studies. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetic rats. Our results show that HSE is capable of reducing lipid peroxidation, increasing catalase and glutathione activities significantly in diabetic kidney, and decreasing the plasma levels of triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL value. In histological examination, HSE improves hyperglycemia-caused osmotic diuresis in renal proximal convoluted tubules (defined as hydropic change in diabetic rats. The study also reveals that up-regulation of Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ and NF-κB-mediated transcription might be involved. In conclusion, our results show that HSE possesses the potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3γ signaling.

  19. An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial

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    R Rajendran

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibiscus sabdariffa is used regularly in folk medicine to treat various conditions. Methods The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Sixty subjects with serum LDL values in the range of 130-190 mg/dl and with no history of coronary heart disease were randomized into experimental and placebo groups. The experimental group received 1 gm of the extract for 90 days while the placebo received a similar amount of maltodextrin in addition to dietary and physical activity advice for the control of their blood lipids. Anthropometry, blood biochemistry, dietary and physical activity were assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Results While body weight, serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, there were no significant differences between the experimental and placebo group. Conclusions It is likely that the observed effects were as a result of the patients following the standard dietary and physical activity advice. At a dose of 1 gm/day, hibiscus sabdariffa leaf extract did not appear to have a blood lipid lowering effect. Trial Registration REFCTRI2009000472

  20. Green Synthesis Methods of CoFe2O4 and Ag-CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Using Hibiscus Extracts and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Gingasu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 and silver-cobalt ferrite (Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were obtained through self-combustion and wet ferritization methods using aqueous extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower and leaf. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements were used for the characterization of the obtained oxide powders. The antimicrobial activity of the cobalt ferrite and silver-cobalt ferrite nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungal strains, was investigated by qualitative and quantitative assays. The most active proved to be the Ag-CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through self-combustion using hibiscus leaf extract, which exhibited very low minimal inhibitory concentration values (0.031–0.062 mg/mL against all tested microbial strains, suggesting their potential for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

  1. Análisis comparativo de compuestos fenólicos totales y actividad antioxidante de cuatro marcas de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae comercializadas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Agüero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las tisanas de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa son consumidas en Costa Rica por su conocido efecto cardioprotector asociado a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos, principalmente antocianinas. Este trabajo estableció diferencias en el perfil de compuestos fenólicos y su actividad anti-radical entre diferentes comercializadores de tisanas de Hibiscus sabdariffa en Costa Rica. Se identificaron cualitativamente taninos, flavonoides y antocianinas. Se cuantificó la cantidad total de compuestos fenólicos por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu y se cuantificó la actividad antioxidante con el método de DPPH. Todas las marcas comerciales demostraron presencia de compuestos fenólicos, incluyendo antocianinas; sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias significativas en el contenido de compuestos fenólicos y actividad anti-radical, entre los diferentes productores de tisanas. Por ello, se concluye que en el mercado costarricense, el perfil en compuestos fenólicos de las tisanas en estudio varía de acuerdo con el productor.

  2. Study on Extraction Technology of Total Flavonoids in Hibiscus Manihot%金花葵花总黄酮提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪; 王刚

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究提取金花葵花总黄酮的最佳工艺条件.方法:采用乙醇回流提取的方法,并利用正交实验优化工艺条件.结果:乙醇回流最佳提取工艺为14倍量70%乙醇回流1次,120 min/次,金花葵花中总黄酮的含量为4.38%.结论:优化提取工艺简单、稳定、可行.%Objective: To study the optimal extraction technology of total flavonoids in Hibiscus manihot. Methods : To adopt the ethanol refluxing extraction method, the conditions of ethanol circumfluence extraction were optimized by orthogonal test. Results : The ethanol circunifluence extracting method was the best.The optimal extraction technology was as follows: solid-liquid ratio 1 : 14, 70% ethanol, refluxing and extracting for 120 min, 2 times. The total flavonoids in Hibiscus manihot was 4.38%. Conclusion: This optimized process is simple, stable and efficient.

  3. Molecular Phylogenetic Placement of the Recently Described Armored Scale Insect Abgrallaspis aguacatae and Several Congeners (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Jeremy C. Andersen; Joseph G. Morse; Benjamin B. Normark; Richard Stouthamer

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Hass’ avocado, Persea americana Miller, fruit being imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of a previously unknown species of armored scale insect (Hemiptera: Diaspididae...

  4. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  5. Desenvolvimento de Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae em cafeeiros = Development of Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in coffee trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 suga a seiva dos botões florais e frutos do cafeeiro, atacando as rosetas desde a floração até a colheita. Embora seja relatada há alguns anos na cafeicultura, são escassas as informações sobre o desenvolvimento dessacochonilha em cafeeiros. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivos avaliar alguns aspectos biológicos da fase ninfal de P. citri em plantas de café. Ovos dessa cochonilha foram retirados de uma criação em laboratório, isolados em placas de Petri contendo discos foliares de Coffea arabica L., das cultivares Acaiá Cerrado, Mundo Novo e Catuaí Vermelho e de C. canephora Pierre & Froenher, cultivar Apoatã. As placas foram mantidas em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1°C, 70 ± 10% de umidade relativa e 12h de fotofase. Constatou-se que a cultivar Catuaí Vermelho foi a que proporcionou maior duração do período ninfal das fêmeas, porém, não foram constatadas diferenças na mortalidade. Essa cochonilha se desenvolveu satisfatoriamente em todas as cultivares de café estudadas e os resultados não mostraram diferenças claras de susceptibilidade.The citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813 feeds mainly on flowers and fruits of coffee plants from blooming until harvest. Little is known about its development in coffee although its occurrence is already known for several years. This work aims to study the nymph development of this mealybug in coffee plants.Eggs were isolated from a stock culture kept in laboratory and placed inside Petri dishes containing leaf sections in agar. The tested cultivars were Acaia Cerrado, Mundo Novo, Catuai Vermelho (Coffea arabica and Apoatã (C. canephora. Insects were kept in a climatizedchamber at 25ºC, 70 ± 10% humidity and 12-hour photophase. The longest development period in females was obtained in cultivar Catuai Vermelho. No differences in mortality were found among cultivars. Mealybugs developed in all cultivars and the results

  6. (Psidium guajava), hibiscus (Hibiscus-rosa sinensis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons ... therefore is a microhabitat on the surface of plant's leaf ..... culture-independent assessment of bacteria in the apple.

  7. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  8. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  9. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  10. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  11. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  12. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  13. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  14. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  15. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  16. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  17. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  18. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  19. Effects of founder population size on the performance of Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castañe, C.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Carvalho, L.M.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is a key predator of thrips and is mass reared in large numbers for use in biological control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of founder population size on the biological and behavioral performance of O. laevigatus over time. Laboratory li

  20. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  1. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  2. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  3. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  4. Two myrmecophilous scale insects, Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Coccidae and Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Fabales, Fabaceae in the Cerrado area of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André R. Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soft scale Cryptostigma urichi (Cockerell, 1894 and the mealybug Farinococcus multispinosus Morrison, 1922 are reported cohabiting inside branches of Anadenanthera falcata (Benth. Speg. (Angico-preto, both tended by the ant Azteca oecocordia Longino, 2007 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. This interaction was observed in the Cerrado region sensu stricto, at the Federal University of São Carlos, UFSCar, Brazil. A. oecocordia is recorded for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

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    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  6. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-06-03

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  7. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea occurring on olives in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rramzi Mansour

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey performed in 2009 within 52 Tunisian olive groves, located in 17 different olive-growing sites, revealed the occurrence of six scale insects on olives. The identified species were: the armoured scales Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, Lepidosaphes ulmi (L., and Parlatoria oleae (Colvée, the soft scales Saissetia oleae (Olivier and Filippia follicularis (Targioni Tozzetti and the mealybug species Peliococcus cycliger (Leonardi. The soft scale F. follicularis is a new record for the Tunisian insect fauna. A mong these species, S. oleae was the predominant scale insect occurring throughout olive groves of northeastern Tunisia, whereas the mealybug P. cycliger was by far the most abundant species within olives groves of the Northwest region of Tunisia. However, P. oleae was the least abundant species, being present in only one olive-growing site in northeastern Tunisia. L arvae of the noctuid moth Eublemma scitula (Rambur were reported feeding on S. oleae and the coccinellid Chilocorus bipustulatus L . was found feeding on both S. oleae and A. nerii. The two hymenopteran species Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky and Metaphycus spp. were recorded as the main parasitoids of S. oleae.

  8. Genetic Record for a Recent Invasion of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Ma, Jun; Qiu, Bao-Li; He, Ri-Rong; Wu, Mu-Tao; Liang, Fan; Zhao, Ju-Peng; Lin, Li; Hu, Xue-Nan; Lv, Li-Hua; Breinholt, Jesse W; Lu, Yong-Yue

    2015-06-01

    The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is an emerging invasive insect pest. Since its first report as a pest in the United States in 1991, it has invaded and colonized more than 23 countries over the past century. It was first recorded from Pakistan in 2006 and from China in 2008. In this study, we performed field surveys from 2010 to 2012 and obtained mtCOI sequences from specimens across China and Pakistan, then compared them with already available mtCOI sequences from additional Asian and North American countries. Our genetic analysis provides evidence that P. solenopsis should be classified into two groups, one of which is found only in the United States, and the other found only in Asia. The Asian group contains nine unique haplotypes, two of which have invaded and spread across China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam over the last 4-6 yr. Our genetic analysis also indicates that P. solenopsis has a close relationship with the parasitoid wasp Aenasius bambawalei Hayat, providing preliminary evidence of a congruent spread of this mealybug and its parasitoids across China.

  9. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: estados inmaduros y biología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Mariani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae are described, keyed and illustrated. The description of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are: body size, color, number of tarsomeres, espinulation of the metatibia and number of teeth on the spur; presence of sensoria on antennal pedicel. This insect was reared on pieces of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Biological data based on lab and field observations show that M. bellicus carries out its biological cycle successfully on Pontederiaceae. One to nine eggs per scar are laid deeply into the aerenquima of the petiole, being most frequent 3-4, less frequent 5, 2 and 6 and rarely 1, 7 and 9. Eulophid wasps Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp, known as eggs parasitoid, was registered and quantified. As M. bellicus occupies the same ecological habitat that M. scutellaris Berg, we highlighted some morphological and biological aspects that allow their differentiation.Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son m

  10. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards that are infested or uninfested with Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhae, Catarina De Bortoli; Morini, Maria Santina De Castro; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2014-10-15

    The association between ants and mealybugs can result in damage to agriculture, including vineyards. In southern Brazil, the ant Linepithema micans F. contributes to the dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (ground pearl), a root mealybug that can lead to economic losses. In this study, the ant communities in vineyards that were infested or uninfested with ground pearls were evaluated in the primary municipalities that produce the Niágara Rosada variety of grapes in southeastern Brazil. The hypothesis of this study was that the composition of the ant community differs between vineyards with and without E. brasiliensis. The ants were collected using subterranean traps in 10 vineyards infested with this mealybug and 10 uninfested vineyards. There was no significant association between ground pearls and the composition or richness of the ant species. Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was the most frequently observed, and Pheidole aberrans (Mayr), Pheidole subarmata (Mayr), and Brachymyrmex incisus F. were common, especially in the rainy season when ground-pearl nymphs were prevalent in the state of São Paulo. Species from preserved or specialized environments were recorded in the vineyards, even with the use of conventional management techniques. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Systematics of Mepraia (Hemiptera-Reduviidae): cytogenetic and molecular variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, L; Panzera, F; Bargues, M D; Monteiro, F A; Klisiowicz, D R; Zuriaga, M A; Mas-Coma, S; Pérez, R

    2010-03-01

    The haematophagous insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) have great epidemiological importance as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Mepraia was originally described as a monotypic genus comprised of Mepraia spinolai, distributed along coastal areas of northern Chile (from Region I to the Metropolitan Region). Recently, some M. spinolai populations have been ranked as a new species named Mepraia gajardoi. Several populations along the distribution range of the genus were sampled, and genetic differentiation was studied based upon the analysis of three molecular markers: cytogenetics (karyotype and chromosome behaviour during meiosis using the C-banding technique), mitochondrial DNA (a cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment), and nuclear ribosomal DNA (intergenic region including the two internal transcribed spacers ITS-1 and ITS-2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene). The data here presented indicate that populations within the Mepraia genus (excluding Region II specimens) can be divided into two separate lineages. One lineage is comprised of specimens from the northernmost Region I and represents M. gajardoi. The other includes samples from the southern III, IV and the Metropolitan Regions, and represents M. spinolai. Region II individuals deserve particular attention as their relationship to the two identified lineages is not clear-cut. While they appear to belong to M. spinolai based on cytogenetics and rDNA markers, COI results indicate a closer relationship to M. gajardoi. This disagreement can be due to mitochondrial DNA introgression or the retention of ancestral polymorphisms.

  12. Cytogenetics and genome evolution in the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzera, F; Pérez, R; Panzera, Y; Ferrandis, I; Ferreiro, M J; Calleros, L

    2010-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, includes over 140 species. Karyotypic information is currently available for 80 of these species. This paper summarizes the chromosomal variability of the subfamily and how it may reveal aspects of genome evolution in this group. The Triatominae present a highly conserved chromosome number. All species, except 3, present 20 autosomes. The differences in chromosome number are mainly caused by variation in the number of sex chromosomes, due to the existence of 3 sex systems in males (XY, X(1)X(2)Y and X(1)X(2)X(3)Y). However, inter- and intraspecific differences in the position, quantity and meiotic behavior of constitutive heterochromatin, in the total genome size, and in the location of ribosomal 45S rRNA clusters, have revealed considerable cytogenetic variability within the subfamily. This cytogenetic diversity offers the opportunity to perform cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, as well as structural, evolutionary, and functional analyses of the genome. The imminent availability of the complete genome of Rhodnius prolixus also opens new perspectives for understanding the evolution and genome expression of triatomines. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization for the mapping of genes and sequences, as well as comparative analyses of genome homology by comparative genomic hybridization will be useful tools for understanding the genomic changes in relation to evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation to different environments.

  13. Application of RNA interference in triatomine(Hemiptera:Reduviidae)studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaela M.M.Paim; Ricardo N.Araujo; Michael J.Lehane; Nelder F.Gontijo; Marcos H.Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Triatomines(Hemiptera: Reduviidae)are obligate hematophagous insects.They are of medical importance because they are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi,the causative agent of Chagas disease in the Americas.In recent years,the RNA interference (RNAi)technology has emerged as a practical and useful alternative means of studying gene function in insects,including triatomine bugs.RNAi research in triatomines is still in its early stages,several issues still need to be elucidated,including the description of the molecules involved in the RNAi machinery and aspects related to phenotype evaluation and persistence of the knockdown in different tissues and organs.This review considers recent applications of RNAi to triatomine research,describing the major methods that have been applied during the knockdown process such as the double-stranded RNA delivery mechanism(injection,microinjection,or ingestion)and the phenotype characterization (mRNA and target protein levels)in studies conducted with the intent to provide greater insights into the biology of these insects.In addition to the characterization of insect biomolecules,some with biopharmacological potential,RNAi may provide a new view of the interaction between triatomine and trypanosomatids,enabling the development of new measures for vector control and transmission of the parasite.

  14. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-06

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  15. Local and Landscape Constraints on Coffee Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Chatura; Cruz, Magdalena; Kuesel, Ryan; Gonthier, David J; Iverson, Aaron; Ennis, Katherine K; Perfecto, Ivette

    2017-01-01

    The intensification of agriculture drives many ecological and environmental consequences including impacts on crop pest populations and communities. These changes are manifested at multiple scales including small-scale management practices and changes to the composition of land-use types in the surrounding landscape. In this study, we sought to examine the influence of local and landscape-scale agricultural factors on a leafhopper herbivore community in Mexican coffee plantations. We sampled leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) diversity in 38 sites from 9 coffee plantations of the Soconusco region of Chiapas, Mexico. While local management factors such as coffee density, branches per coffee bush, tree species, and density were not important in explaining leafhopper abundance and richness, shade management at the landscape level and elevation significantly affected leafhoppers. Specifically, the percentage of low-shade coffee in the landscape (1,000-m radius surrounding sites) increased total leafhopper abundance. In addition, Shannon's diversity of leafhoppers was increased with coffee density. Our results show that abundance and diversity of leafhoppers are greater in simplified landscapes, thereby suggesting that these landscapes will have higher pest pressure and may be more at-risk for diseases vectored by these species in an economically important crop. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  16. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios.

  17. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: immature stages and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana MARIANI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran los estados inmaduros de Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera: Delphacidae y se presenta una clave para identificarlos. La descripción de cada estadio se realizó sobre la base de ninfas extraidas 24 horas posteriores a la eclosión, de colonias de laboratorio y criadas sobre trozos de hojas de camalote Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms Laubach. Los principales caracteres para distinguir los distintos estadios son: tamaño del cuerpo, color, número de tarsómeros, espinulación de la metatibia y número de dientes del calcar y presencia de sensorios en el pedicelo antenal. Datos biológicos basados en observaciones en el laboratorio y en el campo, muestran que M. bellicus realiza su ciclo biológico exitosamente sobre Pontederiaceae. Los huevos, dispuestos de 1 a 9 por postura, son colocados profundamente en el aerénquima del pecíolo; son más frecuentes de 3-4, menos frecuentes 5, 2 y 6, y raramente 1, 7 y 9. Se registra el porcentaje de parasitoidismo de un Hymenoptera oófilo de la familia Eulophidae, Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus sp. Debido a que M. bellicus ocupa el mismo hábitat ecológico que M. scutellaris Berg, se resaltan las principales diferencias morfológicas y de comportamiento entre las mismas.

  18. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  19. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  20. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  1. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  2. Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa fruit extracts in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliyana Amran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fruits of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa have been used in the treatment of abscess, ulcer, cough, asthma, and diarrhea as traditional remedy. Objective: This study aims to evaluate cytotoxic effect of B. racemosa and H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts toward human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and its antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Total antioxidant activities of extracts were assayed using 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH and β-carotene bleaching assay. Content of phytochemicals, total flavonoid content (TFC, and total phenolic content (TPC were determined using aluminum chloride colorimetric method and Folin-Ciocalteu′s reagent, respectively. Cytotoxic activity in vitro was investigated through 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Results: B. racemosa extract exhibited high antioxidant activities compared to H. sabdariffa methanol fruit extracts in DPPH radical scavenging assay (inhibitory concentration [IC 50 ] 15.26 ± 1.25 μg/mL and ί-carotene bleaching assay (I% 98.13 ± 1.83%. B. racemosa also showed higher TPC (14.70 ± 1.05 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/g and TFC (130 ± 1.18 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/g compared to H. sabdariffa (3.80 ± 2.13 mg GAE/g and 40.75 ± 1.15 mg QE/g, respectively. In MTT assay, B. racemosa extract also showed a higher cytotoxic activity (IC 50 57.61 ± 2.24 μg/mL compared to H. sabdariffa. Conclusion: The present study indicated that phenolic and flavonoid compounds known for oxidizing activities indicated an important role among the contents of these plants extract. B. racemosa methanol extract have shown potent cytotoxic activity toward MCF-7. Following these promising results, further fractionation of the plant extract is underway to identify important phytochemical bioactives for the development of potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use.

  3. OKRA(HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS)AND FENUGREEK(TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRACEUM)MUCILAGE:CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION AS FLOCCULANTS FOR TEXTILE EFFLUENT TAEATMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajani Srinivasan; Anuradha Mishra

    2008-01-01

    The use of new food grade polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Hibiscus esculentus and Trigonella foenum graceum,commonly called Okra and Fenugreek,respectively,as flocculants was described.These polysaccharides were used for removal of solids (suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS)) and dyes from real textile effluents and aqueous solutions of different class of synthetic dyes.Influences of varying polysaccharide concentration,contact time and pH on removal of pollutant from the textile wastewater were investigated.Results showed that polysaccharides (mucilage) obtained from Okra and Fenugreek were capable of removing 90%-94% of SS,30%-44% of TDS and 30%-35% of dye using a very low concentration of polysaccharide.X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of solid waste material obtained before and after the treatment with polysaccharides were used as a supportive evidence to explain the mechanism of flocculation.

  4. ADSORPTION POTENTIALITES OF BIO-SORBENTS DERIVED FROM PROSOPIS CINERARIA AND HIBISCUS ROSA-SIN ENSIS IN THE REMOVAL OF METHYL ORANGE DYE FROM POLLUTED WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaik Karimulla

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves, stems and their ashes of Prosopis cineraria and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis have been explored for their surface sorption abilities towards Methyl Orange Dye using simulated waters. Various physicochemical parameters such as pH, time of equilibration and sorbent concentrations are optimized for evoking the sorption potentialities of the plant materials for the maximum extraction of the Methyl Orange Dye from waters. The surface sorption nature is found to pH sensitive and % of removal is maximum near pH:3.0% removal of the Dye is more with ashes than respective bio-materials. Co-anions, in fivefold excess, are found to beinterfering in the order: trivalent anion>divalent > monovalent while co-cations have shown relatively less interference on the extraction of the Dye at optimum conditions of extraction. The adoptability of the methodologies developed is tested with some real industrial effluents.

  5. Actividad hipotrigliceridémica de un extracto de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) al administrarse antes y durante las comidas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Castañeda; Sully Margot Cruz; Armando Caceres

    2015-01-01

    a elevación de los lípidos sanguíneos se ha convertido en un riesgo común de enfermedades cardiovasculares,en especial en el caso del colesterol y triglicéridos, también a problemas pancreáticos, de la córnea, bazo e hígado.Hibiscus sabdariffa L., es una especie medicinal de la familia Malvaceae, su efecto sobre la reducción de los lípidos séricos se ha mencionado en varios estudios. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la actividad de un extracto acuoso de los cálices de H. ...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun Guan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species.

  7. 香蕉携带杰克贝尔氏粉蚧的甲酸乙酯熏蒸技术初探%Primary study on ethyl formate fumigation against Jack Beardsley mealybug on banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文雅; 王迪; 刘涛; 李丽; 王毅; 刘长明; 王跃进

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine whether ethyl formate could be used to control Jack Beardsley mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel et Miller) on banana (Musa paradisiaca), in this study under the 13℃, using a series of concentration of ethyl formate combined with 15% carbon dioxide fumigation for 2.5 h, ethyl formate fumigation were measured for each bug state jack bell's mealybug toxicity and quality of fumigated bananas . The banana had the stronger chemisorption to ethyl formate. Under the condition of 40% loading rate, the concentration of the ethyl formate after 10 minutes was only 30%. And after 2.5 hours, the ethyl formate cannot be detected. The tolerance of all insect stages to ethyl formate appeared in the order of egg > the adult > nymph. All stages of mealybug was killed completely when fumigated with ethyl formate at the dosage of 90 g/m3. In the test of the character, fumigation of ethyl formate had no significant effects on internal quality of the banana, including fruit color, firmness, soluble sugar content and total acids. These results indicated that ethyl formate was effective to kill the Jack Beardsley mealybug while its adverse effect on the quality of banana could be greatly reduced at low temperature, so control of predatory insect pests using ethyl formate is achievable.%为了明确甲酸乙酯在检疫处理香蕉(Musa paradisiaca)携带杰克贝尔氏粉蚧(Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel et Miller)中应用的可能,本文在13℃下,使用一系列浓度的甲酸乙酯结合15%二氧化碳对杰克贝尔氏粉蚧和海南巴西蕉(Musa paradisiaca)进行了2.5 h 熏蒸处理,并测定了甲酸乙酯熏蒸对各虫态杰克贝尔氏粉蚧的毒性及香蕉品质的影响。结果表明香蕉对甲酸乙酯有较强的吸附作用,装载率为40%的条件下,投药后10 min 的浓度仅约为投药剂量的30%,熏蒸2.5 h 后已不能检测到熏蒸空间中的甲酸乙酯。对各虫态粉蚧的毒力结果表

  8. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  9. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-06-18

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  10. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Montoux

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February–March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA, a surface acoustic wave (SAW and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%, followed by SAGE II (7%, MIPAS (10%, SAOZ (20–25% and SCIAMACHY (35%, all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20–25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1–100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%.

    In the lower stratosphere between 16–20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16–18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4–5

  11. Comparative study of the anti-oxidant activity of the total polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus Sabdariffa L., Glycine max L. Merr., yellow tea and red wine through reaction with DPPH free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Andzi Barhé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of the evaluation of extracts of Glycine max L. Merr and Hibiscus L. Sabdariffa as antioxidants. A comparative study was performed with extracts of yellow tea and commercial red wine, two foods known for their antioxidant activity. The method applied is free radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°. The antioxidant properties were identified and measured by the determining the anti-radical activity reducing index, expressed in percentage % RSA (Radical Scavenger Activity, and by the determination of the colouring intensity (IC50. All results are compared to those of ascorbic acid as reference antioxidant. The results indicate the following order for the antioxidant power of the extracts tested. % RSA (tea > % RSA (Glycine max % > RSA (red wine % > RSA (Sabdariffa Hibiscus, and colouring intensities (IC50 ranging from 4.62 μM (ascorbic acid to 1.10 μM (Hibiscus sabdariffa correlated with their chemical structure and the content of phenolic compounds.

  12. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a key pest of clementines. Biological control of A. spiraecola is still poorly known and efforts were based on the use and conservation of parasitoids but it did not success. With all this said, the aims of this thesis were: i) to disentangle the reasons behind the low parasitism of A. spiraecola; ii) to determine when and how predators can control A. spiraecola populations; and, finally, iii) to evaluate whether a ground cover of Poaceae...

  13. Novas Plantas Hospedeiras para o Percevejo Fitófago Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Pires

    2012-12-01

    Abstract. Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae is a phytophagous bug that can be found in several crops due to availability of food and favorable conditions for the development. The aim of this research was to record the occurrence of L. zonatus colonizing plants of Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moc (Malpighiaceae, Morus nigra Linnaeus (Moraceae, Mangifera indica Linnaeus (Anacardiaceae in Municipality of Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. L. zonatus should be included in monitoring for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM in these plants.

  14. Brachygastra mellifica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Predation preference and feeding behavior on Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes-Rosas, M. A.; Loera-Gallardo, J.; López-Arroyo, J. I.; Buck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In previous field studies in Northern Mexico, we found the wasp Brachygastra mellifica (Say 1837) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) preying voraciously the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the vector of the bacteria Ca. Liberibacter spp., the putative agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most devastating citrus disease in the world.   As in Mexico, the ACP management considers the use of pest biological control, the availability of potential agents for the con...

  15. Scale insect genus-group names and their families (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Douglas J; Denno, Barbara D

    2014-06-05

    Genus names of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are listed with their current families. The list includes all generic names that are currently valid with synonyms, unjustified emendations, homonyms, nomia nuda and misspellings. The list has been compiled from many sources as discussed in the introduction. This is the first list to be prepared in recent years of all generic names and it is in alphabetical order.

  16. Primer Registro para el Perú de Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.

  17. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-01-01

    Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise), Coccidae (sagtedopluise) en Kerriidae (lakdopluise) is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhoudi...

  18. Seasonal Effects on the Population, Morphology and Reproductive Behavior of Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren A. Cirino; Christine W Miller

    2017-01-01

    Many insects are influenced by the phenology of their host plants. In North Central Florida, Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) spends its entire life cycle living and feeding on Opuntia mesacantha ssp. lata. This cactus begins producing flower buds in April that lead to unripe green fruit in June that ripen into red fruit through December. Many morphological and behavioral characteristics of N. femorata are known to be affected by cactus phenology in a controlled laboratory setting, inclu...

  19. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  20. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management.

  1. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Naidu, R A; Daane, K M; Millar, J G; Walsh, D B

    2013-02-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in Washington's Concord grape vineyards (Vitis labrusca L.). It is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Using traps baited with the sex pheromone of Ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring Ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for Ps. maritimus than visual surveys. Varying densities of pheromone-baited traps (one, four, and eight traps per 12.14 ha) were deployed in Concord vineyards to monitor Ps. maritimus seasonal phenology in 2010 and 2011. In both years, flights of adult males were detected in early May and captures peaked twice per season in mid-June and mid-August, indicating two generations each year. Trap data were analyzed using Taylor's Power Law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and the K parameter of the negative binomial model to determine optimal sample size. The formula using the K parameter provided the lowest required sample size, showing that four to eight traps per 12.14 ha were needed to provide 30% sampling precision efficiency throughout the entire season. Fewer traps were needed during flight peaks when trap capture numbers were great. Only one pheromone-baited trap per 12.14 ha was sufficient to provide Ps. maritimus flight phenology data to make informed management decisions. Species-specific pheromone-baited traps deployed for Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) did not detect any of these species in the vineyards sampled.

  2. Hibiscus and Wild Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Woodcut artist Zheng Shuang convinces the audience through her display of poetic emotion Benefiting from training in watercoior paintings early in life, strict literary sketch training as well, as 10 years study at the Central Academy of Fine Aris, Zheng has mare than 30 years teaching experience at the Ouangzhou Academy of Fine Aris "I"m a roadside grass, a wild flower," Zheng Shuang describes herself She said she often talks to nature-the mountains, the trees, the flowers and the

  3. Una especie nueva de Pseudococcus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae sobre forrajeras y soja en Argentina y países vecinos A new species of Pseudococcus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae on forage crops and soybean in Argentina and neighbouring countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Granara De Willink

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una especie nueva Pseudococcus pabulum Granara de Willink sp. nov., encontrada en raíces de Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, T. repens, Glycine max y Lotus corniculatus en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. Se incluye una clave para separar las especies del género Pseudococcus Westwood que afectan Medicago sativa.A new species of mealybug is described and illustrated; Pseudococcus pabulum Granara de Willink n.sp., found on roots of Medicago sativa, Trifolium pratense, T. repens, Glycine max and Lotus corniculatus, in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. A key to separate Pseudococcus Westwood species affecting forage crops is included.

  4. Revision of the Neotropical treehopper genus Tolania (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The treehopper genus Tolania Stål (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Nicomiinae: Nicomiini and 69 valid species (59 new are described and illustrated based on adult morphology. Ten informal species groups are recognized based on a previously published phylogenetic analysis: (1 the dira species group comprising T. calista sp. nov., T. dira sp. nov., T. inca sp. nov., T. macaria sp. nov., T. secoya sp. nov., and T. zaparo sp. nov.; (2 the fasciata species group comprising T. fasciata (Walker, T. gracilis sp. nov., and T. laticlava sp. nov.; (3 the femoralis species group comprising T. femoralis Stål, T. fraterna Stål, and T. roberti sp. nov.; (4 the furcata species group comprising T. furcata sp. nov., T. tryphena sp. nov., and T. venezuelensis sp. nov.; (5 the hispida species group comprising T. alida sp. nov., T. hispida sp. nov., and T. periculosa sp. nov.; (6 the malefica species group comprising T. cactina sp. nov., T. curvata sp. nov., T. grallator sp. nov., T. jocosa sp. nov., T. mackameyi sp. nov., T. malefica sp. nov., T. obliqua (Walker, and T. terencia sp. nov.; (7 the obtusa species group comprising T. obtusa Fowler, T. obunca sp. nov., and T. torosa sp. nov.; (8 the opponens species group comprising T. alvira sp. nov., T. arcuata sp. nov., T. damia sp. nov., T. insolita sp. nov., T. lunata sp. nov., T. lurida sp. nov., T. opponens (Walker, T. oriana sp. nov., T. reflexa sp. nov., T. risa sp. nov., T. sinuata sp. nov., T. trilobata sp. nov., T. tumida sp. nov., T. umbella sp. nov., T. vitocensis sp. nov., T. woodi sp. nov., and T. xantha sp. nov.; (9 the peltacauda species group comprising T. brasiliensis sp. nov., T. iratafelis sp. nov., T. modesta sp. nov., T. peltacauda sp. nov., T. picta sp. nov., and T. thyrea sp. nov.; and (10 the semipellucida species group comprising T. atrata sp. nov., T. fimbriata sp. nov., T. nicia sp. nov., and T. semipellucida Stål. The following new species are not placed in species groups: T. anomala sp. nov

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Kristen L; Burris, Kellie P; Zivanovic, Svetlana; Davidson, P Michael; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-02-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces are widely used in the preparation of beverages. The calyces contain compounds that exhibit antimicrobial activity, yet little research has been conducted on their possible use in food systems as antimicrobials. Aqueous extracts prepared from the brand "Mi Costenita" were sterilized by membrane filtration (0.22-μm pore size) or autoclaving (121 °C, 30 min) and tested for antimicrobial activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains ATCC 43894 and Cider and Staphylococcus aureus strains SA113 and ATCC 27708 in a microbiological medium and ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk with various fat percentages. Extracts heated by autoclaving exhibited greater activity than did filtered extracts in a microbiological medium. Against E. coli, results of 20 mg/ml filtered extract were not different from those of the control, whereas autoclaved extracts reduced viable cells ca. 3 to 4 log CFU/ml. At 60 mg/ml, both extracts inactivated cells after 24 h. There were reduced populations of both strains of S. aureus (ca. 2.7 and 3 log CFU/ml, respectively) after 24 h of incubation in 40 mg/ml filtered extracts. When grown in autoclaved extracts at 40 mg/ml, both strains of S. aureus were inactivated after 9 h. Autoclaved extracts had decreased anthocyanin content (2.63 mg/liter) compared with filtered extracts (14.27 mg/liter), whereas the phenolic content (48.7 and 53.8 mg/g) remained similar for both treatments. Autoclaved extracts were then tested for activity in milk at various fat concentrations (skim [3.25%]) against a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1:1 mixture of the two strains of S. aureus. Extracts at 40 mg/ml inactivated S. aureus after 168 h in skim and whole milk, and E. coli was inactivated after 96 h in 60 mg/ml extract in all fat levels. These findings show the potential use of Hibiscus extracts to prevent the growth of pathogens in foods and beverages.

  6. Calidad seminal en ovinos pelibuey con inclusión de Hibiscus rosa-sinensis en la dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maza Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La alimentación de los ovinos en el trópico representa del 48 a 90 % de los costos de producción, además, el uso de granos hace dependientes a los ovinocultores del mercado internacional. Ganancias de peso moderadas se han obtenido con follaje de plantas arbustivas, sin embargo, algunas plantas como el Tulipán (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis presentan compuestos que pueden actuar como fito-estrógenos, lo que puede comprometer el uso potencial en la alimentación de sementales ovinos pelibuey. Método: doce sementales ovinos Pelibuey, de 24±3 meses de edad, con un peso de 44±5 kg y una condición corporal de 2.3 +0.3 en una escala de 1 a 5 fueron asignados a 2 tratamientos (n=6 durante 45 días. En dietas con base en pasto de corte (Pennisetum purpureum x P. Typhoides var. CT-115, para el tratamiento 1 (T1, se utilizó alimento comercial (500 g d-1 por ovino con 16% de PC; y para el tratamiento 2 (T2, 20% de Tulipán (451 g MS/ kg MV, ~1.6 kg d-1 por ovino. Al finalizar la prueba se evaluó la calidad seminal, las variables de respuesta fueron: volumen del eyaculado (Vol, ml y a través del Análisis de Semen Asistido por Computadora (CASA la concentración espermática (CE, Millones por ml y ocho parámetros de motilidad individual: velocidad curvilínea (VCL, μ/s, velocidad rectilínea (VSL, μ/s, velocidad promedio (VAP, μ/s, índice de linealidad (LIN, %, índice de rectitud (STR, %, índice de oscilación (WOB, %, amplitud media del desplazamiento lateral de la cabeza (ALH, μ y frecuencia de batido de cola (BCF, Hz. Para determinar las diferencias entre las medias para tratamientos para Vol y CE, VCL, VSL y VAP se utilizó una t de Student; para los parámetros de motilidad individual se realizó una reducción de factores y una clasificación en dos fases de los índices obtenidos para caracterizar las subpoblaciones espermáticas por motilidad. Los análisis fueron realizados con el software SPSS 15.0 para Windows Resultados: no se

  7. A new Chorizococcus species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae from Taiwan with transferring Chorizococcus mirzayansi Moghaddam to genus Spilococcus Ferris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jer Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new mealybug species, Chorizococcus zoysiae sp. n., feeding on Zoysia tenuifolia (Poaceae, is described from Taiwan. This is the first record of a Chorizococcus species from Southeast Asia. Adult female, third-instar female, second-instar nymph and first-instar nymph were described and illustrated in this article. Keys are provides to (a separate this new species from similar species of Chorizococcus and those of same genus on zoysiagrasses and (b to identify instars of this new species. In addition, Ch. mirzayansi Moghaddam is transferred to the genus Spilococcus as S. mirzayansi (Moghaddam comb. nov.

  8. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  9. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkie Spodek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae are described and illustrated. This species is compared with K. vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region.

  10. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  11. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl; McHugh, Tara; Friedman, Mendel; Jaroni, Divya; Ravishankar, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot, and hibiscus-based edible films against Salmonella Newport in bagged organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included organic Romaine and Iceberg lettuce, and mature and baby spinach. Each leafy green sample was washed, dip inoculated with S. Newport (10⁷ CFU/mL), and dried. Each sample was put into a Ziploc® bag. Edible films pieces were put into the Ziploc bag and mixed well. The bags were sealed and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken at days 0, 3, and 7 for enumeration of survivors. On all leafy greens, 3% carvacrol films showed the best bactericidal effects against Salmonella. All 3 types of 3% carvacrol films reduced the Salmonella population by 5 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 0 and 1.5% carvacrol films reduced Salmonella by 1 to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g at day 7. The films with 3% cinnamaldehyde showed 0.5 to 3 log reductions on different leafy greens at day 7. The films with 0.5% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde and 0.5% carvacrol also showed varied reductions on different types of leafy greens. Edible films were the most effective against Salmonella on Iceberg lettuce. This study demonstrates the potential of edible films incorporated with carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde to inactivate S. Newport on organic leafy greens.

  12. Biodiversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacterial species occurring in Yanyanku and Ikpiru, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa used to produce food condiments in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B; Thorsen, Line; Nielsen, Dennis S; Azokpota, Paulin; Akissoe, Noèl; Hounhouigan, Joseph D; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2013-05-15

    Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.

  13. Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extracts from Different Hibiscus sabdariffa Accessions and Simultaneous Determination Five Major Antioxidant Compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa has gained attention for its antioxidant activity. There are many accessions of H. sabdariffa in the world. However, information on the quantification of antioxidant compounds in different accessions is rather limited. In this paper, a liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS method for simultaneous determination of five antioxidant compounds (neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, rutin, and isoquercitrin in H. sabdariffa leaves was developed. The method was validated for linearity, sensitivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. The validated method has been successfully applied for determination of the five analytes in eight accessions of H. sabdariffa. The eight accessions of H. sabdariffa were evaluated for their antioxidant activities by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The investigated accessions of H. sabdariffa were rich in rutin and exhibited strong antioxidant activity. The two accessions showing the highest antioxidant activities were from Cuba (No. 2 and Taiwan (No. 5. The results indicated that H. sabdariffa leaves could be considered as a potential antioxidant source for the food industry. The developed LC-Q-TOF-MS method is helpful for quality control of H. sabdariffa.

  14. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  15. Inductive effect of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus on in vitro production of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telefo, P B; Moundipa, P F; Tchouanguep, F M

    2004-04-01

    In the course of a preliminary clarification of the mechanisms of the leaf mixture extract of Aloe buettneri, Justicia insularis, Dicliptera verticillata and Hibiscus macranthus, locally used to regulate the menstrual cycle and to treat dysmenorrhea or cases of infertility in women, pieces of proestrus rat ovary were incubated in the presence of increasing concentration of the plant extract and/or human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). The in vitro production of estradiol and progesterone by ovarian cells of proestrus rat was significantly increased in the presence of various concentration of hCG (P < 0.05). The different concentration of the plant extract increased the production of estradiol by twofold. In addition, the in vitro production of estradiol by ovarian cells increased by 13-fold when they were incubated with hCG (0.1 IU/ml) and a concentration of 130 microg/ml of the plant extract. These results clearly attest the direct effects of some chemical components of the leaf mixture of the plants on ovarian steroidogenesis.

  16. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  17. A polyphenol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. ameliorates acetaminophen-induced hepatic steatosis by attenuating the mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hsin; Kuo, Chih-Yi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Yi-Ru; Hung, Chi-Nan; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is the major contributor to acetaminophen (AAP)-caused liver damage. It promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress and collapses the mitochondrial membrane potential to cause cell death. We have previously shown that a polyphenol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HPE) potentiated the antioxidative effect. We further examined in this study the possible mechanism of HPE against AAP-caused liver damage. BABL/c mice were orally fed with HPE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) for two weeks prior to an i.p. injection of 1000 mg/kg of AAP. The mice were decapitated 6 h after the AAP injection to collect the blood and liver for further determination. The results show that pretreating with HPE increased the level of glutathione (GSH), decreased the level of lipid peroxidation, and increased catalase activity in the liver. A histopathological evaluation shows that HPE could decrease AAP-induced liver sterosis accompanied by a decreased expression of AIF, Bax, Bid, and p-JNK in the liver. An in vitro assay revealed that HPE could reduce AAP-induced death of BABL/c normal liver cells (BNLs), reverse the lost mitochondrial potency and improve the antioxidative status, similarly to the results of the in vivo assay. We show in this study that HPE possessed the ability to protect the liver from AAP-caused injury. The protective mechanism might be regulated by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuating the mitochondrial dysfunction.

  18. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  19. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  20. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  1. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  2. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  3. Rapid Communication. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hym.: Eulophidae parasitoid of Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae in Iran

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    Lotfalizadeh Hossein

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961 (Hemiptera: Triozidae is reported on Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae in northwestern Iran. Tamarixia monesus (Walker (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae was reared for the first time on B. tremblayi, and compared with Tamarixia tremblayi, another parasitoid of B. tremblayi. This is a new record of T. monesus from the Middle East.

  4. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid

  5. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

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    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  6. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  7. Biological parameters and thermal requirements of the parasitoid Praon volucre (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conti, De B.F.; Bueno, V.H.P.; Sampaio, M.V.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the biology of Praon volucre (Haliday, 1833) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) hosts was studied and the thermal requirements of the parasitoid were determined. Experiments were carried out at 16, 19, 22, 25, and 28

  8. Efficacy of orchard-applied insecticides against the brown stink bug Euschistus servus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) attacking pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The polyphagous brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch (Juglandaceae), and other agronomic crops across the southcentral and southeastern U.S.A. Management of this pest in both orchards and row crops i...

  9. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid femal

  10. Review of the grassland leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) from the Chinese mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yani; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mainland species of the leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) (Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Nephotettix malayanus Ishihara & Kawase, Nephotettix nigropictus (Stål), Nephotettix parvus Ishihara & Kawase rec. n., and Nephotettix virescens (Distant)) are reviewed. This genus is redescribed. Variation is described and illustrated. Keys for their separation are provided together with a worldwide checklist.

  11. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  12. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  13. Effects of Three Plant Growth Regulators on the Physiological Indices of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis%3种植物生长调节剂对七彩朱槿生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玉舒中; 王美英; 李悦; 杨振德; 雷世满; 吕文玲

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂对七彩朱槿生长影响的生理机制.[方法]采用L16(43)的正交试验设计,研究多效唑( PP333)、矮壮素(CCC)、比久(B9)3种植物生长调节剂对盆栽七彩朱槿叶绿素含量以及POD、CAT、NR的影响.[结果]叶施与根施生长调节剂对七彩朱槿的生理影响效果不同.叶施生长调节剂对叶绿素含量、POD和CAT的影响大于根施;而根施对NR的促进作用大于叶施,含高浓,度CCC(4000mg/L)的(14)、(15)、(16)处理的NR明显高于对照.3种生长调节剂中,CCC对七彩朱槿NR的影响最显著,其中根施CCC处理的影响达极显著水平.[结论]合理使用植物生长调节剂,不仅能起到化学修剪的作用,同时可以增强七彩朱槿的光合作用能力、抗性以及对氮肥的利用能力.%[Objective] The research aimed to explore the physiological mechanism that plant growth regulators made effects on the growth of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis. [Method] The experiments were conducted as the orthogonal design of L16 (4 ) to study the effects of three plant growth regulators , namely PP333, CCC, B9, on th e chlorophyll content, POD, CAT and NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis grown in pot. [Result] The effects on the physiological indices of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis between foliar fertilization and root fertilization of PP333 ,CCC and B9 were different. The effects on the chlorophyll content, POD and CAT made by foliage fertilization were more obvious than by root fertilization, but it was opposite to NR, and the values of NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis treated by the (14), (15) and (16) combinations, which all contained CCC in high concentration (4 000 mg/L) ,were significantly higher than CK. Among the three plant growth regulators, CCC had made the most significant effect on NR of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis, especially by the way of root fertilization, and the difference could reach extremely significant level compared with the others. [Conclusion] Rational use

  14. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  15. Agalmatium flavescens (Hemiptera, Issidae and Camponotus aethiops (Hymenoptera, Formicidae – an unknown trophobiotic association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIA GJONOV

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of trophobiosis between ants and planthoppers of the family Issidae is limited to studies of individual cases from Argentina, Mexico, India, the island of Naxos (Cyclades and an anecdotal report from Italy. This paper reports a previously undescribed ant-attendance of Agalmatium flavescens (Olivier, 1791 (Hemiptera, Issidae by Camponotus aethiops (Latreille, 1798. It includes a brief literature review and presents some ecological aspects of this new finding. In additions, live color photographs of A. flavescens and interactions with ants are provided.

  16. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  17. [First record of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Tipuana tipu (Benth.), from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Dalva L Q; Burckhardt, Daniel; Aguiar, António M F

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Acizzinae), is reported for the first time, in Brazil. The psyllid was observed causing injuries on leaves and shoots of Tipuana tipu (Benth.), in urban areas of Paraná State. P. nigrivirga are tiny sap-sucking insects that feed on phloem and cause curling, stains and fall of leaves. The excrements of these insects accumulate on the leaves propitiating fungus growth on the leaves, or they fall in great amount on the cars dirtying them as if they were sparkling of white and sticky ink.

  18. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  19. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae with the description of a new species

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    Éva Szita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, A. cataphracta (Olafsen, A. occidentalis (Douglas and A. pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided.

  20. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

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    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  1. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  2. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

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    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  3. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material.

  4. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  5. Use of molecular tools for the identification of males of some scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea, in pheromone traps used for monitoring and comparison with females

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    István Tóbiás

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Species from Pseudococcidae family were studied. It was determined that the dry males of Planococcus citri, and Pseudococcus comstocki, collected by pheromone traps could be useful for the molecular analyses too. The ITS-2 sequences of males and females in case of Pl.citri, Planococcus ficus and Ps. comstocki were identical. This molecular method could differentiate the two mealybug species and this method can be useful to have idea specimens collected by pheromone traps.

  6. Analysis of fatty acids from Hibiscus sabdariffa L.calyx by GC-MS%玫瑰茄花萼中脂肪酸成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冰涛; 赵婷; 邹艳敏; 邹烨; 郑大恒; 曲洪媛; 李峰; 仰榴青

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the fatty acids from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx by gas chromatogra-phy-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS). Methods; To extract oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx by soxhlet extraction method. After methyl esterification, the oil was analyzed by GC -MS. Results: The oil from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx was composed of seventeen fatty acids . The main fatty acids of the oil were linoleic acid (45.03%), oleic acid (23.62%), palmitic acid (22.91%), stearic acid (3.41%), (10E)10-nona-decenoic acid (1. 91%), palmitoleic acid (0. 84%), eicosanoic acid (0. 53%) and myristic acid (0.34%) , respectively. The content of unsaturated fatty acids was up to 71.40%. Conclusion; Unsatu-rated fatty acids, rich in Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Oil, are of high nutrition for human health.%目的:采用气相色谱-质谱联用技术(GC-MS)对玫瑰茄花萼中提取的油脂进行脂肪酸组成分析.方法:采用索氏提取法提取玫瑰茄花萼中的油脂,甲酯化后运用GC-MS联用技术进行分离和结构鉴定.结果:玫瑰茄花萼油脂中含有17种脂肪酸,其中主要的脂肪酸为亚油酸(45.03%)、油酸(23.62%)、棕榈酸(22.91%)、硬脂酸(3.41%)、(10E)-10-十九烯酸(1.91%)、棕榈油酸(0.84%)、花生酸(0.53%)和肉豆蔻酸(0.34%).其中不饱和脂肪酸含量高达71.40%以上.结论:玫瑰茄油脂中富含不饱和脂肪酸,具有较高的营养价值和保健功能.

  7. Primeiro registro da cochonilha Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae no Brasil First record of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de Willink, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Kussler

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae foi registrada atacando plantas de erva-mate, pela primeira vez no Brasil, no município de Chapecó (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W,SC de setembro de 2002 a janeiro de 2003, mas outros 32 ervais não apresentaram a ocorrência desse inseto. Esta cochonilha pode causar danos como a degeneração dos ramos primários devido a constante sucção de seiva. O contorno do corpo é oval arredondado (2,68mm x 2,60mm com antenas curtas e robustas com sete segmentos. Esta espécie é caracterizada pela presença e distribuição de poros preoperculares e setas hipopigiais.The presence of Pendularia paraguariensis Granara de WillinK, 1999 (Hemiptera: Coccidae was reported for the first time in Brazil in the town of Chapecó, Santa Catarina State (27°05’47"S, 52°37’06"W, attacking Paraguay tea plants (Ilex paraguariensis, from September 2002 to January 2003. Other 32 Paraguay tea plantations were inspected and there was not occurrence of this insect. This cochineal can cause degeneration of the branches where they are due to the constant suction of the sap. The contour of the body is rounded oval (2.68mm x 2.60mm and it has short and robust antennas with seven segments. This species is characterized by the presence and distribution of preoperculary pores and hypopygial arrows.

  8. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

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    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  9. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

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    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  10. Neutralisation of Local Haemorrhage Induced by the Saw-Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki Venom Using Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus aethiopicus L.

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    S. S. Hasson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with ethanol. Different assays were performed according to standard techniques, to evaluate the plant’s acute toxicity and its antivenom activities. The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. aethiopicus extract using “oral and intra-peritoneal” route were normal even at the highest dose (24 g/kg tested. All guinea pigs (n=3 when treated with venoms E. c. sochureki (75 μg alone induced acute skin haemorrhage. In contrast, all guinea pigs (n=18 treated with both venom and the plant extract at a concentration between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage. Moreover, all guinea pigs (n=18 treated with venom and the plant extract below 400 mg/kg showed acute skin haemorrhage. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. c. sochureki (75 μg alone induced acute skin haemorrhage after both 24 and 32 hours. In contrast, all guinea pigs treated with both venom and the plant extract (administered independently at concentrations between 500 and 1000 mg/kg showed no signs of haemorrhage after 32 hours. However, after 24 hours all tested guinea pigs showed less inhibition (<60% compared to that obtained after 32 hours. The outcome of this study reflects that the extract of H. aethiopicus plant may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom induced local haemorrhage.

  11. The protective effect of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

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    Jamaludin Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extracts of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. UKMR-2 against red blood cell (RBC membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 rats each: control group (N, roselle-treated control group, diabetic group, and roselle-treated diabetic group. Roselle was administered by force-feeding with aqueous extracts of roselle (100 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the malondialdehyde levels of the red blood cell membranes in the diabetic group were significantly higher than the levels in the roselle-treated control and roselle-treated diabetic groups. The protein carbonyl level was significantly higher in the roselle-treated diabetic group than in the roselle-treated control group but lower than that in the diabetic group. A significant increase in the red blood cell membrane superoxide dismutase enzyme was found in roselle-treated diabetic rats compared with roselle-treated control rats and diabetic rats. The total protein level of the red blood cell membrane, osmotic fragility, and red blood cell morphology were maintained. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that aqueous extracts of roselle possess a protective effect against red blood cell membrane oxidative stress in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These data suggest that roselle can be used as a natural antioxidative supplement in the prevention of oxidative damage in diabetic patients.

  12. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

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    Vandana S Nade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods : The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p. in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT and passive avoidance test (PAT were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o. Results : The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL. EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione reductase (GSH. Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion : The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders.

  13. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  14. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

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    Ruimin Gao

    Full Text Available The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K, arginine (R and histidine (H that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  15. INCLUSIÓN DE HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA EN ALIMENTOS EXPERIMENTALES PARA MACROBRACHIUM TENELLUM: EFECTOS EN LA PIGMENTACIÓN, CRECIMIENTO Y SUPERVIVENCIA.

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    Martín A. Aréchiga P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la naturaleza, los pigmentos tienen la principal función de colorear; sin embargo, también tienen efectos sobre el estado de salud y desarrollo de los organismos. Los compuestos sintéticos dirigidos a incrementar la coloración en organismos con importancia comercial, representan entre el 15 al 20% del costo de la dieta. Por lo anterior, la investigación sobre pigmentos de origen natural (más baratos y menos tóxicos se ha incrementado sustancialmente en los últimos años. Las antocianinas pueden ser utilizadas como una alternativa para la pigmentación de organismos. En este estudio se utilizaron los cálices de Hibiscus sabdariffa, planta popular que acumula antocianinas que proporciona su característico color rojo. Langostinos Macrobrachium tenellum fueron alimentados con dietas que incluían cálices de H. sabdariffa (jamaica bajo los siguientes tratamientos: i pigmento extraído con agua, ii pigmento extraído con etanol acidificado [0.1 M HCl (v/v], y iii harina de cálices. El efecto pigmentante de las dietas experimentales se comparó con langostinos sometidos a una dieta control sin pigmentos añadidos y con langostinos extraídos del medio silvestre. Los langostinos alimentados con la dieta de inclusión de polvo de jamaica mostraron la mayor expresión de eritróforos (color rojo en el exoesqueleto del pleon (abdomen y ganancia en longitud y peso, después de 60 días. Estos resultados sugieren que H. sabdariffa puede ser utilizado como complemento alimenticio natural, puesto que tiene un efecto positivo en los parámetros de crecimiento y pigmentación.

  16. Actividad hipotrigliceridémica de un extracto de rosa de Jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. al administrarse antes y durante las comidas

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    Rodrigo Castañeda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available a elevación de los lípidos sanguíneos se ha convertido en un riesgo común de enfermedades cardiovasculares,en especial en el caso del colesterol y triglicéridos, también a problemas pancreáticos, de la córnea, bazo e hígado.Hibiscus sabdariffa L., es una especie medicinal de la familia Malvaceae, su efecto sobre la reducción de los lípidos séricos se ha mencionado en varios estudios. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en evaluar la actividad de un extracto acuoso de los cálices de H. sabdariffa, para reducir los lípidos séricos en dos grupos de individuos, con valores de triglicéridos mayores de 150 mg/dL, al recibir una dosis de 15 mg de antocianinas totales al día, dividida en tres veces, por un periodo de dos meses para establecer su influencia, dependiendo del momento de su administración, un grupo recibiéndola antes de la comida y otro durante la misma. El extracto de H. sabdariffa mostró un efecto hipotrigliceridémico significativo (p = 0.034, al finalizar el tratamiento, únicamente al administrar el extracto antes de las comidas. Al mismo tiempo, no se observó alteración en los niveles de colesterol total, colesterol contenido en las lipoproteínas de baja densidad y colesterol contenido en las proteínas de alta densidad en ninguno de los dos grupos evaluados. Los resultados sugieren que los extractos acuosos de H. sabdariffa podrían ser utilizados para ejercer una acción en los triglicéridos plasmáticos, dependiente del consumo de alimentos, y del momento de administración.

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa Leaf Extract Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion via Down-Regulation of Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 Pathway

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    Chun-Tang Chiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf has been previously shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anticancer activity of H. sabdariffa leaf extract (HLE are poorly understood. The object of the study was to examine the anti-invasive potential of HLE. First, HLE was demonstrated to be rich in polyphenols. The results of wound-healing assay and in vitro transwell assay revealed that HLE dose-dependently inhibited the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer LNCaP (lymph node carcinoma of the prostate cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Our results further showed that HLE exerted an inhibitory effect on the activity and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. The HLE-inhibited MMP-9 expression appeared to be a consequence of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB inactivation because its DNA-binding activity was suppressed by HLE. Molecular data showed all these influences of HLE might be mediated via inhibition of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt/NF-kB/MMP-9 cascade pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of Akt1 overexpression vector. Finally, the inhibitory effect of HLE was proven by its inhibition on the growth of LNCaP cells and the expressions of metastasis-related molecular proteins in vivo. These findings suggested that the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by HLE may act through the suppression of the Akt/NF-kB signaling pathway, which in turn led to the reduced invasiveness of the cancer cells.

  18. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn

    2017-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms. Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were determined, and APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). E4 (p=0.008) and homozygous B1B1 (p=0.010) carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C concentrations after HS consumption; in addition, B2 carriers who consumed HS showed significantly decreased triglyceride (TG) concentrations (p=0.039). Regarding GP consumption, non-E4 carriers had significantly decreased HDL-C (p=0.009) and FBG (p=0.042) concentrations. Furthermore, B2 carriers had significantly decreased total cholesterol (TC) (p=0.045), HDL-C (p=0.004), and FBG (p=0.026) concentrations. HS consumption may have beneficial effects with respect to TG concentrations in the B2 carriers, but it may adversely affect HDL-C concentrations in homozygous B1B1 and E4 carriers. In contrast, GP consumption may have favorable effects on TC and FBG concentrations but not on HDL-C concentrations for B2 and/or non-E4 carriers.

  19. Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae at Rio de Janeiro State = Ocorrência de Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro.

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    Márcio Coutinho de Almeida

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Blackfly’s, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is considered by the National Plant Protection Organization/Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (NPPO/MAPA as a present quarantine pest (List A2, which occurs in 20 Brazilian States. The aim of this study is to report its occurrence in the Rio de Janeiro State, since its first notification in 2010. = A Mosca-Negra-dos-Citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, é considerada pela Organização Nacional de Proteção Fitossanitária/Ministério da Agricultura (ONPF/MAPA, como praga quarentenária presente (Lista A2, com registros oficiais de ocorrência em 20 Estados brasileiros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar sua ocorrência no Rio de Janeiro desde a sua primeira notificação, no ano de 2010.

  20. First record of occurrence of mosca-negra-dos-citrus, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) in Roraima, Brazil = Primeiro registro da ocorrência de mosca-negra-dos-citros, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Clemilto da Silva Maciel; Marcos Wanderley da Silva; Anderson Gonçalves da Silva; Ruy Guilherme Correia; Paulo Roberto Silva Farias; Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2011-01-01

    The Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of citrus. Originated in Asia, this pest was detected in Brazil for the first time in the State of Para, Brazil in 2001. In the culture of citrus fruits the black fly carries direct and indirect damage, impeding the development and production of plants. In addition to restricting trade in local areas from its occurrence to the presence of the plague, since the A. woglumi quarantine pest is considered present (A2) of...