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Sample records for hibernators steve sarre

  1. Steve Rawlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Anthony

    2012-03-01

    I appreciate that you did not wish to include speculative or distressing details in your report of the death of the University of Oxford astrophysicist Steve Rawlings (February p8), but your report, which merely stated that Rawlings' colleague Devinder Sivia had been arrested and was bailed in relation to the death, will lead many to conclude that Sivia bears moral responsibility for Rawlings' demise.

  2. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  3. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Linwood, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Second Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open source, lightweight Hibernate-the de facto object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework. This book packs in brand-new information about the latest release of the Hibernate 3.5 persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you

  4. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Blessing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945 is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic art when he ventured into it. Crucially, Sarre’s study of Seljuk architecture is rooted in the late nineteenth-century appreciation of Persian art, rather in the later focus on a unified Turkish identity that became pervasive in the late 1920s, following ideological shifts after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

  5. Steve Jobs: Nobel Laureate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garry Jacobs

    2013-01-01

    .... The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological...

  6. When steve becomes Stephanie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Loren; Elliot, Brian

    2008-12-01

    Henrietta Mercer, the senior vice president for human resources at LaSalle Chemical, is facing a challenge unprecedented in her career: Steve Ambler, recently appointed the company's group sales director, has decided to change his gender identity. Before Henrietta can finish crafting a corporate response, someone slips a copy of her confidential memo to the executive committee to one of Steve's colleagues, whose outraged reaction suggests the difficulties that may lie ahead. How can she help him transition in a workplace where not everyone is on board with the plan? Linda E. Taylor, the director of work life, equity, and inclusion at Raytheon Missile Systems, advises Henrietta to offer lots of gender identity training. When Raytheon employees question the morality of condoning transgender choices, she replies that the company doesn't pass judgment on its employees' private lives and that working for Raytheon means adhering to its policy of inclusion. Ronald K. Andrews, a vice president and head of human resources at Prudential, says it is crucial to work very closely with the person transitioning and points out that the individual's courage may be what most strikes colleagues. Prudential held a meeting to educate account executives and provide them with talking points before they spoke directly to key clients - not one of whom was lost. Stasha Goliaszewski, a scientist and engineer at Boeing, started her gender transition after four years with the company. HR support helped with other employees, and her professional expertise helped when she called on customers. She advises large companies to prepare their gender-identity policies and not be caught off guard, as Henrietta was. Statistics show that, sooner or later, they are bound to encounter the issue.

  7. Steve Jobs: Nobel Laureate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable achievements of one of the world's greatest entrepreneurs offer profound insights into the fundamental nature of economy and essential missing links in prevailing economic theory. The career of Steve Jobs dramatically illustrates the central importance of human capital in modern economy and the almost incalculable contribution that a single individual can make to technological advancement, social innovation and wealth creation, while enhancing the lifestyle of hundreds of millions of people. Jobs demonstrated that the real basis of economic value is providing valuable products and services that fulfill human needs and aspirations, not unregulated markets and financial speculation. His apparent failures point to the dual nature of uncertainty that presides over all human activity - both the ever present threat of error and the untold opportunities hidden behind the veil. Widely regarded as a genius for inventing better products, his greatest commercial achievement has been in recognizing the central importance of services in modern society and fashioning integrated social service systems within which products act as an enabling technology.

  8. Q&A Steve Bush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Steve Bush, curriculum leader for science at Sackville School in West Sussex, was awarded the 2016 RAS Patrick Moore Medal for his contribution to astronomy education. But, as he explains here, it was only chance that led him to astronomy.

  9. Hibernate A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2004-01-01

    Do you enjoy writing software, except for the database code? Hibernate:A Developer's Notebook is for you. Database experts may enjoy fiddling with SQL, but you don't have to--the rest of the application is the fun part. And even database experts dread the tedious plumbing and typographical spaghetti needed to put their SQL into a Java program. Hibernate: A Developers Notebook shows you how to use Hibernate to automate persistence: you write natural Java objects and some simple configuration files, and Hibernate automates all the interaction between your objects and the database. You don't

  10. Meet AAPT's new President, Steve Iona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Courtney

    2014-02-01

    I first met Steve Iona 40 years ago at a Denver Area Physics Teachers meeting. Steve had recently completed bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics from the University of Chicago. Being a Colorado native, he was interested in returning to Colorado to teach. Steve had some rather high-powered recommendations, including one from a Nobel laureate. As Steve is fond of saying, because the recommendations were secret, he never knew if they were positive or not, but at least they were good enough for him to get a job teaching junior high school! Within a couple of years Steve had moved to the high school and was teaching Project Physics, astronomy, and general science. Steve continued to teach high school for over 25 years.

  11. 天才Steve Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪兰

    2011-01-01

    在美国众多的创新者中,没有人实现过Steve Jobs为我们留下的这一切辉煌.这一成就通常被歪曲.Jobs不是另一个爱迪生,他也没有实现一项纯技术的突破,比如电路和频率之类.纯粹的技术突破并不是使苹果变得独特的原因.他给全人类的礼物是使得形式和功能达到富有想象力的极高点.他的视野富有先见,他将他个人的崇高品味赋予在技术之上,而其数以百万计的追随者们则在个人电脑、iPod、iPhone和iPad等设备上愉快地拥抱和欣赏着这一品味.我们非常感谢他“疯狂而伟大”的创作所蕴含的至高无上的品质. 我们悼念Steve Jobs,但我们可以肯定,他勇敢无畏的追问精神将激励他人去实现自己灵光一现的时刻,使得物理本身所固有的魔力最终实现.当它发生时,我们可以称之为“Jobs效应”.

  12. Life and death of Steve Jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Essany, Michael

    2011-01-01

    It is perhaps no great exaggeration to presume that the number of times the Steve Jobs story has been told is roughly comparable to the number of iPhones that have been sold since the revolutionary Apple smartphone was first introduced in 2007. As history attests, there are few people about whom more books and articles have ever been written. Yet for all the media coverage that Steve Jobs has attracted throughout his storied career, there's a tangible sense among the general public that we never fully knew the real man behind the legend. In The Life & Death Of Steve Jobs: ""One More Thing..

  13. Steve Jobs And Modern Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-George Toma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During the time, especially in the last fifty years, leadership has increasingly become a major subject in the management literature, a subject of much thought, writing and teaching. While the importance of leadership is generally accepted all over the world, there are as many definitions of it as there are organizations. In spite of the fact that the business literature on leadership is so voluminous, there is not an agreed-upon definition of the concept of leadership. Leadership is not only intensely studied, but also practiced in different organizations. How to lead effectively an organization depends on many factors such as the organizational culture, the behavior of the followers, and the personal traits of the leader. The vast majority of successful leaders are multi-dimensional individuals. The aims of our paper are to present a short biography of Steve Jobs and to highlight his contribution to modern leadership. Our research is based on a literature review. The S. Jobs example illustrates how a transformational leader as him can be a key factor in successfully turning round the fortunes of a company as Apple. The paper facilitates a better understanding of modern leadership, emphasizing the case of S. Jobs, and provides a platform on which to build further studies on the same subject.

  14. THE REAL LEADERSHIP LESSONS OF STEVE JOBS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter Isaacson

    2012-01-01

      Steve Jobs cofounded Apple in his parents' garage in 1976, was ousted in 1985, returned to rescue it from near bankruptcy in 1997, and by the time he died, in October 2011, had built it into the...

  15. Summary of Steve Jobs, Walter Isaacson

    CERN Document Server

    Reader, Capitol

    2013-01-01

    This ebook consists of a summary of the ideas, viewpoints and facts presented by Walter Isaacson in his book "Steve Jobs". This summary offers a concise overview of the entire book in less than 30 minutes reading time. However this work does not replace in any case Walter Isaacson's book.Isaacson reveals the story of Steve Jobs career, which is a tale filled with lessons about innovation, character, leadership and being true to one's own values.

  16. Steve Forbes näeb Eestit rikkaimate riikide hulgas / Steve Forbes ; interv. Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Forbes, Steve, 1947-

    2008-01-01

    Meediamagnaat Steve Forbes ütleb intervjuus Äripäevale, et Eesti jõuab rikkaimate riikide hulka, kuid peab edu jätkumiseks äärmiselt oluliseks haridust ning Eesti vajab tema hinnangul selles osas pikaajalist plaani. Vt. samas: Steve Forbes; Ansip: Forbes tõstab Eesti tuntust maailmas

  17. Steve Forbes näeb Eestit rikkaimate riikide hulgas / Steve Forbes ; interv. Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Forbes, Steve, 1947-

    2008-01-01

    Meediamagnaat Steve Forbes ütleb intervjuus Äripäevale, et Eesti jõuab rikkaimate riikide hulka, kuid peab edu jätkumiseks äärmiselt oluliseks haridust ning Eesti vajab tema hinnangul selles osas pikaajalist plaani. Vt. samas: Steve Forbes; Ansip: Forbes tõstab Eesti tuntust maailmas

  18. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  19. Steve O'Neale 1948-2003

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, D; Watkins, P

    ATLAS was shocked and saddened to hear of the sudden death of Steve O'Neale on 25 November 2003. Steve was a valued, even inimitable, member of the Birmingham particle physics group from the early 1970's. In his early career, he worked on a number of bubble chamber experiments, mainly using neutrino beams, and he was computing co-ordinator of the OPAL experiment for many years. For more than ten years Steve was also a member of the core ATLAS computing team at CERN, from where he made an unforgettable impact on the Collaboration. And what an impact, as a personality and colleague, as well as a highly esteemed professional, and not least for many as a dear friend. As a professional he brought to the project his deep knowledge and irreplaceable experience in particle physics software and computing. The computing landscape has changed radically over the period of Steve's activities in this field, and even over his time in ATLAS. It is remarkable how naturally Steve kept pace with these changes. It needed hi...

  20. 我为鞋狂Steve Madden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛巴; 良仔

    2015-01-01

    史蒂夫·马登(Steve Madden)以舒适的平底鞋和近两年大热的坡跟鞋而闻名,是好莱坞明星们脚上最常见的鞋子品牌之一,尤其是在街拍中,明星们日常外出最爱穿的鞋子非史蒂夫·马登(Steve Madden)莫属。

  1. Hea vaistuga miljardiliigutaja Steve Jurvetson / Lauri Levo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levo, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Life in Estonia 2005/06, Winter, lk. 24-27. Riskiinvesteerimisfirma Draper, Fisher, Jurvetson (DFJ) üks omanikke Steve Jurvetson tutvustab oma tüüpilist tööpäeva, haridusteed ja hobisid. Kommenteerib AS-i IT Grupp asutaja ja tuumikinvestor Jaak Ennuste

  2. Steve Jobs and the User Psyche

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2043155.2043157 Peter J. Denning reflects on a meeting he had with Steve Jobs in 1988. Published in ACM Ubiquity.Ubiquity Commentary

  3. Steve O'Neale 1948 - 2003

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Colleagues and friends in CERN and beyond regret the sudden death of Steve O'Neale. Steve had a wide-ranging career, which started with studies of neutrino interactions in bubble chambers, where he participated in the CERN and Fermilab programmes. He worked on many aspects of the geometrical reconstruction and fitting software. He also took part in an experiment using a tagged photon beam in a SLAC bubble chamber. A major part of his career was spent in OPAL, where his contributions were exceptional, both in quantity and in quality. He served as an Offline Coordinator for many years, and his mark can be found throughout OPAL's software environment. Hundreds of young scientists owe their starting careers to the care and dedication that Steve spent in the provision of a fully-working computing platform for OPAL. In parallel to his OPAL work, he contributed to Babar, to CERN's central software services, and to ATLAS. On ATLAS, Steve was initially responsible for the SLUG framework, but made his most significa...

  4. Steve Jobs and the User Psyche

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2043155.2043157 Peter J. Denning reflects on a meeting he had with Steve Jobs in 1988. Published in ACM Ubiquity.Ubiquity Commentary

  5. Hea vaistuga miljardiliigutaja Steve Jurvetson / Lauri Levo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levo, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Life in Estonia 2005/06, Winter, lk. 24-27. Riskiinvesteerimisfirma Draper, Fisher, Jurvetson (DFJ) üks omanikke Steve Jurvetson tutvustab oma tüüpilist tööpäeva, haridusteed ja hobisid. Kommenteerib AS-i IT Grupp asutaja ja tuumikinvestor Jaak Ennuste

  6. Paraprofessional of the Year 2008: Steve Roskoski

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2008-01-01

    Steve Roskoski's accomplishments during his tenure at Multnomah County Library touch upon almost everything the library does: developing employee training, introducing chat reference, supervising a branch while the manager is on leave, conducting story times, mentoring new staffers, working on interlibrary loan and hiring, and even serving on a…

  7. Steve Jürvetson muudab maailma / Jaanika Heinsoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsoo, Jaanika

    2004-01-01

    Ameerikas elavast eestlasest riskiinvestorist, tema tegevusest infotehnoloogia alal, Eesti rollist infotehnoloogia maailmas, lähituleviku arengutest, iidolitest. Vt. samas intervjuud Steve Jürvetsoniga. Lisa: Steve Jürvetson

  8. Steve Jürvetson muudab maailma / Jaanika Heinsoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinsoo, Jaanika

    2004-01-01

    Ameerikas elavast eestlasest riskiinvestorist, tema tegevusest infotehnoloogia alal, Eesti rollist infotehnoloogia maailmas, lähituleviku arengutest, iidolitest. Vt. samas intervjuud Steve Jürvetsoniga. Lisa: Steve Jürvetson

  9. Meet AAPT's New President, Steve Iona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    I first met Steve Iona 40 years ago at a Denver Area Physics Teachers meeting. Steve had recently completed bachelor's and master's degrees in mathematics from the University of Chicago. Being a Colorado native, he was interested in returning to Colorado to teach. Steve had some rather high-powered recommendations, including one from a…

  10. STS-104 Crew Interview: Steve Lindsey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-104 Commander Steve Lindsey is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, its payload (the Joint Airlock and the external gas tanks), and the usefulness of the newly installed Canadian Robotic Arm (installed by STS-100 crew). Lindsey describes his role in the rendezvous, docking, undocking, and flyaround of the Atlantis Orbiter and the International Space Station (ISS) and discusses the mission's planned spacewalks.

  11. Steve Reed. Interviewed by Charlotte Schubert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Charlotte

    2009-11-01

    Steve Reed believes the organization he has founded has the potential to radically increase the developing world's access to vaccines for neglected diseases. The efforts of the Seattle-based Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI), which operates as a not-for-profit biotech company, may start to pay off during the H1N1 'swine' flu pandemic. IDRI developed an adjuvant to boost the effectiveness and supplies of flu vaccines and is making the technology available to vaccine manufacturers in developing nations. Charlotte Schubert talks to Reed about how IDRI, a 90-person operation with a $19 million annual budget, could have such a big impact.

  12. The real leadership lessons of Steve Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Walter

    2012-04-01

    The author, whose biography of Steve Jobs was an instant best seller after the Apple CEO's death in October 2011, sets out here to correct what he perceives as an undue fixation by many commentators on the rough edges of Jobs's personality. That personality was integral to his way of doing business, Isaacson writes, but the real lessons from Steve Jobs come from what he actually accomplished. He built the world's most valuable company, and along the way he helped to transform a number of industries: personal computing, animated movies, music, phones, tablet computing, retail stores, and digital publishing. In this essay Isaacson describes the 14 imperatives behind Jobs's approach: focus; simplify; take responsibility end to end; when behind, leapfrog; put products before profits; don't be a slave to focus groups; bend reality; impute; push for perfection; know both the big picture and the details; tolerate only "A" players; engage face-to-face; combine the humanities with the sciences; and "stay hungry, stay foolish."

  13. Hibernation for space travel: Impact on radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Matteo; Tinganelli, Walter; Negrini, Matteo; Helm, Alexander; Scifoni, Emanuele; Tommasino, Francesco; Sioli, Maximiliano; Zoccoli, Antonio; Durante, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity used by some animals to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The idea of exploiting hibernation for space exploration has been proposed many years ago, but in recent years it is becoming more realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals. In addition to the expected advantages in long-term exploratory-class missions in terms of resource consumptions, aging, and psychology, hibernation may provide protection from cosmic radiation damage to the crew. Data from over half century ago in animal models suggest indeed that radiation effects are reduced during hibernation. We will review the mechanisms of increased radioprotection in hibernation, and discuss possible impact on human space exploration.

  14. Hibernation for space travel: Impact on radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Matteo; Tinganelli, Walter; Negrini, Matteo; Helm, Alexander; Scifoni, Emanuele; Tommasino, Francesco; Sioli, Maximiliano; Zoccoli, Antonio; Durante, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity used by some animals to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The idea of exploiting hibernation for space exploration has been proposed many years ago, but in recent years it is becoming more realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals. In addition to the expected advantages in long-term exploratory-class missions in terms of resource consumptions, aging, and psychology, hibernation may provide protection from cosmic radiation damage to the crew. Data from over half century ago in animal models suggest indeed that radiation effects are reduced during hibernation. We will review the mechanisms of increased radioprotection in hibernation, and discuss possible impact on human space exploration.

  15. STS-110 Crew Interviews: Steve Smith

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Steve Smith is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Smith outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Smith discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  16. Hibernate Recipes A Problem-Solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Hibernate continues to be the most popular out-of-the-box framework solution for Java Persistence and data/database accessibility techniques and patterns. It is used for e-commerce-based web applications as well as heavy-duty transactional systems for the enterprise. Gary Mak, the author of the best-selling Spring Recipes, now brings you Hibernate Recipes. This book contains a collection of code recipes and templates for learning and building Hibernate solutions for you and your clients. This book is your pragmatic day-to-day reference and guide for doing all things involving Hibernate. There

  17. Good and bad in the hibernating brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM

    2006-01-01

    Hibernators survive long periods of time without behavioural activity. To minimize energy expenditure, hibernators use the natural hypometabolic state of torpor. Deep torpor in ground squirrels is accompanied by reduction of brain activity, and is associated with changes in electrical activity patte

  18. X-33 Simulation Flown by Steve Ishmael

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Steve Ishmael flies a simulation of the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This simulation was used to provide flight trajectory data while flight control laws were being designed and developed, as well as to provide aerodynamic design information to X-33 developer Lockheed Martin. The X-33 program was a government/industry effort to design, build and fly a half-scale prototype that was to have demonstrated in flight the new technologies needed for the proposed Lockheed Martin full-scale VentureStar Reusable Launch Vehicle. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company had hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to provide the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have created new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components and fuel tanks built to conform to the vehicle's outer shape. Time between X-33 flights was normally to have been seven days, but the program hoped to demonstrate a two-day turnaround between

  19. An interview with Steve Wilson. Interview by Kathryn Senior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Stephen Wilson is Professor of Developmental Genetics at University College, London, UK. He was recently awarded the Remedios Caro Almela Prize for Research in Developmental Neurobiology. We interviewed Steve to find out about how he started on the road to developmental biology research, how he got interested in the brain, his achievements and future challenges.

  20. Who killed HIV/AIDS activist Steve Harvey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Garry

    2006-04-01

    On 30 November 2005, Jamaican HIV/AIDS activist Steve Harvey was found murdered. Harvey was a staunch defender of the human rights of people living with, and vulnerable to, HIV/AIDS. Since 1997, he had worked at Jamaica AIDS Support. In this commentary, Garry Mullins examines the deep roots and social acceptance of homophobia, and its consequences, in Jamaican society.

  1. Steve Jobs, Ameerika Hans H. Luik / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Autor võrdleb Apple'i asutajat ja juhti Steve Jobsi Eesti meediaärimehe Hans H. Luigega. Vt. samas: Jobs: ärge raisake aega teiste elu elamisele; Forbes: iPhone'ist saab Apple'i suur hitt; CV: Steven Paul Jobs. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia

  2. Steve Jobs, Ameerika Hans H. Luik / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Autor võrdleb Apple'i asutajat ja juhti Steve Jobsi Eesti meediaärimehe Hans H. Luigega. Vt. samas: Jobs: ärge raisake aega teiste elu elamisele; Forbes: iPhone'ist saab Apple'i suur hitt; CV: Steven Paul Jobs. Diagramm: Apple'i aktsia

  3. Leading Apple with Steve Jobs management lessons from a controversial genius

    CERN Document Server

    Elliot, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A former Senior VP of Apple shares how Steve Jobs motivated people to do the best work of their lives Jay Elliot was hired personally by Steve Jobs, just in time to accompany him on the last of his historic visits to Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center, the visits that changed the course of computing. As Senior VP of Apple, Jay served as Steve's right-hand man and trouble-shooter, overseeing all corporate operations and business planning, as well as software development and HR. In Leading Apple with Steve Jobs, Jay details how Steve managed and motivated his people-and what every manager can lea

  4. Steve Jobs provides lessons for any medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Hal; Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Steve Jobs is inarguably the greatest inventor and creative genius since Thomas Edison. He provided technology that enhances communication on a global level. Jobs also provided ideas and suggestions that could work in any medical practice regardless of the size of the practice, the location of the practice, or the employment model. His advice can be transferred from a high-tech business that employs thousands to a high-touch medical practice that has only a few employees. This article will list a few of Jobs leadership characteristics and how they might apply to physicians, their teams, and their practices. Wouldn't you like to be the Steve Jobs of healthcare? If so, read on!

  5. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  6. Kätlin Ölluk, Steve Heinlo : kaasaegselt luksuslik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kätlin Öllukist (sünd. 1977), tema olulisemad tööd. Steve Heinlost (sünd. 1970). Arhitekt Vahur Sova projekteeritud eramu sisekujundus. Sisearhitekt K. Ölluk, kaasautor S. Heinlo. Köögis ja elutoas on Jura Marmorist põrand. Kogu maja mööbel on valmistatud eritellimusel. Ill.: 2 plaani, 12 värv. vaadet, sisearhitektide portreefotod

  7. Sacrificing Steve: How I Killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Carman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  8. Marco Calamari, Lampi di Cassandra: l’altro Steve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo, pubblicato oggi su “Punto informatico”, è apparentemente dedicato alla differenza fra i due fondatori della Apple: lo Steve Jobs di cui parlano tutti, e l’altro, Wozniak, che ha lasciato l’azienda nel 1985, dopo aver creato i primi due veri personal computer, Apple I e Apple II. Mentre a Wozniak si devono i pochissimi momenti [...

  9. Sacrificing Steve : how I killed the Crocodile Hunter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman, Luke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra argue that the complex issues of illegitimacy at the core of Australian identity are repressed through a continual process of cyclical silencing, where traces of a shameful past are exorcised by a focus on images of a mythologised ‘legend’, embodied in characters such as 'The Man from Snowy River'. This article explores such a 'schizophrenic' cycle in relation to the life, death and resurrection of Steve 'Crocodile Hunter' Irwin.

  10. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  11. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  12. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  13. Steve Woods's contribution to research on amylin's eating inhibitory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Thomas Alexander

    2011-04-18

    Amylin is secreted by pancreatic beta-cells and seems to function as a physiological signal of satiation and possibly also as an adiposity signal. Amylin's satiating effect is mediated via a direct action at area postrema (AP) neurons. The central pathways mediating amylin's effects rely on connections from the AP to the nucleus of the solitary tract and lateral parabrachial nucleus. Amylin was shown to interact, probably at the brainstem, with other satiating signals, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY, and other adiposity signals, namely leptin and insulin. The interaction with leptin, which is thought to involve the hypothalamus, may have important implications for the development of new and improved hormonal anti-obesity treatments. Steve Woods has contributed to the recent literature on amylin's eating inhibitory effect by some frequently cited publications. Steve's work concentrated more on the central administration of amylin and on amylin's potential role as an adiposity signal. His work will be reviewed here and discussed in the context of other important findings on amylin's role in the control of energy homeostasis.

  14. STS-114: Crew Interviews 1. Andy Thomas 2. Steve Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    STS-114 Mission Specialists, Andy Thomas and Steve Robinson, are seen in this pre-flight interview. Andy Thomas begins by talking about his interest in spaceflight as a young boy growing up in Australia. He expresses that the chances of an Australian boy studying to eventually become an astronaut was very remote. His Mechanical Engineering Degree in Australia and a Doctorate enabled him to acquire unique skills to come to the United States to work for Lockheed Martin. On the topic of return to flight, he reflects on experiences that he had working with the Michael Anderson and Kalpana Chawla of the ill-fated Space Shuttle Columbia. He also talks about the safety of the Space Shuttle Discovery and repairs to its Thermal Protection system. He explains in detail the Logistics Flight (LF) 1, spacewalks, Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform (ESP)-2. Steve Robinson expresses that he had many interests as a child and becoming an astronaut was one of them. He was fascinated with things that fly and wanted to find out how they flew. He also designed hang gliders as a teenager. He expresses how his family feels about the risky business of spaceflight. He talks about how the space shuttle discovery crew will remember the Columbia crew by including seven stars on their patch so that they can bring them into orbit and then back home. Robinson also talks about his primary job, and the spacewalks that he and Soichi Noguchi will be performing.

  15. The Adaptive Response to Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-23

    Balslev-Clausen, A., J. M. McCarthy and H. V. Carey. 2003. Hibernation reduces pancreatic amylase levels in ground squirrels. Comp. Biochem...pathogens, despite the long term absence of food intake during the winter months. The results shown below support the conclusion that hibernators do...proposal but related to overall objective: Effect of hibernation on pancreatic amylase levels: This award also supported a small study that examined

  16. Mechanisms responsible for decreased glomerular filtration in hibernation and hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.; Jones, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, red blood cell and plasma volumes, and relative distribution of cardiac output were made on hibernating and hypothermic adult male and female golden hamsters weighing 120-140 g to study the mechanisms underlying the elimination or marked depression of renal function in hibernation and hypothermia. The results suggest that the elimination or marked depression in renal function reported in hibernation and hypothermia may partly be explained by alterations in cardiovascular system function. Renal perfusion pressure which decreases nearly 60% in both hibernation and hypothermia and a decrease in plasma volume of roughly 35% in the hypothermic animal might both be expected to markedly alter glomerular function.

  17. Hibernal Emergence of Chironomidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Baranov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of Chironomidae were detected emerging in the Crimea during the period from December 2010 to March 2013. Twenty-three are Orthocladiinae and 4 are Chironominae (one Chironomini and three Tanytarsini species. Nine species are recorded for the first time in Crimea. At the genus-level the hibernal emergence in Crimea shows resemblance to the patterns reported for streams in Kansas.

  18. Modification of glial response in hibernation: a patch-clamp study on glial cells acutely isolated from hibernating land snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Ljiljana; Bataveljic, Danijela; Andjus, Pavle R; Moldovan, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Miodrag; Petkovic, Branka

    2014-12-01

    Hibernation is a dormant state of some animal species that enables them to survive harsh environmental conditions during the winter seasons. In the hibernating state, preservation of neuronal rhythmic activity at a low level is necessary for maintenance of suspended forms of behavior. As glial cells support rhythmic activity of neurons, preservation of brain function in the hibernating state implies accompanying modification of glial activity. A supportive role of glia in regulating neuronal activity is reflected through the activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channels (Kir). Therefore, we examined electrophysiological response, particularly Kir current response, of glial cells in mixture with neurons acutely isolated from active and hibernating land snail Helix pomatia. Our data show that hibernated glia have significantly lower inward current density, specific membrane conductance, and conductance density compared with active glia. The observed reduction could be attributed to the Kir currents, since the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current density was significantly lower in hibernated glia. Accordingly, a significant positive shift of the current reversal potential indicated a more depolarized state of hibernated glia. Data obtained show that modification of glial current response could be regulated by serotonin (5-HT) through an increase of cGMP as a secondary messenger, since extracellular addition of 5-HT or intracellular administration of cGMP to active glia induced a significant reduction of inward current density and thus mimicked the reduced response of hibernated glia. Lower Kir current density of hibernated glia accompanied the lower electrical activity of hibernated neurons, as revealed by a decrease in neuronal fast inward Na+ current density. Our findings reveal that glial response is reduced in the hibernating state and suggest seasonal modulation of glial activity. Maintenance of low glial activity in hibernation could be important for preservation of brain

  19. Cardiac function adaptations in hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2010-03-01

    Research on the cardiovascular physiology of hibernating mammals may provide insight into evolutionary adaptations; however, anesthesia used to handle wild animals may affect the cardiovascular parameters of interest. To overcome these potential biases, we investigated the functional cardiac phenotype of the hibernating grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) during the active, transitional and hibernating phases over a 4 year period in conscious rather than anesthetized bears. The bears were captive born and serially studied from the age of 5 months to 4 years. Heart rate was significantly different from active (82.6 +/- 7.7 beats/min) to hibernating states (17.8 +/- 2.8 beats/min). There was no difference from the active to the hibernating state in diastolic and stroke volume parameters or in left atrial area. Left ventricular volume:mass was significantly increased during hibernation indicating decreased ventricular mass. Ejection fraction of the left ventricle was not different between active and hibernating states. In contrast, total left atrial emptying fraction was significantly reduced during hibernation (17.8 +/- 2.8%) as compared to the active state (40.8 +/- 1.9%). Reduced atrial chamber function was also supported by reduced atrial contraction blood flow velocities and atrial contraction ejection fraction during hibernation; 7.1 +/- 2.8% as compared to 20.7 +/- 3% during the active state. Changes in the diastolic cardiac filling cycle, especially atrial chamber contribution to ventricular filling, appear to be the most prominent macroscopic functional change during hibernation. Thus, we propose that these changes in atrial chamber function constitute a major adaptation during hibernation which allows the myocardium to conserve energy, avoid chamber dilation and remain healthy during a period of extremely low heart rates. These findings will aid in rational approaches to identifying underlying molecular mechanisms.

  20. What Students Can Learn from Steve Jobs. Footnotes. Volume 16, Number 08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husick, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    A few days ago, Steve Jobs, the rockstar founder and Chief Executive Officer of Apple, Inc. resigned from his job to become Chairman of the Board, instead. For more than ten years, Mr. Jobs has been paid one dollar a year to run what has become the most valuable company in the world. From his first partner, Steve Wozniak, to the small team of…

  1. 77 FR 56697 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Steve McQueen”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Steve McQueen'' SUMMARY: Notice is... object to be included in the exhibition ``Steve McQueen,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  2. How hibernation and hypothermia help to improve anticoagulant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrij, Edwin L; Henning, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Winter is coming. Some animals successfully cope with the hostility of this season by hibernating. But how do hibernators survive the procoagulant state of months of immobility at very low body temperatures, with strongly decreased blood flow and increased blood viscosity? Changing the coagulation s

  3. Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Dynamics in a Hibernating Mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P.; Sahoo, Daisy; Drover, Victor A.; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Carey, Hannah V.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernating mammals cease feeding during the winter and rely primarily on stored lipids to fuel alternating periods of torpor and arousal. How hibernators manage large fluxes of lipids and sterols over the annual hibernation cycle is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and cholesterol transport and storage in ground squirrels studied in spring, summer, and several hibernation states. Cholesterol levels in total plasma, HDL and LDL particles were elevated in hibernators compared with spring or summer squirrels. Hibernation increased plasma apolipoprotein A-I expression and HDL particle size. Expression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase was 13-fold lower in hibernators than in active season squirrels. Plasma triglycerides were reduced by fasting in spring but not summer squirrels. In hibernators plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was elevated during torpor whereas triglycerides were low relative to normothermic states. We conclude that the switch to a lipid-based metabolism during winter, coupled with reduced capacity to excrete cholesterol creates a closed system in which efficient use of lipoproteins is essential for survival. PMID:22195001

  4. Photographic recording of natural activity in hibernating bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge

    1970-01-01

    In the past decade there has been an increasing awareness that spontaneous activity in hibernating mammals is not a mere accidental imperfection in the mechanism of hibernation but, on the contrary, a regular and important feature of it. Several recent investigations (e.g. Kristofferson & Soivio, 19

  5. Enhanced oxidative capacity of ground squirrel brain mitochondria during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Mallory A; Schwartz, Christine; Andrews, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA). Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA, resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation. We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared with spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation. To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA. Respiration rates of isolated brain mitochondria through complex I of the electron transport chain were more than twofold higher in TOR and IBA than in SP (P mitochondria compared with TOR and IBA (P mitochondria function more effectively during the hibernation season, allowing for rapid production of energy to meet demand when extreme physiological changes are occurring. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Decreases in body temperature and body mass constitute pre-hibernation remodelling in the Syrian golden hamster, a facultative mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayama, Yuichi; Ando, Lisa; Tamura, Yutaka; Miura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi

    2016-04-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy for surviving during periods with little or no food availability, by profoundly reducing the metabolic rate and the core body temperature (T b). Obligate hibernators (e.g. bears, ground squirrels, etc.) hibernate every winter under the strict regulation of endogenous circannual rhythms, and they are assumed to undergo adaptive remodelling in autumn, the pre-hibernation period, prior to hibernation. However, little is known about the nature of pre-hibernation remodelling. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators that can hibernate irrespective of seasons when exposed to prolonged short photoperiod and cold ambient temperature (SD-Cold) conditions. Their T b set point reduced by the first deep torpor (DT) and then increased gradually after repeated cycles of DT and periodic arousal (PA), and finally recovered to the level observed before the prolonged SD-Cold in the post-hibernation period. We also found that, before the initiation of hibernation, the body mass of animals decreased below a threshold, indicating that hibernation in this species depends on body condition. These observations suggest that Syrian hamsters undergo pre-hibernation remodelling and that T b and body mass can be useful physiological markers to monitor the remodelling process during the pre-hibernation period.

  7. Always Ahead of Me Eric Schmidt on Steve Jobs BusinessWeek

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eric Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows the transaction where the board sided with John Sculley and Steve left Apple. Steve sold all of his Apple stock, kept one share, and founded NEXT. Typical Steve maneuver. When I was still at Sun Microsystems, I visited him at NeXT--we did a bunch of deals with him. He was exactly the same way he was at Apple: strongly opinionated, knew what he was doing. He was so passionate about object-oriented programming. He had this extraordinary depth. I have a PhD in this area, and he was so charismatic he could convince me of things I didn't actually believe.

  8. Energy homeostasis regulatory peptides in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardi, János; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Szentirmai, Eva; Kapás, Levente; Krueger, James M

    2011-05-15

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are inactive for up to 6 months during hibernation. They undergo profound seasonal changes in food intake, body mass, and energy expenditure. The circa-annual regulation of metabolism is poorly understood. In this study, we measured plasma ghrelin, leptin, obestatin, and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) levels, hormones known to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in ten grizzly bears. Blood samples were collected during the active summer period, early hibernation and late hibernation. Plasma levels of leptin, obestatin, and NPY did not change between the active and the hibernation periods. Plasma total ghrelin and desacyl-ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased during the inactive winter period compared to summer levels. The elevated ghrelin levels may help enhance body mass during pre-hibernation, while the low plasma ghrelin concentrations during hibernation season may contribute to the maintenance of hypophagia, low energy utilization and behavioral inactivity. Our results suggest that ghrelin plays a potential role in the regulation of metabolic changes and energy homeostasis during hibernation in grizzly bears.

  9. Steve Ostro and the Near-Earth Asteroid Impact Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2009-09-01

    The late Steve Ostro, whose scientific interests in Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) primarily related to his planetary radar research in the 1980s, soon became an expert on the impact hazard. He quickly realized that radar provided perspectives on close-approaching NEAs that were both very precise as well as complementary to traditional astrometry, enabling good predictions of future orbits and collision probabilities extending for centuries into the future. He also was among the few astronomers who considered the profound issues raised by this newly recognized hazard and by early suggestions of how to mitigate the hazard. With Carl Sagan, Ostro articulated the "deflection dilemma" and other potential low-probability but real dangers of mitigation technologies that might be more serious than the low-probability impact hazard itself. Yet Ostro maintained a deep interest in developing responsible mitigation technologies, in educating the public about the nature of the impact hazard, and in learning more about the population of threatening bodies, especially using the revealing techniques of delay-doppler radar mapping of NEAs and their satellites.

  10. Teoria positiva del beneficio e finanza locale responsabile: il contributo di Sergio Steve

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the contribution of Sergio Steve to the development of an accountable structure of local public finance, with particular attention to the positive application of the benefit theory of taxation.

  11. Kätlin Ölluk, Steve Heinlo : mäng materjalidega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kätlin Ölluki kujundatud kahekorruseline eramu (arhitekt Margit Mutso) Tabasalus. Kaasautor Steve Heinlo. Põhirõhk materjalidel ja nende iseloomulikel toonidel. Mööbel on valmistatud eritellimusel. Ill.: 2 plaani, 10 värv. vaadet

  12. Maintenance of a fully functional digestive system during hibernation in the European hamster, a food-storing hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitten, Mathieu; Oudart, Hugues; Habold, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Some small mammals limit energy expenditure during winter conditions through torpor bouts, which are characterized by a decrease in body temperature and metabolic rate. Individuals arise periodically from torpor to restore critical functions requiring euthermia. Although most of the species involved do not feed during hibernation and rely on body reserves to fulfil energy requirements (fat-storing species), others hoard food in a burrow (food-storing species) and can feed during interbout euthermy. Whereas fat-storing species undergo a marked atrophy of the digestive tract, food-storing species have to maintain a functional digestive system during hibernation. Our study aimed to evaluate the absorption capacities of a food-storing species, the European hamster, throughout the annual cycle. In vivo intestinal perfusions were conducted in different groups of hamsters (n=5) during the different life periods, namely before hibernation, in torpor, during interbout euthermy, and during summer rest. The triglyceride, non-esterified free fatty acid, starch, glucose and protein composition of the perfusate was evaluated before and after the 1h perfusion of a closed intestinal loop. Triglyceride, starch and protein hydrolysis rates were similar in hibernating (torpid and euthermic) and non-hibernating hamsters. Intestinal absorption of free fatty acid was also similar in all groups. However, glucose uptake rate was higher during hibernation than during the summer. In contrast with fat-storing species, the intestinal absorption capacities of food-storing species are fully maintained during hibernation to optimize nutrient assimilation during short interbout euthermy. In particular, glucose uptake rate is increased during hibernation to restore glycaemia and ensure glucose-dependent pathways.

  13. Hibernation is associated with increased survival and the evolution of slow life histories among mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbill, Christopher; Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2011-11-22

    Survival probability is predicted to underlie the evolution of life histories along a slow-fast continuum. Hibernation allows a diverse range of small mammals to exhibit seasonal dormancy, which might increase survival and consequently be associated with relatively slow life histories. We used phylogenetically informed GLS models to test for an effect of hibernation on seasonal and annual survival, and on key attributes of life histories among mammals. Monthly survival was in most cases higher during hibernation compared with the active season, probably because inactivity minimizes predation. Hibernators also have approximately 15 per cent higher annual survival than similar sized non-hibernating species. As predicted, we found an effect of hibernation on the relationships between life history attributes and body mass: small hibernating mammals generally have longer maximum life spans (50% greater for a 50 g species), reproduce at slower rates, mature at older ages and have longer generation times compared with similar-sized non-hibernators. In accordance with evolutionary theories, however, hibernating species do not have longer life spans than non-hibernators with similar survival rates, nor do they have lower reproductive rates than non-hibernators with similar maximum life spans. Thus, our combined results suggest that (i) hibernation is associated with high rates of overwinter and annual survival, and (ii) an increase in survival in hibernating species is linked with the coevolution of traits indicative of relatively slow life histories.

  14. Steve Vai完美控制声音的签名踏板——Morley Bad Horsie 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢京

    2004-01-01

    <正> Steve Vai曾经参与设计了三种为人所熟知和喜爱的产品:Ibanez JEM系列吉他、Carvin Legacy音箱,还有就是今天要说的Bad Horsie Wah。 这是著名吉他手Steve Vai的签名款哇音踏板。相信我,不如说是相信Steve Vai。我一直是

  15. Public reaction to the death of Steve Jobs: implications for cancer communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Jessica Gall; Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the public reaction to the death of Steve Jobs, focusing on general and cancer-specific information seeking and interpersonal communication. Shortly after Jobs's death, employees from a large university in the Southeastern United States (N = 1,398) completed a web-based survey. Every employee had heard about Steve Jobs's death, and 97% correctly identified pancreatic cancer as the cause of his death. General (50%) and pancreatic cancer-specific (7%) information seeking, as well as general (74%) and pancreatic cancer-specific (17%) interpersonal communication, took place in response to Steve Jobs's death. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for demographics and several cancer-oriented variables, both identification with Steve Jobs and cancer worry in response to Steve Jobs's death significantly (p < .05) predicted pancreatic cancer information seeking as well as interpersonal communication about pancreatic cancer. Additional analyses revealed that cancer worry partially mediated the effects of identification on these outcome variables. Implications of these results for future research as well as cancer prevention and communication efforts are discussed.

  16. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  17. Hibernating bears as a model for preventing disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; McGee, M.E.; Harvey, K.B.; Vaughan, M.R.; Robbins, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The hibernating bear is an excellent model for disuse osteoporosis in humans because it is a naturally occurring large animal model. Furthermore, bears and humans have similar lower limb skeletal morphology, and bears walk plantigrade like humans. Black bears (Ursus americanus) may not develop disuse osteoporosis during long periods of disuse (i.e. hibernation) because they maintain osteoblastic bone formation during hibernation. As a consequence, bone volume, mineral content, porosity, and strength are not adversely affected by annual periods of disuse. In fact, cortical bone bending strength has been shown to increase with age in hibernating black bears without a significant change in porosity. Other animals require remobilization periods 2-3 times longer than the immobilization period to recover the bone lost during disuse. Our findings support the hypothesis that black bears, which hibernate for as long as 5-7 months annually, have evolved biological mechanisms to mitigate the adverse effects of disuse on bone porosity and strength. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    2016-01-01

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Metabolic Flexibility: Hibernation, Torpor, and Estivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, James F

    2016-03-15

    Many environmental conditions can constrain the ability of animals to obtain sufficient food energy, or transform that food energy into useful chemical forms. To survive extended periods under such conditions animals must suppress metabolic rate to conserve energy, water, or oxygen. Amongst small endotherms, this metabolic suppression is accompanied by and, in some cases, facilitated by a decrease in core body temperature-hibernation or daily torpor-though significant metabolic suppression can be achieved even with only modest cooling. Within some ectotherms, winter metabolic suppression exceeds the passive effects of cooling. During dry seasons, estivating ectotherms can reduce metabolism without changes in body temperature, conserving energy reserves, and reducing gas exchange and its inevitable loss of water vapor. This overview explores the similarities and differences of metabolic suppression among these states within adult animals (excluding developmental diapause), and integrates levels of organization from the whole animal to the genome, where possible. Several similarities among these states are highlighted, including patterns and regulation of metabolic balance, fuel use, and mitochondrial metabolism. Differences among models are also apparent, particularly in whether the metabolic suppression is intrinsic to the tissue or depends on the whole-animal response. While in these hypometabolic states, tissues from many animals are tolerant of hypoxia/anoxia, ischemia/reperfusion, and disuse. These natural models may, therefore, serve as valuable and instructive models for biomedical research.

  20. “Just an American Boy”. The Political Songwriting of Steve Earle “Just an American Boy” : la chanson politique de Steve Earle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jobes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un an après les attentats du 11 septembre, Steve Earle, dans son album Jerusalem, a été le premier à faire entendre dans le monde du rock une voix discordante sur l’Amérique contemporaine. Honni par la droite, qui s’est inscrite en faux contre une prise de position qu’elle considère antipatriotique, mais salué par la gauche américaine, Jerusalem s’est retrouvé au centre du débat politique actuel. L’objet de cet article sera de montrer comment s’inscrit ce disque dans le contexte des États-Unis d’aujourd’hui ainsi que sa place dans l’œuvre engagée de Steve Earle.

  1. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  2. Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Pan

    Full Text Available Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD, fumarylacetoacetase (FAH, involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.

  3. Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yijian; Cui, Jie; Liu, Yang; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Liao, Chen-Chung; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), fumarylacetoacetase (FAH), involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.

  4. Skimmers, dippers, and divers : Campfire’s Steve Coulson on transmedia marketing and audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Campfire’s creative director Steve Coulson talks about his work in activating fan communities as part of the publicity campaign for storytelling franchises. His marketing firm specializes in creating immersive experiences that encourage fans to participate in transmedia storyworld

  5. Eesti soost tippinvestor otsib kodumaalt geniaalseid ideid / Steve Jürvetson ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti päritolu USA riskikapitali investor vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti tugevaid ja nõrku külgi infoajastul, tema investeeringuid Eestis, tema firmale huvipakkuvaid valdkondi ning tänase maailma eduvalemit. Lisad: Steve Jürvetson; 3 mõtet

  6. Dr. Steve Thompson, Chief Executive, The Royal Society of New Zealand

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Austin Ball, Deputy Technical Coordinator, CMS experiment; Dr Roland Horisberger, Paul Scherrer Institute and CERN, CMS experiment; Dr Steve Thompson, Chief Executive, The Royal Society of New Zealand; Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment and Dr Alick Macpherson, Paul Scherrer Institute and CERN, CMS experiment, in the CMS Silicon Tracker assembly hall.

  7. Remembering Apple CEO Steve Jobs as a "Transformational Leader": Implications for Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinwart, Marlane C.; Ziegler, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of using Apple co-founder and former CEO Steve Jobs as a "paradigm case" of transformational leadership by comparing the practical metadiscourse of remembrances published at the time of his passing to the theoretical metadiscourse of transformational leadership. The authors report the frequency of…

  8. Meet Cover Directors--Steve Albert, Rainbow School, Kahuku, Hawaii; Chuck Larson, Seagull Schools, Honolulu, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Profiles Chuck Larson and Steve Albert, each of whom directs a multi-site child care organization in Hawaii. Larson directs Rainbow School, dedicated to the idea that learning is a natural, joyful accomplishment of living. Albert directs Seagull School, responding to the early educational needs of Hawaii's diverse community by offering affordable,…

  9. Steve de Shazer and the Future of Solution-Focused Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepper, Terry S.; Dolan, Yvonne; McCollum, Eric E.; Nelson, Thorana

    2006-01-01

    Steve de Shazer who, along with Insoo Kim Berg, co-founded the Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) approach, recently passed away. In this article we will offer a brief biographical sketch and then discuss the current state of the art of SFBT as it applies to practice, training, and research. Future directions for SFBT, such as the emergence of…

  10. Eesti soost tippinvestor otsib kodumaalt geniaalseid ideid / Steve Jürvetson ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti päritolu USA riskikapitali investor vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti tugevaid ja nõrku külgi infoajastul, tema investeeringuid Eestis, tema firmale huvipakkuvaid valdkondi ning tänase maailma eduvalemit. Lisad: Steve Jürvetson; 3 mõtet

  11. 5 minutes with Steve Keen: "The better of two bad policies is the stimulus approach"

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Steve Keen was one of the few economists who publicly predicted the Great Recession that still troubles developed economies. In this interview, he explains how he came to that conclusion, offers his view on UK economic policy, and presents his own policy ideas for ending speculative, risky behavior that created the debt burden to begin with.

  12. 76 FR 49764 - Steve Mason Enterprises, Inc., Green Energy Trans, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Steve Mason Enterprises, Inc., Green Energy Trans, LLC; Notice of Transfer... transferred ownership of its exempted project property and facilities for Project No. 7742 to Green...

  13. Skimmers, dippers, and divers : Campfire’s Steve Coulson on transmedia marketing and audience participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Campfire’s creative director Steve Coulson talks about his work in activating fan communities as part of the publicity campaign for storytelling franchises. His marketing firm specializes in creating immersive experiences that encourage fans to participate in transmedia storyworld

  14. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation.

  15. 我的一天,我的STEVE VAI——从另一个角度看STEVE VAI君临中国

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏炎

    2004-01-01

    2004年8月5日,阳光仍然像往常一样温柔。这一天,对中国大多数人来说仍然是普通的一天。但同样是这一天,对中国的吉他手来说,却像一个节日一样让人兴奋。因为这一天,就是吉他之神STEVE VAI全球巡演的北京站了!

  16. Postimehe eksklusiivkohtumine Microsofti juhi Steve Ballmeriga / Lauri Linnamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Linnamäe, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Microsofti jaoks pineval ajal, kui tarkvarakompanii üritas üle võtta otsingufirmat Yahoo!, käis artikli autor ettevõtte peakontoris selle juhti Steve Ballmerit intervjueerimas. Paraku ei tulnud Microsoftil Yahoo! ülevõtmisest midagi välja ning Ballmer Eesti ajakirjaniku jaoks aega ei leidnud. Nii tutvus autor hoopis Microsofti nägemusega tuleviku virtuaalsest kodust

  17. Skimmers, dippers, and divers : Campfire’s Steve Coulson on transmedia marketing and audience participation

    OpenAIRE

    Hassler-Forest, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, Campfire’s creative director Steve Coulson talks about his work in activating fan communities as part of the publicity campaign for storytelling franchises. His marketing firm specializes in creating immersive experiences that encourage fans to participate in transmedia storyworlds. Focusing the discussion on his experience on the campaign for Game of Thrones, Coulson reflects on the changing nature of fandom, the possibilities and limitations of transmedia storytelling, fa...

  18. Looking to a future of improved diabetes management: interview with Professor Steve Bain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Steve

    2016-12-01

    Steve Bain talks to Francesca Lake, Managing Editor: Steve is currently a Professor at Swansea University Medical School (Wales), Assistant Medical Director for Research & Development for ABM University Health Board and Clinical Lead for the Diabetes Research Unit, Wales. His clinical training included research into the genetics of Type 1 diabetes, with his current clinical interests surrounding exercise in Type 1 diabetes, new therapies and the provision of diabetes services. His background has led him to be Principal Investigator for several multicenter trials, and to be involved in various ethical committees concerning genetics. He led the UK Human Genetics Commission's report on DNA testing in 2009, and in 2007 was invited to sit on the National DNA Database Ethics Group, established by the Secretary of State for the Home Department. Steve is also a member of the Wales Diabetes & Endocrine Society executive committee and chairs the Specialist Training Committee for Diabetes & Endocrinology for Wales. He also chairs the Board that oversees the Institute of Life Science Joint Clinical Research Facility, the premier clinical research institute in Wales.

  19. 现代电吉他教父Steve Vai即将献技北京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> 2004年8月5日,现代电吉他教父steve vai第一次中国音乐会将在北京隆重上演!这对于中国的吉他爱好者来说,勘称是一生不可能错过的吉他音乐盛典!这次音乐会是中国第一次世界顶级现代乐器演奏大型音乐会!Steve Vai将偕超级乐手组合的庞大演出阵容、大型的专业演出设备,向吉他爱好者展示真正的人琴合一的吉他至高境界! Steve Vai——曾五获格莱美大奖提名、两次荣获格莱美大奖!神乎其技、极

  20. Albert Hofmann and Steve Myers honoured by the University of Geneva

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Albert Hofmann (top) and Steve Myers (bottom) receive the title of Doctor Honoris Causa from the hands of Maurice Bourquin, Rector of the University of Geneva and President of CERN Council.   In front of Geneva University's crowded auditorium, Albert Hofmann and Steve Myers received title of Doctor Honoris Causa last Friday 8 June. The two members of CERN thereby received the University's highest distinction. This honour comes in recognition of their careers in the service of accelerator physics and their essential contribution to the success of LEP. Steve Myers joined CERN in August 1972 to work as engineer-in charge of the Intersecting Storage Rings collider (ISR). He was responsible for the acceleration by phase displacement of the high intensity beams to 31 GeV/c. He also worked on many other topics, notably the beam-beam effect in the ISR. Albert Hofmann arrived at CERN from the Cambridge Electron Accelerator (CEA) near Boston, USA, in 1973 - already with an excellent reputation as accelerato...

  1. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

  2. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  4. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-05-27

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation.

  5. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  6. Miks Eesti soost Steve Jurvetson peab nanotehnoloogiat järgmiseks suureks asjaks / Richard Waters ; tõlk. Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Waters, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Steve Jurvetsoni hinnangul muutuvad nanotehnoloogilise revolutsiooni tulemused nähtavaks järgmise 3-5 aasta jooksul. Ettevõtjatel soovitab ta mitte karta mõelda suurelt ja oodata tulevikku, mis võib veel praegu näida fantastiline. Tema sõnul on Interneti ajalugu juba jõudnud punkti, kus äri muutvad sündmused on saamas reaalsuseks. Lisa: Steve Jurvetsoni tulevikuvisioon

  7. Miks Eesti soost Steve Jurvetson peab nanotehnoloogiat järgmiseks suureks asjaks / Richard Waters ; tõlk. Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Waters, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Steve Jurvetsoni hinnangul muutuvad nanotehnoloogilise revolutsiooni tulemused nähtavaks järgmise 3-5 aasta jooksul. Ettevõtjatel soovitab ta mitte karta mõelda suurelt ja oodata tulevikku, mis võib veel praegu näida fantastiline. Tema sõnul on Interneti ajalugu juba jõudnud punkti, kus äri muutvad sündmused on saamas reaalsuseks. Lisa: Steve Jurvetsoni tulevikuvisioon

  8. The Adaptive Response to Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Hibernation reduces pancreatic amylase levels in ground squirrels. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 134:573 – 578. Carey, H.V., C.A. Rhoads and T.Y. Aw. 2003...expression in rodents and humans is associated with microbial susceptibility. A wide variety of stimuli that activate pro-apopotic signaling pathways are... amylase levels in ground squirrels. (see Balslev- Clausen, et al., 2003, in list of published papers). Exocrine pancreatic activity is critical to GI

  9. Hibernation induces pentobarbital insensitivity in medulla but not cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Keith B Hengen; Behan, Mary; Carey, Hannah V.; Jones, Mathew V.; Johnson, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernating species, is a natural model of physiological adaption to an extreme environment. During torpor, body temperature drops to 0–4°C, and the cortex is electrically silent, yet the brain stem continues to regulate cardiorespiratory function. The mechanisms underlying selective inhibition in the brain during torpor are not known. To test whether altered GABAergic function is involved in regional and seasonal differences in neu...

  10. Neural Signaling Metabolites May Modulate Energy Use in Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Kelly L; Frare, Carla; Rice, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Despite an epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome limited means exist to effect adiposity or metabolic rate other than life style changes. Here we review evidence that neural signaling metabolites may modulate thermoregulatory pathways and offer novel means to fine tune energy use. We extend prior reviews on mechanisms that regulate thermogenesis and energy use in hibernation by focusing primarily on the neural signaling metabolites adenosine, AMP and glutamate.

  11. Glucagon secretion in the hibernating edible dormouse (Glis glis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Hamsany, M; Thari, A; Sutter, B

    1985-01-01

    Plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations were measured in edible dormice during the bout of hibernation, arousal and active periods. During lethargy, plasma glucose and glucagon were low, compared to active values and did not fluctuate throughout the phase. During rewarming, plasma glucose regularly increased from 17 degrees to 37 degrees C while plasma glucagon rose after the 17 degrees C stage and reached the higher values at 26 degrees C, then slightly decreased at 37 degrees C. During arousal, plasma levels of free amino acids progressively increased. The effect of temperature and secretagogue (glucose and arginine) on glucagon secretion was studied using perfused pancreas from hibernating edible dormouse. In vitro rewarming of pancreas induced an increase in glucagon secretion. Glucagon secretion was regulated by glucose (inhibitory effect) and by arginine (stimulating effect) up to 25 degrees C. The effect of temperature and glucagon on oxygen uptake of hibernating edible dormouse brown fat was studied using an in vitro technique. Rewarming strongly increased oxygen consumption from 10 to 37 degrees C. Glucagon enhanced oxygen consumption up to 20 degrees C.

  12. Increased brain histamine H3 receptor expression during hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anichtchik Oleg V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is a state of extremely reduced physiological functions and a deep depression of CNS activity. We have previously shown that the histamine levels increase in the brain during hibernation, as does the ratio between histamine and its first metabolite, suggesting increased histamine turnover during this state. The inhibitory histamine H3 receptor has both auto- and heteroreceptor function, rendering it the most likely histamine receptor to be involved in regulating the activity of histamine as well as other neurotransmitters during hibernation. In view of accumulating evidence that there is a global depression of transcription and translation during hibernation, of all but a few proteins that are important for this physiological condition, we reasoned that an increase in histamine H3 receptor expression would clearly indicate an important hibernation-related function for the receptor. Results In this study we show, using in situ hybridization, that histamine H3 receptor mRNA increases in the cortex, caudate nucleus and putamen during hibernation, an increase that is accompanied by elevated receptor binding in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. These results indicate that there is a hibernation-related increase in H3 receptor expression in cortical neurons and in striatopallidal and striatonigral GABAergic neurons. GTP-γ-S binding autoradiography shows that the H3 receptors in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra can be stimulated by histamine throughout the hibernation cycle, suggesting that they are functionally active during hibernation. Conclusions These results show that the histamine H3 receptor gene is one of the few with a transcript that increases during hibernation, indicating an important role for the receptor in regulating this state. Moreover, the receptor is functionally active in the basal ganglia, suggesting a function for it in regulating e.g. dopaminergic transmission

  13. Reduction of body temperature governs neutrophil retention in hibernating and nonhibernating animals by margination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Talaei, Fatemeh; Herwig, Annika; Goris, Maaike; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Carey, Hannah V.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Low body temperature leads to decrease of circulating neutrophils due to margination in hibernating and nonhibernating animals. Hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism, called torpor, interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. During deep and daily (shallow) torpor, the number of circulati

  14. Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration in the absence of fibrosis during hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andres-Mateos

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur as a consequence of immobilization and/or starvation in the majority of vertebrates studied. In contrast, hibernating mammals are protected against the loss of muscle mass despite long periods of inactivity and lack of food intake. Resident muscle-specific stem cells (satellite cells are known to be activated by muscle injury and their activation contributes to the regeneration of muscle, but whether satellite cells play a role in hibernation is unknown. In the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel we show that muscles ablated of satellite cells were still protected against atrophy, demonstrating that satellite cells are not involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during hibernation. Additionally, hibernating skeletal muscle showed extremely slow regeneration in response to injury, due to repression of satellite cell activation and myoblast differentiation caused by a fine-tuned interplay of p21, myostatin, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathways. Interestingly, despite long periods of inflammation and lack of efficient regeneration, injured skeletal muscle from hibernating animals did not develop fibrosis and was capable of complete recovery when animals emerged naturally from hibernation. We propose that hibernating squirrels represent a new model system that permits evaluation of impaired skeletal muscle remodeling in the absence of formation of tissue fibrosis.

  15. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A Chow

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears.

  16. Temporal organisation of hibernation in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Daan, S; Strijkstra, AM; Heldmaier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal pattern of hibernation was studied in three genotypes of Syrian hamsters with different circadian periodicity to assess a potential circadian control of alternating torpor and euthermy. We recorded the pattern of hibernation by measuring activity in continuous dim light and constant env

  17. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (Pbreeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  18. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Felix; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ilkayeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed...... the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes. Several metabolites involved in lipid metabolism, including...... triglycerides, cholesterol, and bile acids, were also affected by hibernation. Transplantation of the bear microbiota from summer and winter to germ-free mice transferred some of the seasonal metabolic features and demonstrated that the summer microbiota promoted adiposity without impairing glucose tolerance...

  19. Gunter, Valerie; Kroll-Smith, Steve, Volatile Places, A Sociology of Communities and Environmental Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Basto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Valerie Gunter, professora do Departamento de Sociologia da Universidade de Nova Orleães, e Steve Kroll-Smith, responsável pelo Departamento de Sociologia da Universidade da Carolina do Norte em Greensboro, apresentam este livro como sendo um guia de estudo de conflitos ambientais para estudantes de vários níveis. A colocação, no final de cada capítulo, de exercícios a realizar pelos estudantes reforça essa apresentação e ilude, de certa forma, a densidade das propostas metodológicas e teóric...

  20. Test legroom in F-104 testbed for research pilot Steve Ishmael

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Research pilots do not only fly aircraft and spacecraft. In this 1992 photo, NASA's Steve Ishmael is seated on an ejection seat as it is lifted by a crane out of the back cockpit of a NASA TF-104G. Engineers wanted to make sure that Ishmael's arms and legs would not strike any obstruction should he have to eject from the airplane. Although this never occurred with the TF-104G, Ishmael was forced to bale out of a NASA F-18 on October 7, 1988.

  1. Glutathione redox balance in hibernating Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyi; Niu, Cuijuan; Liu, Yukun; Chen, Bojian

    2017-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) system is a critical component of antioxidant defense, which is important for hibernating survive of turtle hatchlings. The present work measured changes at the mRNA level of genes involved in GSH synthesis, GSH reduction and GSH utilization, as well as enzyme activity, in Pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings during hibernation. Samples were taken in the field at pre-hibernation (17°C, Mud temperature (MT)), hibernation (5.8°C, MT) and arousal (20.1°C, MT). Cerebral total GSH content decreased during hibernation, recovered after arousal along with a stable ratio of GSH/GSSG. Hepatic total GSH increased after arousal and pushed the ratio of GSH/GSSG to a more reduced status. Cerebral glutathione reductase (GR) mRNA and activity were depressed during hibernation then recovered after arousal. However, hepatic GR mRNA elevated during hibernation but its activity did not change. Tissue-specific changes of GR activity and mRNA may promote these tissue-specific changes of GSH redox. Hibernation caused little effect on mRNA level of glutathione synthetase (GS) while arousal induced them in the brain and liver. Most Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoform mRNAs did not change in both brain and liver during hibernation, then induced after arousal. Cerebral and hepatic GST activities kept stable throughout the entire experiment. Our results showed that GSH system may play a more important role in antioxidant defense in the liver while mainly maintaining stable redox balance in the brain of hibernating P. sinensis hatchings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Titin isoform switching is a major cardiac adaptive response in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Wu, Yiming; Granzier, Henk

    2008-07-01

    The hibernation phenomenon captures biological as well as clinical interests to understand how organs adapt. Here we studied how hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extremely low heart rates without developing cardiac chamber dilation. We evaluated cardiac filling function in unanesthetized grizzly bears by echocardiography during the active and hibernating period. Because both collagen and titin are involved in altering diastolic function, we investigated both in the myocardium of active and hibernating grizzly bears. Heart rates were reduced from 84 beats/min in active bears to 19 beats/min in hibernating bears. Diastolic volume, stroke volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction were not different. However, left ventricular muscle mass was significantly lower (300 +/- 12 compared with 402 +/- 14 g; P = 0.003) in the hibernating bears, and as a result the diastolic volume-to-left ventricular muscle mass ratio was significantly greater. Early ventricular filling deceleration times (106.4 +/- 14 compared with 143.2 +/- 20 ms; P = 0.002) were shorter during hibernation, suggesting increased ventricular stiffness. Restrictive pulmonary venous flow patterns supported this conclusion. Collagen type I and III comparisons did not reveal differences between the two groups of bears. In contrast, the expression of titin was altered by a significant upregulation of the stiffer N2B isoform at the expense of the more compliant N2BA isoform. The mean ratio of N2BA to N2B titin was 0.73 +/- 0.07 in the active bears and decreased to 0.42 +/- 0.03 (P = 0.006) in the hibernating bears. The upregulation of stiff N2B cardiac titin is a likely explanation for the increased ventricular stiffness that was revealed by echocardiography, and we propose that it plays a role in preventing chamber dilation in hibernating grizzly bears. Thus our work identified changes in the alternative splicing of cardiac titin as a major adaptive response in hibernating grizzly

  3. An Analysis of Derivational Affixes in Commencement speech By Steve Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Rahman Nur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study expects to an investigation of derivational appends in the content of initiation discourse by Steve Jobs. The essayist utilized the majority of the words that were connected prefix and postfix as the information. The information sources were all content of initiation discourse by Steve Jobs. This study utilizing subjective plan and substance investigation approach. The aftereffect of the study demonstrated that there were 78 all out words in the content of Commencement discourse which joined derivational fastens. The study discovered 69 postfixes and 9 prefixes. The foundations of the words that has been grouped in light of the grammatical feature are 17 (descriptor, 27 (thing, 33 (verb, 1 (adverb.From the finish of this study, the author proposes that to enhance their dominance of vocabulary, the perusers ought to apply the derivational fastens by breaking the word into its components root and attaches in light of the fact that from single word they can get the structure of words and them additionally discover how the words fabricated. By knowing the roots, the perusers can assemble the word without anyone else's input

  4. Pancreatic A and B cell stimulation in euthermic and hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris): effects of glucose and arginine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florant, G L; Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Bauman, W A; Sutter, B C

    1986-01-01

    In euthermic and hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris), the pancreatic A and B cells respond in the appropriate secretory manner to glucose or arginine injection. Although reduced, this response, is clearly present in hibernating marmots. When glucose is administered to euthermic or hibernating marmots, plasma insulin concentrations rise and glucagon levels fall. While similar results are obtained in hibernation, the time period of the response is much longer due to the slowing of temperature dependent metabolic processes. Injection of L-arginine stimulates an increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon as expected. Measurements of plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon under basal conditions, suggest that there are no significant differences between any phase of hibernation (eg. entrance, deep hibernation, arousal) and euthermia. These results provide indirect evidence that the pancreatic A and B cells of hibernating marmots continue to function in order to help regulate plasma glucose concentration.

  5. Variation of parasitism patterns in bats during hibernation: the effect of host species, resources, health status, and hibernation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, Tomasz; Nagy, Zoltan

    2016-10-01

    During critical periods of food shortage or variable climatic conditions, the choice of an appropriate host can increase the survival and reproductive performance of parasites. In turn, one of the unique adaptations to periodical food shortages is hibernation, which is often found among insectivorous bat species in the temperate zone. While hibernating, bats are completely defenseless against both predators and ectoparasites, their immune and endocrine systems are diminished, and survival is dependent on the accumulated fat reserves. Differences in the health status or in the rate of consumption of the resources might also explain species-specific differences in ectoparasite abundance, especially between closely related host species, such as the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) and the lesser mouse-eared bat (M. blythii) during hibernation. In the present study, the abundance of two ecologically distinct (summer and winter) types of ectoparasites was examined in terms of its influence on the body condition and hemoglobin content of the two host species. The effects of demographic factors, such as host sex and age, were also investigated. Despite a similar pattern of deteriorating body condition and hemoglobin concentration, M. myotis was more parasitized than was M. blythii. The marked decrease in hemoglobin content in first-year females of both host species correlated with the highest parasite load and indicated a risk of anemia. At the intraspecific level, ectoparasite abundance was not correlated with body condition (resources), but it negatively affected hemoglobin content; however, this mostly concerned M. blythii, which had a lower parasite load. Therefore, it can be concluded that interspecific differences in ectoparasite abundance may result from parasites selecting the host species that is less sensitive to their activity. In turn, in summer ectoparasites, the preference for female hosts is probably attributable to the likelihood of reinfection

  6. Iconicity and Typography in Steve McCaffery’s Panel-Poems Iconicité et typographie chez Steve McCaffery: les poèmes-panneaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMahon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de retracer les étapes d’un projet d’écriture qui se rattache historiquement aux mouvances internationales de la poésie concrète comme à l’émergence d’une poétique de l’iconicité chez l’avant-garde nord-américaine du vingtième siècle. Le matérialisme dont se réclame la poésie de Steve McCaffery se traduit dans son œuvre typographique Carnival (1967-75 par une pratique mettant en jeu la lettre, le plus petit dénominateur de la langue, et la page, qui doit se laisser transformer pour que se réalise un nouvel espace de signification poétique. Le dialogue qui se joue entre le lisible et le visible prend forme grâce à un répertoire de techniques expérimenté avec la machine à écrire et de concert avec le lecteur, devenu acteur de l’œuvre poétique. La pratique architecturale du poème-panneau chez McCaffery sera envisagée dans son rapport actuel avec le prolongement des problématiques de la poésie visuelle chez l’avant-garde nord-américaine.

  7. 吉他大师们的爱器(1)--Steve Lukather和他的乐器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹卫国

    2003-01-01

    @@ Steve Lukather有着多重的音乐身份:吉他演奏家、歌手、作曲家、制作人、编曲人.然而为大多数人所熟知的是作为吉他演奏家的Steve Lukather,他那富有个性和音乐美感的吉他演奏打动着数以千万计的听众,许多同时代的吉他演奏家也都深受其影响,像我们所熟知的Andy Timmons就坦言SteveLukather是对其吉他演奏风格影响最深的人.

  8. Different Thermostability of Skeletal Muscle Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from Hibernating and Euthermic Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IDDAR Abdelghani; CAMPOS Luis A.; SANCHO Javier; SERRANO Aurelio; SOUKRI Abdelaziz

    2003-01-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated that the specific activity of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) in skeletal muscle of induced hibernating jerboa (hibernating GAPDH) was 3-4 folds lower than that of the one in the skeletal muscle of the euthermic jerboa (euthermic GAPDH). A significant decrease in both GAPDH protein and GapC mRNA levels occurs when hibernating, but the purified hibernating GAPDH is less active than the euthermic GAPDH. To investigate the physico-chemical basis of this lower activity, the behaviour during thermal inactivation of skeletal muscle GAPDH from hibernating and euthermic tissues was examined by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence emission, circular dichroism and ultraviolet absorption. A clear resistance to thermal denaturation was observed in the hibernating GAPDH compared with the euthermic GAPDH. The different temperature of denaturation found in these proteins by both fluorimetry and circular dichroism indicates that there might exist conformational changes of GAPDH upon hibernation that could affect the stability of this enzyme.

  9. Differential expression analysis of Liprin-α2 in hibernating bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-based subtractive hybridization technique was used to identify genes up-regulated in the hibernating bat brain to explore the molecular mechanism of hibernation. Three genes, Liprin-α2, PTP4A2 and CAMKKβ were differentially expressed in hibernating bat brain tissue compared to active bat brain tissue. One of them, Liprin-α2, which has recently been shown to have the key function in the organization of presynaptic and postsynaptic multiprotein complexes was studied in detail. We demonstrated that the expression level of Liprin-α2 was up-regulated almost 4-fold in hibernating bat brains by RT-PCR compared to levels in active bats. The differential expression pattern of Liprin-α2 was also detected in muscle, fat, brain and heart tissue of hibernating bats by real-time quantitative PCR. The result indicated that Liprin-α2 was over-expressed in brain and heart tissue and down-regulated in muscle and fat. In brain tissue of hibernating bats, Liprin-α2 expression was statistically significantly higher than in brain tissue of active controls (P = 0.029).The precise control of transcriptional level and the distinctively differential expression pattern of Liprin-α2 in different organs during circannual hibernation may have important physiological significance, not only in maintaining normal function of many key organs but also in effectively conserving limited energy resources without physiological damage.

  10. Hypothalamic gene expression underlying pre-hibernation satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Hampton, M; Andrews, M T

    2015-03-01

    Prior to hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) enter a hypophagic period where food consumption drops by an average of 55% in 3 weeks. This occurs naturally, while the ground squirrels are in constant environmental conditions and have free access to food. Importantly, this transition occurs before exposure to hibernation conditions (5°C and constant darkness), so the ground squirrels are still maintaining a moderate level of activity. In this study, we used the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence the hypothalamic transcriptomes of ground squirrels before and after the autumn feeding transition to examine the genes underlying this extreme change in feeding behavior. The hypothalamus was chosen because it is known to play a role in the control and regulation of food intake and satiety. Overall, our analysis identified 143 genes that are significantly differentially expressed between the two groups. Specifically, we found five genes associated with feeding behavior and obesity (VGF, TRH, LEPR, ADIPOR2, IRS2) that are all upregulated during the hypophagic period, after the feeding transition has occurred. We also found that serum leptin significantly increases in the hypophagic group. Several of the genes associated with the natural autumnal feeding decline in 13-lined ground squirrels show parallels to signaling pathways known to be disrupted in human metabolic diseases, like obesity and diabetes. In addition, many other genes were identified that could be important for the control of food consumption in other animals, including humans.

  11. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation

    CERN Document Server

    Mroz, P; Pietrukowicz, P; Szymanski, M K; Soszynski, I; Wyrzykowski, L; Poleski, R; Kozlowski, S; Skowron, J; Ulaczyk, K; Skowron, D; Pawlak, M

    2016-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars (CVs) are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf (primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, over $10^4$ times in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of $10^4-10^6$. In between, the system's properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}$/year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for $10^3-10^6$ years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again - with acc...

  12. Return to the little kingdom Steve Jobs, the creation of Apple, and how it changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Moritz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Almost thirty years ago, Michael Moritz, then a young journalist at Time magazine, was allowed exclusive access to the inner workings of a cutting-edge technology company to tell the story of its first decade in business. The Little Kingdom: The Private Story of Apple Computer brought readers into the childhood homes of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, showed how they dropped out of college and founded Apple in 1976, and charted the company's rise from basement brainstorming to colossal empire. Now, after spending almost twenty-five years at Sequoia Capital, the much admired private investm

  13. Down regulation of sodium channels in the central nervous system of hibernating snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T; Battonyai, I; Pirger, Z

    2014-05-28

    Hibernation, as behavior, is an evolutionary mode of adaptation of animal species to unfavorable environmental conditions. It is generally characterized by suppressed metabolism, which also includes down regulation of the energy consuming ion-channel functioning. Experimental data regarding decreased ion-channel function are scarce. Therefore, our goal was to study the possible down regulation of voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) subtypes in the neurons of hibernating snails. Our immunohistochemical experiments revealed that the expression of NaV1.8-like channels in the central nervous system was substantially down regulated in hibernating animals. In contrast to NaV1.8-like, the NaV1.9-like channels were present in neurons independently from hibernating and non-hibernating states. Our western blot data supported the immunohistochemical results according to which the band of the NaV1.8-like channel protein was less intensively labeled in the homogenate of the hibernating snails. The NaV1.9-like immunoreactivity was equally present both in hibernating and active snails. Micro-electrophysiological experiments show that in hibernating snails both NaV1.8- and NaV1.9-like currents are substantially decreased compared to that of the active snails. The contradictory electrophysiological and immunohistochemical or western blot data suggest that the molecular mechanisms of the "channel arrest" could be different in diverse NaV channel subtypes. Climate changes will affect temperature extremes and a question is how different species beyond their physiological tolerance will or able to adapt to changing environment. Hibernation is an important mode of adaptation to extreme climatic variations, and pursuant to this the present results may contribute to the study of the behavioral ecology.

  14. Seasonal and regional differences in gene expression in the brain of a hibernating mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schwartz

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel

  15. Exploring the Bone Proteome to Help Explain Altered Bone Remodeling and Preservation of Bone Architecture and Strength in Hibernating Marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Roteliuk, Danielle M; Gookin, Sara E; McGrew, Ashley K; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Condon, Keith W; Prenni, Jessica E; Wojda, Samantha J; Florant, Gregory L; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Periods of physical inactivity increase bone resorption and cause bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, hibernating bears, marmots, and woodchucks maintain bone structure and strength, despite being physically inactive for prolonged periods annually. We tested the hypothesis that bone turnover rates would decrease and bone structural and mechanical properties would be preserved in hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Femurs and tibias were collected from marmots during hibernation and in the summer following hibernation. Bone remodeling was significantly altered in cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation with suppressed formation and no change in resorption, unlike the increased bone resorption that occurs during disuse in humans and other animals. Trabecular bone architecture and cortical bone geometrical and mechanical properties were not different between hibernating and active marmots, but bone marrow adiposity was significantly greater in hibernators. Of the 506 proteins identified in marmot bone, 40 were significantly different in abundance between active and hibernating marmots. Monoaglycerol lipase, which plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system, was 98-fold higher in hibernating marmots compared with summer marmots and may play a role in regulating the changes in bone and fat metabolism that occur during hibernation.

  16. Steve Riley:肚脐连着网线出生的安全专家

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ella

    2007-01-01

    5月24日,微软“顶级安全专家”Steve Riley出现在“微软安全日”演讲台前,济济一堂的工程师们多少有点惊讶:微软中国的工程师多次以景仰的口吻提及的Steve,身着大红短袖衬衫,深蓝运动短裤,看上去像刚刚从健身馆出来。然而,接下来Stevel的3个小时的演讲,却让听众们深深折服,精妙的技术应用、丰富的案例、幽默的语言,

  17. 从翻译目的论看Steve Jobs的两个中译本

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩文

    2012-01-01

      德国功能派的翻译目的论认为翻译都是有目的而进行的,并将目的原则视为三个原则中的首要原则。译本在翻译过程中采取何种策略和方法皆有目的原则决定,评价一个译本成功与否要看其是否达到了交际目的。本文试图在翻译目的论视角下,对Steve Jobs两个中译本进行评析,来探讨目的论在这部传记翻译中的现实意义和指导意义。

  18. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Szymański, Michał K.; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, Jan; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2016-09-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars—novae, dwarf novae, and nova-likes—are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf star (the primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (the secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, with a ten-thousandfold increase in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of ten thousand to a million years. In between, the system’s properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a billionth of a solar mass per year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate in the binary, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for a thousand to a million years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again—with accretion returning to the pre-eruption level and leading to a new nova explosion. The hibernation model predicts cyclical evolution of cataclysmic variables through phases of high and low mass-transfer. The theory gained some support from the discovery of ancient nova shells around the dwarf novae Z Camelopardalis and AT Cancri, but direct evidence for considerable mass-transfer changes prior, during and after nova eruptions has not hitherto been found. Here we report long-term observations of the classical nova V1213 Cen (Nova Centauri 2009) covering its pre- and post-eruption phases and precisely documenting its evolution. Within the six years before the explosion, the system revealed dwarf nova outbursts indicative of a low mass-transfer rate. The post-nova is two orders of magnitude brighter than the pre-nova at minimum light with no trace of

  19. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Szymański, Michał K; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, Jan; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2016-09-29

    Cataclysmic variable stars-novae, dwarf novae, and nova-likes-are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf star (the primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (the secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, with a ten-thousandfold increase in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of ten thousand to a million years. In between, the system's properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a billionth of a solar mass per year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate in the binary, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for a thousand to a million years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again-with accretion returning to the pre-eruption level and leading to a new nova explosion. The hibernation model predicts cyclical evolution of cataclysmic variables through phases of high and low mass-transfer. The theory gained some support from the discovery of ancient nova shells around the dwarf novae Z Camelopardalis and AT Cancri, but direct evidence for considerable mass-transfer changes prior, during and after nova eruptions has not hitherto been found. Here we report long-term observations of the classical nova V1213 Cen (Nova Centauri 2009) covering its pre- and post-eruption phases and precisely documenting its evolution. Within the six years before the explosion, the system revealed dwarf nova outbursts indicative of a low mass-transfer rate. The post-nova is two orders of magnitude brighter than the pre-nova at minimum light with no trace of dwarf

  20. The relationship of sleep with temperature and metabolic rate in a hibernating primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Krystal

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: It has long been suspected that sleep is important for regulating body temperature and metabolic-rate. Hibernation, a state of acute hypothermia and reduced metabolic-rate, offers a promising system for investigating those relationships. Prior studies in hibernating ground squirrels report that, although sleep occurs during hibernation, it manifests only as non-REM sleep, and only at relatively high temperatures. In our study, we report data on sleep during hibernation in a lemuriform primate, Cheirogaleus medius. As the only primate known to experience prolonged periods of hibernation and as an inhabitant of more temperate climates than ground squirrels, this animal serves as an alternative model for exploring sleep temperature/metabolism relationships that may be uniquely relevant to understanding human physiology. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: We find that during hibernation, non-REM sleep is absent in Cheirogaleus. Rather, periods of REM sleep occur during periods of relatively high ambient temperature, a pattern opposite of that observed in ground squirrels. Like ground squirrels, however, EEG is marked by ultra-low voltage activity at relatively low metabolic-rates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm a sleep-temperature/metabolism link, though they also suggest that the relationship of sleep stage with temperature/metabolism is flexible and may differ across species or mammalian orders. The absence of non-REM sleep suggests that during hibernation in Cheirogaleus, like in the ground squirrel, the otherwise universal non-REM sleep homeostatic response is greatly curtailed or absent. Lastly, ultra-low voltage EEG appears to be a cross-species marker for extremely low metabolic-rate, and, as such, may be an attractive target for research on hibernation induction.

  1. The hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel as a model organism for potential cold storage of platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Scott T.; Richters, Karl E.; Melin, Travis E.; Liu, Zhi-Jian; Hordyk, Peter J.; Benrud, Ryan R.; Geiser, Lauren R.; Cash, Steve E.; Simon Shelley, C.; Howard, David R.; Ereth, Mark H.; Sola-Visner, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernating mammals have developed many physiological adaptations to extreme environments. During hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) must suppress hemostasis to survive prolonged body temperatures of 4–8°C and 3–5 heartbeats per minute without forming lethal clots. Upon arousal in the spring, these ground squirrels must be able to quickly restore normal clotting activity to avoid bleeding. Here we show that ground squirrel platelets stored in vivo at 4–8°C wer...

  2. Metabolic changes in summer active and anuric hibernating free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stenvinkel

    Full Text Available The brown bear (Ursus arctos hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.

  3. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estók, Péter; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-02-23

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

  4. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  5. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Cryan, Paul; Fricker, Paul D.; Dannemiller, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding natural behaviours is essential to determining how animals deal with new threats (e.g. emerging diseases). However, natural behaviours of animals with cryptic lifestyles, like hibernating bats, are often poorly characterized. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an unprecedented disease threatening multiple species of hibernating bats, and pathogen-induced changes to host behaviour may contribute to mortality. To better understand the behaviours of hibernating bats and how they might relate to WNS, we developed new ways of studying hibernation across entire seasons.We used thermal-imaging video surveillance cameras to observe little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and Indiana bats (M. sodalis) in two caves over multiple winters. We developed new, sharable software to test for autocorrelation and periodicity of arousal signals in recorded video.We processed 740 days (17,760 hr) of video at a rate of >1,000 hr of video imagery in less than 1 hr using a desktop computer with sufficient resolution to detect increases in arousals during midwinter in both species and clear signals of daily arousal periodicity in infected M. sodalis.Our unexpected finding of periodic synchronous group arousals in hibernating bats demonstrate the potential for video methods and suggest some bats may have innate behavioural strategies for coping with WNS. Surveillance video and accessible analysis software make it now practical to investigate long-term behaviours of hibernating bats and other hard-to-study animals.

  6. Hormonal control of lipolysis from the white adipose tissue of hibernating jerboa (Jaculus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Hamsany, C; Castex, C; Hoo-Paris, R; Kacemi, N; Sutter, B

    1988-01-01

    1. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acids and total lipid content of the white adipose tissue were measured in euthermic and hibernating jerboa. 2. During hibernation, plasma glucose and glycerol were low compared to the euthermic animals, whereas there was no obvious difference in plasma free fatty acids. The white adipose tissue lipid content was strongly reduced in the hibernating state. 3. The effect of lipolytic hormones (norepinephrine and glucagon) and antilipolytic hormone (insulin) on in vitro glycerol release by adipose tissue isolated from hibernating or euthermic jerboa has been studied. 4. The white adipose tissue from hibernating jerboa presented a higher sensitivity to norepinephrine and glucagon than that of euthermic jerboa; insulin did not modify either basal glycerol release or lipolysis induced by the two lipolytic hormones at low temperatures (7 degrees C) and during the rewarming (from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C) of the tissue slices. 5. These results suggested that white adipose tissue constitutes an important source of substrates derived from lipolysis during hibernation.

  7. Changes in calpains and calpastatin in the soleus muscle of Daurian ground squirrels during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Xi; He, Yue; Gao, Yun-Fang; Wang, Hui-Ping; Goswami, Nandu

    2014-10-01

    We investigated changes in muscle mass, calpains, calpastatin and Z-disk ultrastructure in the soleus muscle (SOL) of Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) after hibernation or hindlimb suspension to determine possible mechanisms by which muscle atrophy is prevented in hibernators. Squirrels (n=30) were divided into five groups: no hibernation group (PRE, n=6); hindlimb suspension group (HLS, n=6); two month hibernation group (HIB, n=6); two day group after 90±12 days of hibernation (POST, n=6); and forced exercise group (one time forced, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise) after arousal (FE, n=6). Activity and protein expression of calpains were determined by casein zymography and western blotting, and Z-disk ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The following results were found. Lower body mass and higher SOL muscle mass (mg) to total body mass (g) ratio were observed in HIB and POST; calpain-1 activity increased significantly by 176% (P=0.034) in HLS compared to the PRE group; no significant changes were observed in calpain-2 activity. Protein expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 increased by 83% (P=0.041) and 208% (P=0.029) in HLS compared to the PRE group, respectively; calpastatin expression increased significantly by 180% (Pcalpain activity and consequently calpain-mediated protein degradation by highly elevated calpastatin protein expression levels may be an important mechanism for preventing muscle protein loss during hibernation and ensuring that Z-lines remained ultrastructurally intact.

  8. The physiological link between metabolic rate depression and tau phosphorylation in mammalian hibernation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens T Stieler

    Full Text Available Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein are hallmarks of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Increased tau phosphorylation is assumed to represent an early event in pathogenesis and a pivotal aspect for aggregation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the regulation of tau phosphorylation in vivo and the causes for its increased stage of phosphorylation in AD are still not well understood, a fact that is primarily based on the lack of adequate animal models. Recently we described the reversible formation of highly phosphorylated tau protein in hibernating European ground squirrels. Hence, mammalian hibernation represents a model system very well suited to study molecular mechanisms of both tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation under in vivo physiological conditions. Here, we analysed the extent and kinetics of hibernation-state dependent tau phosphorylation in various brain regions of three species of hibernating mammals: arctic ground squirrels, Syrian hamsters and black bears. Overall, tau protein was highly phosphorylated in torpor states and phosphorylation levels decreased after arousal in all species. Differences between brain regions, hibernation-states and phosphosites were observed with respect to degree and kinetics of tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, we tested the phosphate net turnover of tau protein to analyse potential alterations in kinase and/or phosphatase activities during hibernation. Our results demonstrate that the hibernation-state dependent phosphorylation of tau protein is specifically regulated but involves, in addition, passive, temperature driven regulatory mechanisms. By determining the activity-state profile for key enzymes of tau phosphorylation we could identify kinases potentially involved in the differentially regulated, reversible tau phosphorylation that occurs during hibernation. We show that in black bears hibernation is associated with

  9. Hibernal habitat selection by Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in a northern New England montane landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Poikilothermic species, such as amphibians, endure harsh winter conditions via freeze-tolerance or freeze-avoidance strategies. Freeze-tolerance requires a suite of complex, physiological mechanisms (e.g., cryoprotectant synthesis); however, behavioral strategies (e.g., hibernal habitat selection) may be used to regulate hibernaculum temperatures and promote overwintering survival. We investigated the hibernal ecology of the freeze-tolerant Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) in north-central Maine. Our objectives were to characterize the species hibernaculum microclimate (temperature, relative humidity), evaluate hibernal habitat selection, and describe the spatial arrangement of breeding, post-breeding, and hibernal habitats. We monitored 15 frogs during two winters (2011/12: N = 10; 2012/13: N = 5), measured hibernal habitat features at micro (2 m) and macro (10 m) spatial scales, and recorded microclimate hourly in three strata (hibernaculum, leaf litter, ambient air). We compared these data to that of 57 random locations with logistic regression models, Akaike Information Criterion, and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Hibernaculum microclimate was significantly different and less variable than leaf litter, ambient air, and random location microclimate. Model averaging indicated that canopy cover (−), leaf litter depth (+), and number of logs and stumps (+; microhabitat only) were important predictors of Wood Frog hibernal habitat. These habitat features likely act to insulate hibernating frogs from extreme and variable air temperatures. For example, decreased canopy cover facilitates increased snowpack depth and earlier snowpack accumulation and melt. Altered winter temperature and precipitation patterns attributable to climate change may reduce snowpack insulation, facilitate greater temperature variation in the underlying hibernacula, and potentially compromise Wood Frog winter survival.

  10. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. Results We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3, which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Conclusions Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  11. Comparison of sestamibi, thallium, echocardiography and PET for the detection of hibernating myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, S.F.; Hallett, W.A.; O' Doherty, M.J.; Nunan, T.O. [Clinical PET Centre, Guys and St Thomas' s Hospitals, SE1 7EH, London (United Kingdom); Chambers, J.; Roxburgh, J.C. [Cardiothoracic Centre, Guys and St Thomas' s Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    The detection of hibernating myocardium is important because revascularisation results in improved function and prognosis in patients with hibernation but not in those with non-viable myocardium. The primary aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of four techniques with respect to hibernation in the same study population with 6-12 months of follow-up. Twenty-five males underwent rest-stress sestamibi and delayed (>18 h) thallium scintigraphy, high-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography and nitrogen-13 ammonia/fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (NH{sub 3}/FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The pre-operative ejection fraction was 36.2% ({+-}7.3%). Follow-up was 8.1 ({+-}2.8) months. Using postoperative improvement in wall motion on echocardiography as the gold standard, 6/34 dysfunctional vascular territories were hibernating. The mean uptake of all tracers was significantly higher in hibernating than in non-viable territories (P<0.05). Normal perfusion or mismatch on PET (FDG>NH{sub 3} uptake) and the pattern of response to dobutamine on echocardiography were also predictive of recovery (P<0.001 and P=0.02 respectively). Univariate logistic regression identified sestamibi, ammonia and FDG as independent predictors of hibernation. FDG-PET was, however, the only independent predictor using multivariate analysis. The nuclear techniques had high negative predictive values (NPV) of {>=}95% but lower positive predictive values (PPV) of 45%-75% as compared with echocardiography, which had an NPV of 87% and a PPV of 100%. PET was the most powerful predictor of hibernation although the combination of a technique with a high PPV (echocardiography) and a high NPV (PET or sestamibi) may represent the optimal clinical choice. (orig.)

  12. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  13. LHC to run in 2012 – an interview with Rolf Heuer and Steve Myers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Following the annual LHC Performance Workshop held in Chamonix last week, and a report from the CERN Machine Advisory Committee on Monday, CERN management took some important decisions about the upcoming LHC run. The Bulletin spoke to Director General, Rolf Heuer, and Director for Accelerators and Technology, Steve Myers.   First of all, what’s the big news from Chamonix this week? Heuer: Well, the worst kept secret in particle physics has been confirmed: the LHC will run in 2012. We’ve been fairly confident for some time now that postponing the long shutdown by a year was the right thing to do, but we couldn’t confirm it until after everything had been carefully considered in Chamonix this week. So what was the main argument for postponing the long shutdown? Heuer: With the LHC running so well in 2010, and further improvements in performance expected to come, there’s a real chance that exciting new physics may be within our grasp by the end of the year. ...

  14. 向老师问路(六十七)——Steve Outing的最后一课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕理哲

    2010-01-01

    @@ "你的新闻内容对数位消费者的价值是零"--Steve Outing 专栏作家Steve Outing写了一篇专栏,用了一个醒目的标题:你的新闻内容对数位消费者的价值是零.他解释这仅仅是提醒新闻业者注意,当然不是说新闻完全没有价值,但对大多数数位消费者来说,他们无论在网站或手机都不愿意付费.

  15. Seasonal restructuring of the ground squirrel gut microbiota over the annual hibernation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hannah V; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Many hibernating mammals suspend food intake during winter, relying solely on stored lipids to fuel metabolism. Winter fasting in these species eliminates a major source of degradable substrates to support growth of gut microbes, which may affect microbial community structure and host-microbial interactions. We explored the effect of the annual hibernation cycle on gut microbiotas using deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from ground squirrel cecal contents. Squirrel microbiotas were dominated by members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia. UniFrac analysis showed that microbiotas clustered strongly by season, and maternal influences, diet history, host age, and host body temperature had minimal effects. Phylogenetic diversity and numbers of operational taxonomic units were lowest in late winter and highest in the spring after a 2-wk period of refeeding. Hibernation increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, phyla that contain species capable of surviving on host-derived substrates such as mucins, and reduced relative abundance of Firmicutes, many of which prefer dietary polysaccharides. Hibernation reduced cecal short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and increased and decreased concentrations of acetate and butyrate, respectively. These results indicate that the ground squirrel microbiota is restructured each year in a manner that reflects differences in microbial preferences for dietary vs. host-derived substrates, and thus the competitive abilities of different taxa to survive in the altered environment in the hibernator gut.

  16. The role of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate in metabolic suppression during hibernation and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher; Staples, James F

    2010-06-01

    Hibernation elicits a major reduction in whole-animal O(2) consumption that corresponds with active suppression of liver mitochondrial electron transport capacity at, or downstream of, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). During arousal from the torpor phase of hibernation this suppression is reversed and metabolic rates rise dramatically. In this study, we used the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to assess isolated liver mitochondrial respiration during the torpor phase of hibernation and various stages of arousal to elucidate a potential role of SDH in metabolic suppression. State 3 and state 4 respiration rates were seven- and threefold lower in torpor compared with the summer-active and interbout euthermic states. Respiration rates increased during arousal so that when body temperature reached 30 degrees C in late arousal, state 3 and state 4 respiration were 3.3- and 1.8-fold greater than during torpor, respectively. SDH activity was 72% higher in interbout euthermia than in torpor. Pre-incubating with isocitrate [to alleviate oxaloacetate (OAA) inhibition] increased state 3 respiration rate during torpor by 91%, but this rate was still fourfold lower than that measured in interbout euthermia. Isocitrate pre-incubation also eliminated differences in SDH activity among hibernation bout stages. OAA concentration correlated negatively with both respiration rates and SDH activity. These data suggest that OAA reversibly inhibits SDH in torpor, but cannot fully account for the drastic metabolic suppression observed during this hibernation phase.

  17. Changes in the Golgi apparatus of neocortical and hippocampal neurons in the hibernating hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eAntón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hibernating animals have been used as models to study several aspects of the plastic changes that occur in the metabolism and physiology of neurons. These models are also of interest in the study of Alzheimer’s disease because the microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated during the hibernation state known as torpor, similar to the pretangle stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Hibernating animals undergo torpor periods with drops in body temperature and metabolic rate, and a virtual cessation of neural activity. These processes are accompanied by morphological and neurochemical changes in neurons, which reverse a few hours after coming out of the torpor state. Since tau has been implicated in the structural regulation of the neuronal Golgi apparatus (GA we have used Western Blot and immunocytochemistry to analyze whether the GA is modified in cortical neurons of the Syrian hamster at different hibernation stages. The results show that, during the hibernation cycle, the GA undergo important structural changes along with differential modifications in expression levels and distribution patterns of Golgi structural proteins. These changes were accompanied by significant transitory reductions in the volume and surface area of the GA elements during torpor and arousal stages as compared with euthermic animals

  18. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  19. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Carey, Hannah V.

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a

  20. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-Ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Hansen, Rasmus; Overgaard, Michael Toft;

    2016-01-01

    hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms, (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature, and decreased protease activity......Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5-7 months without eating, drinking, urinating and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing...... the proteome, metabolome, and hematologic features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma...

  1. Grizzly bears exhibit augmented insulin sensitivity while obese prior to a reversible insulin resistance during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Jansen, Heiko T; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Morgenstern, Kurt; Gehring, Jamie Lauren; Rigano, Kimberly Scott; Lee, Jae; Gong, Jianhua; Shaywitz, Adam J; Vella, Chantal A; Robbins, Charles T; Corbit, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    The confluence of obesity and diabetes as a worldwide epidemic necessitates the discovery of new therapies. Success in this endeavor requires translatable preclinical studies, which traditionally employ rodent models. As an alternative approach, we explored hibernation where obesity is a natural adaptation to survive months of fasting. Here we report that grizzly bears exhibit seasonal tripartite insulin responsiveness such that obese animals augment insulin sensitivity but only weeks later enter hibernation-specific insulin resistance (IR) and subsequently reinitiate responsiveness upon awakening. Preparation for hibernation is characterized by adiposity coupled to increased insulin sensitivity via modified PTEN/AKT signaling specifically in adipose tissue, suggesting a state of "healthy" obesity analogous to humans with PTEN haploinsufficiency. Collectively, we show that bears reversibly cope with homeostatic perturbations considered detrimental to humans and describe a mechanism whereby IR functions not as a late-stage metabolic adaptation to obesity, but rather a gatekeeper of the fed-fasting transition.

  2. The hibernating mobile phone: Dead storage as a barrier to efficient electronic waste recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Garrath T; Smalley, Grace; Suckling, James R; Lilley, Debra; Lee, Jacquetta; Mawle, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Hibernation, the dead storage period when a mobile phone is still retained by the user at its end-of-life, is both a common and a significant barrier to the effective flow of time-sensitive stock value within a circular economic model. In this paper we present the findings of a survey of 181 mobile phone owners, aged between 18-25years old, living and studying in the UK, which explored mobile phone ownership, reasons for hibernation, and replacement motives. This paper also outlines and implements a novel mechanism for quantifying the mean hibernation period based on the survey findings. The results show that only 33.70% of previously owned mobile phones were returned back into the system. The average duration of ownership of mobile phones kept and still in hibernation was 4years 11months, with average use and hibernation durations of 1year 11months, and 3years respectively; on average, mobile phones that are kept by the user are hibernated for longer than they are ever actually used as primary devices. The results also indicate that mobile phone replacement is driven primarily by physical (technological, functional and absolute) obsolescence, with economic obsolescence, partly in response to the notion of being 'due an upgrade', also featuring significantly. We also identify in this paper the concept of a secondary phone, a recently replaced phone that holds a different function for the user than their primary phone but is still valued and intentionally retained by the user, and which, we conclude, should be accounted for in any reverse logistics strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Kuang

    Full Text Available Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1 is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2, a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1 was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2 protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2 and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  4. 1624-IJBCS -Article-Serigne Omar sarr+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The method was validated for precision, accuracy and recovery studies. Limit of Detection ... of various analytical methods to determine quinine and ... The quinine standard USP (Rockville,. USA) and the ... instruments, Massachusetts, USA) connected to a Fujitsu ... Recovery studies were carried out by addition of known ...

  5. Seasonal abundance and mortality of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in a hibernation refuge

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. S. Santos; L. R. Redaelli; DIEFENBACH L. M. G.; ROMANOWSKI,H. P.; Prando,H. F.; R. C. Antochevis

    2006-01-01

    Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) is an important pest affecting irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It hibernates during the coldest months of the year in refuges such as bamboo litter. This study examined O. poecilus hibernation to determine the causes of mortality during this period. The study was conducted in a 140 m² bamboo plantation located in a rice-growing area in Eldorado do Sul County (30° 02’ S and 51° 23’ W), RS. During June 2000 to April 2002, 63 samples of litter were taken in...

  6. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. Frigault

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  7. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques J. Frigault; Daneck Lang-Ouellette; Pier Morin Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differ-entially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). TUG1 transcript levels were signifi-cantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  8. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  9. Metabolic hormone FGF21 is induced in ground squirrels during hibernation but its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany T Nelson

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a natural adaptation that allows certain mammals to survive physiological extremes that are lethal to humans. Near freezing body temperatures, heart rates of 3-10 beats per minute, absence of food consumption, and depressed metabolism are characteristic of hibernation torpor bouts that are periodically interrupted by brief interbout arousals (IBAs. The molecular basis of torpor induction is unknown, however starved mice overexpressing the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 promote fat utilization, reduce body temperature, and readily enter torpor-all hallmarks of mammalian hibernation. In this study we cloned FGF21 from the naturally hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus and found that levels of FGF21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in serum are elevated during hibernation torpor bouts and significantly elevated during IBAs compared to summer active animals. The effects of artificially elevating circulating FGF21 concentrations 50 to 100-fold via adenoviral-mediated overexpression were examined at three different times of the year. This is the first time that a transgenic approach has been used in a natural hibernator to examine mechanistic aspects of hibernation. Surgically implanted transmitters measured various metrics of the hibernation phenotype over a 7-day period including changes in motor activity, heart rate and core body temperature. In April fed-state animals, FGF21 overexpression decreased blood insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, effects similar to those seen in obese mice. However, elevated FGF21 concentrations did not cause torpor in these fed-state animals nor did they cause torpor or affect metabolic parameters in fasted-state animals in March/April, August or October. We conclude that FGF21 is strongly regulated during torpor and IBA but that its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor in naturally hibernating ground squirrels.

  10. Warming up for sleep? - ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Barnes, Brian M.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (δ power

  11. WARMING UP FOR SLEEP - GROUND-SQUIRRELS SLEEP DURING AROUSALS FROM HIBERNATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAAN, S; BARNES, BM; STRIJKSTRA, AM

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (delta-p

  12. Ambient temperature during torpor affects NREM sleep EEG during arousal episodes in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Ambient temperature (T-a) systematically affects the frequency of arousal episodes in mammalian hibernation. This variation might hypothetically be attributed to temperature effects on the rate of sleep debt increase in torpor. We studied this rate by recording sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in

  13. Dissimilarity of slow-wave activity enhancement by torpor and sleep deprivation in a hibernator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1998-01-01

    Sleep regulation processes have been hypothesized to be involved in function and timing of arousal episodes in hibernating ground squirrels. We investigated the importance of sleep regulation during arousal episodes by sleep deprivation experiments. After sleep deprivation of 4, 12, and 24 h,

  14. Thermotelemetric study on the hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (Linnaeus, 1758), under natural circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, R.E.M.B.; Gelder, van J.J.; Lenders, A.

    1989-01-01

    By means of radio-thermotelemetry a study was made of the thermoregulatory patterns during hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (L., 1758) under natural conditions. In the euthermic state, body temperature (Tb) fluctuated between 36.4 and 38.6°C with Tb higher than 37.0°C probably indi

  15. Cholecystokinin activation of central satiety centers changes seasonally in a mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P; Raybould, Helen E; Carey, Hannah V

    2011-05-01

    Hibernators that rely on lipids during winter exhibit profound changes in food intake over the annual cycle. The mechanisms that regulate appetite changes in seasonal hibernators remain unclear, but likely consist of complex interactions between gut hormones, adipokines, and central processing centers. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in the sensitivity of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to the gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) may contribute to appetite regulation in ground squirrels. Spring (SPR), late summer (SUM), and winter euthermic hibernating (HIB) 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) were treated with intraperitoneal CCK (100 μg/kg) or vehicle (CON) for 3h and Fos expression in the NTS was quantified. In CON squirrels, numbers of Fos-positive neurons in HIB were low compared to SPR and SUM. CCK treatment increased Fos-positive neurons in the NTS at the levels of the area postrema (AP) and pre AP during all seasons and at the level of the rostral AP in HIB squirrels. The highest absolute levels of Fos-positive neurons were found in SPR CCK squirrels, but the highest relative increase from CON was found in HIB CCK squirrels. Fold-changes in Fos-positive neurons in SUM were intermediate between SPR and HIB. Thus, CCK sensitivity falls from SPR to SUM suggesting that seasonal changes in sensitivity of NTS neurons to vagally-derived CCK may influence appetite in the active phase of the annual cycle in hibernating squirrels. Enhanced sensitivity to CCK signaling in NTS neurons of hibernators indicates that changes in gut-brain signaling may contribute to seasonal changes in food intake during the annual cycle.

  16. Net Q Apponted to Mr, Steve Stavrds for the Product Market ng Manager of PateSpin n As a Pacfc Regon%NetlQ 任命 Steve Stavridis 为亚太区PlateSpin 产品营销经理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Attachmate 集团旗下的事业部门NetlQ于近日宣布,任命Steve Stavridis为公司亚太区PlateSpin产品营销经理。Steve Stavridis将负责Plate Spin产品包的开发和管理工作,并推动NetIQ业务在亚太地区的业绩增长。

  17. 基于Hibernate JPA和JQuery框架的数据查询研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Data Query Based on Hibernate JPA and JQuery Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭莹宇

    2012-01-01

    This article researches the base theory of Hibernate JPA query framework, and describes the method and process of data query designed and implemented by JPA and Jquery. In addition, the article summarizes the characteristics and advantages of data query based on Hibernate JPA query framework.%在研究Hibernate JPA查询技术理论的基础上,阐述JPA结合视图组件JQuery框架技术设计和实现数据查询的方法过程.着重总结Hibernate JPA结合JQuery框架实现数据查询的特点以及相对其它技术的优势.

  18. The role of endogenous H2S formation in reversible remodeling of lung tissue during hibernation in the Syrian hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Boerema, Ate S.; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Rob H.

    During hibernation, small mammals alternate between periods of metabolic suppression and low body temperature ('torpor') and periods of full metabolic recovery with euthermic temperatures ('arousal'). Previously, we demonstrated marked structural remodeling of the lung during torpor, which is

  19. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Hansen, Rasmus; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Brohus, Malene; Sønderkær, Mads; von Bergen, Martin; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Otto, Wolfgang; Lindahl, Tomas L; Arinell, Karin; Evans, Alina L; Swenson, Jon E; Revsbech, Inge G; Frøbert, Ole

    2016-10-21

    Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5-7 months without eating, drinking, urinating, and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing the proteome, metabolome, and hematological features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma proteins decreased, as did the white blood cell types. Strikingly, antimicrobial defense proteins increased in concentration. Central functions in hibernation involving the coagulation response and protease inhibition, as well as lipid transport and metabolism, were upheld by increased levels of very few key or broad specificity proteins. The changes in coagulation factor levels matched the changes in activity measurements. A dramatic 45-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin levels during hibernation draws, for the first time, attention to its significant but unknown role in maintaining hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms as follows: (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature and decreased protease activity; and (iii) a marked redistribution of energy resources only increasing de novo synthesis of a few key proteins. The comprehensive global data identified novel biochemical strategies for bear adaptations to the extreme condition of hibernation and have implications for our understanding of physiology in general.

  20. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P increased during hibernation (P increased oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C-W.; Biggar, K.K.; Storey, K.B. [Carleton University, Department of Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-01-28

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans.

  2. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  3. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  4. Apple创办人Steve P.Jobs予人类之科普智慧启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春源

    2012-01-01

    Apple创办人Steve P.Jobs生前推动了九项产业革命:①iMac;②iPod;③iTune;④iPhone;⑤iPad;⑥iBook;⑦iCloud;⑧iTV;⑨iStore.Jobs改写了人类50年来之电脑科技发展历史,影响全面与深远.本文将论述Jobs之科普发展的机遇、初心、性格特质、创新精髓、养鸡生蛋总体观、由败到成的转变、不凡态度与成就、有效应用案例,以及世人的评价等,带给人类之科普智慧启示.

  5. [Ornithine decarboxylase in mammalian organs and tissues at hibernation and artificial hypobiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinovich, O S; Aksenova, G E

    2013-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17.) is a short-lived and dynamically regulated enzyme of polyamines biosynthesis. Regulation of functional, metabolic and proliferative state of organs and tissues involves the modifications of the ODC enzymatic activity. The organ-specific changes in ODC activity were revealed in organs and tissues (liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and intestinal mucosa) of hibernating mammals - squirrels Spermophilus undulates - during the hibernating season. At that, a positive correlation was detected between the decline and recovery of the specialized functions of organs and tissues and the respective modifications of ODC activity during hibernation bouts. Investigation of changes in ODC activity in organs and tissues of non-hibernating mammals under artificial hypobiosis showed that in Wistar rats immediately after exposure to hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia (hypobiosis) the level of ODC activity was low in thymus, spleen, small intestine mucosa, neocortex, and liver. The most marked reduction in enzyme activity was observed in actively proliferating tissues: thymus, spleen, small intestine mucosa. In bone marrow of squirrels, while in a state of torpor, as well as in thymus of rats after exposure to hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia, changes in the ODC activity correlated with changes in the rate of cell proliferation (by the criterion of cells distribution over cell cycle). The results obtained, along with the critical analysis of published data, indicate that the ODC enzyme is involved in biochemical adaptation of mammals to natural and artificial hypobiosis. A decline in the ODC enzymatic activity indicates a decline in proliferative, functional, and metabolic activity of organs and tissues of mammals (bone marrow, mucosa of small intestine, thymus, spleen, neocortex, liver, kidneys) when entering the state of hypobiosis.

  6. Insights into the regulation of muscle metabolism and growth in mice and hibernating grizzly bears

    OpenAIRE

    Mugahid (Megahed), Douaa (Doaa)

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays an important role in the regulation of muscle growth and metabolic signalling in striated muscle. Muscle disuse reduces mechanical input to the muscle, which results in a loss of muscle mass. Here I describe how titin's mechanically activated kinase domain affects muscle growth and metabolism via p62 and Akt signalling. I also demonstrate how changes in metabolic and growth signalling in hibernating grizzly bear help maintain muscle mass under conditio...

  7. 5 Minutes with Steve Keen: “Hopefully George Osborne may end up reading a blog that throws up an idea that looks outside the mainstream advice”

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Steve Keen was one of a few economists that publicly predicted the economic crisis and his economic ideas constitute a drastic departure from mainstream economic tenets. In this conversation, he talks to Joel Suss about the importance of academic blogging in getting his own academic ideas into the public sphere.

  8. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64- 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations.

  9. Homocysteine homeostasis and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in the brain of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zhang

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine is an important risk factor that increases cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease morbidity. In mammals, B vitamin supplementation can reduce homocysteine levels. Whether, and how, hibernating mammals, that essentially stop ingesting B vitamins, maintain homocysteine metabolism and avoid cerebrovascular impacts and neurodegeneration remain unclear. Here, we compare homocysteine levels in the brains of torpid bats, active bats and rats to identify the molecules involved in homocysteine homeostasis. We found that homocysteine does not elevate in torpid brains, despite declining vitamin B levels. At low levels of vitamin B6 and B12, we found no change in total expression level of the two main enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase, but a 1.85-fold increase in the expression of the coenzyme-independent betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT. BHMT expression was observed in the amygdala of basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex where BHMT levels were clearly elevated during torpor. This is the first report of BHMT protein expression in the brain and suggests that BHMT modulates homocysteine in the brains of hibernating bats. BHMT may have a neuroprotective role in the brains of hibernating mammals and further research on this system could expand our biomedical understanding of certain cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease processes.

  10. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64– 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations. PMID:27011392

  11. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  12. Subtropical mouse-tailed bats use geothermally heated caves for winter hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; Plotnik, Brit; Amichai, Eran; Braulke, Luzie J; Landau, Shmulik; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2015-04-07

    We report that two species of mouse-tailed bats (Rhinopoma microphyllum and R. cystops) hibernate for five months during winter in geothermally heated caves with stable high temperature (20°C). While hibernating, these bats do not feed or drink, even on warm nights when other bat species are active. We used thermo-sensitive transmitters to measure the bats' skin temperature in the natural hibernacula and open flow respirometry to measure torpid metabolic rate at different ambient temperatures (Ta, 16-35°C) and evaporative water loss (EWL) in the laboratory. Bats average skin temperature at the natural hibernacula was 21.7 ± 0.8°C, and no arousals were recorded. Both species reached the lowest metabolic rates around natural hibernacula temperatures (20°C, average of 0.14 ± 0.01 and 0.16 ± 0.04 ml O2 g(-1) h(-1) for R. microphyllum and R. cystops, respectively) and aroused from torpor when Ta fell below 16°C. During torpor the bats performed long apnoeas (14 ± 1.6 and 16 ± 1.5 min, respectively) and had a very low EWL. We hypothesize that the particular diet of these bats is an adaptation to hibernation at high temperatures and that caves featuring high temperature and humidity during winter enable these species to survive this season on the northern edge of their world distribution.

  13. Insulin secretion in the hibernating edible dormouse (Glis glis): in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, C; Tahri, A; Hoo-Paris, R; Sutter, B C

    1984-01-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin have been studied during lethargy and spontaneous arousal of hibernating edible dormouse. During lethargy blood glucose was low while plasma insulin remained at the same level as in other seasons. Plasma glucose and insulin did not fluctuate along the phase of lethargy. During spontaneous arousal plasma insulin rose strongly from the 17 degrees C stage, reaching the higher values at 26 degrees C while blood glucose was only 85 mg/100 ml, then decreased at 37 degrees C. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion was studied using perfused pancreas preparation from hibernating edible dormice. During the rewarming of the edible dormouse pancreas the insulin release did not occur in response to the absolute extracellular glucose level but occurred in response to a B cell membrane phenomenon which was dependent on the changing rate of glucose level. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion from perfused pancreas was compared between edible dormouse and homeotherm permanent, the rat. The B cell response to glucose of the dormouse pancreas increased up to 15 degrees C whereas that of the rat only from 25 degrees C. The dormouse insulin secretion reached a peak value at the 30 degrees C of temperature, whereas that of the rat progressively increased until 37 degrees C. These results showed that some biochemical adjustment or process of acclimatization took place in the B cells of the hibernators.

  14. A Hibernation-Like State for Transplantable Organs: Is Hydrogen Sulfide Therapy the Future of Organ Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, George J; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Saha, Manujendra N; Lobb, Ian; Henning, Robert H; Sener, Alp

    2017-08-29

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, during which renal grafts from deceased donors are routinely cold stored to suppress metabolic demand and thereby limit ischemic injury. However, prolonged cold storage, followed by reperfusion, induces extensive tissue damage termed cold ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and puts the graft at risk of both early and late rejection. Recent Advances: Deep hibernators constitute a natural model of coping with cold IRI as they regularly alternate between 4°C and 37°C. Recently, endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell, has been implicated in organ protection in hibernation. In renal transplantation, H2S also seems to confer cytoprotection by lowering metabolism, thereby creating a hibernation-like environment, and increasing preservation time while allowing cellular processes of preservation of homeostasis and tissue remodeling to take place, thus increasing renal graft survival. Although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of organ protection during hibernation have not been fully explored, mammalian hibernation may offer a great clinical promise to safely cold store and reperfuse donor organs. In this review, we first discuss mammalian hibernation as a natural model of cold organ preservation with reference to the kidney and highlight the involvement of H2S during hibernation. Next, we present recent developments on the protective effects and mechanisms of exogenous and endogenous H2S in preclinical models of transplant IRI and evaluate the potential of H2S therapy in organ preservation as great promise for renal transplant recipients in the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  15. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  16. Telomere dynamics in free-living edible dormice (Glis glis): the impact of hibernation and food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, Franz; Cornils, Jessica S; Smith, Steve; Moodley, Yoshan; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    We studied the impact of hibernation and food supply on relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator for aging and somatic maintenance, in free-living edible dormice. Small hibernators such as dormice have ∼50% higher maximum longevity than non-hibernators. Increased longevity could theoretically be due to prolonged torpor directly slowing cellular damage and RTL shortening. However, although mitosis is arrested in mammals at low body temperatures, recent evidence points to accelerated RTL shortening during periodic re-warming (arousal) from torpor. Therefore, we hypothesized that these arousals during hibernation should have a negative effect on RTL. Here, we show that RTL was shortened in all animals over the course of ∼1 year, during which dormice hibernated for 7.5-11.4 months. The rate of periodic arousals, rather than the time spent euthermic during the hibernation season, was the best predictor of RTL shortening. This finding points to negative effects on RTL of the transition from low torpor to high euthermic body temperature and metabolic rate during arousals, possibly because of increased oxidative stress. The animals were, however, able to elongate their telomeres during the active season, when food availability was increased by supplemental feeding in a year of low natural food abundance. We conclude that in addition to their energetic costs, periodic arousals also lead to accelerated cellular damage in terms of RTL shortening. Although dormice are able to counteract and even over-compensate for the negative effects of hibernation, restoration of RTL appears to be energetically costly.

  17. It takes two to tango: Phagocyte and lymphocyte numbers in a small mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenstein, Nadine; Langer, Franz; Stefanski, Volker; Fietz, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Immunity is energetically costly and competes for resources with other physiological body functions, which may result in trade-offs that impair fitness during demanding situations. Endocrine mediators, particularly stress hormones, play a central role in these relationships and directly impact leukocyte differentials. To determine the effects of external stressors, energetic restraints and competing physiological functions on immune parameters and their relevance for fitness, we investigated leukocyte profiles during the active season of a small obligate hibernator, the edible dormouse (Glis glis), in five different study sites in south-western Germany. The highly synchronized yearly cycle of this species and the close adaptation of its life history to the irregular abundance of food resources provide a natural experiment to elucidate mechanisms underlying variations in fitness parameters. In contrast to previous studies on hibernators, that showed an immediate recovery of all leukocyte subtypes upon emergence, our study revealed that hibernation results in depleted phagocyte (neutrophils and monocytes) stores that recovered only slowly. As the phenomenon of low phagocyte counts was even more pronounced at the beginning of a low food year and primarily immature neutrophils were present in the blood upon emergence, preparatory mechanisms seem to determine the regeneration of phagocytes before hibernation is terminated. Surprisingly, the recovery of phagocytes thereafter took several weeks, presumably due to energetic restrictions. This impaired first line of defense coincides with lowest survival probabilities during the annual cycle of our study species. Reduced survival could furthermore be linked to drastic increases in the P/L ratio (phagocytes/lymphocytes), an indicator of physiological stress, during reproduction. On the other hand, moderate augmentations in the P/L ratio occurred during periods of low food availability and were associated with increased

  18. 达乌尔黄鼠冬眠期间体温的变化和冬眠模式%Hibernation patterns and changes of body temperature in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 邢昕; 管淑君; 赵岩; 王子英; 王德华

    2011-01-01

    用植入式半导体温度记录元件iButton记录了达乌尔黄鼠冬眠季节及其前后的体温,分析了其冬眠模式和体温调节特点.结果显示:1)实验室条件下,达乌尔黄鼠冬眠季节长短的个体差异较大,可以分成深冬眠型、少冬眠型和不冬眠型三种类型;2)达乌尔黄鼠在冬季表现出深冬眠阵(最低体温Tbmin< 20℃,冬眠阵的持续时间BD>24 h)、短冬眠阵(Tbmin<20℃,BD≤24h)和日眠阵(Tbmin≥20℃,BD≤24 h)3种类型,最低体温分别为2.54℃ ±0.35℃、10.05℃±1.97℃和23.09℃±0.40℃,彼此之间差异显著.日眠阵阵间产热阶段的最高体温为38.09℃±0.17℃,高于深冬眠阵(37.31℃±0.15℃)和短冬眠阵(37.22℃±0.31℃);3)深冬眠阵和日眠阵中最低体温均与环境温度显著相关,冬眠过程中的最低体温为-2.43℃;4)深冬眠过程中,多数个体可以短时(≤3h)耐受-2℃~0℃的低温,激醒或继续维持深冬眠,无致死效应,但长时间(15 h)或过度低温(-5℃以下)的条件下,深冬眠的达乌尔黄鼠被激醒(70%)或死亡(30%),不能持续冬眠;5)入眠前10 d的体温日波动幅度显著增加,高于出眠后的日体温波动,且多数个体入眠前出现体温的“试降”.表明,冬眠前入眠的准备阶段,动物的体温调节已开始发生变化;冬季日眠的调节机制可能与冬眠不同;短时-2℃~0℃的低体温对深冬眠的达乌尔黄鼠无致死效应.%In order to understand the patterns of body temperature changes and hibernation, we used iButtons to monitor body temperatures (Tb) in a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) , before, during, and after their hibernation period. Hibernation patterns and thermoregulation characteristics were analyzed. In the laboratory, there were great individual differences in the length of the hibernation time. Three types of torpor were distinguished, deep hibernation, short hibernation, and no

  19. Mammals Hibernate and Its Influencing Factors%哺乳动物的冬眠及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖雷

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the phenomenon of mammals hibernate in winter and its influence factors, make the mammals hibernate process in the behavior, the changes of physiological aspects can be better state, the definition,behavior and physical performance during the period of winter hibernation and influence factors of hibernation were expounded according to the research results of the hibernate both at home and abroad. The result showed that the behavior of mammals hibernate in winter was a combined action by behavior,physiology,genetic factors and so on. The'main factors that affecting mammals hibernate were environment temperature, temperature changes of themselves, nutrition factors and their own physical condition. Moreover, the significance of awakening during hibernate and the effect of hibernate on organs and gland of animals were elaborated.%为了明确哺乳动物冬眠的现象和导致其发生冬眠的影响因素,使哺乳动物在冬眠过程中的行为和生理等方面发生的变化能得以更好地阐述。结合国内外关于冬眠的研究成果,着重阐述了冬眠的定义、冬眠期间的行为和生理表现以及影响冬眠的因素。结果表明:哺乳动物的冬眠是行为、生理和遗传等多因素共同作用的结果,环境温度、自身体温变化、营养因素和自身生理调节是影响哺乳动物冬眠的主要因素。并阐述了冬眠间觉醒的意义以及冬眠对动物器官和腺体的影响。

  20. Repeated functional convergent effects of NaV1.7 on acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Li, Gong-Hua; He, Kai; Huang, Jing-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long; Murphy, Robert W; Shi, Peng

    2014-02-07

    Hibernating mammals need to be insensitive to acid in order to cope with conditions of high CO2; however, the molecular basis of acid tolerance remains largely unknown. The African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and hibernating mammals share similar environments and physiological features. In the naked mole-rat, acid insensitivity has been shown to be conferred by the functional motif of the sodium ion channel NaV1.7. There is now an opportunity to evaluate acid insensitivity in other taxa. In this study, we tested for functional convergence of NaV1.7 in 71 species of mammals, including 22 species that hibernate. Our analyses revealed a functional convergence of amino acid sequences, which occurred at least six times independently in mammals that hibernate. Evolutionary analyses determined that the convergence results from both parallel and divergent evolution of residues in the functional motif. Our findings not only identify the functional molecules responsible for acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals, but also open new avenues to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of acid insensitivity in mammals.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide metabolites in the blood of free-ranging brown bears and their potential roles in hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revsbech, Inge G; Shen, Xinggui; Chakravarti, Ritu; Jensen, Frank B; Thiel, Bonnie; Evans, Alina L; Kindberg, Jonas; Fröbert, Ole; Stuehr, Dennis J; Kevil, Christopher G; Fago, Angela

    2014-08-01

    During winter hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) lie in dens for half a year without eating while their basal metabolism is largely suppressed. To understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic depression in hibernation, we measured type and content of blood metabolites of two ubiquitous inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), in winter-hibernating and summer-active free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. We found that levels of sulfide metabolites were overall similar in summer-active and hibernating bears but their composition in the plasma differed significantly, with a decrease in bound sulfane sulfur in hibernation. High levels of unbound free sulfide correlated with high levels of cysteine (Cys) and with low levels of bound sulfane sulfur, indicating that during hibernation H2S, in addition to being formed enzymatically from the substrate Cys, may also be regenerated from its oxidation products, including thiosulfate and polysulfides. In the absence of any dietary intake, this shift in the mode of H2S synthesis would help preserve free Cys for synthesis of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant found at high levels in the red blood cells of hibernating bears. In contrast, circulating nitrite and erythrocytic S-nitrosation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, taken as markers of NO metabolism, did not change appreciably. Our findings reveal that remodeling of H2S metabolism and enhanced intracellular GSH levels are hallmarks of the aerobic metabolic suppression of hibernating bears.

  2. Thermoregulation and energetics in hibernating black bears: metabolic rate and the mystery of multi-day body temperature cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Barnes, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    Black bears overwintering in outdoor hibernacula in Alaska decrease metabolism to as low as 25 % basal rates, while core body temperature (T(b)) decreases from 37 to 38 °C to a mid-hibernation average of 33 °C. T b develops cycles of 1.6-7.3 days length within a 30-36 °C range, with no circadian component. We do not know the mechanism or function underlying behind the T(b) cycles, although bears avoid T(b) of thermoregulation. More intense shivering in the rising phase of cycles may contribute to the prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. Bears hibernating in cold conditions use more energy during hibernation than in warmer conditions. At T den below lower critical temperature, no extra energy expenditure results from T b cycling compared to keeping a stable T(b.)

  3. Database Middleware Based on Web Services and Hibernate%基于 Web Services 和 Hibernate 技术的数据库中间件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福影; 卫文学

    2015-01-01

    For the management of some heterogeneous databases in different network is more flexible and convenient, the paper studies and analyzes the common database middleware, Hibernate framework and Web Service technology.Then aiming at the shortcomings of database middleware, the paper puts forward a new database middleware that was designed with Web Service technology and Hibernate framework.This scheme can transparently access databases without changing the original data storage method, ensure data integrity, consistency and security, and has higher development efficiency.%为了能够使不同网络中异构数据库的分布式数据管理更加灵活和简便,本文研究和分析常用的数据库中间件技术以及目前流行的开源ORM框架Hibernate和Web Service技术。针对目前数据库中间件不足之处,提出利用Web Service技术和Hibernate框架设计一种新的数据库访问中间件。该方案能在不改变原始数据的存储和管理方式下,较好地实现不同网络中异构数据源统一透明访问,保证数据完整性、一致性和安全性,具有较高的开发效率。

  4. Selective mobilization of saturated fatty acids in isolated adipocytes of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Armstrong, Christopher; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are not mobilized from adipocyte triacylglycerols uniformly but rather some are preferentially mobilized while others are preferentially retained. In many vertebrate species, the pattern of differential mobilization is determined by the physical and chemical properties of each fatty acid. Fatty acids with shorter chains and more double bonds tend to be more readily mobilized than others, a pattern observed both in whole-animal studies and in isolated adipocytes. Several hibernating species seem to break this pattern, however, and retain 18:2ω6 (linoleic acid) while mobilizing saturated fatty acids such as 18:0. We sought to confirm this pattern in adipocytes of a hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, and to investigate mobilization patterns for the first time at hibernation temperature. We isolated adipocytes from summer active and winter torpid squirrels and incubated them with 1 μM norepinephrine at 4°C (7 h) and 37°C (90 min). We measured the proportion of each fatty acid in the adipose tissue and in the buffer at the end of incubation. Patterns of mobilization were similar in both seasons and incubation temperatures. Saturated fatty acids (18:0 and 16:0) were highly mobilized relative to the average, while some unsaturated fatty acids (notably, 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6) were retained. We conclude that hibernators have unique mechanisms at the level of adipose tissue that preferentially mobilize saturated fatty acids. Additionally, we found that adipocytes from hibernating squirrels produced more glycerol than those from summer squirrels (regardless of temperature), indicating a higher lipolytic capacity in hibernating squirrels.

  5. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  6. Water-fat MRI in a hibernator reveals seasonal growth of white and brown adipose tissue without cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCannell, Amanda; Sinclair, Kevin; Friesen-Waldner, Lannette; McKenzie, Charles A; Staples, James F

    2017-03-21

    Obligate hibernators, such as ground squirrels, display circannual patterns which persist even under constant laboratory conditions, suggesting that they are regulated by endogenous rhythms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during periodic arousals from hibernation when core body temperature rises spontaneously from 5 to 37 °C. In most small eutherians BAT growth requires several weeks of cold exposure. We hypothesized that in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernator, BAT growth is regulated, in part, by an endogenous rhythm and we predicted that this growth would precede the hibernation season without cold exposure. We tested this prediction using repeated water-fat magnetic resonance imaging over a year, including the hibernation season. Thoracic BAT depots increased in volume from spring through autumn even though animals were housed at ~22 °C. Subsequent cold exposure (5 °C) enlarged the thoracic BAT further. The fat fraction of this tissue fell significantly during the period of peak growth, indicating relative increases in non-triglyceride components, perhaps mitochondria or vasculature. We also found that the proportion of the body consisting of white adipose tissue (WAT) increased steadily from spring through autumn, and fell throughout hibernation, mirroring changes in body mass. Unlike BAT, WAT fat fractions remained constant (near 90%) throughout the year. Future studies will evaluate the significance of photoperiod and cold exposure on the growth of these tissues. We also found tissue with a fat fraction characteristic of BAT in the head near the eyes, a potentially novel discovery that requires further confirmation.

  7. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  8. 透过乔布斯的苹果看领导力%Leadership Through the Apple of Steve Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙

    2012-01-01

    作为苹果教父,乔布斯以卓越的领导力,带领苹果迈向了新的高度。透过苹果的发展历程,和其折射出的美国社会环境下的领导力现象,分析建设领导力的主客观条件和土壤,从社会文化视角,探索领导力在美国经济和社会体系中的重要性,其教育体系对领导力的重视和培育,以及在领导力形成过程中个人主观努力的重要性。%As the godfather of Apple, Steve Jobs for his outstanding leadership, led Apple move towards a new hcighL Through Apple's development process, and its reflection of American society under the leadership phenomenon, subjective and objective conditions and soil analysis of the construction of leadership from the socio-cultural perspective, exploring the importance of leadership in the economic and social systems in the United States its education system of leadership attention and nurturing, as well as the importance of personal and subjective process of leadership formation efforts.

  9. Miocárdio hibernante: uma realidade clínica Hibernant myocardium: a clinical reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Marin-Neto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito da hibernação miocárdica implica a ocorrência de disfunção ventricular crônica, potencialmente reversível, causada por dissinergia regional, dependente de isquemia prolongada. Não tem fisiopatologia elucidada, em parte porque não existem modelos experimentais satisfatórios para seu estudo. Diversos métodos são capazes de demonstrar viabilidade miocárdica nas regiões que não exibem capacidade contrátil basal. O desmascaramento da hibernação nesses territórios pode ser feito mediante demonstração de reserva contrátil, de funcionamento normal da membrana celular, ou de metabolismo preservado. A correta identificação de miocárdio hibernante reveste-se de especial significado clínico, por suas implicações prognósticas quanto a intervenções de revascularização miocárdica, destinadas a reabilitar a função ventricular em muitos pacientes coronariopatas crônicos.Myocardial hibernation is believed to occur in ventricular dyssynergic regions chronically deprived of coronary flow enough to warrant the preservation of contractile function. Pathophysiology of this condition remains largely unclear, mainly because good experimental models for its study are still lacking. Various methods can be clinically employed to detect hibernation in patients with chronic ventricular dysfunction. These methods use the principle of unmasking contractile reserve, or are based on the demonstration of preserved membrane function or myocardium metabolism in the dyssynergic regions. The correct identification of viable hibernating myocardium is crucial in the process of deciding which coronary disease patients would potentially benefit from revascularization procedures.

  10. The histaminergic system in the brain: structural characteristics and changes in hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, P; Karlstedt, K; Sallmen, T; Peitsaro, N; Kaslin, J; Michelsen, K A; Anichtchik, O; Kukko-Lukjanov, T; Lintunen, M

    2000-02-01

    Histaminergic neurons in adult vertebrate brain are confined to the posterior hypothalamic area, where they are comprised of scattered groups of neurons referred to as the tuberomammillary nucleus. Histamine regulates hormonal functions, sleep, food intake, thermoregulation and locomotor activity, for example. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, histamine was detected only in the brain, where also the histamine synthesizing enzyme L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) was expressed. It is possible that histamine has first evolved as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. We established sensitive quantitative in situ hybridization methods for histamine H(1) and H(2) receptors and HDC, to study the modulation of brain histaminergic system under pathophysiological conditions. A transient increase in H(1) receptor expression was seen in the dentate gyrus and striatum after a single injection of kainic acid, a glutamate analog. H(1) antagonists are known to increase duration of convulsions, and increased brain histamine is associated with reduced convulsions in animal models of epilepsy. No HDC mRNA was detected in brain vessels by in situ hybridization, which suggests lack of histamine synthesis by brain endothelial cells. This was verified by lack of HDC mRNA in a rat brain endothelial cell line, RBE4 cells. Both H(1) and H(2) receptor mRNA was found in this cell line, and the expression of both receptors was downregulated by dexamethasone. The findings are in agreement with the concept that histamine regulates blood-brain barrier permeability through H(1) and H(2) receptor mediated mechanisms. Hibernation is characterized by a drastic reduction of central functions. The activity of most transmitter systems is maintained at a very low level. Surprisingly, histamine levels and turnover were clearly elevated in hibernating ground squirrels, and the density of histamine-containing fibers was higher than in euthermic animals. It is possible that histamine actively

  11. Pre-hibernation performances of the OSIRIS cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Da Deppo, V.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Ferri, F.; Pajola, M.; Barbieri, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, C.; Tubiana, C.; Küppers, M.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Sierks, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The ESA cometary mission Rosetta was launched in 2004. In the past years and until the spacecraft hibernation in June 2011, the two cameras of the OSIRIS imaging system (Narrow Angle and Wide Angle Camera, NAC and WAC) observed many different sources. On 20 January 2014 the spacecraft successfully exited hibernation to start observing the primary scientific target of the mission, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: A study of the past performances of the cameras is now mandatory to be able to determine whether the system has been stable through the time and to derive, if necessary, additional analysis methods for the future precise calibration of the cometary data. Methods: The instrumental responses and filter passbands were used to estimate the efficiency of the system. A comparison with acquired images of specific calibration stars was made, and a refined photometric calibration was computed, both for the absolute flux and for the reflectivity of small bodies of the solar system. Results: We found a stability of the instrumental performances within ±1.5% from 2007 to 2010, with no evidence of an aging effect on the optics or detectors. The efficiency of the instrumentation is found to be as expected in the visible range, but lower than expected in the UV and IR range. A photometric calibration implementation was discussed for the two cameras. Conclusions: The calibration derived from pre-hibernation phases of the mission will be checked as soon as possible after the awakening of OSIRIS and will be continuously monitored until the end of the mission in December 2015. A list of additional calibration sources has been determined that are to be observed during the forthcoming phases of the mission to ensure a better coverage across the wavelength range of the cameras and to study the possible dust contamination of the optics.

  12. Leptin regulates energy intake but fails to facilitate hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xin; Tang, Gang-Bin; Sun, Ming-Yue; Yu, Chao; Song, Shi-Yi; Liu, Xin-Yu; Yang, Ming; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Body fat storage before hibernation affects the timing of immergence in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Leptin is an adipose signal and plays vital role in energy homeostasis mainly by action in brain. To test the hypothesis that leptin plays a role in facilitating the process of hibernation, squirrels were administrated with recombinant murine leptin (1μg/day) through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection for 12 days during fattening. From day 7 to 12, animals were moved into a cold room (5±1°C) with constant darkness which functioned as hibernaculum. Energy intake, body mass and core body temperature (Tb) were continuously monitored throughout the course of experiment. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured under both warm and cold conditions. At the end of leptin administration, we measured the serum concentration of hormones related to energy regulation, mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Our results showed that during leptin administration, the cumulative food intake and increase of body mass were suppressed while Tb and RMR were unaltered. The proportion of torpid squirrels was not different between two groups. At the end of leptin administration, the expressions of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein were suppressed. There were no differences in UCP1 mRNA expression or protein content in BAT between groups. Our data suggest that leptin can affect energy intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, but is not involved in the initiation of hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels.

  13. Database Entity Persistence with Hibernate for the Network Connectivity Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    program using the Hibernate Object-Relational Mapping ( ORM ) framework . When instantiated, a Java class annotated as an Entity may be persisted via...other future technology or ORM framework if the need arises. The child DAOs concretely define the generic T type and generic Serialable ID type, which...8217 . (o .... -i\\j Po AJI NCAM Ettm~s HiOOm~te ORM lnlerr&ee ’ Re~d only L:l 1 ReadCnly NolseModel !.-:. .. .. ... ... se-e next ligu(e 1 for

  14. 史蒂夫·里奇和他的《钢琴相位》(Piano Phase,1967)%Steve Reich and His Piano Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昌俊; 蔡妮辰; 赵媛媛

    2006-01-01

    史蒂夫·里奇(Steve Reich)是当今美国现代音乐最具影响力的作曲家之一.文章从材料、调性、节奏、音高组织以及结构等方面,对他作于1967年为两架钢琴所作的,进行了综合分析.

  15. Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Signature of the Collaboration agreement contract between CERN and IASS on High Current, Long Distance Superconducting Power Transmission Lines signed Dr.Steve Myers Director of Acc Tech and Prof. Carlo Rubbia.

  16. Steve Boardman and Julian Goodare, eds., Kings, Lords and Men in Scotland and Britain, 1300–1625: Essays in Honour of Jenny Wormald. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. Pp. 368. ISBN: 9780748691500. £75.00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Dean

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Steve Boardman and Julian Goodare, eds., Kings, Lords and Men in Scotland and Britain, 1300–1625: Essays in Honour of Jenny Wormald. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. Pp. 368. ISBN: 9780748691500. £75.00.

  17. Recovery of Syrian hamster hippocampal signaling following its depression during oxygen-glucose deprivation is enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Mack, Jacob; Vitagliano, Nicholas; Hamilton, Jock S; Horowitz, John M; Horwitz, Barbara A

    2016-05-16

    Signal transmission over a hippocampal network of CA3 and CA1 neurons in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), facultative hibernators, has not been fully characterized in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We hypothesized that during OGD, hippocampal signal transmission fails first at the synapse between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons and that recovery of signal processing following OGD is more robust in hippocampal slices at cold temperature, from hamsters vs. rats, and from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters. To test these hypotheses, we recorded fEPSPs and population spikes of CA1 neurons at 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C in 400μm slices over a 15min control period with the slice in oxygenated aCSF containing glucose (control solution), a 10min treatment period (OGD insult) where oxygen was replaced by nitrogen in aCSF lacking glucose, and a 30min recovery period with the slice in the control solution. The initial site of transmission failure during OGD occurred at the CA3-CA1 synapse, and recovery of signal transmission was at least, if not more (depending on temperature), complete in slices from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters, and from non-hibernating hamsters vs. rats. Thus, hamster neuroprotective mechanisms supporting functional recovery were enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation.

  18. Immunoreactivities of IL-1β and IL-1R in oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) during pre-hibernation and the breeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiqi; Liu, Yuning; Deng, Yu; Ma, Sihui; Sheng, Xia; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) has one special physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct goes through expansion prior to hibernation instead of during the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the localization and expression level of interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) proteins in the oviduct of R. dybowskii during pre-hibernation and the breeding period. There were significant differences in both oviductal weight and pipe diameter, with values markedly higher in pre-hibernation than in the breeding period. Histologically, epithelium cells, glandular cells and tubule lumen were identified in the oviduct during pre-hibernation and the breeding period, while sizes of both cell types are larger in the pre-hibernation than those of the breeding period. IL-1β was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and glandular cells in both periods, whereas IL-1R1 was observed in the membrane of epithelial and glandular cells in the breeding period, whereas only in epithelial cells during pre-hibernation. Consistently, the protein levels of IL-1β and IL-1R1 were higher in pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period. These results suggested that IL-1β may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in oviductal cell proliferation and differentiation of R. dybowskii.

  19. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  20. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zukal

    Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  1. Disassembly of the Staphylococcus aureus hibernating 100S ribosome by an evolutionarily conserved GTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arnab; Yap, Mee-Ngan F

    2017-09-11

    The bacterial hibernating 100S ribosome is a poorly understood form of the dimeric 70S particle that has been linked to pathogenesis, translational repression, starvation responses, and ribosome turnover. In the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and most other bacteria, hibernation-promoting factor (HPF) homodimerizes the 70S ribosomes to form a translationally silent 100S complex. Conversely, the 100S ribosomes dissociate into subunits and are presumably recycled for new rounds of translation. The regulation and disassembly of the 100S ribosome are largely unknown because the temporal abundance of the 100S ribosome varies considerably among different bacterial phyla. Here, we identify a universally conserved GTPase (HflX) as a bona fide dissociation factor of the S. aureus 100S ribosome. The expression levels hpf and hflX are coregulated by general stress and stringent responses in a temperature-dependent manner. While all tested guanosine analogs stimulate the splitting activity of HflX on the 70S ribosome, only GTP can completely dissociate the 100S ribosome. Our results reveal the antagonistic relationship of HPF and HflX and uncover the key regulators of 70S and 100S ribosome homeostasis that are intimately associated with bacterial survival.

  2. The hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel as a model organism for potential cold storage of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Scott T; Richters, Karl E; Melin, Travis E; Liu, Zhi-jian; Hordyk, Peter J; Benrud, Ryan R; Geiser, Lauren R; Cash, Steve E; Simon Shelley, C; Howard, David R; Ereth, Mark H; Sola-Visner, Martha C

    2012-05-15

    Hibernating mammals have developed many physiological adaptations to extreme environments. During hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) must suppress hemostasis to survive prolonged body temperatures of 4-8°C and 3-5 heartbeats per minute without forming lethal clots. Upon arousal in the spring, these ground squirrels must be able to quickly restore normal clotting activity to avoid bleeding. Here we show that ground squirrel platelets stored in vivo at 4-8°C were released back into the blood within 2 h of arousal in the spring with a body temperature of 37°C but were not rapidly cleared from circulation. These released platelets were capable of forming stable clots and remained in circulation for at least 2 days before newly synthesized platelets were detected. Transfusion of autologous platelets stored at 4°C or 37°C showed the same clearance rates in ground squirrels, whereas rat platelets stored in the cold had a 140-fold increase in clearance rate. Our results demonstrate that ground squirrel platelets appear to be resistant to the platelet cold storage lesions observed in other mammals, allowing prolonged storage in cold stasis and preventing rapid clearance upon spring arousal. Elucidating these adaptations could lead to the development of methods to store human platelets in the cold, extending their shelf life.

  3. [Spatial structure of the community of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P; Kurmaeva, N M; Shepelev, A A; Il'in, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka. The proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest parts of caves. Among wintering species, higher rates of occurrence and shelter occupancy are characteristic of Plecotus auritus. Myotis daubentonii, and M. mystacinus, whereas M. dasycneme and M. brandtii show the highest degree of aggregation. The optimal temperature range for the wintering of all bat species is 2-4 degrees C. Myotis brandtii, Eptesicus nilssonii, and M. daubentonii prefer to hibernate in open spaces of cave ceilings; M. mystacinus. E. serotinus, and Pl. auritus usually occupy the middle and upper parts of walls; while M. dasycneme and M. nattereri occur mainly in hollows on ceilings.

  4. Cardiomyocyte Remodeling in Atrial Fibrillation and Hibernating Myocardium: Shared Pathophysiologic Traits Identify Novel Treatment Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Weil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia and is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited treatment strategies for prevention of disease onset and progression. Development of novel therapies for primary and secondary prevention of AF is critical and requires improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the AF disease process. Translational and clinical studies conducted over the past twenty years have revealed that atrial remodeling in AF shares several important pathophysiologic traits with the remodeling processes exhibited by hibernating myocardium that develop in response to chronic ischemia. These shared features, which include an array of structural, metabolic, and electrophysiologic changes, appear to represent a conserved adaptive myocyte response to chronic stress that involves dedifferentiation towards a fetal phenotype to promote survival. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of AF, summarize studies supporting a common remodeling program in AF and hibernating myocardium, and propose future therapeutic implications of this emerging paradigm. Ultimately, better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of atrial myocyte remodeling during the onset of AF and the transition from paroxysmal to persistent stages of the disease may facilitate discovery of new therapeutic targets.

  5. Does functional recovery of hibernating myocardium coincide with improvement in perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Tonooka, Ichiro; Chiba, Junya; Abe, Shinya; Tsuiki, Kai; Tomoike, Hitonobu (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yasui, Shoji

    1992-03-01

    To determine how much recovery of hibernating myocardium coincide with perfusion improvement, 49 patients underwent radionuclide left ventriculography and exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy (Ex-Tl) before and one month after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The left ventricle was divided into 6 segments for the assessment of wall motion and Tl-201 uptake. One month after CABG, wall motion improvement was found in a total of 74 segments (seg A), and was also associated with perfusion improvement in 66 segments (89%). Although 8 segments showed wall motion improvement at follow-up examinations (seg B), 7 (88%) had been improved for perfusion one month after CABG. Preoperative akinesis or dyskinesis was more frequently observed for seg B (75%) than seg A (34%). Similarly, seg B was associated with lower %Tl-201 uptake as compared with seg A (74{+-}9% vs 83{+-}8%). In conclusion, perfusion recovery preceded recovery of hibernating myocardium in some segments, suggesting the involvement of stunned myocardium. These segments were associated with severe wall motion abnormality before CABG and lower Tl-201 uptake. (N.K.).

  6. Otolaryngological, head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected patients seen at Steve Biko Academic Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshifularo, M; Govender, L; Monama, G

    2013-05-16

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of HIV infection. According to recent census statistics, 5.6 million people in South Africa (SA) are HIV-positive, the highest number of infected individuals worldwide. Over 80% of HIV-infected individuals will present with ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations. Previous studies show that oral diseases seem to be the most common ENT-related manifestation, reported in about 40 - 50% of HIV-infected patients. In SA, there is lack of local information regarding the otolaryngological and head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. To ascertain our local trends of ENT and head and neck manifestations in HIV-infected patients seen at our specialised ENT-HIV Clinic, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria, Gauteng Province, SA. A 1-year prospective study involving 153 HIV-infected patients was conducted in the clinic from January to December 2011. Patient history was taken and examinations were performed based on the World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS classification system. Data analysis was performed using Epi Info 7 software. The most common manifestations were adenoid hypertrophy/hyperplasia followed by cervical lymphadenopathy, chronic suppurative otitis media, otitis media with effusion and sensory-neural hearing loss. Patients typically presented with early manifestations during symptomatic WHO stages I and II in contrast to results reported in similar developing world studies from Iran, Nigeria and India. A possible explanation may lie in the SA government HIV Counselling and Testing campaign and the antiretroviral rollout programme, the effectiveness of which is becoming evident.

  7. Transcriptional activation of muscle atrophy promotes cardiac muscle remodeling during mammalian hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichi; Aguilar, Oscar A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mammalian hibernation in thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) is characterized by dramatic changes on a physiological and molecular level. During hibernation, mammalian hearts show a propensity to hypertrophy due to the need for increasing contractility to pump colder and more viscous blood. While cardiac hypertrophy is quite often a process characterized by decompensation, the ground squirrel studied is an excellent model of cardiac plasticity and cardioprotection under conditions of hypothermia and ischemia. The forkhead box O (Foxo) family of proteins and myogenin (MyoG) are transcription factors that control protein degradation and muscle atrophy by regulating the expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx and MuRF1. These ligases are part of the ubiquitin proteasome system by transferring ubiquitin to proteins and targeting these proteins for degradation. Regulation of Foxo1 and 3a occurs through phosphorylation at different residues. The threonine-24 (Thr-24) and serine-319 (Ser-319) residues on Foxo1, and the Thr-32 residue on Foxo3a are phosphorylated by Akt, leading to cytoplasmic localization of Foxo. We propose that the described mechanism contributes to the changes taking place in cardiac muscle throughout hibernation. Methods. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3a, as well as total protein levels of MyoG, MAFbx, and MuRF1, were studied using immunoblotting. Results. Immunoblotting results demonstrated upregulations in Foxo1 and Foxo3a total protein levels (1.3- and 4.5-fold increases relative to euthermic control, for Foxo1 and 3a respectively) during late torpor, and protein levels remained elevated throughout the rest of torpor and at interbout arousal. We also observed decreases in inactive, phosphorylated Foxo1 and 3a proteins during throughout torpor, where levels of p-Foxo1 Ser(319) and Thr(24), as well as p-Foxo3a Thr(32) decreased by at least 45% throughout torpor. MyoG was

  8. Transcriptional activation of muscle atrophy promotes cardiac muscle remodeling during mammalian hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichi Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mammalian hibernation in thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus is characterized by dramatic changes on a physiological and molecular level. During hibernation, mammalian hearts show a propensity to hypertrophy due to the need for increasing contractility to pump colder and more viscous blood. While cardiac hypertrophy is quite often a process characterized by decompensation, the ground squirrel studied is an excellent model of cardiac plasticity and cardioprotection under conditions of hypothermia and ischemia. The forkhead box O (Foxo family of proteins and myogenin (MyoG are transcription factors that control protein degradation and muscle atrophy by regulating the expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx and MuRF1. These ligases are part of the ubiquitin proteasome system by transferring ubiquitin to proteins and targeting these proteins for degradation. Regulation of Foxo1 and 3a occurs through phosphorylation at different residues. The threonine-24 (Thr-24 and serine-319 (Ser-319 residues on Foxo1, and the Thr-32 residue on Foxo3a are phosphorylated by Akt, leading to cytoplasmic localization of Foxo. We propose that the described mechanism contributes to the changes taking place in cardiac muscle throughout hibernation. Methods. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3a, as well as total protein levels of MyoG, MAFbx, and MuRF1, were studied using immunoblotting. Results. Immunoblotting results demonstrated upregulations in Foxo1 and Foxo3a total protein levels (1.3- and 4.5-fold increases relative to euthermic control, for Foxo1 and 3a respectively during late torpor, and protein levels remained elevated throughout the rest of torpor and at interbout arousal. We also observed decreases in inactive, phosphorylated Foxo1 and 3a proteins during throughout torpor, where levels of p-Foxo1 Ser319 and Thr24, as well as p-Foxo3a Thr32 decreased by at least 45% throughout torpor. MyoG was

  9. Selection of high temperatures for hibernation by the pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris: ecological advantages and energetic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, A.R.

    Daily metabolism was calculated from food consumption in pocket mice, Perognathus longimembris, at 8/sup 0/C, 18/sup 0/C, and 31/sup 0/C. At temperatures below thermal neutrality for this species, daily metabolism was related to the amount of time the mice spent in torpor. Ambient temperature has no net effect on the minimum energy expenditure during a typical 5-mo hibernation season. Once an animal has accumulated a food store of approximately 130 g of millet seeds, it has the minimum energy necessary to hibernate at any environmental temperature. Such temperature compensation results from the complex effects of temperature on (1) the ratio of time of euthermy to time of torpor, (2) the energetic cost per hour of torpor, (3) the energetic cost per hour of euthermy, and (4) the energetic cost of arousal from torpor. The amount of time spent in torpor was inversely dependent on the food supply, indicating that euthermia is preferred even during the hibernation season. Mice also maximize the time of euthermia by selecting high environmental temperatures at all times of the year. Torpor probably occurs naturally only during the winter when the highest temperatures available to the mice are below thermal neutrality. The maximization of the time of euthermia reduces the chances of freezing during hibernation and enhances the animal's ability to excape from predators.

  10. Low cardiac output as physiological phenomenon in hibernating, free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Arnemo, Jon; Swenson, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Free-ranging brown bears demonstrate hemodynamics comparable to humans during active state, whereas during hibernation, we documented extremely low-flow hemodynamics. Understanding these physiological changes in bears may help to gain insight into the mechanisms of cardiogenic shock and heart...

  11. THE LIPID COMPOSITION OF TISSUE OF SCALY CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL CARBON HIBERNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sysolyatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Establish and compare the content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain pond carp active life condition and under artificial hibernation carbon. Methodology. The experiments were conducted on the Ukrainian scaly carp breed (Cyprinus caprio L. weighing 250–270 g. To conduct research to form two groups (control — 5 copies of the fish and an experimental — each point hypobiosis exposure to 5 copies of the fish. Introduction of fish hypobiotically state conducted for the use of a patented model artificial hibernation. The selection of material performed by opening the first and second fish group on the 3, 6 and 24 hours of exposure, then it is frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Lipid extraction after homogenization of brain tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and gills was performed according to Folch. The content of the total lipids (from the weight of the dry residue after extraction was determined using the gravimetric method. The separation into individual lipid fractions were determined thin layer chromatography by plates "Silufol". Quantitative determination of total phospholipids — hydroxamate method; cholesterol — colorimetric method with three ferric chlorides. All the results are treated variation-statistical method using the Student's t-tests. Findings. These results suggest that the content of total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in the tissues of the carp pond in the active state of life is significantly different. The content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain in a carp pond introducing carbon dioxide into a state of artificial hibernation (hypercapnic hypoxia-medium is reduced in comparison with the control. Under these conditions, noted a slight increase in tissue phospholipids, as well as a significant increase in cholesterol and the coefficient (CL/PL, especially in the liver, indicating that the use of lipids in energy and adaptation processes

  12. Identification of qRT-PCR reference genes for analysis of opioid gene expression in a hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P; Ackermann, Laynez W; Denning, Gerene M; Carey, Hannah V

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has suggested that central and peripheral opioid signaling are involved in regulating torpor behavior and tissue protection associated with the hibernation phenotype. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of opioid peptide precursors and receptors in the brain and heart of summer ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and winter hibernating squirrels in the torpid or interbout arousal states. The use of appropriate reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression data can have profound effects on the analysis and interpretation of results. This may be particularly important when experimental subjects, such as hibernating animals, undergo significant morphological and/or functional changes during the study. Therefore, an additional goal of this study was to identify stable reference genes for use in qRT-PCR studies of the 13-lined ground squirrel. Expression levels of 10 potential reference genes were measured in the small intestine, liver, brain, and heart, and the optimal combinations of the most stable reference genes were identified by the GeNorm Excel applet. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations for reference genes to use in each tissue that would be suitable for comparative studies among different activity states. When appropriate normalization of mRNA levels was used, there were no changes in opioid-related genes in heart among the three activity states; in brain, DOR expression was highest during torpor, lowest in interbout arousal and intermediate in summer. The results support the idea that changes in DOR expression may regulate the level of neuronal activity in brain during the annual hibernation cycle and may contribute to hibernation-associated tissue protection.

  13. Arvuti poseerib / Steve Farrar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farrar, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Rootsi disainer Steven Stahlberg on modelliagentuurile "Elite" loonud esimese virtuaalmodelli Webbie Tookay. Virtuaalmodellide tulevikust. Kommenteerivad "Elite Illusion 2K" direktor R. Bellino, briti moefotograaf N. Knight, moeajaloolane C. McDowell.

  14. Arvuti poseerib / Steve Farrar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Farrar, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Rootsi disainer Steven Stahlberg on modelliagentuurile "Elite" loonud esimese virtuaalmodelli Webbie Tookay. Virtuaalmodellide tulevikust. Kommenteerivad "Elite Illusion 2K" direktor R. Bellino, briti moefotograaf N. Knight, moeajaloolane C. McDowell.

  15. Gordoni koolitused / Steve Emmons

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Emmons, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Gordoni metodoloogia Master Trainer rääkis oma Eestis toimunud koolitusel põhilistest suhtlemisvigadest, Gordoni koolitustel õpitavast ning suhtlemisoskuse olulisusest organisatsiooni töökliimale

  16. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p neurobiology of depression.

  17. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide metabolites in the blood of free-ranging brown bears and their potential roles in hibernation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Inge G; Shen, Xinggui; Chakravarti, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), in winter-hibernating and summer-active free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. We found that levels of sulfide metabolites were overall similar in summer-active and hibernating bears but their composition in the plasma...... differed significantly, with a decrease in bound sulfane sulfur in hibernation. High levels of unbound free sulfide correlated with high levels of cysteine (Cys) and with low levels of bound sulfane sulfur, indicating that during hibernation H2S, in addition to being formed enzymatically from the substrate...... Cys, may also be regenerated from its oxidation products, including thiosulfate and polysulfides. In the absence of any dietary intake, this shift in the mode of H2S synthesis would help preserve free Cys for synthesis of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant found at high levels in the red blood...

  18. Sperm influences female hibernation success, survival and fitness in the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence that in the absence of the transfer of male gland compounds in the ejaculate as well as of behavioural male traits, such as mate guarding or harming of females, sperm itself affects female life-history traits such as hibernation success, female longevity and female fitness...... a lower performance as compared to singly inseminated queens. Apart from these main effects, sire groups (in situations of multiple insemination) affected queen longevity and fitness not independently of each other, i.e. certain sire group combinations were more harmful to queens than others. So far......, the cause(s) of these effects remain(s) elusive. Harmful male traits as detected here are not necessarily expected to evolve in social insects because males depend on females for a successful completion of a colony cycle and thus have strong convergent interests with their mates....

  19. Molecular mechanisms regulating oxygen transport and consumption in high altitude and hibernating mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Inge Grønvall

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to broaden the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of adjustment in oxygen (O2) uptake, conduction, delivery and consumption in mammals adapted to extreme conditions. For this end, I have worked with animals living at high altitude as an example of environmental hypoxia......, and hibernating mammals, as an example of closely balanced internal low O2. Studies have had two main focus points. Firstly, I have investigated variations in hemolysate and hemoglobin (Hb) O2 affinity, working to pinpoint whether and how functional changes in intrinsic affinity or cofactor sensitivity of the Hb...... molecule compares to amino acid substitutions in the molecule, i.e., can be characterized as evolved genetic adaptation. Phenotypic acclimatization in Hb- O2 affinity responses involves changes in cofactor to Hb tetramer ratio. Secondly, I have worked with (in a cardiovascular perspective) fine...

  20. Kronisk iskaemisk hjerteinsufficiens. Revaskularisering bedrer overlevelsen blandt patienter med hibernating myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Paw Chr; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Wiggers, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with ischemic heart failure and reversible dysfunctional myocardium (Hibernating myocardium, HIB) can benefit from revascularization. These patients can be selected with nuclear methods. The purpose of this study was to describe the results of the imaging procedures...... imaging was performed with 99mTc-sestamibi and glucose metabolism was visualized with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) gamma camera PET. Medical records and death certificate were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: 50 patients were included. We found an increased survival among patients with HIB who...... in patients tested for HIB and relate the results to the choice of treatment and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 2-year period 51 patients were referred to determine the amount of HIB. This can be determined with blood flow and metabolic imaging of the heart. Resting-myocardial perfusion...

  1. Suspension of mitotic activity in dentate gyrus of the hibernating ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Victor I; Kraev, Igor V; Ignat'ev, Dmitri A; Stewart, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4-6°C) permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX) and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus.

  2. End of an Era-Apple CEO Steve Jobs Resigned%一个时代的终结:苹果CEO乔布斯辞职

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪

    2011-01-01

    苹果董事会8月25日宣布,苹果CEO史蒂夫·乔布斯(Steve Jobs)辞职,董事会已任命前苹果COO蒂姆·库克(Tim Cook)接任苹果CEO一职。一个时代结束了,这位二十一世纪头十年最伟大的CEO,终于走到了职业生涯的末期。

  3. 通向卓越之门的车轮——Microchip公司CEO Steve Sanghi新作《驱动卓越》书评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢雁宁

    2007-01-01

    <正>在一家公司濒临绝境,在全面崩溃的边缘摇摇欲坠时,如何才能够力挽狂澜、扭转乾坤?这些看似神话故事或艰难棘手的问题都可以在Microchip CEO Steve Sanghi最近出版的力作《驱动卓越》(Driving Excellence:How The Aggregate System Turned Microchip Technology from a Failing Company to a Market Leader)一书中找到答案。

  4. 1H-NMR metabolomic biomarkers of poor outcome after hemorrhagic shock are absent in hibernators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori K Bogren

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock (HS following trauma is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 40. During HS the body undergoes systemic warm ischemia followed by reperfusion during medical intervention. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R results in a disruption of cellular metabolic processes that ultimately lead to tissue and organ dysfunction or failure. Resistance to I/R injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals. The present study sought to identify circulating metabolites in the rat as biomarkers for metabolic alterations associated with poor outcome after HS. Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, a hibernating species that resists I/R injury independent of decreased body temperature (warm I/R, was used as a negative control.Male Sprague-Dawley rats and AGS were subject to HS by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg and maintaining the low MAP for 20 min before reperfusing with Ringers. The animals' temperature was maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C for the duration of the experiment. Plasma samples were taken immediately before hemorrhage and three hours after reperfusion. Hydrophilic and lipid metabolites from plasma were then analyzed via 1H-NMR from unprocessed plasma and lipid extracts, respectively. Rats, susceptible to I/R injury, had a qualitative shift in their hydrophilic metabolic fingerprint including differential activation of glucose and anaerobic metabolism and had alterations in several metabolites during I/R indicative of metabolic adjustments and organ damage. In contrast, I/R injury resistant AGS, regardless of season or body temperature, maintained a stable metabolic homeostasis revealed by a qualitative 1H-NMR metabolic profile with few changes in quantified metabolites during HS-induced global I/R.An increase in circulating metabolites indicative of anaerobic metabolism and activation of glycolytic pathways is associated with poor prognosis after HS in rats. These same biomarkers are absent in AGS after HS

  5. Deep sequencing the transcriptome reveals seasonal adaptive mechanisms in a hibernating mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Hampton

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation is a complex phenotype involving metabolic rate reduction, bradycardia, profound hypothermia, and a reliance on stored fat that allows the animal to survive for months without food in a state of suspended animation. To determine the genes responsible for this phenotype in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus we used the Roche 454 platform to sequence mRNA isolated at six points throughout the year from three key tissues: heart, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT. Deep sequencing generated approximately 3.7 million cDNA reads from 18 samples (6 time points ×3 tissues with a mean read length of 335 bases. Of these, 3,125,337 reads were assembled into 140,703 contigs. Approximately 90% of all sequences were matched to proteins in the human UniProt database. The total number of distinct human proteins matched by ground squirrel transcripts was 13,637 for heart, 12,496 for skeletal muscle, and 14,351 for WAT. Extensive mitochondrial RNA sequences enabled a novel approach of using the transcriptome to construct the complete mitochondrial genome for I. tridecemlineatus. Seasonal and activity-specific changes in mRNA levels that met our stringent false discovery rate cutoff (1.0 × 10(-11 were used to identify patterns of gene expression involving various aspects of the hibernation phenotype. Among these patterns are differentially expressed genes encoding heart proteins AT1A1, NAC1 and RYR2 controlling ion transport required for contraction and relaxation at low body temperatures. Abundant RNAs in skeletal muscle coding ubiquitin pathway proteins ASB2, UBC and DDB1 peak in October, suggesting an increase in muscle proteolysis. Finally, genes in WAT that encode proteins involved in lipogenesis (ACOD, FABP4 are highly expressed in August, but gradually decline in expression during the seasonal transition to lipolysis.

  6. Can hibernators sense and evade fires? Olfactory acuity and locomotor performance during deep torpor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Julia; Delesalle, Marine; Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Increased habitat fragmentation, global warming and other human activities have caused a rise in the frequency of wildfires worldwide. To reduce the risks of uncontrollable fires, prescribed burns are generally conducted during the colder months of the year, a time when in many mammals torpor is expressed regularly. Torpor is crucial for energy conservation, but the low body temperatures ( T b) are associated with a decreased responsiveness and torpid animals might therefore face an increased mortality risk during fires. We tested whether hibernators in deep torpor (a) can respond to the smell of smoke and (b) can climb to avoid fires at T bs below normothermic levels. Our data show that torpid eastern pygmy-possums ( Cercartetus nanus) are able to detect smoke and also can climb. All males aroused from torpor when the smoke stimulus was presented at an ambient temperature ( T a) of 15 °C ( T b ˜18 °C), whereas females only raised their heads. The responses were less pronounced at T a 10 °C. The first coordinated movement of possums along a branch was observed at a mean T b of 15.6 °C, and animals were even able to climb their prehensile tail when they reached a mean T b of 24.4 °C. Our study shows that hibernators can sense smoke and move at low T b. However, our data also illustrate that at T b ≤13 °C, C. nanus show decreased responsiveness and locomotor performance and highlight that prescribed burns during winter should be avoided on very cold days to allow torpid animals enough time to respond.

  7. The impact of cold acclimation and hibernation on antioxidant defenses in the ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus): an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, Milica; Stancic, Ana; Otasevic, Vesna; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Aleksandra; Markelic, Milica; Velickovic, Ksenija; Golic, Igor; Buzadzic, Biljana; Storey, Kenneth B; Korac, Bato

    2013-12-01

    Any alteration in oxidative metabolism is coupled with a corresponding response by an antioxidant defense (AD) in appropriate subcellular compartments. Seasonal hibernators pass through circannual metabolic adaptations that allow them to either maintain euthermy (cold acclimation) or enter winter torpor with body temperature falling to low values. The present study aimed to investigate the corresponding pattern of AD enzyme protein expressions associated with these strategies in the main tissues involved in whole animal energy homeostasis: brown and white adipose tissues (BAT and WAT, respectively), liver, and skeletal muscle. European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) were exposed to low temperature (4 ± 1 °C) and then divided into two groups: (1) animals fell into torpor (hibernating group) and (2) animals stayed active and euthermic for 1, 3, 7, 12, or 21 days (cold-exposed group). We examined the effects of cold acclimation and hibernation on the tissue-dependent protein expression of four enzymes which catalyze the two-step detoxification of superoxide to water: superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD 1 and 2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The results showed that hibernation induced an increase of AD enzyme protein expressions in BAT and skeletal muscle. However, AD enzyme contents in liver were largely unaffected during torpor. Under these conditions, different WAT depots responded by elevating the amounts of specific enzymes, as follows: SOD 1 in retroperitoneal WAT, GSH-Px in gonadal WAT, and CAT in subcutaneous WAT. Similar perturbations of AD enzymes contents were seen in all tissues during cold acclimation, often in a time-dependent manner. It can be concluded that BAT and muscle AD capacity undergo the most dramatic changes during both cold acclimation and hibernation, while liver is relatively unaffected by either condition. Additionally, this study provides a basis for further metabolic study that will illuminate the causes

  8. Increase in cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) alpha protein isoform in hibernating ground squirrels, with echocardiographic visualization of ventricular wall hypertrophy and prolonged contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Rourke, Bryan C

    2013-12-15

    Deep hibernators such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis) have multiple challenges to cardiac function during low temperature torpor and subsequent arousals. As heart rates fall from over 300 beats min(-1) to less than 10, chamber dilation and reduced cardiac output could lead to congestive myopathy. We performed echocardiography on a cohort of individuals prior to and after several months of hibernation. The left ventricular chamber exhibited eccentric and concentric hypertrophy during hibernation and thus calculated ventricular mass was ~30% greater. Ventricular ejection fraction was mildly reduced during hibernation but stroke volumes were greater due to the eccentric hypertrophy and dramatically increased diastolic filling volumes. Globally, the systolic phase in hibernation was ~9.5 times longer, and the diastolic phase was 28× longer. Left atrial ejection generally was not observed during hibernation. Atrial ejection returned weakly during early arousal. Strain echocardiography assessed the velocity and total movement distance of contraction and relaxation for regional ventricular segments in active and early arousal states. Myocardial systolic strain during early arousal was significantly greater than the active state, indicating greater total contractile movement. This mirrored the increased ventricular ejection fraction noted with early arousal. However, strain rates were slower during early arousal than during the active period, particularly systolic strain, which was 33% of active, compared with the rate of diastolic strain, which was 67% of active. As heart rate rose during the arousal period, myocardial velocities and strain rates also increased; this was matched closely by cardiac output. Curiously, though heart rates were only 26% of active heart rates during early arousal, the cardiac output was nearly 40% of the active state, suggesting an efficient pumping system. We further analyzed proportions of cardiac myosin

  9. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  10. Opposing activity changes in AMP deaminase and AMP-activated protein kinase in the hibernating ground squirrel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Lanaspa

    Full Text Available Hibernating animals develop fatty liver when active in summertime and undergo a switch to a fat oxidation state in the winter. We hypothesized that this switch might be determined by AMP and the dominance of opposing effects: metabolism through AMP deaminase (AMPD2 (summer and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK (winter. Liver samples were obtained from 13-lined ground squirrels at different times during the year, including summer and multiples stages of winter hibernation, and fat synthesis and β-fatty acid oxidation were evaluated. Changes in fat metabolism were correlated with changes in AMPD2 activity and intrahepatic uric acid (downstream product of AMPD2, as well as changes in AMPK and intrahepatic β-hydroxybutyrate (a marker of fat oxidation. Hepatic fat accumulation occurred during the summer with relatively increased enzymes associated with fat synthesis (FAS, ACL and ACC and decreased enoyl CoA hydratase (ECH1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A, rate limiting enzymes of fat oxidation. In summer, AMPD2 activity and intrahepatic uric acid levels were high and hepatic AMPK activity was low. In contrast, the active phosphorylated form of AMPK and β-hydroxybutyrate both increased during winter hibernation. Therefore, changes in AMPD2 and AMPK activity were paralleled with changes in fat synthesis and fat oxidation rates during the summer-winter cycle. These data illuminate the opposing forces of metabolism of AMP by AMPD2 and its availability to activate AMPK as a switch that governs fat metabolism in the liver of hibernating ground squirrel.

  11. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Frank, Craig L.; Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Darling, Scott R.; Stihler, Craig W.; Hicks, Alan C.; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee, Sarah A.; Muller, Laura K.; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.

  12. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  13. Measuring subcutaneous temperature and differential rates of rewarming from hibernation and daily torpor in two species of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Shannon E; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged and remote measurement of body temperature (Tb) in undisturbed small hibernators was not possible in the past because of technological limitations. Although passive integrated transponders (PITs) have been used previously to measure subcutaneous temperature (Tsub) during daily torpor in a small marsupial, no study has attempted to use these devices at Tbs below 10°C. Therefore, we investigated whether subcutaneous interscapular PITs can be used as a viable tool for measuring Tb in a small hibernating bat (Nyctophilus gouldi; Ng) and compared it with measurements of Tb during daily torpor in a heterothermic bat (Syconycteris australis; Sa). The precision of transponders was investigated as a function of ambient temperature (Ta) and remote Tsub readings enabled us to quantify Tsub-Tb differentials during steady-state torpor and arousal. Transponders functioned well outside the manufacturer's recommended range, down to ~5°C. At rest, Tsub and rectal Tb (Trec) were strongly correlated for both bat species (Ng r(2)=0.88; Sa r(2)=0.95) and this was also true for N. gouldi in steady-state torpor (r(2)=0.93). During induced rewarming Tsub increased faster than Trec in both species. Our results demonstrate that transponders can be used to provide accurate remote measurement of Tb in two species of bats during different physiological states, both during steady-state conditions and throughout dynamic phases such as rewarming from torpor. We show that, at least during rewarming, regional heterothermy common to larger hibernators and other hibernating bats is also present in bats capable of daily torpor.

  14. Biochemical assessment of the hibernator skeletal muscle properties in search of a potential countermeasure against muscle atrophy in space microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Park, J. Y.; Gwag, T.; Yoo, W.; Choi, I.

    Mammalian skeletal muscle undergoes significant loss of mass and tension capacity during spaceflight or hindlimb suspension This is contrasted by observed features of hibernators in that muscle mass and contractility remain fairly unchanged during a prolonged period of dormancy In an effort of finding potential countermeasure against muscle atrophy in space microgravity we thereby investigated the biochemical properties of the pectoral muscle in a winter-hibernating bat Murina leucogaster Two-dimensional electrophoresis on overall muscle proteins and western blot analysis on heat shock proteins HSP 60 kD 70 kD and 90 kD were conducted to compare levels of myofiber proteins and the stress responsive chaperone molecules in winter-hibernation WH versus summer-active bats SA No seasonal difference was found in the ratio of muscle mass to body mass for the pectoral muscles confirming similar results in previous reports Among more than thirty proteins identified only 14 of the proteins showed significant reduction in the level for WH compared to SA The level of HSP60 and HSP90 in WH were 63 and 71 that in SA respectively P quad 0 05 whereas that of HSP70 was not different between the two groups However when the WH were forced to arouse for 40 min from hibernation the level of HSP70 increased 1 4-fold and 1 51-fold that of WH and SA respectively while the level of HSP90 increased 1 57-fold that of WH These results suggest that the levels of many key contractile and regulatory proteins were retained during

  15. How maize monoculture and increasing winter rainfall have brought the hibernating European hamster to the verge of extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Mathilde L.; Handrich, Yves; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Weitten, Mathieu; Pevet, Paul; Kourkgy, Charlotte; Habold, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decades, climate change and agricultural intensification have been identified as two major phenomena negatively affecting biodiversity. However, little is known about their effects on the life-history traits of hibernating species living in agro-ecosystems. The European hamster (Cricetus cricetus), once a common rodent on agricultural land, is now on the verge of extinction in France. Despite the implemented measures for its protection, populations are still in sharp decline but the reasons for it remain unclear. To investigate how environmental change has affected this hibernating rodent, we used a data set based on 1468 recordings of hamster body mass at emergence from hibernation from 1937 to 2014. We reveal the adverse effects of increasing winter rainfall and maize monoculture intensification on the body mass of wild hamsters. Given the links that exist between body mass, reproductive success and population dynamics in mammals, these results are of particular importance to understand the decline of this species. In view of the rates of maize monoculture intensification and the predicted increase in winter rainfall, it is of the utmost importance to improve land management in Western Europe to avoid the extinction of this species.

  16. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate kinetics differentiate normal, stunned, hibernating, and nonviable myocardium in a perfused rat heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, David R. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Liu, Zhonglin [University of Arizona School of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Robert D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK (United States); University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States); Beju, Delia [Oklahoma State University School of Medicine, Tulsa, OK (United States); Khaw, Ban An [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent. However, patients may have mixtures of normal, irreversibly injured, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. The purposes were to determine {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake and clearance kinetics in these four conditions, and its ability to determine the extent of injury. Twenty-two perfused rat hearts were studied: controls (n = 5), stunned (n = 5; 20-min no-flow followed by 5-min reflow), hibernating (n = 6; 120-min low flow at 4 ml/min), and ischemic-reperfused (n = 6; 120-min no-flow followed by reflow). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate was then infused. Tracer activity was monitored using a NaI scintillation detector and a multichannel analyzer. Creatine kinase, electron microscopy, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride determined viability. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 10-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (2.50 {+-} 0.09) (cpm, SEM) than in control (1.74 {+-} 0.07), stunned (1.68 {+-} 0.11), and hibernating (1.59 {+-} 0.11) (p < 0.05). Tracer retention curves for ischemic-reperfused were elevated at all time points as compared with the other groups. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 60-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (7.60 {+-} 0.63) than in control (1.98 {+-} 0.15), stunned (1.79 {+-} 0.08), and hibernating (2.33 {+-} 0.15) (p < 0.05). The 60-min well-counted tracer activity ratio of ischemic-reperfused to control was 9:1 and corroborated the NaI detector results. Creatine kinase, triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and electron microscopy all demonstrated significantly greater injury in ischemic-reperfused compared to the other groups. An excellent correlation was observed between viability markers and tracer activity (r = 0.99 triphenyltetrazolium chloride; r = 0.90 creatine kinase). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate activity continually and progressively increased in irreversibly injured myocardium. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake was strongly correlated with myocardial necrosis as

  17. Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew N. Rouble

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways. We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia. Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56 content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase. The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor.

  18. The Planning of Lander Science Observations after ROSETTA Deep Space Hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Maud; Ulamec, Stephan; Gaudon, Philippe; Biele, Jens; Pätz, Brigitte; Ashman, Mike

    2014-05-01

    After 10 years of its interplanetary journey, Rosetta has woken up from hibernation to meet Churyumov-Gerasimenko comet in the second term of 2014. The Rosetta spacecraft is composed of an Orbiter and a Lander part. The spacecraft will deliver the Lander, named Philae, to land on the surface of the comet in November 2014. During the Cruise Phase, the Lander, attached to the Orbiter, participated in several commissioning and payload checkout observations. In April 2014, after almost 3 years of hibernation, the Lander and the Orbiter will enter a commissioning phase to check the health of all instruments. Then, from May to November, Prelanding science activities can be planned, although the priority will go to those observations that help to select the landing site. The Lander project has, in much the same way as the Orbiter, its own ground segment: the Rosetta Lander Ground Segment (RLGS). The RLGS is composed of the Science Operations and Navigation Center - SONC - at CNES in Toulouse and the Lander Control Center - LCC - at DLR in Cologne. There are 10 instruments on board of Philae trying to conduct science observations during the life of the Lander. As the comet travels closer to the sun the temperature will eventually become too hot for Philae. The Orbiter, however, is planned to operate for much longer, until end of 2015, passing perihelion. Each of the 10 instruments is represented by a principal investigator. The Lander project also has Lead Scientists, who make sure that the science objectives of the Lander are fulfilled and are on hand to solve any eventual conflicts in this regard. To plan their observations, the Lander team listed their science objectives and ranked them. From these objectives, Specific On-Comet Operation Plan (SOCOP) documents are written by LCC describing the proposed observations. Then, at SONC, the MOST (Mission Operation Scheduling Tool) is used to generate a science experiment plan. This plan is confirmed by the PIs and the Lead

  19. Resuscitation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dormancy requires hibernation promoting factor (PA4463) for ribosome preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Tatsuya; Williamson, Kerry S; Schaefer, Robert; Pratt, Shawna; Chang, Connie B; Franklin, Michael J

    2017-03-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections are difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy in part because the biofilms contain subpopulations of dormant antibiotic-tolerant cells. The dormant cells can repopulate the biofilms following alleviation of antibiotic treatments. While dormant, the bacteria must maintain cellular integrity, including ribosome abundance, to reinitiate the de novo protein synthesis required for resuscitation. Here, we demonstrate that the P. aeruginosa gene PA4463 [hibernation promoting factor (HPF)], but not the ribosome modulation factor (PA3049), is required for ribosomal RNA preservation during prolonged nutrient starvation conditions. Single-cell-level studies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and growth in microfluidic drops demonstrate that, in the absence of hpf, the rRNA abundances of starved cells decrease to levels that cause them to lose their ability to resuscitate from starvation, leaving intact nondividing cells. P. aeruginosa defective in the stringent response also had reduced ability to resuscitate from dormancy. However, FISH analysis of the starved stringent response mutant showed a bimodal response where the individual cells contained either abundant or low ribosome content, compared with the wild-type strain. The results indicate that ribosome maintenance is key for maintaining the ability of P. aeruginosa to resuscitate from starvation-induced dormancy and that HPF is the major factor associated with P. aeruginosa ribosome preservation.

  20. Suspension of Mitotic Activity in Dentate Gyrus of the Hibernating Ground Squirrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor I. Popov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4–6°C permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus.

  1. Surface Control of Cold Hibernated Elastic Memory Self-Deployable Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Ghaffarian, Reza

    2006-01-01

    A new class of simple, reliable, lightweight, low packaging volume and cost, self-deployable structures has been developed for use in space and commercial applications. This technology called 'cold hibernated elastic memory' (CHEM) utilizes shape memory polymers (SMP)in open cellular (foam) structure or sandwich structures made of shape memory polymer foam cores and polymeric composite skins. Some of many potential CHEM space applications require a high precision deployment and surface accuracy during operation. However, a CHEM structure could be slightly distorted by the thermo-mechanical processing as well as by thermal space environment Therefore, the sensor system is desirable to monitor and correct the potential surface imperfection. During these studies, the surface control of CHEM smart structures was demonstrated using a Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) actuator developed by the NASA LaRC and US Army ARL. The test results indicate that the MFC actuator performed well before and after processing cycles. It reduced some residue compressive strain that in turn corrected very small shape distortion after each processing cycle. The integrated precision strain gages were detecting only a small flat shape imperfection indicating a good recoverability of original shape of the CHEM test structure.

  2. Expression profiling and structural characterization of microRNAs in adipose tissues of hibernating ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important in regulating metabolic stress. In this study, we determined the expression and structural characteristics of 20 miRNAs in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) during torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Using a modified stem-loop technique, we found that during torpor, expression of six miRNAs including let-7a, let-7b, miR-107, miR-150, miR-222 and miR-31 was significantly downregulated in WAT (Pstructure-influenced changes in pre-miRNA processing efficiency in the squirrel. As well, the expression of miRNA processing enzyme Dicer remained unchanged in both tissues during torpor. Overall, our findings suggest that changes of miRNA expression in adipose tissues may be linked to distinct biological roles in WAT and BAT during hibernation and may involve the regulation of signaling cascades.

  3. Detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M antibiotic resistance genes in randomly selected bacterial pathogens from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Marthie M; Veldsman, Chrisna; Makgotlho, Eddy P; Dove, Michael G; Hoosen, Anwar A; Kock, Marleen M

    2009-08-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are considered to be one of the most important antibiotic resistance mechanisms. This study reported the ESBL-producing genes in 53 randomly selected clinical bacterial isolates from the Steve Biko Academic Hospital. The presence of the bla(SHV), bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M) genes was determined, and the overall prevalence of these genes detected in this study was 87% (46/53) in comparison with the literature; these results were higher when compared with 33% for Escherichia coli in Europe and 0.8% in Denmark for similar pathogens. These research findings indicated that it is crucial to routinely monitor the prevalence of these resistance genes.

  4. Racing to the Top or Limping into Mediocrity? Why Universities Matter to the Economy. Keynote Speech by Professor Steve Smith, President, Universities UK. Universities UK Annual Conference. September 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the keynote speech by Professor Steve Smith, President of Universities UK, delivered at Universities UK Annual Conference last September 2010. In this speech, Professor Smith focused on two sets of issues: firstly, the future of the UK economy and, secondly, the potential pitfalls of the decisions that are shortly to be made by…

  5. 5 minutes with Steve Keen: “Hopefully George Osborne may end up reading a blog that throws up an idea that looks outside the mainstream advice”\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Steve Keen was one of a few economists that publicly predicted the economic crisis and his economic ideas constitute a drastic departure from mainstream economic tenets. In this conversation, he talks to Joel Suss about the importance of academic blogging in getting his own academic ideas into the public sphere.\\ud \\ud

  6. Increased cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain in left atria and decreased myocardial insulin-like growth factor (Igf-I) expression accompany low heart rate in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, N D; Nelson, O L; Robbins, C T; Rourke, B C

    2011-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extended periods of extremely low heart rate during hibernation without developing congestive heart failure or cardiac chamber dilation. Left ventricular atrophy and decreased left ventricular compliance have been reported in this species during hibernation. We evaluated the myocardial response to significantly reduced heart rate during hibernation by measuring relative myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform expression and expression of a set of genes important to muscle plasticity and mass regulation in the left atria and left ventricles of active and hibernating bears. We supplemented these data with measurements of systolic and diastolic function via echocardiography in unanesthetized grizzly bears. Atrial strain imaging revealed decreased atrial contractility, decreased expansion/reservoir function (increased atrial stiffness), and decreased passive-filling function (increased ventricular stiffness) in hibernating bears. Relative MyHC-α protein expression increased significantly in the atrium during hibernation. The left ventricle expressed 100% MyHC-β protein in both groups. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) mRNA expression was reduced by ∼50% in both chambers during hibernation, consistent with the ventricular atrophy observed in these bears. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases Muscle Atrophy F-box (MAFBx) and Muscle Ring Finger 1 did not increase, nor did expression of myostatin or hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). We report atrium-specific decreases of 40% and 50%, respectively, in MAFBx and creatine kinase mRNA expression during hibernation. Decreased creatine kinase expression is consistent with lowered energy requirements and could relate to reduced atrial emptying function during hibernation. Taken together with our hemodynamic assessment, these data suggest a potential downregulation of atrial chamber function during hibernation to prevent fatigue and dilation

  7. 基于Grails+Hibernate+Spring框架的水体溶解氧检测数据呈现%Data analysis of detecting dissolved oxygen in waterbased on the frame of Grails+Hibernate+Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦飞; 高琪娟; 赵宇; 孙力

    2009-01-01

    本文基干Grails+Hibernate+Spring组合框架,结合C8051F040微控制器、光化学及光电检测等技术,构建了水体溶解氧检测显示平台,分析了水体溶解氧含量在不同水域、不同温度下的变化情况;以AJAX异步方式准确、实时、在线的显示了水体溶解氧的含量并跟踪显示处理的结果.

  8. Hibernation alters the diversity and composition of mucosa-associated bacteria while enhancing antimicrobial defence in the gut of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill-McFarland, Kimberly A; Neil, Katie L; Zeng, Austin; Sprenger, Ryan J; Kurtz, Courtney C; Suen, Garret; Carey, Hannah V

    2014-09-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in animal nutrition and health. This relationship is particularly dynamic in hibernating mammals where fasting drives the gut community to rely on host-derived nutrients instead of exogenous substrates. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and caecal tissue protein analysis to investigate the effects of hibernation on the mucosa-associated bacterial microbiota and host responses in 13-lined ground squirrels. The mucosal microbiota was less diverse in winter hibernators than in actively feeding spring and summer squirrels. UniFrac analysis revealed distinct summer and late winter microbiota clusters, while spring and early winter clusters overlapped slightly, consistent with their transitional structures. Communities in all seasons were dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with lesser contributions from Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Tenericutes and Actinobacteria. Hibernators had lower relative abundances of Firmicutes, which include genera that prefer plant polysaccharides, and higher abundances of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, some of which can survive solely on host-derived mucins. A core mucosal assemblage of nine operational taxonomic units shared among all individuals was identified with an average total sequence abundance of 60.2%. This core community, together with moderate shifts in specific taxa, indicates that the mucosal microbiota remains relatively stable over the annual cycle yet responds to substrate changes while potentially serving as a pool for 'seeding' the microbiota once exogenous substrates return in spring. Relative to summer, hibernation reduced caecal crypt length and increased MUC2 expression in early winter and spring. Hibernation also decreased caecal TLR4 and increased TLR5 expression, suggesting a protective response that minimizes inflammation.

  9. Variation in phenology of hibernation and reproduction in the endangered New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Frey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a key life history feature that can impact many other crucial aspects of a species’ biology, such as its survival and reproduction. I examined the timing of hibernation and reproduction in the federally endangered New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus, which occurs across a broad range of latitudes and elevations in the American Southwest. Data from museum specimens and field studies supported predictions for later emergence and shorter active intervals in montane populations relative to lower elevation valley populations. A low-elevation population located at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR in the Rio Grande valley was most similar to other subspecies of Z. hudsonius: the first emergence date was in mid-May and there was an active interval of 162 days. In montane populations of Z. h. luteus, the date of first emergence was delayed until mid-June and the active interval was reduced to ca 124–135 days, similar to some populations of the western jumping mouse (Z. princeps. Last date of immergence into hibernation occurred at about the same time in all populations (mid to late October. In montane populations pregnant females are known from July to late August and evidence suggests that they have a single litter per year. At BANWR two peaks in reproduction were expected based on similarity of active season to Z. h. preblei. However, only one peak was clearly evident, possibly due to later first reproduction and possible torpor during late summer. At BANWR pregnant females are known from June and July. Due to the short activity season and geographic variation in phenology of key life history events of Z. h. luteus, recommendations are made for the appropriate timing for surveys for this endangered species.

  10. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses of hibernating bats in Virginia and Indiana, winters 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Cryan, Paul; Fricker, Paul D.; Dannemiller, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    This data release includes video files and image-processing results used to conduct the analyses of hibernation patterns in groups of bats reported by Hayman et al. (2017), "Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats.”  Thermal-imaging surveillance video cameras were used to observe little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in a cave in Virginia and Indiana bats (M. sodalis) in a cave in Indiana during three winters between 2011 and 2014.  There are 740 video files used for analysis (‘Analysis videos’), organized into 7 folders by state/site and winter.  Total size of the video data set is 14.1 gigabytes.  Each video file in this analysis set represents one 24-hour period of observation, time-lapsed at a rate of one frame per 30 seconds of real time (video plays at 30 frames per second).  A folder of illustrative videos is also included, which shows all of the analysis days for one winter of monitoring merged into a single video clip, time-lapsed at a rate of one frame per two hours of real time.  The associated image-processing results are included in 7 data files, each representing computer derived values of mean pixel intensity in every 10th frame of the 740 time-lapsed video files, concatenated by site and winter of observation.  Details on the format of these data, as well as how they were processed and derived are included in Hayman et al. (2017) and with the project metadata on Science Base.Hayman, DTS, Cryan PM, Fricker PD, Dannemiller NG. 2017. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats. Methods Ecol Evol. 2017;00:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.12823

  11. Variation in phenology of hibernation and reproduction in the endangered New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jennifer K

    2015-01-01

    Hibernation is a key life history feature that can impact many other crucial aspects of a species' biology, such as its survival and reproduction. I examined the timing of hibernation and reproduction in the federally endangered New Mexico meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius luteus), which occurs across a broad range of latitudes and elevations in the American Southwest. Data from museum specimens and field studies supported predictions for later emergence and shorter active intervals in montane populations relative to lower elevation valley populations. A low-elevation population located at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge (BANWR) in the Rio Grande valley was most similar to other subspecies of Z. hudsonius: the first emergence date was in mid-May and there was an active interval of 162 days. In montane populations of Z. h. luteus, the date of first emergence was delayed until mid-June and the active interval was reduced to ca 124-135 days, similar to some populations of the western jumping mouse (Z. princeps). Last date of immergence into hibernation occurred at about the same time in all populations (mid to late October). In montane populations pregnant females are known from July to late August and evidence suggests that they have a single litter per year. At BANWR two peaks in reproduction were expected based on similarity of active season to Z. h. preblei. However, only one peak was clearly evident, possibly due to later first reproduction and possible torpor during late summer. At BANWR pregnant females are known from June and July. Due to the short activity season and geographic variation in phenology of key life history events of Z. h. luteus, recommendations are made for the appropriate timing for surveys for this endangered species.

  12. Growth promotion in pigs by oxytetracycline coincides with down regulation of serum inflammatory parameters and of hibernation-associated protein HP-27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, Laura; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The growth promoting effect of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics like tetracycline has traditionally been attributed to their antibiotic character. However, more evidence has been accumulated on their direct anti-inflammatory effect during the last two decades. Here we used a pig model...... and lipid metabolism, confirming the anti-inflammatory mechanism of OTC. Interestingly, apart from the classic acute phase reactants also down regulation was seen of a hibernation associated plasma protein (HP-27), which is to our knowledge the first description in pigs. Although the exact function in non-hibernators...

  13. Pronounced expression of the lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2) in adipose tissue from brown bears (Ursus arctos) prior to hibernation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S; Vendelbo, Mikkel H

    2016-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) exhibits unparalleled weight gain. Unlike humans, weight gain in bears is associated with lower levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and increased insulin sensitivity. Understanding how free-ranging brown bears suppress lipolysis when...... gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer...

  14. Realization of FTTH MIS based on Hibernate framework%利用Hibernate框架实现FTTH接入区域MIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小明

    2013-01-01

      地区级电信FTTH接入区域管理信息系统开发需要简化数据持久层的操作,提高系统与数据库的交互效率,利用Hibernate ORM(Object/Relation Mapping)框架技术建立面向对象的域模块和关系数据库模型之间的映射是有效的解决手段。Hibernate框架作为连接Java应用程序和关系数据库的中间件,将Hibernate框架用于开发FTTH接入区域信息管理系统,实际应用结果表明,Hibernate框架方法能够明显简化了数据库访问和数据持久化操作,提高了系统开发效率,满足了业务应用的要求,并且使系统功能结构清晰,后期易于维护和扩展。%The development of management information system for regional telecom FTTH access area needs to simplify the operation of the data persistence layer and improve the efficiency of the system interaction with the database. It is an effective means to establish a mapping between the object-oriented domain module and the relational database model by utilizing Hiber-nate ORM framework techniques. Hibernate is a midware between Java application program and relational database. Hibernate framework was used in the development of FTTH access regional information management system. The practical application re-sult shows that the framework can obviously simplify the operation of the database access and data persistence,improve the effi-ciency of system development,and meet the business need. It can make the system structure clear,and easy to maintain and extend.

  15. Hibernation-like state induced by an opioid peptide protects against experimental stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Tsung-Ping

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delta opioid peptide [D-ala2,D-leU5]enkephalin (DADLE induces hibernation in summer ground squirrels, and enhances preservation and survival of isolated or transplanted lungs and hearts. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of DADLE in the central nervous system. Results Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with DADLE (4 mg/kg every 2 h × 4 injections, i.p. or saline prior to unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Daily behavioral tests revealed that ischemic animals treated with DADLE did not show any significant behavioral dysfunctions compared with saline-treated ischemic animals. Opioid antagonists only transiently inhibited the protective effect of DADLE, indicating the participation of non-opioid mechanisms in DADLE neuroprotection. Histological examination using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC revealed that brains from ischemic animals treated with DADLE, either alone or with adjuvant opioid blockers, exhibited almost completely intact striata. In contrast, brains from ischemic animals that received saline showed significant infarction in the lateral striatum. Analyses of apoptotic cell death revealed a significant increase in the p-53 mRNA expression in the striatum of ischemic animals that received saline, while those that received DADLE exhibited near normal striatal p-53 expression. This protective effect was accompanied by significant increments in protein levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum of DADLE-treated ischemic animals. Conclusion These results indicate that DADLE protected against necrotic and apoptotic cell death processes associated with ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study demonstrates that delta opioids are crucially involved in stroke, suggesting that the opioid system is important in the study of brain injury and protection.

  16. Effects of white-nose syndrome on regional population patterns of 3 hibernating bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2016-10-01

    Hibernating bats have undergone severe recent declines across the eastern United States, but the cause of these regional-scale declines has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the influence of white-nose syndrome (an emerging bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, formerly Geomyces destructans) on large-scale, long-term population patterns in the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), and the tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus). We modeled population trajectories for each species on the basis of an extensive data set of winter hibernacula counts of more than 1 million individual bats from a 4-state region over 13 years and with data on locations of hibernacula and first detections of white-nose syndrome at each hibernaculum. We used generalized additive mixed models to determine population change relative to expectations, that is, how population trajectories differed with a colony's infection status, how trajectories differed with distance from the point of introduction of white-nose syndrome, and whether declines were concordant with first local observation of the disease. Population trajectories in all species met at least one of the 3 expectations, but none met all 3. Our results suggest, therefore, that white-nose syndrome has affected regional populations differently than was previously understood and has not been the sole cause of declines. Specifically, our results suggest that in some areas and species, threats other than white-nose syndrome are also contributing to population declines, declines linked to white-nose syndrome have spread across large geographic areas with unexpected speed, and the disease or other threats led to declines in bat populations for years prior to disease detection. Effective conservation will require further research to mitigate impacts of white-nose syndrome, renewed attention to other threats to bats, and improved surveillance efforts to ensure

  17. Pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function in human hibernating myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Anna S.; Pepper, John R.; Dreyfus, Gilles D.; Pennell, Dudley J. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Mongillo, Marco; Khan, Muhammad T. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); Depre, Christophe [University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry New Jersey, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, New Jersey, NJ (United States); Rimoldi, Ornella E. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom); New York Medical College, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Valhalla, NY (United States); Camici, Paolo G. [Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, National Heart and Lung Institute, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Impaired pre-synaptic noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism has been reported in a swine model of hibernating myocardium (HM). To ascertain whether adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities are present in human HM, we combined functional measurements in vivo using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and positron emission tomography (PET) to assess pre- and post-synaptic sympathetic function. Twelve patients with coronary artery disease and chronic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction underwent CMR at baseline and 6 months after bypass for assessment of regional and global LV function and identification of segments with reversible dysfunction. Before surgery, myocardial noradrenaline uptake-1 ([{sup 11}C]meta-hydroxy-ephedrine; HED) and {beta}-adrenoceptor ({beta}-AR) density ([{sup 11}C]CGP-12177) were measured with PET. Patient PET data were compared with those in 18 healthy controls. The volume of distribution (V{sub d}) of HED in HM (47.95{+-}28.05 ml/g) and infarcted myocardium (42.69{+-}25.76 ml/g) was significantly reduced compared with controls (66.09{+-}14.48 ml/g). The V{sub d} of HED in normal myocardium (49.93{+-}20.48 ml/g) of patients was also lower than that in controls and the difference was close to statistical significance (p=0.06). Myocardial {beta}-AR density was significantly lower in HM (5.49{+-}2.35 pmol/g), infarcted (4.82{+-}2.61 pmol/g) and normal (5.86{+-}1.81 pmol/g) segments of patients compared with healthy controls (8.61{+-}1.32 pmol/g). Noradrenaline uptake-1 mechanism and {beta}-AR density are reduced in the myocardium of patients with chronic LV dysfunction and evidence of HM. The increased sympathetic activity to the heart in these patients is a generalised rather than regional phenomenon which is likely to contribute to the remodelling process of the whole LV rather than playing a causative role in HM. (orig.)

  18. A Prototype Automatic Solar Panel Controller (ASPC with Night-time Hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu O. Aliyu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells, as an alternate means of electricity supply, is rapidly advancing. Generally, output of solar cells depends largely on intensity of sun and angle of incidence on the cells. This means that to get maximum efficiency from these cells, they must remain directly pointed at the sun from sun rise to sun set. However, the position of sun‟s highest intensity with respect to a given spot changes with time of the day. It is therefore necessary to automatically control position of solar cells to always align with the highest intensity of sun. In this paper, we present a prototype automatic solar panel controller, with night time hibernation. The proposed system consists of both software and hardware parts, and it automatically provides best alignment of solar panel with sun to get maximum intensity. The solar panel controller system detects the presence of sun rays using light dependent resistors (LDR. At the heart of the control mechanism is an AT89C52 microcontroller. It is programmed to constantly monitor the output of an LDR, actuate a stepper motor to reposition the solar panel to a direction with the highest intensity. The proposed system also has an option of manual control of the panel via a computer interface or a keypad unit for easy of user interactivity during maintenance. Testing the proposed system, results shows that it can successfully track the sun and enter idle mode in the absence of sun rays, hence, conserving over 50% of energy required to operate the system.

  19. Pre-hibernation energy reserves in a temperate anuran, Rana chensinensis, along a relatively fine elevational gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, X.; Li, B.; Li, Y.; Ma, X.; Fellers, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Temperate anurans have energy substrates in the liver, fat bodies, carcass and gonads; these stores provide support for metabolism and egg production during hibernation, and for breeding activities in spring. This paper compares the energy budget shortly before hibernation among Rana chensinensis populations at elevations of 1400, 1700 and 2000 m along a river in northern China. The larger frogs, regardless of elevation, had relatively heavy storage organs and the masses of nearly all these organs were positively correlated with each other. After controlling for the effect of body size, we found no significant difference in energetic organ mass among different age classes for each of the three populations. There were sexual differences in energy strategy. Males in all populations accumulated greater reserves in liver, fat bodies and carcass than did females. In contrast, females put more energy into their ovaries and oviducts. Frogs from higher elevations tended to have heavier organs than those from lower elevations; however, the pattern did not vary systematically along fine environmental gradients. Mid-elevation R. chensinensis built up significantly more reserves than low-elevation individuals, but were similar to their highland conspecifics. Males from higher elevations tended to have heavier liver and fat bodies; females were similar in liver and ovary mass across all elevations, but formed heavier fat bodies, oviducts and somatic tissue at higher elevation sites.

  20. A Third Way for Entomophthoralean Fungi to Survive the Winter: Slow Disease Transmission between Individuals of the Hibernating Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Bruun Jensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In temperate regions, insect pathogenic fungi face the challenge of surviving through the winter. Winter is a time when hosts are immobile, low in number or are present in a stage which is not susceptible to infection. Fungi from Entomophthoromycota have so far been known to survive the winter in two ways: either as (1 thick-walled resting spores released into environment from dead hosts, or as (2 structures inside the dead host (e.g., hyphal bodies. Here we report, from the Danish environment, a third way to survive the winter, namely a slow progression and transmission of Entomophthora schizophorae in adult dipteran Pollenia hosts that hibernate in clusters in unheated attics, sheltered areas outdoors (under bark etc.. Fungus-killed sporulating flies were observed outside very early and very late in the season. By sampling adults at the time of their emergence from hibernation in late winter/early spring we documented that the fungus was naturally prevalent and killed flies after a period of incubation. Experimentally we documented that even at the low temperature of 5 °C, the fungus was able to maintain itself in Pollenia cohorts for up to 90 days. From these observations the full winter cycle of this fungus is elucidated. The three types of winter survival are discussed in relation to fungus epidemic development.

  1. [Regulation of endocrine pancreas secretions (insulin and glucagon) during the periodic lethargy-waking cycle of the hibernating mammal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, C; Hoo-Paris, R

    1987-06-01

    In winter, hibernating mammals enter a long phase of lethargy which is characterized by low body temperature, depressed metabolism and minimal release of metabolic substrates from endogenous fuel stores. Periodically, they spontaneously warm themselves to regain the euthermic state. These arousals are, by contrast, times of high release and consumption of endogenous substrates. Insulin and glucagon may contribute to the control of both contrasting metabolic periods. The secretion and metabolic effects of these two hormones were investigated in two hibernators: the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) and the edible dormouse (Glis glis). During lethargy, blood glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations were low. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that the secretion of both hormones was markedly depressed by low temperatures. Insulin secretion was not stimulated by glucose, although glucagon secretion remained reactive to arginine. Blood glucose was not regulated by insulin but pharmacological doses of glucagon increased blood glucose concentrations. The tissues were found to be highly insulin-resistant, preventing the fall of blood glucose and consequently limiting the depletion of glucidic substrates during the long periods of starvation. During arousal, blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels increased at the end of rewarming while glucose turnover gradually increased above a body temperature of 15 degrees C. The effects of glucagon and insulin on glucose metabolism increased markedly beyond this stage. Thus the metabolic effect of both hormones are temperature-dependent. Insulin and glucagon allow an increase in glucose availability for the active metabolic processes which occur during arousal.

  2. Expression Profiling and Structural Characterization of MicroRNAs in Adipose Tissues of Hibernating Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Wu

    2014-12-01

    be linked to distinct biological roles in WAT and BAT during hibernation and may involve the regulation of signaling cascades.

  3. Expression Profiling and Structural Characterization of MicroRNAs in Adipose Tissues of Hibernating Ground Squirrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wei Wu; Kyle K. Biggar; Kenneth B. Storey

    2014-01-01

    distinct biological roles in WAT and BAT during hibernation and may involve the regulation of signaling cascades.

  4. 史蒂夫·莱赫的简约主义音乐初探%Preliminary Study on Steve Reich's Minimal Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴英

    2011-01-01

    As a representative composer of minimal music,Steve Reich made this genre showin the world with a lot of unique works.In order to capture the formation roots ofthe musical style,and to further explore the composition characteristics of the styleand the influence to the Minimal school,the author did the preliminary study onsome representative works.%作为简约派音乐的代表作曲家,史蒂夫.莱赫凭借大量风格独特的作品将这一流派充分展现在世人面前,本文通过对部分代表作品的初步探究,借以捕捉其音乐风格得以形成的根源,为进一步深入探讨其创作特点以及对简约流派的影响等方面找寻途径。

  5. The regulation of troponins I, C and ANP by GATA4 and Nkx2-5 in heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan E Luu

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an adaptive strategy used by various mammals to survive the winter under situations of low ambient temperatures and limited or no food availability. The heart of hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus has the remarkable ability to descend to low, near 0°C temperatures without falling into cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that the transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2-5 may play a role in cardioprotection by facilitating the expression of key downstream targets such as troponin I, troponin C, and ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide. This study measured relative changes in transcript levels, protein levels, protein post-translational modifications, and transcription factor binding over six stages: euthermic control (EC, entrance into torpor (EN, early torpor (ET, late torpor (LT, early arousal (EA, and interbout arousal (IA. We found differential regulation of GATA4 whereby transcript/protein expression, post-translational modification (phosphorylation of serine 261, and DNA binding were enhanced during the transitory phases (entrance and arousal of hibernation. Activation of GATA4 was paired with increases in cardiac troponin I, troponin C and ANP protein levels during entrance, while increases in p-GATA4 DNA binding during early arousal was paired with decreases in troponin I and no changes in troponin C and ANP protein levels. Unlike its binding partner, the relative mRNA/protein expression and DNA binding of Nkx2-5 did not change during hibernation. This suggests that either Nkx2-5 does not play a substantial role or other regulatory mechanisms not presently studied (e.g. posttranslational modifications are important during hibernation. The data suggest a significant role for GATA4-mediated gene transcription in the differential regulation of genes which aid cardiac-specific challenges associated with torpor-arousal.

  6. Characterization of the SIRT family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases in the context of a mammalian model of hibernation, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouble, Andrew N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating mammals employ strong metabolic rate depression to survive the winter, thereby avoiding the high energy costs of maintaining a euthermic lifestyle in the face of low seasonal temperatures and limited food resources. Characteristics of this natural torpor include a significant reduction in body temperature, a shift to a lipid-based metabolism, global suppression of ATP-expensive activities, and the upregulation of selected genes that mediate biochemical reorganization and cytoprotection. Sirtuin (SIRT) proteins, an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, have been shown to play important roles in the post-translational regulation of many metabolic and cytoprotective processes, suggesting a potential function for these enzymes in the control of hibernation. To assess this possibility, protein levels of the seven mammalian SIRTs (SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6 and SIRT7), total SIRT activity, and the acetylation status of two downstream SIRT targets (SOD2K68 and NF-κB p65K310) were measured in skeletal muscle, liver, brown adipose and white adipose tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) over the course of the torpor-arousal cycle. The analysis revealed tissue-specific responses of different SIRTs at various points throughout hibernation, including a potentially interesting correlation between increased levels of SIRT3 protein, heightened total SIRT activity, and decreased acetylation of SIRT3 downstream target SOD2K68 in skeletal muscle during late torpor. These results provide evidence to suggest a possible role for the SIRT family of protein deacetylases in the regulation of the metabolic and cellular protective pathways that mediate the process of mammalian hibernation.

  7. Changes in body condition of hibernating bats support the thrifty female hypothesis and predict consequences for populations with white-nose syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A Jonasson

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is a new disease of bats that has devastated populations in eastern North America. Infection with the fungus, Geomyces destructans, is thought to increase the time bats spend out of torpor during hibernation, leading to starvation. Little is known about hibernation in healthy, free-ranging bats and more data are needed to help predict consequences of WNS. Trade-offs presumably exist between the energetic benefits and physiological/ecological costs of torpor, leading to the prediction that the relative importance of spring energy reserves should affect an individual's use of torpor and depletion of energy reserves during winter. Myotis lucifugus mate during fall and winter but females do not become pregnant until after spring emergence. Thus, female reproductive success depends on spring fat reserves while male reproductive success does not. Consequently, females should be "thrifty" in their use of fat compared to males. We measured body condition index (BCI; mass/forearm length of 432 M. lucifugus in Manitoba, Canada during the winter of 2009/2010. Bats were captured during the fall mating period (n = 200, early hibernation (n = 125, and late hibernation (n = 128. Adult females entered hibernation with greater fat reserves and consumed those reserves more slowly than adult males and young of the year. Consequently, adult females may be more likely than males or young of the year to survive the disruption of energy balance associated with WNS, although surviving females may not have sufficient reserves to support reproduction.

  8. Reproducible ion-current-based approach for 24-plex comparison of the tissue proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in swine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Young, Rebeccah; Page, Brian J; Shen, Xiaomeng; Tata, Nazneen; Li, Jun; Duan, Xiaotao; Fallavollita, James A; Canty, John M

    2014-05-02

    Hibernating myocardium is an adaptive response to repetitive myocardial ischemia that is clinically common, but the mechanism of adaptation is poorly understood. Here we compared the proteomes of hibernating versus normal myocardium in a porcine model with 24 biological replicates. Using the ion-current-based proteomic strategy optimized in this study to expand upon previous proteomic work, we identified differentially expressed proteins in new molecular pathways of cardiovascular interest. The methodological strategy includes efficient extraction with detergent cocktail; precipitation/digestion procedure with high, quantitative peptide recovery; reproducible nano-LC/MS analysis on a long, heated column packed with small particles; and quantification based on ion-current peak areas. Under the optimized conditions, high efficiency and reproducibility were achieved for each step, which enabled a reliable comparison of 24 the myocardial samples. To achieve confident discovery of differentially regulated proteins in hibernating myocardium, we used highly stringent criteria to define "quantifiable proteins". These included the filtering criteria of low peptide FDR and S/N > 10 for peptide ion currents, and each protein was quantified independently from ≥2 distinct peptides. For a broad methodological validation, the quantitative results were compared with a parallel, well-validated 2D-DIGE analysis of the same model. Excellent agreement between the two orthogonal methods was observed (R = 0.74), and the ion-current-based method quantified almost one order of magnitude more proteins. In hibernating myocardium, 225 significantly altered proteins were discovered with a low false-discovery rate (∼3%). These proteins are involved in biological processes including metabolism, apoptosis, stress response, contraction, cytoskeleton, transcription, and translation. This provides compelling evidence that hibernating myocardium adapts to chronic ischemia. The major metabolic

  9. Increased Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity promotes resistance to excitotoxicity in cortical neurons of the ground squirrel (a Hibernator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Juan Zhao

    Full Text Available Ground squirrel, a hibernating mammalian species, is more resistant to ischemic brain stress than rat. Gaining insight into the adaptive mechanisms of ground squirrels may help us design treatment strategies to reduce brain damage in patients suffering ischemic stroke. To understand the anti-stress mechanisms in ground squirrel neurons, we studied glutamate toxicity in primary cultured neurons of the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus. At the neuronal level, for the first time, we found that ground squirrel was more resistant to glutamate excitotoxicity than rat. Mechanistically, ground squirrel neurons displayed a similar calcium influx to the rat neurons in response to glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA perfusion. However, the rate of calcium removal in ground squirrel neurons was markedly faster than in rat neurons. This allows ground squirrel neurons to maintain lower level of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i upon glutamate insult. Moreover, we found that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX activity was higher in ground squirrel neurons than in rat neurons. We also proved that overexpression of ground squirrel NCX2, rather than NCX1 or NCX3, in rat neurons promoted neuron survival against glutamate toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that ground squirrel neurons are better at maintaining calcium homeostasis than rat neurons and this is likely achieved through the activity of ground squirrel NCX2. Our findings not only reveal an adaptive mechanism of mammalian hibernators at the cellular level, but also suggest that NCX2 of ground squirrel may have therapeutic value for suppressing brain ischemic damage.

  10. Hibernation and torpor in tropical and subtropical bats in relation to energetics, extinctions, and the evolution of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; Stawski, Clare

    2011-09-01

    Torpor, the most effective means of energy conservation available to endotherms, is still widely viewed as a specific adaptation in a few high-latitude, cold-climate endotherms with no adaptive function in warm regions. Nevertheless, a growing number of diverse terrestrial mammals and birds from low latitudes (0-30°), including species from tropical and subtropical regions, are heterothermic and employ torpor. Use of torpor is especially important for bats because they are small, expend large amounts of energy when active, rely on a fluctuating food supply, and have only a limited capacity for storage of fat. Patterns of torpor in tropical/subtropical bats are highly variable, but short bouts of torpor with relatively high body temperatures (T(b)) are most common. Hibernation (a sequence of multiday bouts of torpor) has been reported for free-ranging subtropical tree-dwelling vespertilionids, cave-dwelling hipposiderids, and house-dwelling molossids. The observed range of minimum T(b) is ∼6-30 °C, and the reduction of energy expenditure through the use of torpor, in comparison to normothermic values, ranges from 50 to 99%. Overall, torpor in the tropics/subtropics has been reported for 10 out of the currently recognized 18 bat families, which contain 1079 species, or 96.7% of all bats. Although it is unlikely that all of these are heterothermic, the large majority probably will be. Frequent use of torpor, including hibernation in diverse groups of tropical/subtropical bats, suggests that heterothermy is an ancestral chiropteran trait. Although data especially from the field are still scarce, it is likely that torpor, highly effective in reducing requirements for energy and water even under warm conditions, plays a crucial role in the long-term survival of the majority of small tropical and subtropical bats. Discovering how bats achieve this provides numerous opportunities for exiting new research.

  11. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O2/hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  12. Increased Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Activity Promotes Resistance to Excitotoxicity in Cortical Neurons of the Ground Squirrel (a Hibernator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan-Juan; Gao, Shan; Jing, Jun-Zhan; Zhu, Ming-Yue; Zhou, Chen; Chai, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Ground squirrel, a hibernating mammalian species, is more resistant to ischemic brain stress than rat. Gaining insight into the adaptive mechanisms of ground squirrels may help us design treatment strategies to reduce brain damage in patients suffering ischemic stroke. To understand the anti-stress mechanisms in ground squirrel neurons, we studied glutamate toxicity in primary cultured neurons of the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus). At the neuronal level, for the first time, we found that ground squirrel was more resistant to glutamate excitotoxicity than rat. Mechanistically, ground squirrel neurons displayed a similar calcium influx to the rat neurons in response to glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) perfusion. However, the rate of calcium removal in ground squirrel neurons was markedly faster than in rat neurons. This allows ground squirrel neurons to maintain lower level of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) upon glutamate insult. Moreover, we found that Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity was higher in ground squirrel neurons than in rat neurons. We also proved that overexpression of ground squirrel NCX2, rather than NCX1 or NCX3, in rat neurons promoted neuron survival against glutamate toxicity. Taken together, our results indicate that ground squirrel neurons are better at maintaining calcium homeostasis than rat neurons and this is likely achieved through the activity of ground squirrel NCX2. Our findings not only reveal an adaptive mechanism of mammalian hibernators at the cellular level, but also suggest that NCX2 of ground squirrel may have therapeutic value for suppressing brain ischemic damage. PMID:25415196

  13. Hibernation impact on the catalytic activities of the mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase in liver and brain tissues of jerboa (Jaculus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiani Assia

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis is a deep hibernating rodent native to subdesert highlands. During hibernation, a high level of ketone bodies i.e. acetoacetate (AcAc and D-3-hydroxybutyrate (BOH are produced in liver, which are used in brain as energetic fuel. These compounds are bioconverted by mitochondrial D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH E.C. 1.1.1.30. Here we report, the function and the expression of BDH in terms of catalytic activities, kinetic parameters, levels of protein and mRNA in both tissues i.e brain and liver, in relation to the hibernating process. Results We found that: 1/ In euthemic jerboa the specific activity in liver is 2.4- and 6.4- fold higher than in brain, respectively for AcAc reduction and for BOH oxidation. The same differences were found in the hibernation state. 2/ In euthermic jerboa, the Michaelis constants, KM BOH and KM NAD+ are different in liver and in brain while KM AcAc, KM NADH and the dissociation constants, KD NAD+and KD NADH are similar. 3/ During prehibernating state, as compared to euthermic state, the liver BDH activity is reduced by half, while kinetic constants are strongly increased except KD NAD+. 4/ During hibernating state, BDH activity is significantly enhanced, moreover, kinetic constants (KM and KD are strongly modified as compared to the euthermic state; i.e. KD NAD+ in liver and KM AcAc in brain decrease 5 and 3 times respectively, while KD NADH in brain strongly increases up to 5.6 fold. 5/ Both protein content and mRNA level of BDH remain unchanged during the cold adaptation process. Conclusions These results cumulatively explained and are consistent with the existence of two BDH enzymatic forms in the liver and the brain. The apoenzyme would be subjected to differential conformational folding depending on the hibernation state. This regulation could be a result of either post-translational modifications and/or a modification of the mitochondrial membrane state

  14. Distinct α subunit variations of the hypothalamic GABAA receptor triplets (αβγ are linked to hibernating state in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alò Raffaella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structural arrangement of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR is known to be crucial for the maintenance of cerebral-dependent homeostatic mechanisms during the promotion of highly adaptive neurophysiological events of the permissive hibernating rodent, i.e the Syrian golden hamster. In this study, in vitro quantitative autoradiography and in situ hybridization were assessed in major hypothalamic nuclei. Reverse Transcription Reaction-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR tests were performed for specific GABAAR receptor subunit gene primers synthases of non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters. Attempts were made to identify the type of αβγ subunit combinations operating during the switching ON/OFF of neuronal activities in some hypothalamic nuclei of hibernators. Results Both autoradiography and molecular analysis supplied distinct expression patterns of all α subunits considered as shown by a strong (p 1 ratio (over total α subunits considered in the present study in the medial preoptic area (MPOA and arcuate nucleus (Arc of NHIBs with respect to HIBs. At the same time α2 subunit levels proved to be typical of periventricular nucleus (Pe and Arc of HIB, while strong α4 expression levels were detected during awakening state in the key circadian hypothalamic station, i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus (Sch; 60%. Regarding the other two subunits (β and γ, elevated β3 and γ3 mRNAs levels mostly characterized MPOA of HIBs, while prevalently elevated expression concentrations of the same subunits were also typical of Sch, even though this time during the awakening state. In the case of Arc, notably elevated levels were obtained for β3 and γ2 during hibernating conditions. Conclusion We conclude that different αβγ subunits are operating as major elements either at the onset of torpor or during induction of the arousal state in the Syrian golden hamster. The identification of a brain regional

  15. IN MEMORY OF STEVE JOBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    其实我比较深入的了解苹果产品也不过两年左右的时间。早些年曾入手过一部iPod Classic第二代和iPhone的第一代,因为当年的iPod Classic体重超重,后来就被我封存了起来,那台iPhone因为我不小心被偷不知道卖到哪去了。

  16. Changes in diet, body mass and fatty acid composition during pre-hibernation in a subtropical bat in relation to NPY and AgRP expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Hefetz, Abraham; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2013-01-01

    Prior to hibernation, mammals accumulate large amounts of fat in their bodies. In temperate mammalian species, hibernation is improved by increasing the levels of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the body. The saturation of fatty acids (FA) in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and membrane phospholipids of mammals often reflects their diet composition. We found that the greater mouse-tailed bat (Rhinopoma microphyllum) accumulates large amounts of fat at the end of summer by gradually shifting to a fat-rich diet (queen carpenter ants, Camponotus felah). PUFA are almost absent in this diet (<1 % of total FA), which contains a high fraction of saturated (SFA) and mono-unsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids. We found similar low levels of PUFA in mouse-tailed bat WAT, but not in their heart total lipids. The expression of two appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) hypothalamic neuropeptides, AgRP and NPY, increased in parallel to the shift in diet and with fat gain in these bats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only documented example of specific pre-hibernation diet in bats, and one which reveals the most saturated FA composition ever documented in a mammal. We suggest that the increase in expression levels of NPY and AgRP may contribute to the observed diet shift and mass gain, and that the FA composition of the bat's specialized diet is adaptive in the relatively high temperatures we recorded in both their winter and summer roosts.

  17. Neuronal plasticity in hibernation and the proposed role of the microtubule-associated protein tau as a "master switch" regulating synaptic gain in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Thomas; Bullmann, Torsten

    2013-09-01

    The present paper provides an overview of adaptive changes in brain structure and learning abilities during hibernation as a behavioral strategy used by several mammalian species to minimize energy expenditure under current or anticipated inhospitable environmental conditions. One cellular mechanism that contributes to the regulated suppression of metabolism and thermogenesis during hibernation is reversible phosphorylation of enzymes and proteins, which limits rates of flux through metabolic pathways. Reversible phosphorylation during hibernation also affects synaptic membrane proteins, a process known to be involved in synaptic plasticity. This mechanism of reversible protein phosphorylation also affects the microtubule-associated protein tau, thereby generating a condition that in the adult human brain is associated with aggregation of tau protein to paired helical filaments (PHFs), as observed in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we put forward the concept that phosphorylation of tau is a neuroprotective mechanism to escape NMDA-mediated hyperexcitability of neurons that would otherwise occur during slow gradual cooling of the brain. Phosphorylation of tau and its subsequent targeting to subsynaptic sites might, thus, work as a kind of "master switch," regulating NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic gain in a wide array of neuronal networks, thereby enabling entry into torpor. If this condition lasts too long, however, it may eventually turn into a pathological trigger, driving a cascade of events leading to neurodegeneration, as in Alzheimer's disease or other "tauopathies".

  18. Stable atrogin-1 (Fbxo32 and MuRF1 (Trim63 gene expression is involved in the protective mechanism in soleus muscle of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that protect against or limit muscle atrophy in hibernators during prolonged inactivity has important implications for its treatment. We examined whether external factors influence the pathways regulating protein synthesis and degradation, leading to muscle atrophy prevention in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus. We investigated the effects of 14-day hindlimb-unloading (HU in different seasons and two-month hibernation on the soleus (SOL muscle wet mass, muscle-to-body mass ratio, fiber cross sectional area (CSA, fiber distribution and muscle ultrastructure. We also measured changes in the protein expression and activation states of Akt, mTOR and FoxO1 and the mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Compared with the control groups, autumn and winter HU significantly lowered SOL muscle wet mass and muscle-to-body mass ratio, decreased type I and II fiber CSA and induced ultrastructural anomalies. However, these measured indices were unchanged between Pre-hibernation and Hibernation groups. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR significantly decreased, while the phosphorylation level of FoxO1 and mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 increased after HU. During hibernation, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR significantly decreased, but the phosphorylation level of FoxO1 and mRNA expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 remained unchanged. Overall, our findings suggest that disuse and seasonality may not be sufficient to initiate the innate protective mechanism that prevents SOL atrophy during prolonged periods of hibernation inactivity. The stable expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 may facilitate to prevent SOL atrophy via controlling ubiquitination of muscle proteins during hibernation.

  19. O espaço dos possíveis de Steve Jobs: como foi possível a mitificação em torno da imagem da Apple?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A publicidade da Apple, inspirada na obra 1984 de George Orwell, veiculada durante a transmissão televisiva do Super Bowl XVIII serviu como alegoria da configuração história da esfera tecnológica dos Estados Unidos da América à época. Afetividade e racionalidade, antagonismo pelo qual, em uma lógica relacional, se definiu a Apple. O sucesso de Steve Jobs está atrelado às mudanças na esfera tecnológica nos últimos anos, a um maior encantamento dessa esfera, que reflete a estrutura social mais ...

  20. 基于Struts+Hibernate+Spring的整合架构及其在Web开发中的应用%Application in Web Development Use Based on Struts+Hibernate+Spring Integrated Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀彦; 李忠; 罗士美; 邓力强

    2008-01-01

    Struts、Hibernate和Spring是当今企业开发中用到的比较新的技术.Struts 是Apache软件组织提供的一项开放源码项目,它为Java Web应用提供了模型-视图-控制器(Model-View- Controller,简称MVC)框架,尤其适用于开发大型可扩展的Web应用.Hibernate是目前在JAVA界使用非常广泛的ORMapping的一种实现 ,可以实现关系型数据库和对象之间的映射.Spring是为了解决企业应用开发的复杂性而创建的轻量级的框架.本文介绍了三种技术的框架结构和特点,并且通过一个具体的例子说明了Struts+Hibernate+Spring整合架构在Web开发中的使用.

  1. 基于SQL Server+Hibernate+JSF的信息门户网站开发平台的设计与实现%INFORMATION PORTAL WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON SQL SERVER + HIBERNATE + JSF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛根滋; 苏中滨; 沈维政

    2011-01-01

    网站开发技术研究的一个方向是以网站作为一个平台,实现尽可能多的功能;二是尽可能以较低的成本实现网站的开发和管理.主要研究通过图形化方式简化网站开发、管理、维护过程,降低手工代码编写率,降低成本,提高效率,兼顾功能.并以SQLServer、Hibernate和JSF技术为基础设计一个实用的图形化的网站开发平台.%There are two directions in the research of website development technology. One is to regard the website as a platform where as many functions as possible are to be realized; the other is to develop and manage the website at a comparatively low cost. The paper mainly studies how to simplify the website development, management and maintenance process, reduce manual coding, cut down its cost, improve efficiency and satisfy functions. Additionally, based on SQL Server, Hibernate and JSF technology, a practical graphic website development platform is designed.

  2. Design and Implementation of Relation Database and Non-Relation Database Unified Access Model Based on HibernateOGM%基于Hibernate OGM的SQL与NoSQL数据库的统一访问模型的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东奎; 鄂海红

    2016-01-01

    For the existing relational database and non-relational database has its own application-specific API sce-narios, with the help of open-source framework Hibernate OG to establish a unified storage SQL database and non-NoSQL database framework, so that both of them Database read and write in a framework in accordance with the unified rules, without additional API view. Through the use of JAVA annotation distinction between the database type, JAVA object to fill data, Hibernate OGM framework automatically JAVA object analysis into point format, the underly-ing API package written by the original database engine. For the mixed use of HBase and MySQL scenarios, the above uniform access model for the experiment and validation. Experiments show that it is feasible to distinguish database types by JAVA annotation, populate data with JAVA objects, and unify database data storage through Hibernate OGM to implement SQL and NoSQL database.%针对将现有的关系型数据库和非关系型数据库都有自己的专用 API 的应用场景,借助于开源框架Hibernate OG建立了一个统一的存储SQL数据库和非NoSQL数据库的框架,使其对这两种数据库的读写能在一个框架下按照统一的规则进行,无需进行额外的API查看。通过使用JAVA的注解区别数据库类型、JAVA对象填充数据、Hibernate OGM框架自动将JAVA对象解析成点分格式、底层通过原生API封装写入数据库的引擎。针对混合使用HBase和MySQL的场景,对以上统一访问模型进行了实验和验证。实验表明,通过 JAVA注解区分数据库类型,通过JAVA对象填充数据,通过Hibernate OGM统一解析数据存储数据的这一系列的操作来进行对SQL和NoSQL数据库的方案是可行的。

  3. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul M.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS.

  4. Realignment of signal processing within a sensory brainstem nucleus as brain temperature declines in the Syrian hamster, a hibernating species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Shin-Ichi; Horowitz, John M.; Horwitz, Barbara A.; Chen, Chao-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Crucial for survival, the central nervous system must reliably process sensory information over all stages of a hibernation bout to ensure homeostatic regulation is maintained and well-matched to dramatically altered behavioral states. Comparing neural responses in the nucleus tractus solitarius of rats and euthermic Syrian hamsters, we tested the hypothesis that hamster nucleus tractus solitarius neurons have adaptations sustaining signal processing while conserving energy. Using patch-clamp techniques, we classified second-order nucleus tractus solitarius neurons as rapid-onset or delayed-onset spiking phenotypes based on their spiking-onset to a depolarizing pulse (following a −80 mV prepulse). As temperature decreased from 33°C to 15°C, the excitability of all neurons decreased. However, hamster rapid-onset neurons had the highest spiking response and shortest action potential width at every temperature, while hamster delayed-onset neurons had the most negative resting membrane potential. Spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic current frequency in both phenotypes decreased as temperature decreased, yet tractus solitarius stimulation-evoked excitatory post-synaptic current amplitudes were greater in hamsters than in rats regardless of phenotype and temperature. Changes were significant (P<0.05), supporting our hypothesis by showing that, as temperature falls, rapid-onset neurons contribute more to signal processing but less to energy conservation than do delayed-onset neurons. PMID:22262373

  5. 基于Struts和Hibernate的Web应用开发%Web Application Development Based on Struts and Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海涛; 贾宗璞

    2011-01-01

    Model realization of Struts have some problems, such as complex JDBC connecting to database, high coupling between layers and difficult code maintenance, et al. Aiming at these problems, this paper presents a Web application development scheme based on Struts and Hibernate. It really achieves the loose coupling between layers and easy maintenance, reduces the difficulty of development of business model.Through part of development codes and running window of student management system, it explains the process of integration and proves the feasibility of integrated solutions.%Struts框架在模型部分的实现存在JDBC连接数据库复杂、层间高耦合和难维护等问题.为此,提出一种整合Struts和Hibernate的Web应用开发方案,可实现层间的松散耦合和易维护,降低业务模型开发难度.通过学生管理系统开发实例的部分代码和运行界面说明该方案的整合应用过程,并验证其可行性.

  6. The fungus Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. causes skin infections that resemble white-nose syndrome of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Minnis, Andrew M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Redell, Jennifer A.; White, J. Paul; Kaarakka, Heather M.; Muller, Laura K.; Lindner, David L.; Verant, Michelle L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Blehert, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Before the discovery of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease caused by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, there were no reports of fungal skin infections in bats during hibernation. In 2011, bats with grossly visible fungal skin infections similar in appearance to WNS were reported from multiple sites in Wisconsin, USA, a state outside the known range of P. destructans and WNS at that time. Tape impressions or swab samples were collected from affected areas of skin from bats with these fungal infections in 2012 and analyzed by microscopy, culture, or direct DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). A psychrophilic species ofTrichophyton was isolated in culture, detected by direct DNA amplification and sequencing, and observed on tape impressions. Deoxyribonucleic acid indicative of the same fungus was also detected on three of five bat carcasses collected in 2011 and 2012 from Wisconsin, Indiana, and Texas, USA. Superficial fungal skin infections caused by Trichophyton sp. were observed in histopathology for all three bats. Sequencing of the ITS of Trichophyton sp., along with its inability to grow at 25 C, indicated that it represented a previously unknown species, described herein as Trichophyton redellii sp. nov. Genetic diversity present within T. redellii suggests it is native to North America but that it had been overlooked before enhanced efforts to study fungi associated with bats in response to the emergence of WNS.

  7. Reversible regulation of cell cycle-related genes by epigallocatechin gallate for hibernation of neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jung Yoon; Kanamune, Jun; Han, Dong-Wook; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the hibernation effect of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) on neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts (nHTFs) by analyzing the expression of cell cycle-related genes. EGCG application to culture media moderately inhibited the growth of nHTFs, and the removal of EGCG from culture media led to complete recovery of cell growth. EGCG resulted in a slight decrease in the cell population of the S and G(2)/M phases of cell cycle with concomitant increase in that of the G(0)/G(1) phase, but this cell cycle profile was restored to the initial level after EGCG removal. The expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), CCNE2, CCN-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), and CDK2 was restored, whereas that of CCNA, CCNB1, and CDK1 was irreversibly attenuated. The expression of a substantial number of genes analyzed by cDNA microarray was affected by EGCG application, and these affected expression levels were restored to the normal levels after EGCG removal. We also found the incorporation of FITC-EGCG into the cytosol of nHTFs and its further nuclear translocation, which might lead to the regulation of the exogenous signals directed to genes for cellular responses including proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results suggest that EGCG temporarily affects not only genes related to the cell cycle but also various other cellular functions.

  8. Dusky Cotton Bug Oxycarenus spp. (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae: Hibernating Sites and Management by using Plant Extracts under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Muneer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus spp., has now attained the status of a major pest of cotton crops that affects lint as well as the seed quality of cotton. Surveys were conducted to explore the hibernating sites in the districts Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur. The efficacies of six different plant extracts, i.e. Neem (Azadirachta indica, Milkweed (Calotropis procera, Moringa (Moringa oleifera, Citrus (Citrus sinensis, Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum and Castor (Ricinus communis were tested by using three different concentrations of each plant extract, i.e. 5, 2.5 and 1.5% under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C and 70±5% RH. The data were recorded 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after treatment application. However, Psidium guajava, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Mangifera indica were graded as host plants heavily infested by Oxycarenus spp. Results (α≤0.05 indicated that increasing the concentration of extracts also increased the mortality. Nicotiana tobacum and Calotropis procera respectively displayed maximum 72 and 71, 84 and 80, 97 and 89% mortality at all concentrations, i.e. 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00%, after 96 hours of application. Two concentrations (2.5 and 5% are the most suitable for obtaining significant control of the dusky cotton bug.

  9. Tracking Post-Hibernation Behavior and Early Migration Does Not Reveal the Expected Sex-Differences in a “Female-Migrating” Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K. N.; Wikelski, Martin; Varga, Katarina; Yohannes, Elisabeth; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Safi, Kamran; Burkhard, Wolf-Dieter; O'Mara, M. Teague

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their behavior and physiology. We investigated this in one of the three Central European long-distance migrants, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) in Southern Germany recording the first individual partial migration tracks of this species. In contrast to our predictions, we found no difference between male and female home range size, activity, habitat use or diet. Males and females emerged from hibernation in similar body condition and mass increase rate was the same in males and females. We followed the first migration steps, up to 475 km, of radio-tagged individuals from an airplane. All females, as well as some of the males, migrated away from the wintering area in the same northeasterly direction. Sex differences in long-distance migratory behavior were confirmed through stable isotope analysis of hair, which showed greater variation in females than in males. We hypothesize that both sexes faced similarly good conditions after hibernation and fattened at maximum rates, thus showing no differences in their local behavior. Interesting results that warrant further investigation are the better initial condition of the females and the highly consistent direction of the first migratory step in this population as summering habitats of the common noctule occur at a broad range in Northern Europe. Only research focused on individual strategies will allow us to fully understand the migratory behavior of European bats. PMID:25517947

  10. Tracking post-hibernation behavior and early migration does not reveal the expected sex-differences in a "female-migrating" bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmann, Dina K N; Wikelski, Martin; Varga, Katarina; Yohannes, Elisabeth; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Safi, Kamran; Burkhard, Wolf-Dieter; O'Mara, M Teague

    2014-01-01

    Long-distance migration is a rare phenomenon in European bats. Genetic analyses and banding studies show that females can cover distances of up to 1,600 km, whereas males are sedentary or migrate only short distances. The onset of this sex-biased migration is supposed to occur shortly after rousing from hibernation and when the females are already pregnant. We therefore predicted that the sexes are exposed to different energetic pressures in early spring, and this should be reflected in their behavior and physiology. We investigated this in one of the three Central European long-distance migrants, the common noctule (Nyctalus noctula) in Southern Germany recording the first individual partial migration tracks of this species. In contrast to our predictions, we found no difference between male and female home range size, activity, habitat use or diet. Males and females emerged from hibernation in similar body condition and mass increase rate was the same in males and females. We followed the first migration steps, up to 475 km, of radio-tagged individuals from an airplane. All females, as well as some of the males, migrated away from the wintering area in the same northeasterly direction. Sex differences in long-distance migratory behavior were confirmed through stable isotope analysis of hair, which showed greater variation in females than in males. We hypothesize that both sexes faced similarly good conditions after hibernation and fattened at maximum rates, thus showing no differences in their local behavior. Interesting results that warrant further investigation are the better initial condition of the females and the highly consistent direction of the first migratory step in this population as summering habitats of the common noctule occur at a broad range in Northern Europe. Only research focused on individual strategies will allow us to fully understand the migratory behavior of European bats.

  11. Research and Implementation of Association Mapping Strategy Based on Hibernate%Hibernate中关联关系映射策略研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伍七

    2012-01-01

    为解决对象模型和关系模型之间的不匹配,引入对象关系映射框架来解决。Hibernate是目前主流的ORM映射框架。分析了Web应用程序的体系结构和Hibernate体系结构。以在线购物系统为例,给出了对象关联关系映射策略,通过映射文件实现了该映射策略。实验结果表明,映射文件成功实现了该映射策略。通过Hibernate的数据持久层解决方案,提高了数据存取的速度,降低了系统的耦合性,保证了系统的扩展性。%To solve the mismatch between object model and relation model, Object/Relation Mapping is introduced. Hibernate is one of the most popular Object/Relation Mapping (ORM) framework. The paper discusses the web application architecture and Hibernate architecture. Taking an example of an online shop- ping application, the ORM strategy of association mapping is provided, also the implementation of the asso- ciation mapping is fulfilled through ORM mapping file. The experimental result shows that the association mapping has been implemented successfully. The data persistent layer solution based on Hibernate makes da- ta access faster, the coupling of application is reduced, and the expandability of application is ensured.

  12. The White-Nose Syndrome Transcriptome: Activation of Anti-fungal Host Responses in Wing Tissue of Hibernating Little Brown Myotis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A Field

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS in North American bats is caused by an invasive cutaneous infection by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd. We compared transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression using RNA-Seq on wing skin tissue from hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus with WNS to bats without Pd exposure. We found that WNS caused significant changes in gene expression in hibernating bats including pathways involved in inflammation, wound healing, and metabolism. Local acute inflammatory responses were initiated by fungal invasion. Gene expression was increased for inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins (IL IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17C, IL-20, IL-23A, IL-24, and G-CSF and chemokines, such as Ccl2 and Ccl20. This pattern of gene expression changes demonstrates that WNS is accompanied by an innate anti-fungal host response similar to that caused by cutaneous Candida albicans infections. However, despite the apparent production of appropriate chemokines, immune cells such as neutrophils and T cells do not appear to be recruited. We observed upregulation of acute inflammatory genes, including prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (cyclooxygenase-2, that generate eicosanoids and other nociception mediators. We also observed differences in Pd gene expression that suggest host-pathogen interactions that might determine WNS progression. We identified several classes of potential virulence factors that are expressed in Pd during WNS, including secreted proteases that may mediate tissue invasion. These results demonstrate that hibernation does not prevent a local inflammatory response to Pd infection but that recruitment of leukocytes to the site of infection does not occur. The putative virulence factors may provide novel targets for treatment or prevention of WNS. These observations support a dual role for inflammation during WNS; inflammatory responses provide protection but excessive inflammation may contribute to mortality

  13. 基于Struts和Hibernate架构的MIS系统的构建%Construct MIS System Based on Struts and Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵克华; 陈江; 陈启华

    2006-01-01

    在J2EE平台,框架被用来解决许多问题.作为软件复用的重要途径之一,它是缩短开发周期的一个重要手段.本文介绍了两个开源框架struts和hibernate,它们适用于一般的MIS系统的结构特点,最后结合一个项目分析它们的优劣.

  14. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on the aestivo-hibernal egg diapause of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, Melody A; Trotter, R Talbot; Cheah, Carole; Montgomery, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Three sequential studies were conducted on the interacting effects of exposure to low (5°C) temperature for 0, 7, 28, 56, or 84 d followed by incubation at 10, 15, or 20°C on the egg diapause of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This beetle was imported from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Very few eggs laid and held at a constant 15 or 20°C showed any indication of development. Only eggs exposed to temperature combinations of 5 and 10°C had >50% hatch. Highest percent hatch and fastest development occurred when eggs were held at 5°C for 56 or 84 d followed by holding at 10°C. A model estimated the lower threshold for postdiapause development to be 2°C. The effect of temperature on egg hatch was similar at photoperiods of 12:12 and 16:8 (L:D) h, suggesting egg development is not governed by photoperiod or light exposure. Collectively these data indicate that S. camptodromus eggs laid in the spring and summer go through an aestivo-hibernal diapause that is maintained by warm temperatures and that development resumes when temperatures drop, in parallel with the development of hemlock woolly adelgid. This concurrent development allows S. camptodromus eggs to hatch while hemlock woolly adelgid is laying eggs. This synchrony between the development of S. camptodromus eggs and the overwintering adelgid suggest this beetle may be a good candidate for the biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid.

  15. Influence of ambient temperature on hibernation patterns and energy consumption in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus)%环境温度对达乌尔黄鼠冬眠模式和能量消耗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于超; 宋士一; 彭霞; 杨明

    2014-01-01

    In order to research the inflience of the ambient temperature on animals during hibernation,we used iButtons to monitor the body temperatures in winter,hibernation patterns and energy consumption of Daurian ground squirrels under different ambient temperature ((5±2)℃,(15±2)℃,(25±2)℃)in laboratory.Under different ambient temperature,the hibernation patterns and energy consumption in Daurian ground squirrels were significantly diversified. At 5 ℃,animals all showed deep hibernation.At 15 ℃,both deep hibernation and short hibernation were showed.At 25℃,the more deep hibernation and the lesss no hibernation were behaved.When the temperatuer was at 5 ℃,1 5 ℃ and 25 ℃ during hibernation,the total energy consumption was respectively (3 722±217.82)kJ,(18 907±2 895.07)kJ and (30 542±2 146.40)kJ.The diversity was significant(F(2,22)=45.198,P=0<0.01).From the view of energetics,the high ambient temperature is not conducive to spend winter for hibernation animals in hibernation season.%为研究环境温度对动物冬眠的影响,在实验室不同环境温度下((5±2)℃,(15±2)℃,(25±2)℃)用植入式半导体元件记录了达乌尔黄鼠冬季的体温,监测了冬眠模式及能量消耗。结果显示环境温度不同时,达乌尔黄鼠冬眠的模式和能量消耗均有显著差异。在5℃下,动物均表现为深冬眠型;15℃下,动物表现为深冬眠型和少冬眠型;25℃环境下动物表现为较多少冬眠型和少量不冬眠型。在5、15和25℃冬眠期间总能量消耗分别为(3722±217.82) kJ,(18907±2895.07)kJ,(30542±2146.40)kJ,差异显著(F(2,22)=45.198,P=0<0.01)。提示在冬眠动物的冬眠季节,从能量学角度来看,高的环境温度并不利于动物的越冬。

  16. Pronounced expression of the lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2) in adipose tissue from brown bears (Ursus arctos) prior to hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Viggers, Rikke; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Evans, Alina; Frøbert, Ole

    2016-04-01

    Prior to hibernation, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) exhibits unparalleled weight gain. Unlike humans, weight gain in bears is associated with lower levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA) and increased insulin sensitivity. Understanding how free-ranging brown bears suppress lipolysis when gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer in Dalarna, Sweden. The expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins in adipose tissue was examined under the hypothesis that bears suppress lipolysis during summer while gaining weight by increased expression of negative regulators of lipolysis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression did not differ between seasons, but in contrast, the expression of ATGL coactivator Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) was lower in summer. In addition, the expression of the negative regulators of lipolysis, G0S2 and cell-death inducing DNA fragmentation factor-a-like effector (CIDE)C markedly increased during summer. Free-ranging brown bears display potent upregulation of inhibitors of lipolysis in adipose tissue during summer. This is a potential mechanism for increased insulin sensitivity during weight gain and G0S2 may serve as a target to modulate insulin sensitivity.

  17. Experimental Study on Hibernation Patterns in Different Ages and Sexes of Daurian Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus Dauricus)%达乌尔黄鼠冬眠模式年龄性别差异的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王有; 袁丽丽; 彭霞; 王勇; 杨明

    2009-01-01

    There are differences in the hibernation patterns of different sexes and ages Daurian ground squirrel in the field. To elucidate whether these differences associate with the energy availability during hibernation,we grouped the animals into adult males,adult females, juvenile males and juvenile females. The energy storing before hibernation,the hibernation patterns and body mass changed during hibernation season were measured in the laboratory. Our results showed that the males generally entrance into and arousal from torpor earlier than the females, and the adults earlier than the juveniles. As to adult animals,the duration of hibernating season and the accumulated torpid duration were all shorter than juvenile animals. These results are consistent with the hibernation patterns showed in the field in this species. The maximum body mass,which represents the energy storage, was also larger in adults than juveniles, and larger in males than females. The dates when animals got maximum body mass also followed the similar time sequence. The different hibernation patterns may essentially affected by energy storage in the body and the ground squirrels could reduce the expression of hibernation while enough energy are available.%野外环境中达乌尔黄鼠冬眠的模式存在年龄性别的差异,为研究这种差异是否与冬季可利用的能量有关,我们将动物按年龄和性别分为成年雄性、成年雌性、亚成年雄性和亚成年雌性4组,在实验室条件下监测冬眠前能量贮存和冬眠季节冬眠模式和体重的变化.结果表明:达乌尔黄鼠的入眠和出眠时间基本为先雄性后雌性,先成年后亚成年;成年黄鼠冬眠季节的持续时间和深冬眠的累计时间短于亚成年组,与野外的研究基本一致.代表能量贮存量的最大体重值为成年大于亚成年,雄性大于雌性;最大体重出现时间也是先雄性后雌性,先成年后亚成年,这与冬眠模式的年龄性别差异相一致.

  18. Pronounced expression of the lipolytic inhibitor G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2) in adipose tissue from brown bears (Ursus arctos) prior to hibernation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas S; Vendelbo, Mikkel H

    2016-01-01

    increased during summer. Free-ranging brown bears display potent upregulation of inhibitors of lipolysis in adipose tissue during summer. This is a potential mechanism for increased insulin sensitivity during weight gain and G0S2 may serve as a target to modulate insulin sensitivity....... gaining weight may therefore provide novel insight toward the development of human therapies. Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue were collected from immobilized free-ranging brown bears (fitted with GPS-collars) during hibernation in winter and from the same bears during the active period in summer...... in Dalarna, Sweden. The expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins in adipose tissue was examined under the hypothesis that bears suppress lipolysis during summer while gaining weight by increased expression of negative regulators of lipolysis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) expression did...

  19. Redução da poda hibernal e aumento da produção de pereiras 'Hosui' pelo uso de prohexadiona cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo e a capacidade produtiva de pereiras 'Hosui', em resposta ao uso de prohexadiona cálcio, nas condições climáticas do Sul do Brasil. Foram aplicadas diferentes doses de prohexadiona cálcio (0, 275, 550, e 825 g ha-1 em pereiras com 11 anos de idade, enxertadas sobre Pyrus calleryana. O uso de prohexadiona cálcio foi efetivo no controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo das pereiras 'Hosui' e reduziu a necessidade de poda hibernal, pela redução da massa total e do número de ramos podados. O controle do desenvolvimento vegetativo, pelo uso de prohexadiona cálcio, favorece o aumento da capacidade produtiva de pereiras 'Hosui', principalmente à concentração de 550 g ha-1.

  20. 基于Hibernate的对象关系映射研究%Research of object-relational mapping based on hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少应; 程传旭

    2016-01-01

    Object relational mapping solves the matching problem of the object-oriented programming language and the relational database. Persistence framework based on object relational mapping realizes the separation of business logic and data access, simplifies the database access, reduces the difficulty of application development. This paper analyzes the two kinds of object relational mapping strategy based on Hibernate framework, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of three kinds of inheritance mapping strategy, designs a system architecture based on Hibernate ORM persistence layer. The architecture structure have many advantages of clear framework, high efficiency and higher application value.%对象关系映射解决了面向对象程序设计语言与关系数据库存在的互不匹配问题。基于对象关系映射的持久化框架实现了业务逻辑与数据访问的分离,简化了数据库访问,降低了应用开发难度。本文分析了基于Hibernate框架的两种对象关系映射策略,并比较了三种继承映射策略的优缺点,设计了一种基于Hibernate的ORM持久化层的系统架构,该架构结构清晰、开发效率高,具有较高的应用价值。

  1. Effect of pharmaceutical intervention on AT1R, AT2R, ERK and JNK activity in chronic hibernating myocardium in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongye Li; Weiwei Li; Yong Xia; Wenhao Qian; Hong Zhu; Tongda Xu; Defeng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate in chronic hibernating myocardium in rabbits and the influence and significance of captopril, betaloc,valsartan in angiotensin Ⅱ subtype 1 receptor(AT1R), angiotensin Ⅱ subtype 2 receptor(AT2R), extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK). Methods: The model of chronic hibernating myocardium(CHM) was established.The changes of AT1R, AT2R, ERK1/2, JNK in different groups were assessed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results:The amount of AT1R decreased while AT2R increased in the CON group compared with in sham group, and both AT1R and AT2R decreased in drug groups compared with the CON group. The content of ERK had no change in each group, while that of "expression" p-ERK increased in CON group compared with in sham group, and was lower in drug intervention groups than in CON and sham groups. The contents of JNK and p-JNK decreased in CON and drug intervention groups compared with in sham group. The protein levels of JNK, p-JN K in drug intervention groups were lower than in the CON group. Three drugs can inhibit interstitial fibrosis and reduce apoptotic cells. The expression levels in the groups(with different doses) had statistical difference as well as between groups of captopril and other drugs; however the results between betaloc and valsartan had no significant difference. Conclusion: AT1R, AT2R may be the upper stream receptor of ERK and JNK and may participate in generation and evolution of CHM. Captepril, valsartan and betaloc may preserve CHM by inhibiting AT1R, AT2R and JNK activity.

  2. Coping with pregnancy after 9months in the dark: Post-hibernation buffering of high maternal stress in arctic ground squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Phoebe D; Boonstra, Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are key times in the life of female mammals when energetic resources must be brought to bear to produce and nurture offspring. Changes in glucocorticoid (GC) levels are central to this objective, due to their roles in modulating development and physiology and in mediating energetic tradeoffs. We examined GC changes over reproduction in a species living in a harsh seasonal environment: the arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii). Females become pregnant immediately after emerging from a ∼9month hibernation, and then must begin this pregnancy during an additional month of freezing temperatures and limited food availability. We measured plasma levels of total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and free cortisol in unstressed females at three stages: not-visibly pregnant, visibly pregnant, and lactating. Total cortisol levels were similar in all stages, but CBG levels increased 4-fold from the not-visibly pregnant stage to visibly pregnant and lactating stage. As a result, the free cortisol fraction declined from 51% of total cortisol when females were not-visibly pregnant to only 5% when they were visibly pregnant (remaining low and stable throughout pregnancy) and 10% when they were lactating. This pattern is markedly different from that seen in other mammals, where 10% or less of GCs are free and these tend to increase during gestation. We postulate that the high free cortisol just prior to visible pregnancy is a seasonal adaptation relating either to the pronounced physiological changes the female must undergo after emerging from hibernation and immediately getting pregnant, or to the mobilization of body reserves for energy to permit pregnancy, or both. Thereafter, high CBG levels may shield the developing offspring from the negative effects of cortisol overexposure.

  3. On Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking and Research Creative Ability in Foreign Language Teaching man Interview with Professor Steve J. Kulich at Shanghai International Studies University%研究生外语教育:批判性思维与科研创新能力——上海外国语大学跨文化研究中心Steve J.Kulich教授访谈录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新民

    2012-01-01

    In this interview, the writer reported his conversation with Professor Steve J. Kulich, Director of the SISU Intercultural Institute (SII), mainly focusing on the discussion of how to develop postgraduates' critical thinking and research creative ability. The discussion covered a range of topics, including postgraduate admission selection, literature reading instruction, proposal writing, research question raising, data collection, research approaches, communicative skills, journal paper writing and ethic issues. It is believed that Professor Kulich's insight and advice will help to illuminate our postgraduate curriculum innovation in foreign language teaching and instruction.%本文系对现任上海外国语大学211特聘教授、上外跨文化研究中心执行主任、国际跨文化学院院士(IAIR)顾力行教授(SteveJ.Kulich)的专访。文中以跨文化交际方向的研究生教育为案例,以研究生外语教育中如何才能培养研究生具有批判性思维和创新能力这一话题为主线,围绕研究生入学遴选标准、入学前阅读指导、开题报告如何撰写、研究问题如何提出、如何结合中国语境开展语言学和应用语言学相关课题研究、如何收集资料、研究方法拟定、如何与海外相关学系的教授与研究生开展交流合作、如何将学位论文改写成学术文章在核心刊物上发表、如何使研究生在学的研究呈可持续研究,以及如何守住学术道德底线等问题展开深入细致的讨论。文章对于我国研究生外语教学和研究生指导工作等具有可操作的现实意义和借鉴意义。

  4. The artificial feeding, breeding and research on hibernation bouts of the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus)%达乌尔黄鼠实验室饲养、繁殖及其冬眠阵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小勇; 高云芳; 王琦; 姜山峰; 郭树攀; 刘坤

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to establish an appropriate way of feeding and breeding of Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) in the laboratory and to investigate the rules of its hibernation bouts. The hibernation room was made according to the parameters of wild Daurian ground squirrels' caves in the field, and the hibernation bouts were monitored by the traditional sawdust method. Results: (1) The animals were fed with mainly standard rat chow and some fruits and vegetables were provided in the spring breeding season; rat chow mixed with rabbit chow was supplied in the summer, along with fruits and vegetables rich in water; in the fattening period of Autumn, in addition to rat chow, some peanuts, and beans rich in fat and protein also were necessary. (2) The pregnancy of female animals was about 28 days and lactation was a month. Females gave birth 4 to 8 offspring per brood, with an average of 5. 52; As the newborn's bedding should not be changed for at least the first two weeks, abnormal flavor must be avoided in the nest. (3 ) The hibernation period of the animals was from late November to early March of the next year, the average time of hibernation was 93. 95 days. Hibernation bouts occurred on 89. 9% of the days of the whole hibernation time. The average days of dormancy for each hibernation bout was 7. 44 and the arousal from hibernation bout was 1. 36 days. In total there were 7. 55 hibernation bouts during the hibernation period. (4) Between 2009 and 2011, 185 animals were recaught from the wild, 146 survived, a survival rate of 78. 9% . In the breeding seasons of 2006, 2009 and 2011, 25 pairs were matched and 138 babies were born with 92 surviving, a survival rate of 66. 7%. The results showed that wild Daurian ground squirrel can be successfully bred and fed in lab condition and can achieve their hibernating period in artificial hibernation room.%为探索实验室条件下达乌尔黄鼠饲养与繁殖的方法及冬眠阵的发生规律,参照野生黄

  5. The Art of Rhetoric in the Presentation of Steve J obs: 2007 iPhone Presentation as a Case%乔布斯演讲体现的西方修辞艺术——以2007年iPhone发布会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽蓉

    2012-01-01

    乔布斯2007年iPhone的发布会被公认为是其最出色、最成功的一次演讲。而这一次的演讲也体现了他炉火纯青的修辞技巧。本文旨在通过深入地分析乔布斯2007年iPhone发布会演讲,挖掘其演讲所体现出来的西方修辞艺术,使得乔布斯的修辞技巧能够为更多的商业修辞实践者提供借鉴。%The 2007 iPhone presentation of Steve Jobs was regarded as his best ever.This presentation shows excellent rhetoric skills.The author of this paper means to discover the art of rhetoric in the presentation of Steve Jobs by in-depth analysis of his 2007 iPhone presentation,so as to allow Steve Jobs's Rhetoric skills to be a reference for more commercial rhetorical practitioners.

  6. Design and Implementation of Hibernate-based Persistence Layer%基于Hibernate持久化层的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少应; 程传旭

    2014-01-01

    在分层结构设计中,持久化层位于数据库层与业务逻辑层之间,实现了业务逻辑与数据访问的分离,给开发人员提供了便利。ORM框架是解决面向对象程序设计语言与关系数据库间存在互不匹配问题的中间方案。文中分析了几种常见持久化层实现技术的优缺点,通过对常用ORM框架技术的分析和比较,研究了一种基于Hibernate框架的ORM持久化层的设计与实现。为简化业务逻辑层调用,通过DAO模式实现了持久化层,提高了系统的开发效率和可重用性。基于Hibernate持久化层在Java企业级的应用开发中,具有较强的实用价值。%In the hierarchical structure design,the persistence layer lies between the database layer and business logic layer,which realizes the separation of business logic and data access,and provides convenience for the developer.The ORM framework resolves the mismatc-hing problem of the object oriented programming language and relational database.In this paper,analyze the advantages and disadvantages of several common persistence layer implementation technology.Through analysis and comparison for the commonly used ORM frame-work technology,research a Hibernate framework based ORM design and implementation of the persistence layer.In order to simplify the business logic layer calls,the DAO realizes the persistence layer,which enhances the efficiency and reusability of the system develop-ment.The Hibernate-based persistence layer has a strong practical value in the Java enterprise application.

  7. Application of the OA system based on Struts + Spring + Hibernate%Struts+Spring+Hibernate在OA系统开发中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凯霞; 程耕国

    2011-01-01

    介绍了Struts,Hibernate和Spring三个开源框架及它们对MVC设计模式的实现,通过分析各个开源架构关键技术的基本特征,阐述了如何更好地将三者整合起来构建一个结构清晰、低藕合度、易于扩展的J2EE分层架构.最后给出了该架构在OA系统开发中的应用实例,在实践中体现出MVC设计模式与Struts+ Spring+ Hibernate架构的高效和结构清晰的优点,同时也为开发管理信息系统提供了理论指导.%This paper introduces the Struts,Hibermate and Spring,three open sources of MVC framework and their realization of design patterns. By analyzing the basic characteristics of key technologies of the various open-source framework, it expounds how to integrate the three structures to construct a clear, low degree of lotus, easy to expand J2EE layered structure. Finally it gives application examples of the structure in OA system development. In practice the advantages of efficiency and clarity in MVC design patterns and Struts + Spring + Hibernate architecture are realized. And also for the development of management information system it provides theoretical guidance.

  8. F-104 with research pilot Steve Ishmael

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    NASA research pilot Stephen D. Ishmael in front of an F-104 in this 1984 photo. Ishmael became a NASA research pilot in 1977, and during the following year began flying the F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire aircraft. Ishmael also flew on the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI)F-16 and the X-29 program among others. In the early 1990s, he was selected as one of two research pilots to fly the NASA SR-71s.

  9. STS-93: Crew Interview - Steve Hawley

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Mission Specialist Steven A. Hawley is presented. The interview addresses many different questions including why Hawley wanted to be an astronaut, his career path, and how this historic flight (first female Commander of a mission) draws attention from the media. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the deployment of the Chandra satellite, why people care about x ray energy, whether or not Chandra will compliment the other X Ray Observatories currently in operation, and his responsibilities during the major events of this mission. Hawley mentions the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) rocket that will deployed the Chandra Telescope, and the design configuration of Chandra to gather and transfer information. The Southwest Research Ultraviolet Imaging System (SWUIS) Telescope on board Columbia, the Plant Growth Investigation in Microgravity (PGIM) and Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR) experiments, and the two observatories presently in orbit (Gamma Ray Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope) are also discussed.

  10. Näljakriis pakub lahendusi / Steve Hamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hamm, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Ülemaailmne toidunappus võib kaasa tuua kaubandustõkete vähenemise ning põllumajandusettevõtete tootlikkust tõstva innovatsiooni. Graafik: Hinnasildishokk. Vt. samas: Pallavi Gogoi. Miks tekkis tormijooks riisile

  11. Cosmic tragedy in Steve Chimombo's The Python

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spiritual regeneration, the meaning of life and the futility that confounds him in the process, the narrator .... menacing the air with spillages of blood. “How can we sing ... adversary, Mbona, who humbly accepts: “I am only a vessel through whom.

  12. Research and Implementation of Web Application of Struts+Hibernate Framework Based on MVC Pattern%基于MVC模式的Struts+Hibernate框架的Web应用研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贤金; 王光琼

    2009-01-01

    Struts+Hibernate使得Web框架具有良好的扩展性和动态灵活性.简介Struts框架各组件实现功能和Hibernate框架,通过一个Web资金管理系统实例,从系统分析设计、Struts组件设计、Hibernate ORM数据库映射设计等方面论述基于MVC模式的Struts+Hibernate框架的Web应用系统的实现方法.

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the hibernation and reproductive periods of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruidong; Hu, Yuehong; Wang, Huan; Yan, Peng; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Rong; Wu, Xiaobing

    2016-10-01

    Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis, is a critically endangered reptile species unique to China. Little is known about the mechanism of growth- and reproduction-related hormones gene expression in Chinese alligator. Estrogens play important roles in regulating multiple reproduction- and non-reproduction-related functions by binding to their corresponding receptors. Here, the full-length cDNA of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) was cloned and sequenced from Chinese alligator for the first time, which comprises 1764bp nucleotides and encodes a predicted protein of 587 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of ESR1 showed that crocodilians and turtles were the sister-group of birds. The results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated that the ESR1 mRNA was widely expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues. In the brain and pituitary gland, ESR1 was most highly transcribed in the cerebellum. But in other peripheral tissues, ESR1 mRNA expression level was the highest in the ovary. Compared with hibernation period, ESR1 mRNA expression levels were increased significantly in the reproductive period (P0.05). The ESR1 mRNA expression levels changes during the two periods of different tissues suggested that ESR1 might play an important role in mediation of estrogenic multiple reproductive effects in Chinese alligator. Furthermore, it was the first time to quantify ESR1 mRNA level in the brain of crocodilians, and the distribution and expression of ESR1 mRNA in the midbrain, cerebellum and medulla oblongata was also reported for the first time in reptiles.

  14. Proteção do solo por plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na região Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina Dahlem Ziech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na proteção do solo, na região Sudoeste do Paraná, em função da taxa de cobertura, da produção de matéria seca (MS, da relação C/N e da manutenção da MS remanescente dos resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo. Foram utilizados como cobertura do solo: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, azevém (Lolium multiflorum, centeio (Secale cereale, tremoço-branco (Lupinus albus, ervilhaca comum (Vicia sativa, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus e consórcios entre aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum (A+E e aveia-preta + ervilhaca comum + nabo forrageiro (A+E+N. O experimento foi avaliado durante os anos agrícolas 2010/2011 e 2011/2012. A decomposição das plantas de cobertura foi determinada com uso de bolsas de decomposição ("litter bags". A aveia-preta e os consórcios proporcionaram maiores taxas de cobertura do solo aos primeiros 50 dias após a semeadura, com aporte de MS superior a 2.600 kg ha-1 na superfície do solo. O consórcio entre A+E+N apresentou relação C/N equilibrada e decomposição intermediária em relação ao cultivo solteiro, tendo promovido 1.045 kg ha-1 de palhada sobre o solo, 120 dias após seu manejo. Gramíneas puras e consórcios com gramíneas apresentam maior potencial de proteção do solo

  15. DESIGN OF COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON JSF,SPRING AND HIBERNATE%基于JSF、Spring和Hibernate的技术资料综合管理系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海燕; 王卫东

    2012-01-01

    技术资料在设备系统中具有重要的位置,为管理技术资料,并能从中快速地找到所需的各种信息,通过对技术资料管理的分析与研究,运用JSF、Spring和Hibernate 集成框架技术,以Oracle 作为后台数据库,设计并实现了基于B/S多层架构模式的技术资料管理系统.该系统实现了技术资料数字化管理和全文搜索,大大提高了设备维护工作的效率.%Technical data plays an important role in equipment system. In order to manage the technical data and to find out any useful information rapidly, We designed and implemented an integrated management system for technical data which is based on B/S N-tier model by analysing and studying technical data management, applying the integrated framework technology of JSF, Spring and Hibernate, and taking Oracle as the background database. This system has achieved technical data management digitization and full text research, and greatly improved the efficiency of equipment maintenance.

  16. J2EE基于Struts和Hibernate框架的新闻发布系统分析与设计%Analysis and design of news release system based on J2EE Struts and Hibernate framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔荔; 邵春晖; 崔磊

    2012-01-01

    Based on the J2EE, further analysis Struts and Hibernate framework, research and analysis of both integration technology, briefly introduced the MVC design patterns and MySQL database. By introducing the news system as an example to discuss Struts framework separation effect of system's view, business and model layer, as well as persistent effect on system data of Hibernate. After the actual test, the system is easy to realize and modify the code reuse, has good flexibility, stability and expansibility.%以J2EE为基础,对Struts和Hibernate框架分别进行深入剖析,研究分析二者的整合集成技术,并对开发所使用的MVC设计模式和MySQL数据库简要介绍。通过引入新闻系统实例讨论了Struts框架对系统的表示层、业务层和数据层的分离作用,以及Hibernate对系统数据持久化的作用。经过实际测验,该系统易实现代码的重用和修改,具有良好的灵活性、稳定性和扩展性。

  17. Steve Jürvetson: suureneb bioloogiateaduste tähtsus / Steve Jürvetson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2010-01-01

    USA riskikapitalist panustaks kaugemas perspektiivis bioloogiateadustele, lähemas tulevikus on tema hinnangul perspektiivikad Internetiga seotud ärid, eelkõige tarbijaitele suunatud kaubad ja teenused. Finantskriis on ka muudatuste katalüsaator ning sektoreis, kus šokki polnud, pole eriti ka uut ettevõtlikkust

  18. Steve Jürvetson: suureneb bioloogiateaduste tähtsus / Steve Jürvetson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2010-01-01

    USA riskikapitalist panustaks kaugemas perspektiivis bioloogiateadustele, lähemas tulevikus on tema hinnangul perspektiivikad Internetiga seotud ärid, eelkõige tarbijaitele suunatud kaubad ja teenused. Finantskriis on ka muudatuste katalüsaator ning sektoreis, kus šokki polnud, pole eriti ka uut ettevõtlikkust

  19. Seasonal abundance and mortality of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae in a hibernation refuge Abundância sazonal e mortalidade de Oebalus poecilus (Dallas (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae no refúgio de hibernação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. S. Santos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Oebalus poecilus (Dallas is an important pest affecting irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It hibernates during the coldest months of the year in refuges such as bamboo litter. This study examined O. poecilus hibernation to determine the causes of mortality during this period. The study was conducted in a 140 m² bamboo plantation located in a rice-growing area in Eldorado do Sul County (30° 02’ S and 51° 23’ W, RS. During June 2000 to April 2002, 63 samples of litter were taken in weekly or fortnightly intervals, and the number of bugs recorded in the laboratory. The arrival at the hibernation site (bamboo litter began in the first fortnight of March, and was completed in the beginning of May. O. poecilus left this refuge from middle October to the end of December. Parasitism by tachinid flies and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. fungus were the most important mortality factors.Oebalus poecilus (Dallas é praga importante do arroz irrigado no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Este inseto hiberna durante os meses mais frios em refúgios como o folhedo de bambu. Este estudo objetivou elucidar a hibernação de O. poecilus e determinar as causas de mortalidade durante este período. O estudo foi realizado em um bambuzal com cerca de 140 m², situado em área orizícola, em Eldorado do Sul (30° 02’ S e 51° 23’ W, RS. De junho/2000 à abril/2002, foram realizadas 63 amostragens de folhedo, em intervalos semanais ou quinzenais e o número de percevejos registrado em laboratório. A entrada no refúgio de hibernação (folhedo de bambu iniciou na primeira semana de março, completando-se no início de maio. O. poecilus abandonou o refúgio da metade de outubro até o final de dezembro. O parasitismo por mosca (taquinídeos e o fungo Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. foram os principais fatores de mortalidade.

  20. Seleção de genótipos de pessegueiro F1 com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal Selection of F1 peach genotypes with low chilling requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A baixa necessidade de frio é característica fundamental para que se possa cultivar economicamente o pessegueiro em condições de clima subtropical, devendo ser este, portanto, o principal objetivo dos programas de melhoramento nestas regiões. o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e selecionar progênies de pessegueiro com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal por meio do método de ramos destacados e indicar o melhor genitor para utilização em programas de melhoramento, visando a esta característica. Foram avaliados 180 genótipos pertencentes a 25 populações de pessegueiro, sendo que o número de genótipos em cada população variou de três a dezenove. os ramos foram submetidos a 50; 100; 150; 200 e 400 unidades de frio, e, ao término de cada tratamento, os ramos foram transferidos para o interior da casa de vegetação. Após 21 dias, foram avaliados quanto às porcentagens de floração e brotação,e com os resultados obtidos, 5 populações e 29 genótipos de pessegueiro com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal foram selecionados. A cultivar Real mostrou-se eficiente na obtenção de pessegueiros com baixa necessidade de frio hibernal, quando utilizada como genitor feminino.Low chilling requirement is the main characteristic for the economic cultivation of peaches under subtropical climate conditions, therefore it should be the most important objective in breeding programs for these regions. The aim of this work was to evaluate and to select peach progenies with low chilling requirement through detached twigs methodology, to indicate a good genitor for using in the breeding program with this characteristic. A total of 180 genotypes, from 25 peach populations, were observed. The genotypes of each population varied from three to nineteen plants. The twigs were submitted to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 chilly units. once the treatments were concluded, the twigs were transferred to a greenhouse and after twenty one days the budbreak and

  1. Fhe Application of the Schemata Theory in the Course of "Viewing, Listening&Speaking" ——taking Steve Jobs' Speech at Stanford University for Example%图式理论在“英语视听说”教学中的应用——以乔布斯在斯坦福大学演讲为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立

    2012-01-01

    Based on Schemata Theory in the cognitive language studies, this paper, taking Steve Jobs' speech at Stanford University for example, discusses the effects of the Schemata Theory on the teaching of the course of " Viewing, Listening&Speaking" from three different aspects: linguistic, formal and content schemata. The paper aims to explore certain strategies for improving the students' speaking ability and listening comprehension by activating and enriching their schemata.%运用认知语言学中的图式理论,以乔布斯在斯坦福大学演讲为例,从语言、形式、内容三个方面探讨了图式理论对英语视听说教学的影响。阐述了通过激活、丰富学生的图式知识,帮助提高学生听说水平的策略。

  2. 基于Struts+Spring+Hibernate的高校学生管理系统的设计与实现%Design and implement of university student management system based on Struts+Spring+Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烨; 王伯槐

    2011-01-01

    The Student Management System plays the most important role in the student management affairs in university.We have explored the theory and technologies of student management systems. Based on the analysis of the system requirements the actual of school, B/S development modules and layer structures were employed in implementing the system.The system was classified into representation layer,WEB layer,logic layer (business logic interface and business logic implementation class),data layer by utilizing Java EE framework technology struts+spring+hibernate),we have implemented the corresponding functions of student management system and conducted relevant tests. The results indicated that the system's feasibility and effectiveness achieved the desired goals. Its applications in realities have reduced the workload of the managers and improved the efficiencies.%在高校的日常工作中,学生管理系统占有举足轻重的地位.通过对学生管理系统相关理论技术进行深入研究,充分系统需求分析的基础上,结合学校的实际情况,采用B/S开发模式的多层体系方法,应用轻量级的Java EE框架技术(Struts+Spring+Hibernate),将系统划分为表示层、业务逻辑层、数据持久层,详细设计并实现了学生管理系统的相应功能,并进行了相关测试.测试结果表明系统的可行性和有效性达到了预期的目标,其应用能有效减少管理者的工作量、提高学生管理的工作效率.

  3. Presurgical identification of hibernating myocardium by combined use of technetium-99m hexakis 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile single photon emission tomography and fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucignani, G.; Landoni, C.; Paganelli, G.; Vanoli, G.; Rossetti, C.; Gilardi, M.C.; Colombo, F.; Fazio, F. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Cattedra di Medicina Nucleare); Paolini, G.; Zuccari, M.; Di Credico, G.; Mariani, M.A.; Grossi, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Cattedra di Cardiochirurgia); Galli, L. (Istituto Scientificao, Milan (Italy). Unita di Epidemiologia e Statistica Medica)

    1992-10-01

    We tested the possibility of identifying areas of hibernating myocardium by the combined assessment of perfusion and metabolism using SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and PET with {sup 18}F-FDG. Segmental wall motion, perfusion and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were scored in 5 segments in 14 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), for a total number of 70 segments. Each subject underwent the following studies prior to and following coronary artery-bypass grafting (CABG): First-pass radionuclide angiography, electrocardiography gated planar perfusion scintigraphy and SPET perfusion scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and, after 16 fasting, {sup 18}F-FDG PET metabolic scintigraphy. Wall motion impairment was either decreased or completely reversed by CABG in 95% of the asynergic segments which exhibited {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, whereas it was unmodified in 80% of the asynergic segments with no {sup 18}Fe-FDG uptake. A stepwise multiple logistic analysis was carried out on the asynergic segments to estimate the postoperative probability of wall motion improvement on the basis of the preoperative regional perfusion and metabolic scores. The segments with the highest probability of functional recovery from preoperative asynergy after revascularization were those with a marked {sup 18}F-FDG uptake prior to CABG. High probabilities of functional recovery were also estimated for the segments presenting with moderate and low {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. A low probability of functional recovery was estimated in the segments with no {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Despite the potential limitations due to the semiquantitative analysis of the images, the method appears to provide reliable information for the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients with CAD undergoing CABG and confirms that the identification of hibernating myocardium with {sup 18}F-FDG is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of patients undergoing CABG. (orig.).

  4. Roles of leptin in the regulation of food intake, energy balance and the mammalian hibernation%瘦蛋白对摄食和能量平衡的调节及其在哺乳动物冬眠中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢昕; 杨明

    2011-01-01

    白色脂肪合成和分泌的瘦蛋白(leptin)作用于下丘脑和外周的代谢产热器官,对摄食和能量平衡起调节作用.摄食和能量平衡的失调,如瘦蛋白抵抗,可以导致肥胖等一系列生理疾病.以体内贮存的脂肪为主要能源物质越冬的冬眠哺乳动物,体重的年周期波动幅度巨大,其摄食和能量平衡调节机制可能不同于一般的非冬眠物种,育肥阶段可能存在瘦蛋白抵抗机制.本文总结了瘦蛋白调节摄食和能量平衡的作用机制以及瘦蛋白对冬眠哺乳动物育肥和冬眠的影响,为进一步研究冬眠哺乳动物的能量平衡提供参考.%Leptin. Synthesized and secreted by white adipose tissue (WAT) plays important roles in the regulation of food intake and energy balance through the action on both hypothalamus and peripheral thermogenesis organs. Some physiological diseases such as obesity are due to the disorder of energy balance which can be induced by leptin resistance. As for the fat-storage hibernator, the body weight has severe circannual fluctuation and the mechanisms of food intake and energy balance may be different from other non-hibernation species, we suppose that leptin resistance may be involved in the fattening period. This article reviewed the roles of leptin in the regulation of food intake and energy balance and in the fatten period of mammalian hibernators, which will provide an insight for the further study of energy balance of mammalian hibernator.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in Chinese alligator, Alligator sinensis: Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and mRNA expression changes during the active and hibernating periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhao, Shuai; Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Yongkang; Wu, Xiaobing

    2017-02-01

    The Chinese alligator Alligator sinensis is an endangered species endemic to China, up to date, little is known about the regulation of its growth and development. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plays a vital role in regulating vertebrate growth and development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of IGF-I in Chinese alligator (caIGF-I) was obtained for the first time, it contains 890-bp nucleotides encoding a 153-amino acid precursor, the mature caIGF-I consists of 70 amino acids by cleaving the signal peptide and C-terminal extension (E domain). The caIGF-I contains all the features of IGF-I peptide with B, C, A, and D domains and the six conservative cysteine residues involved in the stable tertiary structure. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of caIGF-I shares high identity with American alligator Alligator mississippiensis (100%) and birds (95-97%). Phylogenetic tree analysis of the IGF-I amino acid sequences indicated that alligators cluster into the bird branch. Real-time quantitative PCR technique showed that caIGF-I is widely expressed in all the examined tissues with the highest expression level in liver, higher in pancreas and oviduct while lower in heart, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestines, ovary and muscles. During hibernation, the caIGF-I expression level decreased significantly in liver, pancreas, oviduct and kidney, while did not significantly change in heart, spleen, lung, stomach, small intestine, ovary and muscles. The mRNA expression changes during the two periods implicate that caIGF-I might play an important role in the regulation of feeding and growth in the Chinese alligator.

  6. Kuidas kaitsta laeva piraatide eest / Steve O'Connor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    O'Connor, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Mereorganisatsiooni 2007. aasta raportist. Pardakaitse teenust pakkuvast Suurbritannia firmast MAST (Maritime Asset Security and Training). Lisa: Võitlus piraatlusega. Kaart: Piraatlus ja relvastatud röövid rahvusvahelise mereorganisatsiooni ICC International Maritime Bureau (IMB) andmetel 1. jaanuarist kuni 31. detsembrini 2007

  7. 'SHREDS AND TATI"ERS': LIPENGA'S SHORT STORIES Steve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "rhythm," borrowed from painting and music respectively). I shall use the term ... ways or guises ••• An echo or memory of an event, a speech or object appearing and ... the audience by the text and its performance, the narrator ... their effects.

  8. STS-95 Pilot Steve Lindsey in white room

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the environmental chamber known as the white room, STS-95 Pilot Steven W. Lindsey is prepared by white room crew members Dave Law(left), Danny Wyatt and Travis Thompson (right) for entry into the Space Shuttle Discovery for his second flight into space. The STS-95 mission, targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  9. Interview with Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : 1. After a year of repairs and consolidation work, is the LHC now ready for data? 2. Is the LHC more difficult to run compared to other existing or previous particle accelerators? Why? 3. When do you expect to be running at 7 TeV? 4. What is exactly going to happen in the control room in the next few days?

  10. STS-95 Pilot Steve Lindsey suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Pilot Steven W. Lindsey tests his flight suit in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  11. Where Is Music?: A Philosophical Approach Inspired by Steve Dillon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Georgina; Hartwig, Kay

    2012-01-01

    For pre-service music teachers it is important to develop a personal philosophy of music education before entering the teaching profession. Having a philosophy to music education enables students to clearly articulate the meaning of music not only in their own lives but also how this might impact on their practice as a teacher. Many philosophies…

  12. FATCA - mis see on? / Steve Austwick ; intervjueerinud Joel Zernask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Austwick, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide seaduseelnõust, mis mõjutab enamikku finantsteenuseid pakkuvaid ettevõtteid üle maailma, sealhulgas ka Balti riikides. Lisatud FATCA ajakava. FATCA = Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

  13. Kuidas kaitsta laeva piraatide eest / Steve O'Connor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    O'Connor, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise Mereorganisatsiooni 2007. aasta raportist. Pardakaitse teenust pakkuvast Suurbritannia firmast MAST (Maritime Asset Security and Training). Lisa: Võitlus piraatlusega. Kaart: Piraatlus ja relvastatud röövid rahvusvahelise mereorganisatsiooni ICC International Maritime Bureau (IMB) andmetel 1. jaanuarist kuni 31. detsembrini 2007

  14. FATCA - mis see on? / Steve Austwick ; intervjueerinud Joel Zernask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Austwick, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide seaduseelnõust, mis mõjutab enamikku finantsteenuseid pakkuvaid ettevõtteid üle maailma, sealhulgas ka Balti riikides. Lisatud FATCA ajakava. FATCA = Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act

  15. Expression and significance of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1/2 protein in chronic hibernated myocardium of domestic pigs%家猪慢性冬眠心肌中C-Jun N末端蛋白激酶1/2蛋白的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东野; 朱红; 夏勇; 潘德峰; 杨煜; 李雷; 祁春梅

    2005-01-01

    背景:急性心肌缺血时c-Jun N末端蛋白激酶(c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase,JNK)被激活,并使得缺血损伤加重.慢性冬眠心肌组织中JNK的亚型--JNK1/2是否被激活及其在慢性冬眠心肌发生发展机制中的作用又是什么呢?目的:明确慢性冬眠心肌组织中JNK1/2的蛋白表达及其磷酸化(p-JNK1/2)的变化.设计:随机对照的实验研究.单位:徐州医学院附属医院心血管病研究所.材料和方法:在徐州医学院附属医院导管室进行动物模型的制备、在徐州医学院生化教研室测定JNK1/2的蛋白表达及其磷酸化(p-JNK1/2)的变化.将14只小型中国家猪随机分为实验组(n=8)与对照组(n=6).实验组以右冠状动脉为靶血管,经右股动脉送入自制的缩窄器,制备成慢性冬眠心肌及心肌梗死的模型.获取对照组心肌组织、实验组中的正常心肌组织及慢性冬眠心肌组织的样本进行光镜、电镜检查并采用免疫印迹(Western blotting)分析3组心肌组织的JNK1/2的蛋白表达及其磷酸化的变化.主要观察指标:慢性冬眠心肌组织中JNK1/2是否被活化.结果:实验组慢性冬眠心肌组织p-JNK1/2比实验组正常心肌组织、对照组心肌组织高.对照组、实验组正常心肌组织、实验组慢性冬眠心肌组织p-JNK1/2的免疫活性分别为1,1.42±0.52,2.6±0.59.结论:慢性冬眠心肌组织中JNK1/2被激活,并参与了慢性冬眠心肌的发生和发展.%BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial ischemia can activate the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase(JNK) and, in turn, the ischemia damage can be aggravated by JNK. While in chronic hibernating myocardium, whether chronic myocardial ischemia can activate JNK1/2 or not and what is the role of JNK1/2 in developing the chronic hibernating myocardium, is not clear.OBJECTIVE :To identify protein expression of JNK1/2 and the p-JNK1/2 changes in chronic hibernating myocardium.DESIGN: Randomly controlled experimental research.SETTING: This

  16. 河南济源马铁菊头蝠不同越冬期肠道寄生蠕虫群落比较%Comparison of Intestinal Helminth Communities from the Bat Rhinolophus ferrmequinum during Different Hibernation Periods in Jiyuan City, Henan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金友; 余燕; 牛红星; 吴世秀

    2013-01-01

    2005~2006年和2006 ~ 2007年冬季分别对济源市人工隧道马铁菊头蝠(Rhinolophus ferrmequinum)越冬群消化道寄生蠕虫进行了调查并对其寄生蠕虫群落进行比较.结果显示,济源市人工隧道马铁菊头蝠越冬期消化道寄生蠕虫共有5种,2种吸虫,即济源中孔吸虫(Mesotretes jiyuanensis)和朝鲜斜睾吸虫(Plagiorchis koreanus),2种绦虫,即垦丁蝙蝠绦虫(Vampirolepis kengtingensis)和东北蝙蝠绦虫(V.toohokuensis),1种线虫,即比勒陀利亚圆钩线虫(Strongylacantha pretoriensis).2006 ~2007年越冬期缺少了垦丁蝙蝠绦虫.2005 ~ 2006年越冬期总感染率为94.74%,吸虫和线虫的感染率分别为73.68%和63.18%,2006~2007年总感染率为91.30%,吸虫和线虫的感染率分别为78.26%和65.22%.两个越冬群感染平均强度和平均密度比较高的是济源中孔吸虫和比勒陀利亚圆钩线虫,优势种以济源中孔吸虫和比勒陀利亚圆钩线虫为主;所感染蝙蝠体内寄生2种蠕虫的蝙蝠个体在两个冬眠群中占蝙蝠总数的比例都比较高(约50%以上);虫体数量在30条以内的蝙蝠个体约占蝙蝠感染总数的75%以上.数量较多的朝鲜斜睾吸虫、济源中孔吸虫和比勒陀利亚圆钩线虫在越冬群马铁菊头蝠消化道内彼此间没有明显的协同或排斥作用,这3种寄生蠕虫的寄生事件应该是相互独立的.结果表明,济源市人工隧道越冬马铁菊头蝠群消化道寄生蠕虫感染率比较高,不同年度冬眠期消化道内寄生蠕虫除朝鲜斜睾吸虫的平均强度和平均密度差异显著之外,相同种类之间几乎没有差异,冬眠期蝙蝠寄生蠕虫的群落结构几乎没有变化.%Intestinal helminthes and comparison of intestinal helminth communities were investigated from the Rhinolophus ferrumequinum during the hibernation period of 2005-2006 year and 2006-2007 year collected in the artificial tunnel of Jiyuan City,Henan Province.Total 5

  17. Biochemical mechanism of metabolic substrate conversion at the start of hibernation of Daurian ground squirrel inhibited by light%光照抑制达乌尔黄鼠入眠启动的能源物质转变的生化机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜楠; 杨明

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal change in photoperiod is an important environmental factor for mammals to adjust some physiological processes and it is an important content in physiological ecology.Hibernating mammals feel the shortening of photoperiod and realize the coming of winter,then they adjust themselves in physiological behavior and prepare into hibernation.Previous studies indicate that light to some extent inhibit the start of hibernation of Daurian ground squirrel.This article took Daurian ground squirrel as the object of study and conducted comparison of two different light conditions,light (12L ∶ 12D) and constant dark (0L ∶ 24D).We studied the effect on squirrels' hibernation of glucose and fat metabolism enzyme activity change.The results are as follows:1) Under the two conditions,the activity of four key enzyme involved in glycolysis and the fatty acid β oxidation process,pyruvate kinase、hexokinase、phosphofructokinase and carnitine acyl transferase 1 did not have significant difference.2) No matter the treatment,the activity of CACT1 in the liver of hibernating squirrels increased remarkably compared with the active ones.The activity of PDH in heart and WAT also appears significant difference.This is the adjustment to environment for animals' metabolic substrate conversion from carbohydrate to fat.%生理生态学研究中的一个重要内容是动物对环境的适应策略.光周期是自然界中重要的环境因子.冬眠哺乳动物感受到光周期的缩短从而感知冬天的来临,进而在生理上表现出适应性调节准备进入冬眠状态.前期的研究表明光照在一定程度上抑制典型的贮脂越冬的冬眠动物达乌尔黄鼠冬眠的启动.以达乌尔黄鼠为研究对象,对比光照(12L∶12D)和恒黑(0L∶24D)对其入眠影响的糖和脂肪代谢酶活性的变化.研究结果显示:1)两种条件下达乌尔黄鼠肝脏中糖酵解过程的3种限速酶,丙酮酸激酶(pyruvate kinase,PK)、己糖激酶(hexokinase,HK)

  18. 大蹼铃蟾冬眠前后肥满度分析及部分内脏器官的变化%Comparative Analysis on Relative Fatness and Change in Some Internal Organs of Bombina maxima Before and After Hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鲁夫; 芦静; 张庆; 夏建平

    2012-01-01

    于2008年10-11月和2009年3-4月,测定了昆明市东北郊大蹼铃蟾冬眠前后的整体肥满度、躯体肥满度、肝系数、脂肪体系数及生殖腺系数等生理指标,并进行差异显著性检验.结果表明:整体肥满度K和体质量/体长指标KWL在不同性别间变化有差异;按体长数理统计法,将雌雄个体均划分为成体1龄和成体2龄,比较1龄和2龄个体间的K和KWL,表明用KWL检验不同年龄间个体身体状况的差异更准确.冬眠后两性的肝系数均显著下降,脂肪体系数变化均不显著;生殖腺系数的变化和营养消耗均表现出性别差异;在雌雄个体中均不能明确在冬眠期间主要消耗的营养物质来源,推测其在此期间可能有短暂的捕食行为.%The physiological indexes including the overall relative fatness, body relative fatness, liver coefficient, fat body coefficient and genital gland coefficient of Bombina maxima were measured between October to November in 2008 before the hibernation and between March to April in 2009 after hibernation in the northeastern suburban area of Kunming City, and the significant difference test was conducted. The results showed that there were some differences in the indexes of overall fatness indicator K and the weight length ratio KWL between the male and female animals. The male and female individuals were divided into adult age 1 and adult age 2 groups respectively according to body-length of management Statistics Act, the comparison of K and KWL index values between the adult age 1 and adult age 2 groups indicated that index KWL was more accurate to test the difference in physical conditions of individuals between the different ages. After hibernation, the liver coefficient of individuals for both two sexes declined significantly but the fat body coefficient did not change significantly. There were differences between the sexes in the change of genital gland coefficient and nutrient consumption. It was

  19. 扬子鳄消化道Ghrelin免疫活性细胞的分布及其在冬眠期的密度变化%Distribution of ghrelin-immunoreactive cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis and their density change during hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乃珍; 赵帅; 周永康; 王朝林; 张盛周

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究扬子鳄(Alligator sinensis)消化道中生长素释放肽ghrelin免疫活性(IR)细胞的分布、组织定位及其在冬眠期的变化.方法 应用链霉亲和素-生物素-过氧化物酶复合物(SABC)免疫组织化学方法结合生物统计学分析.结果 Ghrelin-IR细胞在扬子鳄的小胃密度最高,在胃贲门部、胃体和胃幽门部有少量分布,主要位于胃腺上皮细胞之间.在食管、十二指肠、空肠、回肠和直肠中均未检测出ghrelin-IR细胞.冬眠期小胃ghrelin-IR细胞显著性减少(P0.05).结论扬子鳄消化道ghrelin-IR细胞的分布同其它动物有相似之处,也有其一定的特异性.Ghrelin在扬子鳄冬眠期的代谢变化和能量稳态的调节中起重要作用.%Objective To investigate the distribution and localization of growth hormone releasing peptide (ghrelin) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis and the density change during hibernation. Methods Streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) immunohistochemical method was used in combination with biological statistical analysis. Results Ghrelin-IR cells occured with the highest density in the small stomach, with small quantity in the stomachus cardiacus, stomachus corpus and stomachus pyloricus, and they were mainly localized bet-ween epithelial cells of the gastric gland. No ghrelin-IR cells were detected in oesophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and rectum. During hibernation, the density of ghrelin-IR cells decreased significantly in the small stomach (P0. 05). Conclusion The distributional pattern of ghrelin-IR cells is similar to that of other animals, but some species-dependent unique features of the species were also found. Ghrelin may play an important role in the regulation of metabolic changes and energy homeostasis in Alligator sinensis during hibernation.

  20. The Hibernation of the oak Mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerling, L.C.P.

    1966-01-01

    The oak mildew invaded Western Europa in the years 1908 and 1909. Since then this parasite, Microsphaera alphitoides Griff. & Maubl. (syn. M. quercina (Schw.) Burr.) has occurred regularly in the Netherlands on oak seedlings and oak coppice, mainly Quercus pedunculata Ehr. (syn. Q. robur L. ). After

  1. Death, hibernation or bale-out?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, O.

    2000-07-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution coal has been seen as a central driving force behind British industry, but after years of restructuring and retrenchment to create a modern, profit-driven industry, UK coal is again in crisis. The article considers whether or not the industry can survive. It says there is still hope for British coal. Though new electricity trading arrangements are approaching, RJB Mining, the largest domestic producer, reported the same level of sales contracts in 2000 as in 1999. The 100 million pounds government subsidy to the industry will help keep open the threatened Ellington Coal Clipstone collieries and underpin the coal sale agreement between RJB's Selby coalfield and the Drax power station. However, critics claim the short-term subsidy is no more than a political tool to maintain voter support in the labour heartlands. 2 photos.

  2. MAPSAR Image Simulation Based on L-band Polarimetric Data from the SAR-R99B Airborne Sensor (SIVAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the methodology applied to generate simulated multipolarized L-band SAR images of the MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR satellite from the airborne SAR R99B sensor (SIVAM System. MAPSAR is a feasibility study conducted by INPE (National Institute for Space Research and DLR (German Aerospace Center targeting a satellite L-band SAR innovative mission for assessment, management and monitoring of natural resources. Examples of simulated products and their applications are briefly discussed.

  3. 多巴酚丁胺超声心动图负荷试验检测冬眠心肌的价值及适宜剂量%The value and suitble dosage of dobutamine stress echocardiography assessing hibernating myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓平; 张运; 王勇; 邢艳秋; 葛志明; 张薇; 张梅; 张园园; 黎莉; 李大庆; 钟明; 郭玲

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of dobutamine stress echocardiography(DSE) in detecring hibernating myocardium(HM)and the relationship between the different dosages of dobatamine and the ventrjcular wall motion of HM.Methods Ten dogs were selected to establish chronic myocardial hibernating animal model.and the changes Of ventricular wall motion were detected by DSE.The dosages of dobutamine were 5,10,20,30. 40μg/(kg.min),respectively.Results The animal model were successfully,during DSE,the number.f abnormal segments,number of improved segments,WMSI,LVEF were all in biphasie response pattern.There wete higher sensitivity,specificity and accuracy during the dosages of dobutamine being 10~20μg/(kg.min).Conclusions DSE is 0n accurate methed on examing IM.10~20μg/(kg.min)dobutamine dose level are the best dose level on examing.%目的 探讨多巴酚丁胺超声心动图负荷试验(D5E)检测冬眠心肌的最佳剂量及其价值.方法 利用10只犬建立慢性心肌冬眠动物模型并进行DSE,多巴酚丁胺的滴注剂量分别为5、10、20、30、40 μg/(kR.min). 利用二维超声于每期末测量室壁动度.结果 本实验成功地建立了慢性心肌冬眠动物模型,DSE过程中.运动异常节段数、运动改善节段数、WMSI及LVEF均呈双相反应,多巴酚丁胺剂量为10~20/20μg/(kg.min)时,对于检测心肌存活具有较高敏感性、特异性和预测准确性.结论 DSE是检测冬眠心肌的准确方法,10~20 μg/(kg.rain)的多巴酚丁胺剂量是检测冬眠心肌的最佳剂量.

  4. Presencia natural de hongos hyphomycetes en larvas invernantes de Diatraea saccharalis F. en caña de azúcar en Tucumán, Argentina Natural presence of hyphomycetes fungi in hibernating Diatraea saccharalis F. larvae in sugarcane in Tucumán, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Yasem de Romero

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El "gusano perforador de la caña de azúcar" Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae es la plaga más importante del cultivo de caña de azúcar en Tucumán. La optimización del manejo de esta plaga requiere la adecuada combinación de diferentes recursos disponibles, incluso en la naturaleza. En el año 2005 se inició un relevamiento de los hongos entomopatógenos presentes en el agroecosistema cañero tucumano. El objetivo es detectar la presencia e identificar a los hongos entomopatógenos que actúan como agentes de mortalidad natural en larvas invernantes de D. saccharalis en caña de azúcar en Tucumán, Argentina. De las larvas analizadas muertas por hongos entomopatógenos, el 57,13% correspondió a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., el 23,82 % Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, el 9,53% a Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson y el 9,53% a Isaria sp. Persoon: Fries. Su presencia resultaría de importancia, ya que la densidad poblacional del gusano perforador podría estar regulada por los citados hyphomycetes.Sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is the most important pest affecting sugarcane crops in Tucumán. Optimizing its management entails combining different available resources, even natural ones, accurately. Since 2005, a survey of entomopathogenic fungi present in the local sugarcane agroecosystem has been under way. The aim is to detect and identify entomopathogenic fungi which cause natural death in hibernating D. saccharalis larvae affecting sugarcane in Tucumán, Argentina. By now, Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. (57.13%, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin (23.82%, Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow Samson (9.53% and Isaria sp. Persoon: Fries (9.53% have been found naturally in hibernating sugarcane borer larvae in sugarcane crops in the province of Tucumán. This finding may be relevant in suggesting that sugarcane borer population might be regulated by hyphomycetes.

  5. Protection Against Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion: Preconditioning, postconditioning and hibernation : Preconditioning, postconditioning and hibernation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.C. Manintveld (Olivier)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIschemic heart disease is currently the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world and is expected to become the leading cause of death world wide by the year 2020 when it will surpass infectious diseases.1, 2 In 2006 42,522 people died of cardiovascular disease

  6. Atividade da peroxidase durante o período hibernal de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cv. jubileu com e sem sintomas da morte precoce Peroxidase activity during the rest period of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without symptoms ofpeach-tree-short-life (PTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte precoce do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch é uma síndrome caracterizada por um colapso da planta durante a floração ou no início da brotação, após drástica redução da temperatura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a atividade da peroxidase (UE min-1 g-1 MF durante o período hibernal, em gemas e ramos de plantas de pessegueiro cv. Jubileu, com e sem sintomas de morte precoce. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada tipo de tecido, em dois pomares próximos, ambos com quatro anos de implantação, situados na região colonial de Pelotas - RS, nas localidades de Santa Helena e Cascata. As amostras foram constituídas por dois tipos de tecidos (gemas e ramos e foram coletadas em quatro datas (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08 durante o inverno de 2003. As determinações da atividade da peroxidase nos tecidos foram realizadas no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas com sintomas de morte precoce apresentaram, durante a dormência, maior atividade da peroxidase nos dois tipos de tecidos, quando comparadas com as plantas sem sintomas da síndrome. Provavelmente, o desencadeamento da síndrome provoca alterações na dormência das plantas afetadas, que resultam na antecipação da retomada do crescimento das gemas e na exposição dos tecidos recém-formados aos danos causados pelas baixas temperaturas. Os níveis populacionais donematoide-anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax e dos nematoides do gênero Helicotylenchus sp. foram superiores nas amostras de solo coletadas na rizosfera das plantas com sintomas de morte precoce do que os verificados nas amostras coletadas das plantas sem sintomas da síndrome, resultando também na maior atividade da peroxidase em ambos os tecidos (gemas e ramos, durante o período hibernal das plantas afetadas.Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL is a syndrome characterized by a collapse of the peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch during the

  7. Steve Vai--Practice 10 hours each day(the last half)%Steve Vai每日10小时的练习(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steve Vai

    2001-01-01

    @@ 在上一节的课程中我介绍了技巧练习部分.现在我们接着看和弦和音阶的学习. 和弦的学习 STEVE对他的3小时和弦练习做了详细的介绍,第1小结我会取出,这是美国专业的音乐学院Berklee伯克理音乐学院(Berklee College of Music)的书籍里面弹的一些东西.

  8. 亚低温物理技术并冬眠疗法对重度颅脑损伤患者血液生化学及血气变化的影响%Effect of mild hypothermia combined with hibernation on the homeostasis of patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威; 安沂华; 刘恩重; 俞春江

    2005-01-01

    脉血氧分压和二氧化碳分压基本接近(P>0.05).③亚低温/冬眠联合治疗组的死亡率显著低于常温对照组(25.0%,66.6%,P<0.05).结论:亚低温/冬眠联合疗法能够有效地降低重度颅脑损伤患者的颅内压、肌酸磷酸激酶,对平均动脉压、血离子浓度、动脉血氧分压和二氧化碳分压无明显影响,但有降低患者造血功能的风险.%BACKGROUND: Both animal experiments and clinical practice have confirmed that mild or moderate hypothermia is effective in reducing secondary brain injury, but its effect on homeostasis is not very clear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a combined therapy of mild hypothermia and hibernation on the homeostasis of patients with severe brain injury.DESIGN: A randomized controlled study.SETTING: Neurosurgical Institute of Beijing; Neurosurgical Department of the First Clinical Medical College Affiliated to Harbin Medical University;and Neurological Department of the Second Clinical Medical College Affiliated to Harbin Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted at the Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, from June to December 2002. Totally 24 patients (aged 35-60 years) with severe cerebral hemorrhage or brain injury were randomly divided into combined therapy group and normothermia group. Their Glasgow Coma Scale scores ranged from 3 to 8. The subjects signed the informed consent.METHODS: Within 10 hours of their injury, patients in hypothermia and hibernation combination group were given half dosage of No. 1 hibernation cocktail (chlorpromazine 25 mg, pethidine hydrochloride 50 mg, and promethazine 25 mg), and were cooled by cooling blankets to make their body temperature dropped to 32-34 ℃ (rectal temperature). Their temperature was kept within this range for 5 days, at 35 ℃ for 24 hours, and then was slowly increased to their normal level. The body temperature of patients in normothermia group

  9. Nutikad eestlased, küsige minult raha / Steve Jürvetson ; intervjueerinud Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti soost USA riskikapitalist vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti aitamist uuele majandustõusule, investeeringuid väärivaid ettevõtteid Eestis, majanduskriisi mõju Jürvetsoni tööle, viimaseid investeeringuid, Skype'i tagasiostuplaane, Skype'i edukust börsil, esimese suure raha teenimist ning start up'ide leidmise viise

  10. Eesti edu sõltub reaalteadustest ja immigrantidest / Steve Jürvetson ; interv. Henrik Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti soost USA tuntud riskikapitalist räägib ettevõtlusest, firmade loomisest, reaalteaduste tähtsusest Eesti edukuse tagamisel. Vt. samas: Jürvetson-seenior pöördus Eestisse pärast 60 aastat

  11. Developing Charismatic Delivery through Transformational Presentations: Modeling the Persona of Steve Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic, Rebecca K.; Green, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    How can public speaking instructors teach students how to be charismatic and confident speakers? The activity presented in this article suggests that instructors foster competent and charismatic presentational skills by having students channel the stylistic capabilities of an exceptional speaker. The activity requires students to take on the…

  12. Revisiting the Birth of 7YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings: Steve Stecura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.; Miller, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in all turbine engines, typically using a 7 wt% Y2O3-ZrO2 formulation. Extensive research and development over many decades have refined the processing and structure of these coatings for increased durability and reliability. New compositions demonstrate some unique advantages and are gaining in application. However, the "7YSZ" formulation predominates and is still in widespread use. This special composition has been universally found to produce nanoscale precipitates of metastable t' tetragonal phase, giving rise to a unique toughening mechanism via ferro-elastic switching under stress. This note recalls the original study that identified superior properties of 6 to 8 wt% YSZ plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings, published in 1978. The impact of this discovery, arguably, continues in some form to this day. At one point, 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings were used in every new aircraft and ground power turbine engine produced worldwide. It is a tribute to its inventor, Dr. Stephan J. Stecura, NASA retiree.

  13. Entrevue avec Steve Myers, directeur des accélérateurs et de la technologie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Questions : 1. Après un an de travail de réparations et de consolidations, le LHC est il prêt à recevoir des données? 2. Le LHC est il plus compliqué à faire fonctionner que les accélérateurs de particules précédent ou existants? 3. Quand prévoyez vous d'utiliser des faisceaux à 7 TeV? 4. Que va-t-il se passer précisément dans la salle de contrôle dans les prochains jours?

  14. Official Portrait of STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steve G. MacLean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES), poses with a launch and entry helmet (LEH) and Canadian flag for his Official portrait. MacLean representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) will fly aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the STS-52 mission.

  15. 漂亮团队——Steve McConnell访谈录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott Berkun

    2010-01-01

    据说,优秀团队的比例不超过10%,作为一名软件公司的CEO,Steve在如何打造一支高效团队方面有颇多经验,本文Steve介绍了他在打造高效率团队方面的成功经验,以及个人在其中应该拥有的关键思想。

  16. A word from Steve Myers: The Operational Performance Marathon is just starting

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    In the previous Bulletin, Lyn (Evans) referred to the construction phase of the LHC as a marathon that is now almost completed. This is absolutely true and thanks to the hard work and dedication of all the construction staff, CERN now has a superb accelerator ready to be operated and driven to its maximum potential performance. However, for many of us, the next phase of operation and exploitation of the LHC is a second marathon and the firing pistol has just been fired. My first encounter with the LHC was in the very early 1980s, when many of us were fully occupied with LEP construction. Through a chance invitation by CERN director Herwig Schopper I participated in a discussion in the US about future proton colliders. Following this meeting, in April 1983, my boss (the late Wolfgang Schnell) and I published "LEP note 440", which gave preliminary estimates of the possible performance of a proton collider in the LEP tunnel. After the controversial de...

  17. Kasahstani nafta : närvide mäng / Steve LeVine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    LeVine, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nafta ja gaasi väljaveost Kasahstanist ja Kesk-Aasiast. USA naftakompanii Chevroni naftaekspordile on tõkkeid seadnud Venemaa pidevad jõudemonstratsioonid ning kohalike riikide soov Venemaale mitte vastu astuda, samuti 2008. aasta suvel toimunud Vene-Gruusia sõda, mis raskendas nafta jõudmist Euroopasse. Kaart

  18. Steve Jobs or no jobs? Entrepreneurial activity and performance among Danish college dropouts and graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Bünstorf, Guido; Nielsen, Kristian; Timmermans, Bram

    2016-01-01

    Are college dropouts successful entrepreneurs? Other than anecdotal evidence on illustrious college dropouts who managed to become self-made billionaires, there is only limited empirical evidence to answer this question. This paper addresses this issue by investigating the relationship between college dropout or graduation and entrepreneurship activity as well as performance. Using information from the Danish labor market register, we identify college students, whether these students graduate...

  19. LEARNING WITH 'e's: EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE DIGITAL AGE Written by Steve WHELEER, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    UDEEEWANA, Reviewed by GLOKALde J. of

    2015-01-01

    online, and on a number of undergraduate and post-graduate teacher education programmes in the UK and overseas. He researches into technology supported learning and distance education, with particular emphasis on the pedagogy underlying the use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies, and he also has research interests in mobile learning and cyber-cultures

  20. Steve Jobs, Larry Page ja Sergei Brin teavad iga mu liigutust / Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgis-Laats, Jan

    2011-01-01

    iPhone on vähemalt 2010. a. juunist jälginud uusima operatsioonisüsteemi kasutajate telefoni liikumist. Nutitelefonides on tohutult andmeid, mis võõraste inimeste kätte sattudes võivad telefoniomanikule kahju teha. Soovitusi, kuidas oma andmeid kaitsta. Kümme nutitelefoniga seotud suuremat riski

  1. Developing Charismatic Delivery through Transformational Presentations: Modeling the Persona of Steve Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivic, Rebecca K.; Green, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    How can public speaking instructors teach students how to be charismatic and confident speakers? The activity presented in this article suggests that instructors foster competent and charismatic presentational skills by having students channel the stylistic capabilities of an exceptional speaker. The activity requires students to take on the…

  2. Tegevusstrateegia : miks peavad ülemused oma käed mustaks tegema / Steve New

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    New, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Autor selgitab, miks pole ettevõttes kasulik strateegia- ja tegevtasandit üksteisest eraldada ja tutvustab Ettevõtte Ressursside Planeerimise (ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning) süsteemi, mis eeldab strateegia ja tegevuse sidumist

  3. Steve Jobs, Larry Page ja Sergei Brin teavad iga mu liigutust / Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgis-Laats, Jan

    2011-01-01

    iPhone on vähemalt 2010. a. juunist jälginud uusima operatsioonisüsteemi kasutajate telefoni liikumist. Nutitelefonides on tohutult andmeid, mis võõraste inimeste kätte sattudes võivad telefoniomanikule kahju teha. Soovitusi, kuidas oma andmeid kaitsta. Kümme nutitelefoniga seotud suuremat riski

  4. Eesti edu sõltub reaalteadustest ja immigrantidest / Steve Jürvetson ; interv. Henrik Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti soost USA tuntud riskikapitalist räägib ettevõtlusest, firmade loomisest, reaalteaduste tähtsusest Eesti edukuse tagamisel. Vt. samas: Jürvetson-seenior pöördus Eestisse pärast 60 aastat

  5. Nutikad eestlased, küsige minult raha / Steve Jürvetson ; intervjueerinud Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürvetson, Steve, 1967-

    2009-01-01

    Eesti soost USA riskikapitalist vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti aitamist uuele majandustõusule, investeeringuid väärivaid ettevõtteid Eestis, majanduskriisi mõju Jürvetsoni tööle, viimaseid investeeringuid, Skype'i tagasiostuplaane, Skype'i edukust börsil, esimese suure raha teenimist ning start up'ide leidmise viise

  6. Kasahstani nafta : närvide mäng / Steve LeVine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    LeVine, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nafta ja gaasi väljaveost Kasahstanist ja Kesk-Aasiast. USA naftakompanii Chevroni naftaekspordile on tõkkeid seadnud Venemaa pidevad jõudemonstratsioonid ning kohalike riikide soov Venemaale mitte vastu astuda, samuti 2008. aasta suvel toimunud Vene-Gruusia sõda, mis raskendas nafta jõudmist Euroopasse. Kaart

  7. LEARNING WITH 'e's: EDUCATIONAL THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE DIGITAL AGE Written by Steve WHELEER, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    UDEEEWANA, Reviewed by GLOKALde J. of

    2015-01-01

    online, and on a number of undergraduate and post-graduate teacher education programmes in the UK and overseas. He researches into technology supported learning and distance education, with particular emphasis on the pedagogy underlying the use of social media and Web 2.0 technologies, and he also has research interests in mobile learning and cyber-cultures

  8. Tegevusstrateegia : miks peavad ülemused oma käed mustaks tegema / Steve New

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    New, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Autor selgitab, miks pole ettevõttes kasulik strateegia- ja tegevtasandit üksteisest eraldada ja tutvustab Ettevõtte Ressursside Planeerimise (ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning) süsteemi, mis eeldab strateegia ja tegevuse sidumist

  9. L'hibernation annoncée du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Baruch, Jacques-Olivier

    2002-01-01

    CERN Members must decide how to meet the shortfall of funds needed to complete the LHC. Since October 2001, an investigation overseen by Robert Aymar, has been in process and on 21 June, the Cern Council of representatives from the twenty member states will decide on CERN's future (0.5 page)

  10. Hibernation Based Therapy to Improve Survival of Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    hydroxybutyrate, melatonin, shock, poly- trauma 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON...for injured casualties suffering from polytrauma and blast injuries. 2 Key Words: Beta-hydroxybutyrate Melatonin Poly- trauma Resuscitation...perivascular hemorrhage • DMSO may cause more significant lesions ( vascular damage and thrombosis, dermal leukocyte infiltrates etc.), presumably if it

  11. Characterization of an Opioid-Like Hibernation Induction Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    species, our primate studies indicated that intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion in conscious chaired primates Wd the isolated HIT-containing...trauma to the organ, anaphylactic shock, peptone shock, or an injection ol histamine . This swelling is though to be due to an obstruction of the

  12. Steve Jobs欢迎回来,乔布斯——来自大洋此岸中国企业家的问候%Welcome Back, Steve Jobs——Regards from Chinese Entrepreneurs across the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁伟

    2009-01-01

    @@ 不是每个商界领袖的任何事情都值得传诵的,史蒂夫·乔布斯是例外的的例外--他已经成了硅谷神人、公众偶像、杰克·韦尔奇称之的"现今最成功的首常执行官",就连对他的山察模拟、死汛冒犯都是一种热爱和恭维.比如"假乔布斯"写替身博客,比如彭博社失误提前发表他的讣文.

  13. Interview with Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology, December 18th, 2009, after the LHC Report

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    LHC ends 2009 run on a high note Geneva, 18 December 2009. At its 153rd session today, the CERN Council heard that the Large Hadron Collider ended its first full period of operation in style on Wednesday 16 December. Collisions at 2.36TeV recorded since last weekend have set a new world record and brought to a close a successful first run for the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. The LHC has now been put into standby mode, and will restart in February 2010 following a short technical stop to prepare for higher energy collisions and the start of the main research programme. The LHC circulated its first beams of 2009 on 20 November, ushering in a remarkably rapid beam-commissioning phase. The first collisions were recorded on 23 November, and a world-record beam energy was established on 30 November. Following those milestones, a systematic phase of LHC commissioning led to an extended data-taking period to provide data for the experiments. Over the last two weeks, the six LHC experiments have recor...

  14. LOS PUEBLOS INDIGENAS DEL PERU Y EL DESAFIO DE LA CONQUISTA ESPAÑOLA. HUAMANGA HASTA 1640. Steve STERN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ansión

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de Stern, sólidamente asentado en un extenso trabajo de archivo, es de una lectura apasionante para quien desea entender algo más sobre estos afios decisivos de la historia de la región de Huamanga, y también del país, pues la perspectiva regional no es para el autor sino una manera de entender la situación colonial en su conjunto.

  15. "Money Magazine,""U.S. News and World Report," and Steve Martin: What Do They Have in Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Bruce I.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of popular publications that rate and rank collegiate undergraduate education reveals several methodological concerns. The challenges for consumers and researchers are to know what shortcomings exist in these ratings, what impact the shortcomings have on the rankings, and what methodological changes might improve the evaluations.…

  16. Haven't We Been Here Before? Some Comments on Steve Coffman's Proposal for "Earth's Largest Library".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGervey, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the concept of Earth's Largest Library (ELL), a mega-virtual library based on the Amazon.com model. Topics include who will be included; privacy; censorship; scope of the collection; costs; legal aspects; collection development; personnel management; access; the concept of community; public service; lending policies; technical…

  17. Studies for hibernant habitat and hibernant habit of Paederus fuscipes Curtis%梭毒隐翅虫越冬场所及习性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季恒清

    2000-01-01

    梭毒隐翅虫Paederus fuscipes Curtis是1种重要的天敌昆虫,在南充近郊以成虫在水边的草丛、田边杂草、再生稻丛、荒坡草丛和青菜、白菜地等隐蔽性好、背风保暖、环境湿润的场所越冬.越冬期间无明显的休眠现象,活动和取食情况随温度而变.越冬成虫杂食性,主要以蚜虫和再生稻田中的一些越冬害虫及土中腐殖质等为食.

  18. Unuanceret fremstilling af budgetlægningens svære kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2010-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Future Ready: How to Master Business Forecasting, Steve Morlidge & Steve Player, Wiley......Anmeldelse af Future Ready: How to Master Business Forecasting, Steve Morlidge & Steve Player, Wiley...

  19. Hibernation management on Alligator sinensis%扬子鳄的越冬管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永康; 谢万树

    2000-01-01

    @@ 扬子鳄(Alligator sinensis)是我国特有的珍稀爬行动物.安徽省扬子鳄繁殖研究中心经过20年的发展,现有扬子鳄8 000余条,是国内外驯养、繁殖扬子鳄的最大种群基地.冬眠是扬子鳄适应寒冷气候的一种生理现象,其越冬管理的好坏直接影响到幼鳄的成活率和成鳄的繁殖率,故其越冬技术一直很受重视,并不断得以完善,现将其总结,供引种扬子鳄饲养者参考.

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Toxicity & Side Effects: Ursodeoxycholic Acid Freezes Regeneration & Induces Hibernation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magd A. Kotb

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA is a steroid bile acid approved for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC. UDCA is reported to have “hepato-protective properties”. Yet, UDCA has “unanticipated” toxicity, pronounced by more than double number of deaths, and eligibility for liver transplantation compared to the control group in 28 mg/kg/day in primary sclerosing cholangitis, necessitating trial halt in North America. UDCA is associated with increase in hepatocellular carcinoma in PBC especially when it fails to achieve biochemical response (10 and 15 years incidence of 9% and 20% respectively. “Unanticipated” UDCA toxicity includes hepatitis, pruritus, cholangitis, ascites, vanishing bile duct syndrome, liver cell failure, death, severe watery diarrhea, pneumonia, dysuria, immune-suppression, mutagenic effects and withdrawal syndrome upon sudden halt. UDCA inhibits DNA repair, co-enzyme A, cyclic AMP, p53, phagocytosis, and inhibits induction of nitric oxide synthatase. It is genotoxic, exerts aneugenic activity, and arrests apoptosis even after cellular phosphatidylserine externalization. UDCA toxicity is related to its interference with drug detoxification, being hydrophilic and anti-apoptotic, has a long half-life, has transcriptional mutational abilities, down-regulates cellular functions, has a very narrow difference between the recommended (13 mg/kg/day and toxic dose (28 mg/kg/day, and it typically transforms into lithocholic acid that induces DNA strand breakage, it is uniquely co-mutagenic, and promotes cell transformation. UDCA beyond PBC is unjustified.

  1. Lammutada? Unustada? Uinutada? Rekonstrueerida? = Demolish? Forget? Hibernate? Reconstruct? / Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin, 1961-

    2012-01-01

    13. Venezia arhitektuuribiennaalist "Ühisosa / Common ground" (kuraator David Chipperfield), mis annab võimaluse Eestil kaasa rääkida tänast arhitektuurimaailma puudutavatel olulistel teemadel. Eesti ekspositsioonist, mis käsitleb väärika modernismipärandi hääbumist Tallinna Linnahalli näitel

  2. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an increas

  3. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an

  4. Hibernation-Based Therapy to Improve Survival of Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    FR 1 6 FR 2 0 LR (n=14) 43mM Melatonin (n=14) 4.3mM Melatonin (n=6) 0.43mM Melatonin (n=6) M A ( m m ) Timepoint   -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ba se...Limited Resuscitation (LR)=maintenance of SBP above 80 mmHg, Full Resuscitation (FR)=maintenance of SBP above 90 mmHg, Hgb above 6 and Urine output

  5. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an increas

  6. Hibernate在Struts中的研究和应用%Research and Application of Hibernate in Struts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施兴健; 徐良贤

    2004-01-01

    介绍了一些数据持久化机制,研究和分析了Hibernate在Struts中的应用,提出了一个在Struts中实现数据持久化的持久层框架,提高了代码的复用性及软件开发的效率.

  7. Hibernate对Struts框架的扩展研究%Research of extending struts framework with hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫民; 曹正凤

    2008-01-01

    引入MVC框架,确定了MVC在Web开发的应用模式,研究了符合MVC标准的Struts框架工作流程及其应用的优势和不足.结合持久化工具Hibernate的功能特点和Struts框架的优势,利用框图描述的方法对Struts框架进行扩展,提出了扩展后的Web开发多层软件体系结构应用模型.扩展后的Struts框架,使Web开发的层次更加清晰,降低了各层之间的耦合,提高了代码的复用性,可使Web开发的效率大幅度提高.

  8. Regulation of Genes Controlling Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Heart of a Hibernating Mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    concludes in mid-March. PTL is expressed in addition to hormone-sensitive lipase, the enzyme typically responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols...same enzyme found in humans. 4 Figure 1. Model showing the metabolic involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK- 4) and pancreatic...Gluconeogenesis TG HEART glucose ffa TG glycerol ffa acetyl-CoA TCA Cycle Oxidationβ- net 2 ATP Triglyceride Synthesis G-3-P ATP + CO2 + H2O PDK-4 PTL lactate

  9. Lactate accumulation, glycogen depletion, and shell composition of hatchling turtles during simulated aquatic hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Scott A; Ultsch, Gordon R; Jackson, Donald C

    2004-07-01

    We submerged hatchling western painted turtles Chrysemys picta Schneider, snapping turtles Chelydra serpentina L. and map turtles Graptemys geographica Le Sueur in normoxic and anoxic water at 3 degrees C. Periodically, turtles were removed and whole-body [lactate] and [glycogen] were measured along with relative shell mass, shell water, and shell ash. We analyzed the shell for [Na+], [K+], total calcium, total magnesium, Pi and total CO2. All three species were able to tolerate long-term submergence in normoxic water without accumulating any lactate, indicating sufficient extrapulmonary O2 extraction to remain aerobic even after 150 days. Survival in anoxic water was 15 days in map turtles, 30 days in snapping turtles, and 40 days in painted turtles. Survival of hatchlings was only about one third the life of their adult conspecifics in anoxic water. Much of the decrease in survival was attributable to a dramatically lower shell-bone content (44% ash in adult painted turtles vs. 3% ash in hatchlings of all three species) and a smaller buffer content of bone (1.3 mmol g(-1) CO2 in adult painted turtles vs. 0.13-0.23 mmol g(-1) CO2 in hatchlings of the three species). The reduced survivability of turtle hatchlings in anoxic water requires that hatchlings either avoid aquatic hibernacula that may become severely hypoxic or anoxic (snapping turtles), or overwinter terrestrially (painted turtles and map turtles).

  10. The role of brown adipose tissue in temperature regulation. [of hibernating and hypothermic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The thermogenetic capacities of brown adipose tissue were studied on marmots, rats and monkeys in response to cold exposure. All experiments indicated that the brown fat produced heat and slowed the cooling of tissues.

  11. Hibernation-Based Therapy to Improve Survival of Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    had more severe outcomes and measures . Therefore, improved outcomes are not associated with a higher dose of BHB/M and in fact would appear...animals survived until end of experiment (Figure 1).   4   Figure 1. Kaplan Meier Curve for observation of Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD...2X or 4X BHB/M 0 10 20 30 40 50 Ba se lin e Sh oc k 35 LR 1 FR 2 FR 1 90 FR 7 FR 2 0 BHB-2X (n=6) BHB-4X (n=5) BH B co nc en tr at io n

  12. Normalization of aortic function during arousal episodes in the hibernating ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henning, RH; Deelman, LE; Hut, RA; Van der Zee, EA; Buikema, H; Nelemans, SA; Lip, H; De Zeeuw, D; Daan, S; Epema, AH; Epema, Anne H.

    2002-01-01

    Hypothermia is commonly used to restrict organ damage during preservation of tissue, but does not offer complete protection. Organ damage after reperfusion/rewarming is amongst others caused by an impairment of vascular properties, particularly endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. We hypothesized t

  13. Lammutada? Unustada? Uinutada? Rekonstrueerida? = Demolish? Forget? Hibernate? Reconstruct? / Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin, 1961-

    2012-01-01

    13. Venezia arhitektuuribiennaalist "Ühisosa / Common ground" (kuraator David Chipperfield), mis annab võimaluse Eestil kaasa rääkida tänast arhitektuurimaailma puudutavatel olulistel teemadel. Eesti ekspositsioonist, mis käsitleb väärika modernismipärandi hääbumist Tallinna Linnahalli näitel

  14. Hibernation-Based Therapy to Improve Survival of Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    lactated  Ringers’,  4M  BHB   with  either  10mM  Melatonin,  5%  DMSO  or  20mM  Melatonin,  5%  DMSO...Figure  4.    Melatonin  concentrations  in  animals  treated  with   lactated  Ringers’,  4M   BHB  with...care ( lactated Ringers’treatment).       9   Publications,  Abstracts,  and  Presentations:   • A  manuscript

  15. Hibernation-Based Therapy to Improve Survival of Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    12 ears at 72 hours. Previous studies had shown a local irritation of the vein and tissue at the site of injection of BHB/M (1). The aim of our...adjustments. Data is presented at least-squares means with 95% confidence intervals. There was a significant difference in survival 48 hours after baseline...3637 (2830- 4443) G*T <.0001 Data are presented as least squared means (95% confidence interval). AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine

  16. Hibernate API Introduction for Enterprise Application.%解析Hibernate企业级应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓

    2010-01-01

    Hibernate是Java平台面向企业级应用的数据持久化框架.本文介绍了Hibernate体系中的Configuration、SessionFacatory、Session、Query与Transaction类的用途,并给出了示例程序.

  17. A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente nota es documentar un comportamiento curioso ocurrido con un grupo de animales adultos de Rhinella arenarum que fueron mantenidos en condiciones de hibernación artificial en el laboratorio durante abril-julio del 2012.

  18. Kronisk iskaemisk hjerteinsufficiens. Revaskularisering bedrer overlevelsen blandt patienter med hibernating myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Paw Chr; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Wiggers, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    in patients tested for HIB and relate the results to the choice of treatment and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 2-year period 51 patients were referred to determine the amount of HIB. This can be determined with blood flow and metabolic imaging of the heart. Resting-myocardial perfusion...... imaging was performed with 99mTc-sestamibi and glucose metabolism was visualized with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) gamma camera PET. Medical records and death certificate were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: 50 patients were included. We found an increased survival among patients with HIB who...

  19. We'll miss you Steve: how the death of a technology innovator emotionally impacts those who use and love his digital devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2012-07-01

    The death of Apple co-founder Steven Jobs was accompanied by a period of public mourning. Reflections shared by both those he knew and those who were connected to him through the devices he pioneered were imbued with expressions of loss. The goal of the present research was to understand the grieving of those who knew Jobs through his devices, as a way of exploring how interpersonal emotions are shaped by relationships with technology. The findings from three studies conducted in the weeks after Jobs' death indicated demographic variability in mourning across the general population, suggesting that many people were more deeply affected by his passing. Latter studies highlighted the motivational factors that are related to the use of the Apple devices which were at play in shaping feelings of sadness and loss.

  20. 史蒂夫·施瓦茨曼:黑石的财富"发动机"%Hero of the Wall Street Steve Schwarzman: "Engine" of Fortune

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐

    2007-01-01

    @@ 伴随者前香港特区政府财政司司长梁锦松加盟黑石,也伴随着黑石创造此前所没有的杠杆收购交易记录,同时伴随着黑石加入即将展开的克莱斯勒公司收购战以及黑石不久将融资400亿美元公开上市,本已威震全球的美国黑石集团就显得更加的不可一世,而站在这艘庞大金融旗舰之上的施瓦茨曼如今也出落得格外高大与威猛.

  1. Steve Sussman on Matilda Hellman's "Mind the gap! Failure in understanding key dimensions of an addicted drug user's life" addictive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    "Addictive effects" are experiential states sought by individuals that underlie addictive behaviors. Consistent with ideas that addictive effects mimic satiation of appetitive motives, a literature search-derived heuristic catalogue of addictive behaviors is offered and contrasted across four general appetitive-like motives that have been posited as underlying addictive behaviors (dominance, submissiveness, self-pleasure, and nurturance). I suggest, in part, that addictive behaviors are misdirected attempts to satisfy appetitive motives.

  2. Dennis Steve Smith 'The predictive relationship between cultural identity, value orientation, acculturation and the crosscultural student's academic motivation in the international school setting'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current level of global scientific school of evidence-based prevention helps to assess a student's ability to adapt to a complex society and to prevent the personality disorder. The complexity of the society in the education space is largely connected with multiculturalism. The Southeast Asian countries implement successfully for a long time evidence-based interdisciplinary, transnational projects, focused on management training motivation as a factor of the quality of an educational process. The article discusses the methodological function of cultural identity within the educational process in the contexts of adaptation problems in children with "mixed cultural background" or belonging to the "third culture" in the contemporary world, the phenomenon of their "cultural homelessness" and the specificity of their training motivation. The latest data on teaching quality forecasting resources will be of interest to specialists in educational psychology, preventology and many other domains

  3. BOOK REVIEW: ADRENALINE JUNKIES AND TEMPLATE ZOMBIES Understanding Patterns of Project Behavior by Tom Demarco, Peter Hruschka, Tim Lister, Steve McMenamin, James Robertson, Suzanne Robertson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. KADIR ALPASLAN DEMIR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, armed forces are in continuous transformation. As new technologies are developed and new principles of war are introduced, the ministries of defenses and armed forces have to adapt to this changing environment. Almost every day, military officials start new projects to handle the technological and cultural transformations in the military. Project management became an integral part of defense development and management. Today, all high or middle level military officials are either a project sponsor overseeing a project, or a project manager executing a project, or a member of project team helping the project to become a reality. As a result, project management skills became an essential part of skillset that a military official need to successfully execute his/her duties.

  4. 基于Hibernate和Spring框架的Web应用研究%Web Research Based on Hibernate and Spring Frameworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华涛; 郝克刚; 葛玮

    2006-01-01

    Hibernate是当前广泛应用的一种ORM数据库访问框架,它提供从对象模型到关系型数据模型的映射.Spring框架是一种轻量级J2EE应用框架,是针对Bean的生命周期进行管理的轻量级容器.介绍这两种框架并将它们结合起来形成一个业务持久层解决方案.这里提出使用Spring框架来管理业务对象,通过Hibernatc作为数据持久层的方案来开发B/S架构的Web应用,并将此框架结构应用于实际项目的设计与开发中.

  5. The ORM Framework Of Java EE Based On Hibernate%Java EE基于Hibernate的ORM框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德兵; 尹战文; 王洪明

    2010-01-01

    现在Java EE开发与应用越来越多,Hibernate作为目前流行的ORM框架,对JDBC进行了轻量级的对象封装,使得Java程序员可以使用面向对象对编程思想来操纵数据库.文章从ORM、Hibernate概念入手,分别介绍了Hibernate对优势、接口、映射和查询方式等,并对Hibernate对性能优化进行了讨论.

  6. Based on ORM to Persistence Layer Framework of Hibernate%基于ORM的Hibernate持久层框架

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一冰

    2010-01-01

    Hibemate是一个对象持久化工具,它通过其强大的O/R映射功能将Java对象同存放于关系数据库中的数据进行的映射,避免了开发人员使用大量的SQL语句通过JDBC以及其他的方式对数据库进行操作,极大地提高了软件的开发效率.

  7. Produtividade de pastagens de Coastcross-1 em consórcio com diferentes leguminosas de ciclo hibernal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Flôres Aguirre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar três sistemas forrageiros constituídos por Coastcross-1 (CC + 100kg de N ha-1 ano-1 + ervilhaca comum; CC + 100kg de N ha-1 ano-1 + trevo vesiculoso; e CC + 200kg de N ha-1 ano-1. Durante o período experimental (345 dias, foram realizados treze pastejos. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa. Foram avaliadas a massa de forragem, composição botânica, relação folha/colmo; taxa de acúmulo diário, produção e consumo de forragem; eficiência de pastejo e taxa de lotação. Os valores médios de produção de forragem e lotação foram de 21,0; 20,3 e 24,3t ha-1; 7,0; 6,5 e 7,7 unidades animais ha-1 dia-1, para os respectivos sistemas forrageiros. Melhores resultados foram obtidos no consórcio de CC com ervilhaca e no cultivo singular de CC

  8. Reversible paired helical filament-like phosphorylation of tau is an adaptive process associated with neuronal plasticity in hibernating animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendt, T; Stieler, J; Strijkstra, AM; Hut, RA; Rudiger, J; Van der Zee, EA; Harkany, T; Holzer, M; Hartig, W; Härtig, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Neurofibrillary pathology [ paired helical filaments (PHFs)] formed by the microtubule-associated protein tau in a hyperphosphorylated form is a major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. The process of tau phosphorylation, thought to be of critical importance for PHF formation, an

  9. Purification and properties of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from the skeletal muscle of the hibernating ground squirrel, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A.V. Bell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH from the skeletal muscle of euthermic and torpid Ictidomys tridecemlineatus was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a novel method involving Blue-agarose and Phenyl-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analysis of the enzymes isolated from the two conditions suggested the existence of two structurally distinct proteins, with GAPDH V max being 40–60% less for the enzyme from the torpid condition (in both glycolytic and gluconeogenic directions as compared to the euthermic enzyme form. Thermal denaturation, in part determined by differential scanning fluorimetry, revealed that purified GAPDH from the torpid animals was significantly more stable that the enzyme from the euthermic condition. Mass spectrometry combined with Western blot analyses of purified GAPDH indicate that the cellular GAPDH population is extensively modified, with posttranslational phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation being detected. Global reduction in GAPDH tyrosine phosphorylation during torpor as well as site specific alterations in methylation sites suggests that that the stable changes observed in kinetic and structural GAPDH properties may be due to posttranslational modification of this enzyme during torpor. Taken together, these results suggest a stable suppression of GAPDH (possibly by some reversible posttranslational modification during ground squirrel torpor, which likely contributes to the overall reduction in carbohydrate metabolism when these animals switch to lipid fuels during dormancy.

  10. 用Struts和Hibernate构筑Web应用开发策略%Building strategy for web applications combined struts with hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岳; 翁敬农

    2006-01-01

    当今越来越多的Web应用是基于MVC设计模式的.此种设计模式提高了应用系统的可维护性、可扩展性和组件的可复用性.Apache开源组织提供的Struts框架充分体现了MVC架构.Hibernate实际上是一个用对象编程思维来操纵数据库的解决方案.提出了一种基于Struts和Hibernate架构的Web应用开发策略.MVC架构中,模型、视图和控制器3个部分中的模型部分(数据持久层)用Hibernate实现,视图和控制器的实现依托于Struts框架.这种策略真正实现了层间的松散耦合.

  11. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) to natural and artificial hibernation sites in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappalorti, Robert T; Burger, Joanna; Burkett, David W; Schneider, David W; McCort, Matthew P; Golden, David M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers require information on whether human-made hibernacula are used by rare snakes before constructing large numbers of them as mitigation measures. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) was examined in a 6-year study in the New Jersey Pine Barrens to determine whether they used natural and artificial hibernacula equally. Pine snakes used both artificial (human-made) and natural (snake-adapted) hibernacula. Most natural hibernacula were in abandoned burrows of large mammals. Occupancy rates were similar between natural and artificial hibernacula. Only 6 of 27 radio-tracked snakes did not shift hibernacula between years, whereas 78% shifted sites at least once, and fidelity from one year to the next was 42%. For snakes that switched hibernacula (n = 21), one switched among artificial hibernacula, 14 (65%) switched among natural hibernacula, and 6 (29%) switched from artificial to natural hibernacula. Data indicate that most pine snakes switch among hibernacula, mainly selecting natural hibernacula, suggesting that artificial dens are used, but protecting natural hibernacula should be a higher conservation priority.

  12. Desempenho de forrageiras hibernais sob distintos níveis de luminosidade Performance of hibernal forages under distinct brightness levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os possíveis efeitos da restrição de luminosidade, obtida com distintas densidades de árvores de Pinnus taeda, sobre a produção e qualidade de: aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cv. Fapa 2, azevém (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Comum, trigo (Triticum aestivum L. duplo propósito cv. BRS Tarumã e ervilhaca peluda (Vicia villosa L.. Avaliaram-se três níveis de luminosidade: a sol aberto (sem presença de árvores de Pinnus taeda, 30% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento entre árvores de 15 × 3 m, com 222 árvores/ha e 60% de restrição de radiação (usando espaçamento de 9 × 3 m, com 370 árvores/ha. Foram realizadas avaliações da produção de forragem, da composição química e dos componentes estruturais das plantas, do potencial hídrico das plantas, da umidade do solo, das variáveis microclimáticas e da produção de acículas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos completos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. O azevém foi a espécie mais produtiva em todos os níveis de luminosidade, embora a ervilhaca tenha apresentado a menor redução de produção quando sombreada. Houve maior potencial hídrico nas plantas e maior umidade no solo nos ambientes sombreados, mesmo assim, a produção de forragem reduziu significativamente no sombreamento mais intenso (81%. A composição química e os componentes estruturais de todas as forrageiras estudadas também são afetados pelo aumento da restrição luminosa.Possible effects of brightness restriction, obtained by different Pinnus taeda tree densities, on the production and quality of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common, white oat (Avena sativa L. cv. FAPA 2, annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L. cv. Common, hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. dual purpose BRS Tarumã were studied. It was evaluated three brightness levels: 1 - full sunlight with no trees; 2 - 30% of radiation restriction, using 15 × 3 m spacing between trees (222 trees/ha, and; 3 - 60% of radiation restriction, using 9 × 3 m between trees (370 trees/ha. It was performed evaluations of forage production, chemical composition and structural component of plants, water potential of the plants, soil moisture, microclimate variables and production of needles. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks, in split-plots and three replicates. Ryegrass was the most productive species at all brightness levels, although hairy vetch showed the lowest reduction on production under shading. There was higher water potential in the plants and higher soil moisture under shading, however, forage production was significantly reduced in the most intense shading (81%. Chemical composition and structural components of all studied forage species are also affected by brightness restriction increase.

  13. A curious case of herbivory in the common toad Rhinella arenarum arenarum during hibernation in captivity conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jungblut, Lucas David; Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela; Paz, Dante Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Fil: Jungblut, Lucas David. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad Universitaria. Instituto de Fisiología, Biología Molecular y Neurociencias; Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental; Argentina; Fil: Pozzi, Andrea Gabriela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Ciudad U...

  14. Evaluation of myocardial viability with cardiac PET before and after CABG and the study of hibernating myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Shigeru [Kanazawa Medical Univ., Uchinada, Ishikawa (Japan); Seki, Hiroyasu

    1997-09-01

    This study included 28 patients in whom graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was confirmed by coronary angiography. Diagnosis included angina pectoris following myocardial infarction and severe angina pectoris accompanied by stenosis at the left main trunk region or lesion involving multiple branches. As a rule, cardiac PET ({sup 13}NH{sub 3}, {sup 18}FDG) was performed in fasted patients before and 1 to 2 months after surgery. Myocardial blood flow and glucose metabolism in the bypass site were mainly investigated. Furthermore, {sup 201}Tl-SPECT was concurrently performed. The effect of CABG was examined by the two procedures, and redistribution was compared between PET and {sup 201}Tl-SPECT. Preoperative PET with {sup 13}NH{sub 3} revealed reduced blood flow in the ischemic site in all patients. However, preoperative {sup 201}Tl-SPECT showed redistribution in 16 (57.1%) of 28 patients, while there was no redistribution in 12 patients (42.9%). In 10 (83.3%) of 12 patients evaluated as having no myocardial viability on {sup 201}Tl-SPECT, PET showed accumulation of {sup 18}FDG. However, in 21 (75%) of 28 patients, accumulation of {sup 18}FDG was reduced postoperatively, suggesting improvement of aerobic metabolism in cardiac muscle. These patients also showed improvement in regional wall motion. The energy source of cardiac muscle consists mainly of free fatty acid and glucose. Fasting healthy cardiac muscle depends on fatty acid for approximately 60% of its energy source. However, ischemic cardiac muscle depends on the glycolytic system, utilizing glucose. Progression of ischemia causes myocardial necrosis without metabolism. Therefore, ischemic cardiac muscle can be differentiated from infarcted cardiac muscle by cardiac PET. We evaluated myocardial viability before and after CABG for ischemic heart disease, and confirmed that cardiac PET is more useful than standard myocardial scan with {sup 201}Tl for evaluating myocardial viability. (K.H.)

  15. Education in Mexico: Historical Evolution and Ethnographic Perspectives. Essay Review of "Un siglo de educacion en Mexico," edited by Pablo Latapi Sarre; "We Are All Equal: Student Culture and Identity at a Mexican Secondary School, 1988-1998," by Bradley A. U. Levinson; and "Learning as Cultural Practice: How Children Learn in a Mexican Mazahua Community. A Study on Culture and Learning," by Mariette de Haan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador, Octavio Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three books that (1) provide a systemic overview of schooling in Mexico in the 20th century, (2) present a critical ethnography of Mexican student culture and identity formation, and (3) incorporate analyses of indigenous cultural practices into cognitive theory. Reflects on the future of Mexican education in view of political corruption…

  16. Education in Mexico: Historical Evolution and Ethnographic Perspectives. Essay Review of "Un siglo de educacion en Mexico," edited by Pablo Latapi Sarre; "We Are All Equal: Student Culture and Identity at a Mexican Secondary School, 1988-1998," by Bradley A. U. Levinson; and "Learning as Cultural Practice: How Children Learn in a Mexican Mazahua Community. A Study on Culture and Learning," by Mariette de Haan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador, Octavio Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Reviews three books that (1) provide a systemic overview of schooling in Mexico in the 20th century, (2) present a critical ethnography of Mexican student culture and identity formation, and (3) incorporate analyses of indigenous cultural practices into cognitive theory. Reflects on the future of Mexican education in view of political corruption…

  17. L'enseignement des langues a l'universite a l'aide de la television (Television Assisted Language Instruction at College Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Describes the French language television program conducted during the last 10 years at Sarre University and evaluates its results. Emphasizes that the TV courses are the main component of the spoken French curriculum and discusses the teaching methods evolved specifically for television instruction, especially those intended to develop…

  18. L'Enseignement des Langues a l'Universite a l'Aide de la Television (Teaching Languages through Television at the University Level).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Describes the use of television to teach spoken French at the University of Sarre, ten years after the beginning of the program. Discusses teacher training, methodology problems, use of ordinary TV programs, rather than videotape didactic materials, and the organization of courses. Concludes by summing up achievements and plans for future…

  19. Exploring the Utility and Application of Framing Devices in College/University President Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ira George

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and application of the framing devices identified by Fairhurst (1993) and Fairhurst and Sarr (1996) in the college/university setting as evidenced through college/university presidents' speeches. Fifty-seven college/university presidents' speeches were collected from institution…

  20. 基于Hibernate框架实现数据持久化应用研究%Application Research of Realizing Hibernate Frame-based Data Persistence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立军; 李军锋; 何斌

    2009-01-01

    Hibernate是一个基于Java的开源的持久化框架,提供的ORM映射服务广泛的应用到数据库系统的开发.结合某数据库管理系统的开发,对Hibernate的持久化应用进行了阐述.

  1. 基于Hibernate和Spring的持久层OR映射技术%OR mapping technology of persistent layer based on Hibernate and Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林红; 沈文轩

    2006-01-01

    对象/关系映射(ORM)是持久层开发的热点技术.介绍一种基于Java技术的新的ORM解决方案,利用ORM工具Hibernate和Spring框架的整合进行持久层开发,达到快速高效,并且易于维护和扩展.引用一个银行系统持久层开发的实例,说明了整合应用的处理方法.

  2. Influence of Hibernant Temperature on Reproduction of Chinese Alligator%冬眠期温度对扬子鳄繁殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏同胜; 周奎厚; 朱家龙

    2006-01-01

    本文报道了扬子鳄在人工越冬环境条件下,深眠期的温度值对越冬后繁殖的影响.6年的研究表明扬子鳄在深眠期的温度处在5~8℃时,扬子鳄越冬后能够成功繁殖产卵.

  3. Application of Hibernate framework on online exam system%在线考试系统中Hibernate框架的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶广仔; 刘晓蔚

    2013-01-01

    在系统开发过程中,往往会遇到应用程序中的对象模型与数据库中的关系模型两种不匹配的模型,为了实现它们间的相互映射,使得在面向对象程序开发中对象信息能够方便地保存到数据库的表内,文章采用了Hibernate框架来实现对象关系映射(ORM),解决对象模型中的继承、关联以及缓存等问题,从而减少代码的复杂度以及提高系统的可维护性.

  4. 基于Struts和Hibernate的J2EE架构的研究%Research of J2EE framework based on Struts and Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎娟娟; 陈波; 王乐

    2008-01-01

    基于J2EE平台的Struts框架技术已成为开发Web应用的主流技术,而Struts框架在模型部分的实现并不理想,采用JDBC来连接数据库存在复杂编程、层间高耦合和难以维护等问题,提出了Struts和Hibernate框架整合.应hi ORM技术Hibernate到Struts中来代替直接应用JDBC连接数据库,真正实现了层间的松散耦合,能极大的提高开发效率,使系统具有更好的可维护性和可扩展性.

  5. Application Research of Java Web Based on Struts2 and Hibernate Framework%基于Struts2与Hibernate框架的Java Web应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳宏基; 葛萌

    2016-01-01

    传统Java Web开发存在着分层不明确、系统耦合度高、业务逻辑与JDBC混为一体等缺点,针对上述问题提出集成Struts2与Hibernate框架进行Web开发的方案.按照分层开发的思想降低层与层之间的耦合度,利用Struts2完成系统的控制逻辑,利用DAO模式封装Hibernate完成业务实体对象与数据库表的ORM映射.将该方案应用于实验室管理系统的开发,详细描述了系统实现的主要过程与若干关键技术.通过实践表明:集成Struts2与Hibernate框架的Web应用具备开发的高效性、复用性和可扩展性.

  6. Effects of a freezing event during hibernation on further survival, reproduction and growth in the partially freezing tolerant land snail Helix aspersa muller (Gastropoda: helicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansart, Armelle; Vernon, Philippe; Daguzan, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Tolerance of ectothermic animals to freezing is often estimated by assessing survival a few days after the treatment. However, in the long term, ice formation in the body tissues can affect survival, as well as reproductive capability and growth. The land snail Helix aspersa survives only short durations with ice in its tissues, to a lethal limit of 40 to 60 % of its body water frozen. Adult and immature snails were treated during their winter dormancy period to a freezing event above this limit; their survival was observed both in the short and long term, as well as their ability to reproduce (adults) and grow (immature snails). Treated snails were compared with a control group, which was not frozen. No difference appeared in the survival, reproduction and growth of control and frozen snails. This study confirms partial freezing tolerance in this population of Helix aspersa.

  7. 慢性心肌冬眠动物模型的建立%ESTABLISHMENT OF CHRONIC MYOCARDIAL HIBERNATING ANIMAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季晓平; 张运; 葛志明; 张薇; 张梅; 王勇; 邢艳秋; 张园园; 郑昭伦; 于建华; 李跃华; 毕研文; 张供

    2001-01-01

    目的:建立慢性心肌冬眠动物模型.方法:随机选择健康杂种犬22只,使冠状动脉左前降支缩窄50%,继续喂养1个月以上,行第二次手术,暴露犬左心室和左前降支狭窄处,进行:①多巴酚丁胺超声心动图负荷试验;②潘生丁负荷试验;③心肌声学造影;④氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)染色;⑤病理学检查.结果:共10只犬完成了所有实验步骤,存活时间25~55d,平均(45.2±9.59)d.①结扎后与结扎前冠脉内径比为:0.44~0.54,平均0.48±0.04;②10只犬均出现并保持了节段性室壁运动异常;③多巴酚丁胺负荷试验中,所有犬均出现室壁运动改善及"双相反应";④潘生丁负荷试验表明冠脉血流储备明显降低;⑤运动异常节段声学造影后的灰阶强度较正常节段明显减低;⑥术后TTC染色及光镜和电镜证实3只犬出现小灶性透壁性心肌坏死,1只犬出现小灶性心内膜下心肌坏死,余6只犬均无心肌坏死发现.结论:在动物实验中,建立慢性(>1 mo)心肌冬眠的动物模型是可行的.

  8. 基于Spring+Struts+Hibernate的Web项目设计与研究%Design and Research of the Web Project based on Spring+Struts+Hibernate Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕好昌; 李心科

    2008-01-01

    集成Spring+Struts+Hibernate框架技术构建基于J2EE的Web应用可以提高J2EE项目的可重用性、灵活性和可扩展性等.分析了两种流行的开源框架技术Struts和Spring的原理,并将这两种框架技术与Hibernate技术整合起来应用到实际的Web项目开发中去,从而提高了项目代码的复用性及项目开发的效率.

  9. Ruby on Rails与Struts+Hibernate架构之比较分析%Compare and Analysis between Ruby on Rails and Struts+Hibernate Frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴吉义

    2007-01-01

    Ruby on Rails是一个基于Ruby语言构建的全新Web应用程序架构,为Web应用程序开发提供了一种极其快捷的途径,正在和已经引起业界相当的兴趣.在给出了Ruby on Rails与轻量级J2EE架构Struts+Hibernate关键特性的基础上,从前端控制器、动作和模型,持久性框架三个方面对两种架构进行了比较.

  10. Protection of signal processing at low temperature in baroreceptive neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius of Syrian hamsters, a hibernating species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Shin-Ichi; Horwitz, Barbara A.; Horowitz, John M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously described synaptic currents between baroreceptor fibers and second-order neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) that were larger in Syrian hamsters than in rats. This suggested that although electrical activity throughout the hamster brain decreased as brain temperature declined, the greater synaptic input to its NTS would support continued operation of cardiorespiratory reflexes at low body temperatures. Here, we focused on properties that would protect these neurons against potential damage from the larger synaptic inputs, testing the hypotheses that hamster NTS neurons exhibit: 1) intrinsic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) properties that limit Ca2+ influx to a greater degree than do rat NTS neurons and 2) properties that reduce gating signals to NMDARs to a greater degree than in rat NTS neurons. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings on anatomically identified second-order NTS baroreceptive neurons showed that NMDAR-mediated synaptic currents between sensory fibers and second-order NTS neurons were larger in hamsters than in rats at 33°C and 15°C, with no difference in their permeability to Ca2+. However, at 15°C, but not at 33°C, non-NMDAR currents evoked by glutamate released from baroreceptor fibers had significantly shorter durations in hamsters than in rats. Thus, hamster NMDARs did not exhibit lower Ca2+ influx than did rats (negating hypothesis 1), but they did exhibit significant differences in non-NMDAR neuronal properties at low temperature (consistent with hypothesis 2). The latter (shorter duration of non-NMDAR currents) would likely limit NMDAR coincidence gating and may help protect hamster NTS neurons, enabling them to contribute to signal processing at low body temperatures. PMID:24068050

  11. Research and Application of Multilayer Truss Based on Struts and Hibernate%Struts和Hibernate多层架构的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继蕊; 杨国勋

    2007-01-01

    根据多层架构系统的特点,分析了系统架构和数据持久性处理在电子商务开发系统中存在的不足之处,提出了综合应用开源框架Struts和数据持久层框架Hibernate的电子商务系统的解决方案,解决了应用面向对象方法在多层架构系统中的架构设计和对关系型数据库进行对象关系影射的实现问题.

  12. An e-Purchasing System Based on Struts and Hibernate%基于Struts和Hibernate的电子申购系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟镰; 卢建朱

    2005-01-01

    通过对现代物资申购作业的系统分析,在J2EE的B/S应用架构下,以Struts 作为表现层框架、Hibernate作为数据持久层框架,设计了一个电子申购系统.并利用柔性构件技术、XML数据标准和Java语言实现.该系统效率高、职责明确、反馈快捷、方便,并具有良好的可扩展性、实用性和可维护性.

  13. Research on Development of Web Applications Based on Struts and Hibernate Framework%基于Struts+Hibernate框架的Web应用开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李征; 于建武; 刘镇

    2007-01-01

    传统的Web应用程序的开发方法不能够满足当今的软件的发展需求,然而把Struts框架和Hibernate框架整合起来,可以使两者得到互补,有助于快速开发Web应用程序.介绍了MVC模式的原理,并分析了Struts框架和Hibernate技术的功能及优势,并以镇江市政府启动的新农村致福网系统为例,用Struts构建整体框架,Hibernate技术实现持久层,并详细阐述了基于Struts+Hibernate框架开发的新农村致福网的构建.这两种架构相结合很好地解决了系统的开发效率低、不易于维护、低耦合及可移植性差等问题.

  14. Struts和Hibernate在移动卡类业务系统中的应用%Application of struts and hibernate in mobile card deploy system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小华; 安现波; 李展

    2010-01-01

    针对传统的使用单一框架构建企业级应用存在结构复杂、扩展性和可维护性差的问题,在对两个开源框架Hibernate和Struts进行深入分析的基础上,提出了两个框架的整合方法,并以移动卡类业务系统的设计与实现为例,阐述了其在实际开发中的应用过程.结合系统的特殊性,对Hibernate接口进行了进一步的封装,加快了系统的开发进程.

  15. Aplicación web desarrollada con Google Web Toolkit, Google Maps, Android, Spring e Hibernate para la localización GPS

    OpenAIRE

    ALBERT CABALLERO, ENRIQUE

    2012-01-01

    En los últimos años, se han empezado a desarrollar sistemas cada vez más sofisticados para la localización y el seguimiento de GPS de vehículos. Este tipo de aplicaciones resultan de gran utilidad para aquellas empresas que están buscando, la manera de realizar un seguimiento de los vehículos de dicha empresa, la visualización en tiempo real de la ruta que siguen los vehículos, la visualización en un mapa de la ruta que tiene que completar los vehículos y de las estadísticas de cada rut...

  16. 基于Hibernate框架的高校图书馆网上荐购系统%Online Book Recommendation System of University Library Based on Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小乐

    2009-01-01

    依据现代高校图书馆馆藏完善的需要,采用B/S模式分析设计一个基于Hibernate的网上图书荐购系统,对系统的技术路线和功能模块进行了分析.Hibernate框架技术的使用缩短了项目开发周期,提高了系统的可维护性.

  17. Morphological and metabolic adjustments in the small intestine to energy demands of growth, storage, and fasting in the first annual cycle of a hibernating lizard (Tupinambis merianae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Lucas Francisco R; da Silveira, Lilian Cristina; Nisembaum, Laura Gabriela; Colquhoun, Alison; Abe, Agusto S; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Silvia Cristina R

    2016-05-01

    Seasonal plasticity in the small intestine of neonatal tegu lizards was investigated using morphometry and analysis of enzymes involved in supplying energy to the intestinal tissue. In the autumn, the intestinal mass (Mi) was 1.0% of body mass and the scaling exponent b=0.92 indicated that Mi was larger in smaller neonates. During arousal from dormancy Mi was 23% smaller; later in spring, Mi increased 60% in relation to the autumn and the exponent b=0.14 indicated that the recovery was disproportionate in smaller tegus. During the autumn, the intestinal villi were greatly elongated; by midwinter, the Hv, SvEp, and VvEp were smaller than during the autumn (59%, 54%, 29%) and were restored to autumn levels during spring. In the active tegus, the maximum activity (Vmax) of enzymes indicated that the enterocytes can obtain energy from different sources, and possess gluconeogenic capacity. During winter, the Vmax of CS, HOAD, GDH, PEPCK was 40-50% lower in relation to the autumn and spring, while the Vmax of HK, PK, LDH, AST was unchanged. The hypoglycemia and the mucosal atrophy/ischemia during winter would prevent the enterocytes from using glucose, whereas they could slowly oxidize fatty acids released from body stores and amino acids from the tissue proteolysis to satisfy their needs of energy. Contrastingly, starvation during spring caused severe mass loss (50%); the tissue protein and the VvEp and VvLP did not change while the thickness of the muscular layer increased 51%, which suggested different effects along the length of the organ. In addition, the Vmax of the glycolytic enzymes was lower, indicating that a regulatory mechanism would spare blood glucose for vital organs during unanticipated food restriction.

  18. Delayed metabolic recovery of hibernating myocardium after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Assessment with iodine-123-betamethyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Atsumi, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Satomi; Tomoike, Hitonobu [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-07-01

    The time course of improvement in fatty acid metabolism after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was investigated using echocardiography and fatty acid metabolic imaging with iodine-123-betamethyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) before, 1 week and 3 months after PTCA in 31 patients with angina pectoris. Decreased left ventricular wall motion before PTCA improved 1 week after PTCA in 13 of 31 patients. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was reduced in these 13 patients before PTCA, and did not improve 1 week after PTCA. Decreased myocardial uptake of {sup 123}I-BMIPP improved 1 week after PTCA in eight of 23 patients (group A). Thirteen patients in whom {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake had not improved 1 week after PTCA showed a delayed recovery of 3 months after PTCA (group B). All patients in groups A and B showed improvement in wall motion 1 week after PTCA. Patients in group B had a higher incidence of unstable angina (77% vs 25%, p<0.01), 99% or 100% stenosis (62% vs 13%, p<0.01) and collateral vessels (46% vs 13%, p<0.05) than those in group A. Serial fatty acid metabolic imaging with {sup 123}I-BMIPP after PTCA showed delayed metabolic recovery after improvement in wall motion in 13 of 23 patients. The presence of severe myocardial ischemia before PTCA enhanced the chronological discrepancies between the recovery of wall motion and fatty acid metabolism. (author)

  19. Ämbliku jäljed kivimüüril / Sigrid Saarep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarep, Sigrid, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Suurbritannia paviljonis 53. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esinevad kunstnikud Steve McQueen, John Cale (Wales), Martin Boyce (Šotimaa) ja Susan MacWilliam (Põhja-Iirimaa). Videokunstnik Steve McQueeni filmist "Giardini" (2009)

  20. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  1. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  2. Veenmiskunst / Radislav Gandapas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gandapas, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    Tõlgitud katkendid Carmen Gallo raamatust "The presentation secrets of Steve Jobs: how to be insanely great in front of any audience", mis tutvustab Steve Jobs´i võtteid suurepärase kõne esitamisel

  3. Ämbliku jäljed kivimüüril / Sigrid Saarep

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saarep, Sigrid, 1963-

    2009-01-01

    Suurbritannia paviljonis 53. Veneetsia kunstibiennaalil esinevad kunstnikud Steve McQueen, John Cale (Wales), Martin Boyce (Šotimaa) ja Susan MacWilliam (Põhja-Iirimaa). Videokunstnik Steve McQueeni filmist "Giardini" (2009)

  4. Veenmiskunst / Radislav Gandapas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gandapas, Radislav

    2013-01-01

    Tõlgitud katkendid Carmen Gallo raamatust "The presentation secrets of Steve Jobs: how to be insanely great in front of any audience", mis tutvustab Steve Jobs´i võtteid suurepärase kõne esitamisel

  5. La Botigueta de Vinils

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Álvarez, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Java 2 Plataform Enterprise J2EE, amb utilització de Spring Web, Hibernate, JavaServer Faces i ICEfaces. Java 2 Plataform Enterprise J2EE, con utilización de Spring Web, Hibernate, JavaServer Faces y ICEfaces. 2EE Java 2 Platform Enterprise, with use of Web Spring, Hibernate, JavaServer Faces and ICEfaces.

  6. La Botigueta de Vinils

    OpenAIRE

    Villar Álvarez, Francisco José

    2012-01-01

    Java 2 Plataform Enterprise J2EE, amb utilització de Spring Web, Hibernate, JavaServer Faces i ICEfaces. Java 2 Plataform Enterprise J2EE, con utilización de Spring Web, Hibernate, JavaServer Faces y ICEfaces. 2EE Java 2 Platform Enterprise, with use of Web Spring, Hibernate, JavaServer Faces and ICEfaces.

  7. 冬眠与非冬眠刺猬小肠运动机能与对Ad、Ach反应敏感性比较%Motional function of intestinum tenue of Erinaceus europaeus and drug effect on it in hibernation and non-hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚德昌

    2001-01-01

    对47只冬眠季冬眠阵低温期刺猬的小肠与53只非冬眠季刺猬的小肠,在11.5℃和37℃及离体条件下的收缩强度进行比较,和在37℃条件下对肾上腺素(Ad)、乙酰胆硷(Ach)、心得安(Propranolol)、阿托品(Atr)反应进行比较,表明在11.5 ℃条件下,冬眠与非冬眠刺猬离体小肠都基本无运动机能,在37℃条件下,冬眠季冬眠阵低温期刺猬离体小肠运动强度明显高于非冬眠季,Ad、Ach、Propranolol、Atr 使冬眠季冬眠阵低温期刺猬离体小肠收缩强度变化率明显高于非冬眠季.

  8. A New and Innovative Use of the Thermal Knife and Kevlar Cord Components in a Restraint and Release System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A Kevlar cord and two thermal knives are key components in the Soar Array Restraint and Release System (SARRS) on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SARRS uses a 25-foot (7.62 m) length Kevlar cord that encircles the spacecraft and secures the solar panels in stowed configuration for launch. Once in orbit, one of two redundantly configured thermal knives severs the Kevlar cord and permits the panels to deploy. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the design, development test results, and the various innovations that were created during the development of this novel use of the thermal knife and Kevlar cord.

  9. A new and innovative use of the thermal knife and Kevlar cord components in a restraint and release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alphonso C.

    2001-09-01

    A Kevlar cord and two thermal knives are key components in the Solar Array Restraint and Release System (SARRS) on the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The SARRS uses a 25-foot (7.62 m) length Kevlar cord that encircles the spacecraft and secures the solar panels in stowed configuration for launch. Once in orbit, one of two redundantly configured thermal knives severs the Kevlar cord and permits the panels to deploy. The purpose of this paper is to present the details of the design, development test results, and the various innovations that were created during the development of this novel use of the thermal knife and Kevlar cord.

  10. Jürvetsoni meetod / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Eesti päritolu Steve Jürvetsoni osalusega riskikapitalifirma Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ) on investeerinud paljudesse lootustandvatesse äriprojektidesse, millest edukamateks on saanud Hotmail, Skype, Focus Media ja Baidu. Lisa: Steve Jürvetson; 10 nõuannet ettevõtte juhtimiseks; Pildil nimekate tegelastega. Vt. samas: Intervjuu Steve Jürvetsoniga

  11. 买车

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig; Rogan

    2003-01-01

    Two American buddies are going to buy anew car.Their names are Joe and Steve.Joe: Hey Steve, are you free today? I need to check out the car lots. It's time I get a new set of wheels.Steve: Sure. Let's go! What are you in the market for?

  12. Jürvetsoni meetod / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Eesti päritolu Steve Jürvetsoni osalusega riskikapitalifirma Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ) on investeerinud paljudesse lootustandvatesse äriprojektidesse, millest edukamateks on saanud Hotmail, Skype, Focus Media ja Baidu. Lisa: Steve Jürvetson; 10 nõuannet ettevõtte juhtimiseks; Pildil nimekate tegelastega. Vt. samas: Intervjuu Steve Jürvetsoniga

  13. Applications of Joint Tactical Simulation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS APPLICATIONS OF JOINT TACTICAL SIMULATION MODELING by Steve VanLandingham December 1997...SUBTITLE APPLICATIONS OF JOINT TACTICAL SIMULATION MODELING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) VanLandingham, Steve 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...release; distribution is unlimited. APPLICATIONS OF JOINT TACTICAL SIMULATION MODELING Steve VanLandingham Lieutenant, United States Navy B.S

  14. Searching for Adverse Effects in MEDLINE and EMBASE Requires a Combined Approach for Efficient Retrieval, A review of: Golder, Su, Heather M. McIntosh, Steve Duffy, and Julie Glanville. “Developing Efficient Search Strategies to Identify Reports of Adverse Effects in MEDLINE and EMBASE.” Health Information & Libraries Journal 23.1 (Mar. 2006: 3-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy L. Brown

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess the sensitivity and precision of various search strategies for retrieving adverse effects studies from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Design – Analytical survey. Subjects – A case study using a recently published systematic review of the effectiveness and adverse effects of seven new anti-epileptic drugs. Setting – MEDLINE and EMBASE searches performed by researchers at the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and the UK Cochrane Centre Search Filters Design Group at the University of York, UK. Methods – Five key approaches to searching were defined. The first approach used either text words or controlled vocabulary to search for specific adverse effects. The second used subheadings or qualifiers either attached to drug names found in the controlled vocabulary (approach 2a or ‘floating’ without drug names (approach 2b. The third approach used text words as synonyms for the phrase ‘adverse effects.’ The fourth used controlled indexing terms for adverse effects. The fifth and final approach used two published search strategies incorporating study design (Badgett et al., Loke et al.. These five approaches were used to search for studies of the adverse effects of seven new anti‐epileptic drugs. 5,011 unique papers were retrieved. Of these, 236 were judged potentially relevant and 225 full text articles were obtained. The inclusion criteria from a previously published systematic review (Wilby et al. were applied to the papers, and 79 met the criteria. Five papers were added to the set after being identified from reference lists, clinical experts, and other sources. This new set of 84 studies was used as a quasi gold standard (QGS against which more than 300 combinations of the five approaches could be tested. To create the set of possible approaches, the researchers combined search strategies one through four in all possible ways, and used all available subheading combinations from 2a and 2b. The Badgett and Loke searches were tested separately. Main Results – Sensitivity and precision were determined for each combination. Formulas used to calculate sensitivity and precision were provided. In MEDLINE, search strategies using floating subheadings achieved the highest sensitivity. The most useful single subheading in both MEDLINE and EMBASE was “adverse effects,” with 79.1% and 79.5% sensitivity respectively. Of the more than 300 combinations tested, the most sensitive combination in MEDLINE included specified adverse effects in combination with the floating subheadings “adverse effects,” “complications,” and “drug effects,” together with text words for adverse effects. This strategy had 97.0% sensitivity, but low precision at 2.8%. The highest precision was achieved by using subheadings attached to drug indexing terms. In EMBASE, the strategy of Loke et al. provided the highest sensitivity at 86.3% and precision of 2.0%. Since researchers are not likely to know in advance all of the reported adverse effects of a particular drug therapy, the most sensitive strategies without specific adverse events were also identified. The search with the highest sensitivity in MEDLINE had 95.5% sensitivity, and 97.3% sensitivity in EMBASE. Conclusion – Searching for adverse effects requires a combination of approaches in both MEDLINE and EMBASE. In MEDLINE, the most sensitive combination yielded 97.0% sensitivity. Regardless of the approach used, precision remains low. An effective generic search filter for adverse effects searches may not yet be feasible. More research is needed on search strategies, as well as more consistent methods of reporting and indexing adverse effects.

  15. The High Quality and Authenticity Wine from Australia%源于澳大利亚的高品质、高真实性葡萄酒——访澳大利亚葡萄酒与白兰地局合规与贸易部总经理Steve Guy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜庆婧

    2009-01-01

    @@ 澳大利亚葡萄酒与白兰地局成立于1980年,是澳大利亚政府法定的管理当局,通过出口控制、标签完整性计划、定义澳大利亚地理标记等手段对澳大利亚的葡萄酒行业进行管理,其主要职责是建立和保护澳大利亚葡萄酒的信誉,并且在确保高品质葡萄酒的同时确保产品的真实性,即产品标识与葡萄酒本身质量的一致性.

  16. Disinfection By-Products and Human Health. Edited by Steve E. Hrudey and Jeffrey W.A. Charrois, IWA Publishing, 2012; 304 pages. Price: US$ 178.20/£ 99.00 ISBN 978–1–843–39519–5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The following paragraphs are reproduced from the website of the publisher [1].Disinfection By-Products and Human Health is based on contributions from speakers who participated in May 2011 workshops on Disinfection By-Products (DBPs and Human Health at Ozwater 11 in Adelaide, Australia or at an AWA sponsored workshop at the Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Perth, Australia.The contributions are prepared to facilitate communication with practitioners, rather than researchers, making use of overview illustrations rather than dense text or data tables. Each chapter concludes with up to 5 key findings that are take-home messages for practitioners. [...

  17. Research on Data Initialization of Information System Based on Hibernate Framework%Hibernate框架下信息系统数据初始化问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建国; 梁斌; 郭理

    2010-01-01

    由于对象关系映射(ORM)采用了一种完全不同的数据访问方式,为了使原有信息系统的数据迁移到采用了ORM框架的新系统后仍然保持数据的完整性和一致性,使用poi读取excel文件的结构化数据,使用java反射技术将读取的数据组装成对象.使用开源的ORM框架Hibernate将对象导入数据库中.结果表明该方案可以保证信息系统初始化后数据的完整性,从而解决了采用oRaM框架的信息系统数据初始化问题.

  18. Design and Realization of Information Communication Platform System Based on Struts+Spring+Hibernate Framework%基于Struts+Spring+Hibernate框架的信息交流平台的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵少卡

    2009-01-01

    以开发信息交流平台系统为背景,对基于MVC模式的Struts框架、Hibernate的ORM机制和对持久对象持久化的管理以及Spring IOC(控制反转)技术进行了探讨,整合这三种框架:表现层使用Struts;业务层使用Spring;持久层使用Hibernate进行系统的开发.此外,结合具体的实例对系统的实现作了详细的说明,验证了实现方法的可行性.

  19. Development of Lightning Disaster Risk Assessment Software Based on Struts and Hibernate%基于Struts和Hibernate的雷电灾害风险评估软件开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲江; 朱传林; 陈翔翔; 朱浩

    2010-01-01

    首次利用Struts 与Hibernate技术构建了MVC架构的雷电灾害风险评估的Web软件系统,该系统提供友好的人机对话界面.基于J2EE平台的Struts和Hibernate框架整合实现了层间的松散耦合,能极大地提高开发效率,使系统具有更好的可维护性和可扩展性.通过Struts与Hibernate的整合,该系统实现了建筑物与服务设施的雷电灾害风险评估、参数管理、评估记录管理、雷暴日管理、闪电资料管理等功能,比IEC给出的评估软件具有更好的实用性.

  20. The techniques of scorpion raising in thermostatic house and its effect on the elimination of hibernation%温室养蝎新技术及其消除冬眠的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周维官; 曾维铭

    2001-01-01

    @@蝎,俗称蝎子,属于节肢动物门,蛛形纲,蝎目。我国有记载的蝎子有15种,其中东亚钳蝎是我国最常见的一种,也是我国人工养殖的主要品种,它主要分布在华北和东北一带。 1 花房型无冬眠养蝎新技术原理 常温下,蝎子从出生到成年约需3年,时间较长。究其原因,主要是蝎子为冷血变温陆栖动物,它的体温随环境温度变化而变化。当温度在0~7℃时进入冬眠状态,当温度达到25~39℃时才能正常生长发育和繁殖。根据蝎子的这一生物学特性,结合南方(尤其是广西)的自然气候特点,在气温高的季节采用常温养殖,在气温低的季节采用炉火(用煤)加温,使蝎子生存环境温度一年四季都保持在25~39℃之间,人为地改变蝎子的冬眠习性,使其不冬眠,这样蝎子的生长周期就会由常温下的3年左右缩短为8—12个月,年产仔胎次由1胎增加到2~3胎,成活率明显提高,经济效益显著。

  1. The Changes of Body Temperature During Arousal from Hibernation in the Animals%冬眠动物激醒过程中体温变化的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨果杰; 王钜; 凌波; 董洁; 卢静; 邓文强

    1999-01-01

    本研究在冬季日温度为6~15℃的饲育室中对达乌尔黄鼠(Citellust dauricus Brandt).和花鼠(Eutamias sibiricus Laxmann)冬眠情况和激醒过程中的体温变化进行了观察.在从10月至次年2月共约150d的实验期中,两种动物都能进入深冬眠,冬眠时间约占16%,冬眠阵以一天、二天和三天为主,占冬眠天数的45%,最长者为16d.在测量冬眠中动物体温时观察和记录了这两种动物激醒过程中的体温变化,花鼠激醒约需1h,黄鼠需2~3h.

  2. 连续记录动物冬眠体温数据分析系统的研究%Study of continuous recording animals hibernate body temperature data analysis system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜庆东; 衣文秀; 杨明

    2014-01-01

    动物冬眠研究是生物学科专家研究动物对环境适应能力的一个重要领域,生物学科专家在动物冬眠的实验研究过程中会采集到大量冬眠数据,这些冬眠数据的分析需要计算机领域的相关技术做支撑.通过在达乌尔黄鼠体内植入半导体温度记录元件记录其冬眠期间体温的变化,由MATLAB与Excel结合对实验数据进行分析研究,开发出了一个基于MATLAB的连续记录动物冬眠体温数据分析的系统.系统主要实现对达乌尔黄鼠冬眠数据的分析,通过设定黄鼠的入眠温度、出眠温度来计算冬眠历时,并由GUI图形用户界面形象的显示出结果.系统程序便于修改、直观易操作,便于生物学科专家通过获取理想分析结果,简化生物学科研究人员对初始的繁琐数据操作过程,为后期生物领域研究做基础.

  3. Fatty acid composition and animal safety test of hibernation badger oil%冬眠期狗獾油脂肪酸组成分析及安全性动物试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施银; 陈若晞; 全莹莹; 姜楠; 厉威池; 刘玉堂

    2015-01-01

    利用低温提取法从冬眠期狗獾脂肪组织中提取狗獾油,对其脂肪酸组成进行分析并进行安全性动物试验.结果表明:狗獾油脂肪酸主要为不饱和脂肪酸,其中上清液中不饱和脂肪酸含量高达75.3%,沉淀中为65.5%,包括人体所必需的亚麻酸、亚油酸等多不饱和脂肪酸;动物试验发现,狗獾油无急性毒性,对皮肤无刺激性,无过敏反应.分析表明,狗獾油除在传统中医领域用作药物外,还有可能替代猪油成为新的食用动物油.

  4. The establishment of an animal model of acute hibernating myocardium by closed-chest (interventional) method%闭胸法制备急性冬眠心肌动物模型的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘德锋; 夏勇; 徐晤; 钱文浩; 杨煜; 朱红; 李东野

    2006-01-01

    目的 探讨闭胸法制备急性冬眠心肌动物模型的可行性及冠状动脉血流动力学特点,为冬眠心肌的研究提供合适模型.方法 13只小型中国家猪,以右冠状动脉为靶血管,以冠状动脉内多普勒导丝为导引钢丝,采用闭胸介入法将球囊导入靶血管,通过球囊扩张造成冠状动脉严重狭窄(≥90%),观测模型制备前后冠状动脉狭窄程度、心肌梗死溶栓治疗临床试验(thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, TIMI)血流分级、室壁运动、冠状动脉血流动力学指标的变化情况;处死实验动物,行三硝基四氮唑红(triphenyltetrazolium chloride, TTC)心肌大体染色及光镜检查,观察心肌细胞的病理改变.结果 10只动物完成实验研究,冠状动脉狭窄程度均≥90%,TIMI血流分级均≤Ⅱ级,左心室共有55个节段发生节段性室壁运动障碍,狭窄冠状动脉远端的平均峰值流速、舒张收缩流速比值、冠状动脉血流速度储备均明显降低,TTC大体染色未示心肌坏死灶,光镜仅示核周肿胀和毛细血管充血、扩张等改变,表明模型制备成功.结论 闭胸法制备急性冬眠心肌模型效果确切,安全可行,动物死亡率低,优于传统的开胸法,有较好的应用前景.模型相关冠状动脉的血流动力学指标明显降低,可作为判断模型成功的标准之一.

  5. 血液冬眠对婴幼儿体外循环期间炎性反应和凝血反应的影响%Effect of blood hibernation on inflammation and coagulation in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明品; 李兴旺; 吴国伟; 陈小玲; 李宝青; 鹿文青; 季丽霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究血液冬眠对婴幼儿体外循环(CPB)期间炎性反应和凝血反应的影响.方法:选择择期婴幼儿心内直视手术60例,随机分为乌司他丁组(ULI,U组)、前列地尔组(P组)、一氧化氮组(N组)、血液冬眠组(UPN组)和对照组(C组),每组12例.U组在体外循环预充液中加入1万U/kg ULI;P组在CPB过程中以10 ng·kg-1·min-1的速度经中心静脉持续泵入PGE1;N组通过肺和氧合器吸入20 ppm NO;UPN组联合使用三种药物;C组不给予以上任何干预措施.分别于麻醉诱导后切皮前(T1),CPB开始后30 min(T2),CPB结束时(T3),CPB结束后3 h(T4),CPB结束后24 h(T5)等5个时间点经桡动脉抽取动脉血,测定血浆中IL-6、GMP-140的浓度,在术后3h和24 h测定PT、AHT和PLT计数,记录术后24 h出血量和输血量.结果:UPN组在T2~T5各时点的血浆IL-6和GMP-140的浓度较其他各组显著下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).与基础值比较,C组、P组、N组和U组患儿在T2~T5时的血浆IL-6和GMP-140浓度显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);UPN组在T2~T5时的血浆IL-6和GMP-140浓度差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).UPN组在术后3h和术后24 h的PT、APTT和PLT计数,与其他各组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);与基础值比较,UPN组PT、APTT和PLT计数在术后3h和术后24 h差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05),术后24 h出血量较其他各组减少(P<0.01).结论:在婴幼儿体外循环过程中,血液冬眠通过抑制IL-6和GMP-140的过度释放,有效抑制炎性反应,明显改善CPB术后凝血功能.

  6. 血液冬眠合剂对婴幼儿体外循环中肺损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of blood hibernation on lung injury in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明品; 李兴旺; 吴国伟; 陈小玲; 李宝青; 鹿文青; 季丽霞

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究血液冬眠(BH)合剂对婴幼儿体外循环(CPB)中肺损伤的保护作用及可能机制.方法 选择择期行婴幼儿心内直视手术60例,按随机数字表法分为乌司他丁(U组)、前列地尔组(P组)、一氧化氮组(N组)、血液冬眠组(UPN组)和对照组(C组),每组12例.U组在CPB预充液中加入10 000U/kg乌司他丁;P组在CPB过程中以10ng/(kg·min)的速度经中心静脉持续泵入前列地尔;N组通过肺和氧合器吸入0.02‰一氧化氮;UPN组联合使用3种药物;C组不给予以上任何干预措施.分别于麻醉诱导后切皮前(T1),CPB开始后30min(T2),CPB结束时(T3),CPB结束后3h(T4),CPB结束后24h(T5)等5个时间点于桡动脉抽取动脉血,测定血浆中可溶性细胞间黏附分子-1(sICAM-1)、vWF水平和动脉血气分析,对比观察CPB中和CPB后呼吸指数(RI).结果 UPN组在T2~s各时点的血浆slCAM-1和vWF的浓度较其他各组显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).与T1比较,C组、P组、N组和U组患儿在T2-5时的血浆slCAM-1和vWF水平明显升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).UPN组患儿在T2~5时点RI较其他4组均显著下降,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 在婴幼儿CPB过程中,BH通过抑制sICAM-1和vWF的过度表达,减轻CPB后肺损伤和通气功能障碍,保护并改善术后肺功能.

  7. 基于Struts-Hibernate构架的数字化教学评估档案管理系统%Digitized archives management system for teaching evaluation based on struts-hibernate architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭广军; 徐章法; 羊四清

    2010-01-01

    给出了基于Struts-Hibernate的Java EE整合架构,剖析了Struts-Hibernate整合原理和关键技术.根据本科教学评估指标体系,设计并实现了一个跨平台的数字化教学评估档案管理系统(DAMS4TE).该系统实现了数字化教学评估档案的上传、下栽、修改、删除,查询和分类等管理功能.Struts-Hibernate架构降低了系统的耦合度,提高了系统的可移值性、可扩展性和安全性,在可扩展的企业级应用开发中有很好的前景.实验结果表明,DAMS4TE规范了教学评估档案建设,提高了工作效率.

  8. Medical Image Aided Diagnosis System Based on the Integrated Architecture of Struts and Hibernate%基于Struts和Hibernate集成架构的医学图像辅助诊断系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗圣阳; 吴健; 崔志明

    2006-01-01

    将Struts和Hibernate两个架构有机集成起来,在数据持久层以数据访问对象(DAO)模式封装对底层数据的访问.文中详细论述了集成这两个架构的原理,并将其应用于医学图像辅助诊断系统,阐述了用此集成架构开发应用系统的方法以及由此带来的巨大好处.

  9. J2EE Quick Development Framework Based on Struts & Hibernate%基于Struts和Hibernate的J2EE快速开发框架的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 周志波; 凌力

    2006-01-01

    该文在Struts和Hibernate的基础上,利用Eclipse开发平台的插件标准,介绍了快速开发框架的原理图和实现结构,并实现了一种可以通过向导自动生成Web应用代码的J2EE快速开发框架.J2EE快速开发框架,易于设计构建.实验结果表明,程序运行可靠,其良好的扩展性满足实际应用的需要.

  10. Research and Development of the Injection Mould Quotation System Based on Spring+Struts+Hibernate%基于Spring+Struts+Hibernate注塑模具报价系统的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志明; 王天擎

    2010-01-01

    开源框架技术在J2EE平台中大量运用,增加了J2EE平台应用软件的开发效率.文章探讨整合了Spring+Struts+Hibernate轻量级的J2EE平台和技术,讨论了注塑模具报价系统的算法功能,设计与实现基于SSH注塑模具报价系统,该系统使用方便、计算准确,可维护性、可扩展性、健壮性好.

  11. 基于Struts与Hibernate企业信息系统的设计与实现%Design and Realization of Business Enterprise Information's Releasing System Based on Struts&Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦耿龙; 马晓霜; 刘冰

    2010-01-01

    本文论述基于Struts与Hibernate框架的体系结构,论述了系统的整体框架和功能结构,最后阐述了系统实现过程中的相关技术.本系统的实现在使得企业对信息的管理更加及进,高效,提高了工作效率.

  12. 基于Struts、Spring和Hibernate的电子商务设计与实现%Design and Realization of e-Business System Based on Struts,Spring and Hibernate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧姿兰

    2009-01-01

    通过分析Struts、Spring和Hibernate结构和特点,然后针对性地构建了电子商务系统,体现了Struts、Spring和Hibernate的组合在电子商务类型系统的开发中的突出优异性.

  13. Efeito da estrutura de uma pastagem hibernal sobre o comportamento de pastejo de novilhos de corte Effect of structure of a cool season pasture on grazing behaviour of beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naíme de Barcellos Trevisan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes estruturas da pastagem, provocadas pela imposição de dois níveis (tratamentos de biomassa de lâminas foliares verdes (MSFV 350 e 600 kg/ha de matéria seca (MS sobre o comportamento de pastejo dos animais em pastagem consorciada de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém anual (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. As atividades dos animais foram registradas nos meses de agosto e setembro, em períodos de 24 horas consecutivas, por observadores treinados. Nas horas do dia em que o pastejo é mais intenso, foram avaliados o tempo de permanência nas estações de pastejo, a distância entre as estações alimentares e a freqüência com que os animais permaneciam em um sítio de pastejo. Houve preferência marcante por sítios localizados nos quadrantes de cada potreiro mais próximos dos bebedouros/fontes de água. O tempo de permanência dos animais nas estações de pastejo e a distância entre elas foram similares entre os dois tratamentos. O tratamento de 350 kg/ha de MS de lâminas foliares verdes não se constituiu como um nível de biomassa que afeta o tempo de permanência nas estações de pastejo.The effect of different pasture structures imposed by treatments of green leaf lamina biomass (GLLB levels of 350 and 600 kg/ha of dry matter (MS, over animals grazing behaviour was evaluated in this experiment. The pasture was oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Animals activities were recorded in August and September, in 24 consecutive hours, by trained observers. In the hours of the day in which grazing were more intense, grazing stations remaining time, distance between feed stations and the frequency of remaining in each grazing site were recorded. Preference for sites located nearest to drinking points were found, in each paddock. Distances between feeding stations and time of remaining in these were similar for both treatments. The treatment with 350 kg/ha of DM of GLLB was not a biomass level that affect remaining time in grazing stations.

  14. Metabolic rates and biochemical compositions of Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) tissue during periods of inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包杰; 董双林; 田相利; 王芳; 高勤峰; 董云伟

    2010-01-01

    Estivation, hibernation, and starvation are indispensable inactive states of sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus in nature and in culture ponds. Generally, temperature is the principal factor that induces estivation or hibernation in the sea cucumber. The present study provided insight into the physiological adaptations of A. japonicus during the three types of inactivity (hibernation, estivation, and starvation) by measuring the oxygen consumption rates (Vo2) and biochemical compositions under laboratory ...

  15. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hee, Mallory M; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-01

    .... White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies...

  16. DDN (Defense Data Network) Protocol Handbook. Volume 3. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Addison [SXB] Steve Byrne [SB28] Scott Bradner [SXF] Steve Fogel [SXM] Scott Marcus [SXM1] Scooter Morris [SXS] Steve Silverman [TBS] Claude S...TARTAN Byme@CMU-CS-C.ARPA HARVARD sob@HARVARD.EDU MTCS SFogel! mtcs! mtxinu@UCBARPA. BERKELEY. EDU SPARTACUS none GENENTECH scooter @UCSF...retranimüsjon of 1 frames, and to request a temporary suspension of transmission of 1 frames. LU.IJ Unmmmotrwd format - V The U format a «sad to

  17. Erkki Luuk kuulab eksprimentaalset ambient'i / Erkki Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Erkki, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Killy Dog Box "The Silent Light", Legion "Zodiac", Erinevad esinejad "Bip-Hop Generation vol 6", Jason Lescalleet "Matresslessness", Francisco Lopez / Steve Roden "Le Chemin du Paradis"

  18. Erkki Luuk kuulab eksprimentaalset ambient'i / Erkki Luuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luuk, Erkki, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Killy Dog Box "The Silent Light", Legion "Zodiac", Erinevad esinejad "Bip-Hop Generation vol 6", Jason Lescalleet "Matresslessness", Francisco Lopez / Steve Roden "Le Chemin du Paradis"

  19. 76 FR 55834 - Efficiency and Renewables Advisory Committee, Appliance Standards Subcommittee, Negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ...: Richard Anderson (Fayetteville PWC) Tim Ballo (Earthjustice) Scott Beck (Lakeview Metals) John Caskey...) Michael Hyland (APPA) David Millure (Metglas) Steve Nadel (ACEEE) Wes Patterson (ABB) Eric Petersen...

  20. Spontaneous mentalizing captures variability in the cortical thickness of social brain regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    .... "In this story, what does Steve think Julia believes?"). Neuroanatomical measures may provide a way to explore the brain bases of individual differences in more naturalistic everyday mentalizing...