WorldWideScience

Sample records for hibernation repression hypnosis

  1. Hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Hypnosis By Mayo Clinic Staff Hypnosis, also referred to as hypnotherapy or hypnotic suggestion, is a trance-like state in which you have heightened focus and concentration. Hypnosis is usually done with the help of a ...

  2. Hypnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Erel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnosis is one of the oldest treatment methods. Hypnosis is usually done with the help of a doctor using verbal repetition and mental images. When you’re under hypnosis, you usually feel calm and relaxed, and are more open to suggestions. Hypnosis can be used to help you gain control over undesired behaviors or to help you cope better with anxiety or pain. Hypnosis that’s conducted by a trained doctor or health care professional is considered a safe, complementary and alternative medicine treatment. However, hypnosis may not be appropriate in people with severe mental illness. You may be able to practice self-hypnosis and you can use this skill as needed. Hypnosis, the subconscious mind is the golden key to the entrance and is limited to the boundaries of imagination.

  3. Hypnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Erel; Kamil Varlık Erel

    2017-01-01

    Hypnosis is one of the oldest treatment methods. Hypnosis is usually done with the help of a doctor using verbal repetition and mental images. When you’re under hypnosis, you usually feel calm and relaxed, and are more open to suggestions. Hypnosis can be used to help you gain control over undesired behaviors or to help you cope better with anxiety or pain. Hypnosis that’s conducted by a trained doctor or health care professional is considered a safe, complementary and alternative medicine tr...

  4. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Minter, Dave; Ottinger, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Third Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open-source, lightweight Hibernate, a leading object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework.This book packs in information about the release of the Hibernate 4.x persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you'll be able to immediately star

  5. Beginning Hibernate

    CERN Document Server

    Linwood, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Hibernate, Second Edition is ideal if you're experienced in Java with databases (the traditional, or "connected," approach), but new to open source, lightweight Hibernate-the de facto object-relational mapping and database-oriented application development framework. This book packs in brand-new information about the latest release of the Hibernate 3.5 persistence layer and provides a clear introduction to the current standard for object-relational persistence in Java. And since the book keeps its focus on Hibernate without wasting time on nonessential third-party tools, you

  6. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  7. Hypnosis for IBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CAM Practitioner Hypnosis for IBS Yoga Video: About Hypnosis Hypnosis has been shown to be an effective treatment ... of what happens both during and after the hypnosis session. The treatment is generally comfortable and also ...

  8. Hypnosis for IBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CAM Practitioner Hypnosis for IBS Yoga Video: About Hypnosis Hypnosis has been shown to be an effective treatment ... of what happens both during and after the hypnosis session. The treatment is generally comfortable and also ...

  9. [Erickson's hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggle, D

    1988-04-01

    Milton H. Erickson (1901-1980) renovated the study and practice of therapeutic hypnosis. The author first presents a synthetic overview of Erickson's original work and its spread. He then illustrates this with excerpts from observations of six of his own patients which correspond to the progressive integration of an ericksonian approach into a classical psychiatric practice in a general hospital setting.

  10. Hypnosis and Memory: A Hazardous Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the issues surrounding the recovery of repressed memories through hypnosis and suggests ways clinicians might productively confront the attendant clinical dilemmas in this process. Discusses the hypnotic experience, the nature of memory, and clinical problems associated with recovered memories. Makes recommendations for clinicians. (RJM)

  11. Hypnosis and Memory: A Hazardous Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the issues surrounding the recovery of repressed memories through hypnosis and suggests ways clinicians might productively confront the attendant clinical dilemmas in this process. Discusses the hypnotic experience, the nature of memory, and clinical problems associated with recovered memories. Makes recommendations for clinicians. (RJM)

  12. Hypnosis and Science

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Hypnosis is a disputed topic since 200 years. People are always questioning “Is hypnosis a science phenomenon or fraud or supernatural?” Unfortunately, some information about hypnosis in magazines, newspaper, TV shows or books may be misleading. In our project, we try to investigate the scientific status of hypnosis phenomena. First, we introduce highlights of the history of scientific interest for and scientific investigation of hypnosis. Scientists had various standpoints in...

  13. Hypnosis and the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Maurice

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and value of hypnosis; rating scales and their clinical relevance; the role of self-hypnosis; and clinical studies related to anxiety, hysteria, enuresis, asthma, and pain and painful procedures. (RH)

  14. Hypnosis and the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Maurice

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature and value of hypnosis; rating scales and their clinical relevance; the role of self-hypnosis; and clinical studies related to anxiety, hysteria, enuresis, asthma, and pain and painful procedures. (RH)

  15. Hypnosis: medicine's dirty word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, William N

    2006-10-01

    This paper attempts to understand the relationship between the clinical efficacy of hypnosis and its negative perception among many medical educators, practitioners and the general public. By exploring the history of hypnosis, an attempt was made to point out several events that may have led to both the past and current misperception of hypnosis which the author believes have caused hypnosis to become "medicine's dirty word".

  16. Hypnosis as neurophenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lifshitz, Michael; Cusumano, Emma P.; Raz, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Hypnosis research binds phenomenology and neuroscience. Here we show how recent evidence probing the impact of hypnosis and suggestion can inform and advance a neurophenomenological approach. In contrast to meditative practices that involve lengthy and intensive training, hypnosis induces profound alterations in subjective experience following just a few words of suggestion. Individuals highly responsive to hypnosis can quickly and effortlessly manifest atypical conscious experiences as well ...

  17. Hibernate A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2004-01-01

    Do you enjoy writing software, except for the database code? Hibernate:A Developer's Notebook is for you. Database experts may enjoy fiddling with SQL, but you don't have to--the rest of the application is the fun part. And even database experts dread the tedious plumbing and typographical spaghetti needed to put their SQL into a Java program. Hibernate: A Developers Notebook shows you how to use Hibernate to automate persistence: you write natural Java objects and some simple configuration files, and Hibernate automates all the interaction between your objects and the database. You don't

  18. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  19. Clinical Mastery of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horevitz, Richard P.

    Hypnosis is an increasingly popular clinical intervention. The number of training courses in hypnosis is growing each year. Research on hypnosis training appears to show that limited exposure to training, as is typical in the common 3 to 5 day format of mass training, produces limited results. Only when training is extended over time do the…

  20. Hypnosis and Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, Myrna Lynn

    A thorough investiqation is attempted of efforts to apply hypnosis and suggestive learning techniques to education in general and specifically to second language learning. Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its dangers, its definition, and its application. Included in this discussion is a comparison of auto- and hetero-hypnosis, an overview of the…

  1. Clinical Mastery of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horevitz, Richard P.

    Hypnosis is an increasingly popular clinical intervention. The number of training courses in hypnosis is growing each year. Research on hypnosis training appears to show that limited exposure to training, as is typical in the common 3 to 5 day format of mass training, produces limited results. Only when training is extended over time do the…

  2. Hypnosis as Neurophenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eLifshitz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnosis research binds phenomenology and neuroscience. Here we show how recent evidence probing the impact of hypnosis and suggestion can inform and advance a neurophenomenological approach. In contrast to meditative practices that involve lengthy and intensive training, hypnosis induces profound alterations in subjective experience following just a few words of suggestion. Individuals highly responsive to hypnosis can quickly and effortlessly manifest atypical conscious experiences as well as override deeply entrenched processes. These capacities open new avenues for suspending habitual modes of attention and achieving refined states of meta-awareness. Furthermore, hypnosis research sheds light on the effects of suggestion, expectation, and interpersonal factors beyond the narrow context of hypnotic procedures. Such knowledge may help to further foster phenomenological interviewing methods, improve experiential reports, and elucidate the mechanisms of contemplative practices. Incorporating hypnosis and suggestion into the broader landscape of neurophenomenology, therefore, would likely help bridge subjective experience and third-person approaches to the mind.

  3. The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    Provides information about hypnosis. Uses research data to define hypnosis, discuss the relationship between hypnosis and memory, and present some possible benefits. Includes a chart with some common misconceptions about hypnosis and the corresponding true statement. (DDR)

  4. The Truth and the Hype of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael R.

    2001-01-01

    Provides information about hypnosis. Uses research data to define hypnosis, discuss the relationship between hypnosis and memory, and present some possible benefits. Includes a chart with some common misconceptions about hypnosis and the corresponding true statement. (DDR)

  5. Neurophysiology of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Laureys, S; Faymonville, M-E

    2014-10-01

    We here review behavioral, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies of hypnosis as a state, as well as hypnosis as a tool to modulate brain responses to painful stimulations. Studies have shown that hypnotic processes modify internal (self awareness) as well as external (environmental awareness) brain networks. Brain mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain perception under hypnotic conditions involve cortical as well as subcortical areas including anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices, basal ganglia and thalami. Combined with local anesthesia and conscious sedation in patients undergoing surgery, hypnosis is associated with improved peri- and postoperative comfort of patients and surgeons. Finally, hypnosis can be considered as a useful analogue for simulating conversion and dissociation symptoms in healthy subjects, permitting better characterization of these challenging disorders by producing clinically similar experiences.

  6. VIRTUAL REALITY HYPNOSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Patterson, David R; Sharar, Sam R

    2009-03-01

    Scientific evidence for the viability of hypnosis as a treatment for pain has flourished over the past two decades (Rainville, Duncan, Price, Carrier and Bushnell, 1997; Montgomery, DuHamel and Redd, 2000; Lang and Rosen, 2002; Patterson and Jensen, 2003). However its widespread use has been limited by factors such as the advanced expertise, time and effort required by clinicians to provide hypnosis, and the cognitive effort required by patients to engage in hypnosis.The theory in developing virtual reality hypnosis was to apply three-dimensional, immersive, virtual reality technology to guide the patient through the same steps used when hypnosis is induced through an interpersonal process. Virtual reality replaces many of the stimuli that the patients have to struggle to imagine via verbal cueing from the therapist. The purpose of this paper is to explore how virtual reality may be useful in delivering hypnosis, and to summarize the scientific literature to date. We will also explore various theoretical and methodological issues that can guide future research.In spite of the encouraging scientific and clinical findings, hypnosis for analgesia is not universally used in medical centres. One reason for the slow acceptance is the extensive provider training required in order for hypnosis to be an effective pain management modality. Training in hypnosis is not commonly offered in medical schools or even psychology graduate curricula. Another reason is that hypnosis requires far more time and effort to administer than an analgesic pill or injection. Hypnosis requires training, skill and patience to deliver in medical centres that are often fast-paced and highly demanding of clinician time. Finally, the attention and cognitive effort required for hypnosis may be more than patients in an acute care setting, who may be under the influence of opiates and benzodiazepines, are able to impart. It is a challenge to make hypnosis a standard part of care in this environment

  7. Hypnosis, memory and amnesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlstrom, J F

    1997-01-01

    Hypnotized subjects respond to suggestions from the hypnotist for imaginative experiences involving alterations in perception and memory. Individual differences in hypnotizability are only weakly related to other forms of suggestibility. Neuropsychological speculations about hypnosis focus on the right hemisphere and/or the frontal lobes. Posthypnotic amnesia refers to subjects' difficulty in remembering, after hypnosis, the events and experiences that transpired while they were hypnotized. P...

  8. Reorienting Hypnosis Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, David S; Sugarman, Laurence Irwin

    2017-01-01

    The legacy model of professional clinical hypnosis training presents a restrictive frame increasingly incompatible with our evolving understanding of psychobiology, health, and care. Emerging science recognizes human experience not as disease and diagnosis, but as manifestations of individual, uniquely-endowed, adaptively self-regulating systems. Hypnosis is a particularly well-suited discipline for effecting beneficial change in this paradigm. Training in clinical hypnosis must progress from the current linearly-structured, diagnosis-based, reductionist model toward a more responsive, naturalistic, and client-centered curriculum in order to remain relevant and accessible to clinicians beginning to integrate it into their practices. To that end, this article extends Hope and Sugarman's (2015) thesis of hypnosis as a skill set for systemic perturbation and reorientation to consider what those skills may be, the principles on which they are based, and how they may be taught. Parsing a clinical vignette reveals how incorporation of novelty and uncertainty results in less restrictive and more naturalistic hypnotic encounters that, in response to client-generated cues, elicit psychophysiological plasticity. This disruptive hypnosis education and training framework extends the utility and benefit of applied clinical hypnosis.

  9. Impaired skeletal muscle regeneration in the absence of fibrosis during hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Andres-Mateos

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur as a consequence of immobilization and/or starvation in the majority of vertebrates studied. In contrast, hibernating mammals are protected against the loss of muscle mass despite long periods of inactivity and lack of food intake. Resident muscle-specific stem cells (satellite cells are known to be activated by muscle injury and their activation contributes to the regeneration of muscle, but whether satellite cells play a role in hibernation is unknown. In the hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel we show that muscles ablated of satellite cells were still protected against atrophy, demonstrating that satellite cells are not involved in the maintenance of skeletal muscle during hibernation. Additionally, hibernating skeletal muscle showed extremely slow regeneration in response to injury, due to repression of satellite cell activation and myoblast differentiation caused by a fine-tuned interplay of p21, myostatin, MAPK, and Wnt signaling pathways. Interestingly, despite long periods of inflammation and lack of efficient regeneration, injured skeletal muscle from hibernating animals did not develop fibrosis and was capable of complete recovery when animals emerged naturally from hibernation. We propose that hibernating squirrels represent a new model system that permits evaluation of impaired skeletal muscle remodeling in the absence of formation of tissue fibrosis.

  10. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  11. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  12. Getting Started with Hibernate 3

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, James

    2008-01-01

    Hibernate has clearly arrived. Are you ready to benefit from its simple way of working with relational databases as Java objects? This PDF updates the introductory material from the award-winning Hibernate: A Developer's Notebook to teach you how to jump right in and get productive with the current release of Hibernate. You'll be walked through the ins and outs of setting up Hibernate and some related tools that make it easier to use--and that may give you new ideas about how to store information in your Java programs. In short, this PDF gives you exactly the information you need to start u

  13. The spirit of hypnosis: doing hypnosis versus being hypnotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapko, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The spirit of hypnosis is reflected in the belief that people are more resourceful than they realize and through hypnosis can create meaningful possibilities. Thus, it is puzzling why hypnosis isn't better regarded. Do we present as too internally conflicted to inspire others' confidence? Do we overstate the dangers of hypnosis and scare people away? Do we define hypnosis as such a unique approach that others don't see its relevance for their work? Self-exploration is important if we want to ensure we are not unwittingly adding to our image problems as a field. Beyond these considerations, the novel and spirited application of hypnosis in the context of captive elephant breeding is discussed, as is a personal acknowledgment of some of the pioneers who manifested the spirit of hypnosis.

  14. Hypnosis for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, D

    2010-01-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum--severe and persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy--can lead to serious negative health consequences for both mother and fetus. Appropriate evidence-based treatment for this illness is paramount. Studies describing hypnosis in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) were reviewed. A literature search was carried out using Cochrane, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and Web of Knowledge databases. A total of 45 studies were identified by the search. Six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed in terms of study design, methodological quality, intervention and outcomes. Methodology between the studies differed but all reported encouraging positive outcomes. However, the quality of current evidence, based on the studies reviewed in this study, is not sufficient to establish if hypnosis is an effective treatment for HG. To be able to accurately assess the efficacy of hypnosis for HG, it is recommended that well-designed studies, e.g. randomised control trials, be carried out.

  15. Hypnosis and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ralph Alan

    Hypnosis is a state of mind which manifests a high degree of suggestibility. Advertising, political campaigning, and religious contemplation are all areas in which hypotism is employed, usually without knowledge on the part of either the "hypnotist" or the subject. Because of its association with entertainment, magic, manipulation, and…

  16. Hypnosis in Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortzel, Joshua; Spiegel, David

    2017-07-01

    Cancer affects a growing proportion of the population as survival improves. The illness and its treatment brings a substantial burden of symptoms, including pain, anxiety, insomnia, and grief. Here, the uses of hypnosis in the treatment of these cancer-related problems will be reviewed. The utility of measuring hypnotizability in the clinical setting will be discussed. The current neurobiology of hypnotizability and hypnosis will be reviewed. Methods and results of using hypnosis for pain control in acute and chronic settings will be presented. Effects of hypnotic analgesia in specific brain regions associated with pain reduction, notably the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the somatosensory cortex, underlies its utility as a potent and side-effect free analgesic. Methods for helping those with cancer to better manage their anxiety, insomnia, and grief will be described. These involve facing disease-related stressors while dissociating the experience from somatic arousal. Given the serious complications of medications widely used to treat pain, anxiety, and insomnia, this article provides methods and an evidence base for wider use of techniques involving hypnosis in cancer care. Altering patients' perception of pain, disease-related stress, and anxiety can help change the reality of their life with cancer.

  17. Hypnosis and performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Green, Joseph P; Jaquith, Leah; Gasior, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Participants received 1 of 3 instructional sets designed to manipulate their performance standards (i.e., criteria used to evaluate hypnotic performance): (a) stringent set (n = 33), these subjects were told that responsive subjects respond immediately to hypnosis and imagine realistically, (b) lenient set (n = 30), these subjects were told that responsive subjects do not necessarily respond immediately or imagine realistically, and (c) control set (n = 34), standard prehypnotic information. As expected, compared to controls, stringent set participants were less responsive to hypnosis, as indexed by measures of actual and estimated suggestibility, subjective involvement, involuntariness, quickness of responding, satisfaction, and imaginative ability. Stringent set participants estimated they passed fewer suggestions, were less satisfied with their performance, and reported less subjective involvement than individuals in the lenient condition.

  18. Hypnosis Training and Education: Distinctive Features of Training Hypnosis Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Julie H; Anbar, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Much of the field of hypnosis education focuses on what to teach (content) and who to teach (professional identities). A deserving area of focus, and less often addressed, is how to teach basic hypnosis concepts. Worldwide models for teaching hypnosis have mostly included lecture, demonstration, and practice, with little attention paid to the meta-level of educational principles (i.e., what makes an expert trainer). Trainers in hypnosis have been compared to parents: They teach the way they were taught (adults parent the way they were parented). There is a human tendency to repeat what we have experienced. This propensity can be seen while watching the new student use the same induction, in the same way, as his or her first "operator" did when s/he was a subject of his/her first hypnotic experience. Mirroring is a part of all learning, and this article asks what else is needed in faculty education for the trainer to take students beyond mere mimicry to scientifically informed, skilled, and clinically creative uses of hypnosis. This article addresses the unique requirements for teaching hypnosis, reviews a teaching program for clinical hypnosis educators developed by the authors, and looks to future innovations in clinical hypnosis training.

  19. Pain and Hypnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tomé Lopes Pires, Catarina de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation thesis focused on migraine pain at a cognitive and psychophysiological level, as well as on the use of hypnosis for the management of chronic pain. In migraine, a specific electrodermal sensitization to pain-related words has been proposed. Even though we did not find such a specific electrodermal activity in migraineurs in response to pain-related stimuli and negative emotional words, we did find that migraineurs recalled emotional words (i.e. cognitive biases) significantl...

  20. Hypnosis and the Reduction of Speech Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Larry L.; And Others

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to review the background and nature of hypnosis, (2) to synthesize research on hypnosis related to speech communication, and (3) to delineate and compare two potential techniques for reducing speech anxiety--hypnosis and systematic desensitization. Hypnosis has been defined as a mental state characterised by…

  1. Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

  2. Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.

  3. [HYPNOSIS IN OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinerson, David; Yeoshua, Effi; Gabbay-Ben-Ziv, Rinat

    2015-05-01

    Hypnosis is an ancient method of treatment, in which an enhanced state of mind and elevated susceptibility for suggestion of the patient, are increased. Hypnosis is executed, either by a caregiver or by the person himself (after brief training). The use of hypnosis in alleviating labor pain has been studied as of the second half of the 20th century. In early studies, the use of hypnosis for this purpose has been proven quite effective. However, later studies, performed in randomized controlled trial terms, have shown controversial results. Other studies, in which the effect of hypnosis was tested in various aspects of both obstetrics and gynecology and with different levels of success, are elaborated on in this review.

  4. [Suggestion and hypnosis in hysteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, P

    1995-12-15

    Suggestive influences allow to resolve ambiguities. Normally they are only accepted if they correspond with the knowledge and believes of the subject. Under hypnosis or under the impact of serious psychic perturbations one may take up reality constructions which are not in conformity with these criteria. The restriction of consciousness and the ignoring of certain functions permitting this are the common basis of hypnosis and hysteria. But suggestions do not cause the later; they may only shape the symptomatology. Hypnosis can create a terrain facilitating the resolution of the problems underlying hysteria but it does not represent the treatment of hysteria.

  5. Hypnosis, hypnotizability, and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischholz, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Raz's speculations about the relation between placebo responsivity and hypnotizability are critically examined. While there is no generally accepted theoretical definition of hypnosis, there is a general consensus that hypnotizability can be reliably measured. In contrast, there seems to be a general consensus about a theoretical definition of placebo (including placebo effect, placebo response, and nocebo). There is no widely accepted measure of individual differences in placebo responsivity. Various methodological considerations about how to examine the relation between placebo responsivity and hypnotizability are identified. Studies are identified which indicate that response to treatments which utilize adjunctive hypnosis are superior to placebo treatments. The only study which examined whether placebo responsivity was correlated with hypnotizability seems to indicate that they are only slightly related at best. The possibility that there may be such thing as a "good placebo responder (GPR)" is questioned, while the known clinical value of hypnotizability assessment is reaffirmed. Future directions for empirical research on the relation between placebo responsivity and hypnotizability are identified.

  6. Hibernation for space travel: Impact on radioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Matteo; Tinganelli, Walter; Negrini, Matteo; Helm, Alexander; Scifoni, Emanuele; Tommasino, Francesco; Sioli, Maximiliano; Zoccoli, Antonio; Durante, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity used by some animals to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The idea of exploiting hibernation for space exploration has been proposed many years ago, but in recent years it is becoming more realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals. In addition to the expected advantages in long-term exploratory-class missions in terms of resource consumptions, aging, and psychology, hibernation may provide protection from cosmic radiation damage to the crew. Data from over half century ago in animal models suggest indeed that radiation effects are reduced during hibernation. We will review the mechanisms of increased radioprotection in hibernation, and discuss possible impact on human space exploration.

  7. Hibernation for space travel: Impact on radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Matteo; Tinganelli, Walter; Negrini, Matteo; Helm, Alexander; Scifoni, Emanuele; Tommasino, Francesco; Sioli, Maximiliano; Zoccoli, Antonio; Durante, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Hibernation is a state of reduced metabolic activity used by some animals to survive in harsh environmental conditions. The idea of exploiting hibernation for space exploration has been proposed many years ago, but in recent years it is becoming more realistic, thanks to the introduction of specific methods to induce hibernation-like conditions (synthetic torpor) in non-hibernating animals. In addition to the expected advantages in long-term exploratory-class missions in terms of resource consumptions, aging, and psychology, hibernation may provide protection from cosmic radiation damage to the crew. Data from over half century ago in animal models suggest indeed that radiation effects are reduced during hibernation. We will review the mechanisms of increased radioprotection in hibernation, and discuss possible impact on human space exploration.

  8. Boosting human learning by hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Polner, Bertalan; Kovacs, Zoltan Ambrus

    2013-04-01

    Human learning and memory depend on multiple cognitive systems related to dissociable brain structures. These systems interact not only in cooperative but also sometimes competitive ways in optimizing performance. Previous studies showed that manipulations reducing the engagement of frontal lobe-mediated explicit attentional processes could lead to improved performance in striatum-related procedural learning. In our study, hypnosis was used as a tool to reduce the competition between these 2 systems. We compared learning in hypnosis and in the alert state and found that hypnosis boosted striatum-dependent sequence learning. Since frontal lobe-dependent processes are primarily affected by hypnosis, this finding could be attributed to the disruption of the explicit attentional processes. Our result sheds light not only on the competitive nature of brain systems in cognitive processes but also could have important implications for training and rehabilitation programs, especially for developing new methods to improve human learning and memory performance.

  9. Hibernate Recipes A Problem-Solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Hibernate continues to be the most popular out-of-the-box framework solution for Java Persistence and data/database accessibility techniques and patterns. It is used for e-commerce-based web applications as well as heavy-duty transactional systems for the enterprise. Gary Mak, the author of the best-selling Spring Recipes, now brings you Hibernate Recipes. This book contains a collection of code recipes and templates for learning and building Hibernate solutions for you and your clients. This book is your pragmatic day-to-day reference and guide for doing all things involving Hibernate. There

  10. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  11. Hypnosis and Human Development: Interpersonal Influence of Intrapersonal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between hypnosis and human development. Defines hypnosis within a communications framework, and identifies essential features of hypnosis in the communicative exchanges of the first months of life; this forces a reconsideration of the understanding of the ontogenesis of hypnosis. Identifies four key features of hypnosis,…

  12. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  13. Hypnosis in the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, John F; Glisky, Martha L; McGovern, Susan; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Mennemeier, Mark S

    2013-02-01

    Speculations about the neural substrates of hypnosis have often focused on the right hemisphere (RH), implying that RH damage should impair hypnotic responsiveness more than left-hemisphere (LH) damage. The present study examined the performance of a patient who suffered a stroke destroying most of his LH, on slightly modified versions of two hypnotizability scales. This patient was at least modestly hypnotizable, as indicated in particular by the arm rigidity and age regression items, suggesting that hypnosis can be mediated by the RH alone - provided that the language capacities normally found in the LH remain available. A further study of 16 patients with unilateral strokes of the LH or RH found no substantial differences in hypnotizability between the two groups. Future neuropsychological studies of hypnosis might explore the dorsal/ventral or anterior/posterior dichotomies, with special emphasis on the role of prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  15. Good and bad in the hibernating brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM

    2006-01-01

    Hibernators survive long periods of time without behavioural activity. To minimize energy expenditure, hibernators use the natural hypometabolic state of torpor. Deep torpor in ground squirrels is accompanied by reduction of brain activity, and is associated with changes in electrical activity patte

  16. An Interactional Explanation of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author offers what he sees as a new approach to understanding or defining hypnosis. Drawing from his work with Gregory Bateson, John Weakland, Don Jackson, and Bill Fry, Haley emphasizes the relational communicative aspect of trance. Noting the inherent difficulty of studying subjective experience, Haley highlights again the importance of communication and the therapist-patient relationship.

  17. Brain states and hypnosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I; Rothbart, Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Research in cognitive neuroscience now considers the state of the brain prior to the task an important aspect of performance. Hypnosis seems to alter the brain state in a way which allows external input to dominate over internal goals. We examine how normal development may illuminate the hypnotic state. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Reading Performances through Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of one hypnotic session on the reading improvement of high-risk college students with low aptitude scores and histories of failure in academic situations. The 27 students in the experimental group participated in a one-hour hypnosis session in which they were given a procedure to follow for…

  19. New directions in hypnosis research: strategies for advancing the cognitive and clinical neuroscience of hypnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Mark P; Jamieson, Graham A.; Lutz, Antoine; Mazzoni, Giuliana; McGeown, William J; Enrica L. Santarcangelo; Demertzi, Athina; De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Bányai, Éva I; Rominger, Christian; Vuilleumier, Patrik; FAYMONVILLE, Marie-Elisabeth; Terhune, Devin B.

    2017-01-01

    In August of 2015, the International Society of Hypnosis and Confederation Francophone d’hypnose et Therapies Breves co-sponsored a 1-day meeting among hypnosis researchers, just before the International Congress of Hypnosis in Paris, France. One of the goals of the meeting was to discuss the state-of-the- science of hypnosis research from the purview of clinical and cognitive neuroscience. The purpose of this article is to summarize the key issues that were raised during the discussions, inc...

  20. Repressive Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk

    2016-01-01

    to an administrative culture of repressive tolerance of organised interests: authorities listen but only reacts in a very limited sense. This bears in it the risk of jeopardising the knowledge transfer from societal actors to administrative ditto thus harming the consultation institutions’ potential for strengthening...

  1. Hypnosis in sport: an Isomorphic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, C; Bortoli, L

    1994-10-01

    Hypnosis in sport can be applied according to an Isomorphic Model. Active-alert hypnosis is induced before or during practice whereas traditional hypnosis is induced after practice to establish connections between the two experiences. The fundamental goals are to (a) develop mental skills important to both motor and hypnotic performance, (b) supply a wide range of motor and hypnotic bodily experiences important to performance, and (c) induce alert hypnosis before or during performance. The model is based on the assumption that hypnosis and motor performance share common skills modifiable through training. Similarities between hypnosis and peak performance in the model are also considered. Some predictions are important from theoretical and practical points of view.

  2. What is the Essence of Hypnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Paul F

    2017-01-01

    The author explores the nature of hypnosis, which he characterizes as a motivated mode of neural functioning that enables most humans to alter, to varying degrees, their experience of body, self, actions, and world. The essence of hypnosis is not to be found in hetero-hypnosis; instead, it lies in the spontaneous self-activation of that mode of neural functioning. The hypnosis field has substantially lost sight of spontaneous self-activation, because the word hypnosis is usually used to mean hetero-hypnosis. Self-activation of this mode of neural functioning is the necessary sine qua non of hypnotic psychopathology. Moreover, self-activation of trance is the characteristic hypnotic behavior of a distinct subset of highly hypnotizable individuals.

  3. [The use of hypnosis in healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Faymonville, Marie-Élisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Hypnosis has proved successful in a variety of clinical situations such as alleviation of acute or chronic pain and other chronic debilitating conditions (asthma-eczema). Many psychotherapists utilize imagery to facilitate the process of change, treating depression with hypnosis and integrating patient centered strategic approaches (challenge efficacy of psychotherapy). This article focuses on delivering of hypnotic interventions for pain and will provide a very short overview of core issues in the development of the cognitive neuroscience of hypnosis and conscious state.

  4. Robust Adaptive Control of Hypnosis During Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1 of 4 ROBUST ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF HYPNOSIS DURING ANESTHESIA Pascal Grieder1, Andrea Gentilini1, Manfred Morari1, Thomas W. Schnider2 1ETH Zentrum...A closed-loop controller for hypnosis was designed and validated on humans at our laboratory. The controller aims at regulat- ing the Bispectral Index...BIS) - a surro- gate measure of hypnosis derived from the electroencephalogram of the patient - with the volatile anesthetic isoflurane administered

  5. Hypnosis, human nature, and complexity: integrating neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Amanda J; McConkey, Kevin M

    2003-07-01

    Hypnosis research has contributed much to the understanding of human behavior and experience, both normal and abnormal. This paper considers ways in which neuroscience approaches may be integrated into hypnosis research to continue and enhance that contribution, as well as further reveal the nature of hypnosis itself. The authors review the influences on and advances in hypnosis research over the last century; illustrate the investigative value of hypnosis to selected phenomena across the areas of doing, feeling, believing, and remembering; and specify elements for the successful integration of neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. The authors believe that hypnosis research offers powerful techniques to isolate psychological processes in ways that allow their neural bases to be mapped. Successful integration will be achieved when researchers add levels of explanation, rather than shift the emphasis from one level or feature to another.

  6. Discussions on Hypnosis and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Jay

    2015-01-01

    A classic paper in intellect and argument, this article contains a transcript of a conversation between Jay Haley, John Weakland, and Milton Erickson as they discuss the role of communication in hypnosis and schizophrenia. In 1955, schizophrenia was considered primarily a psychological disorder. Whereas today schizophrenia is mostly considered a biological disorder, this very early, unpublished paper still gives much food for thought and a further glimpse into Haley and Erickson's thinking and intellect at a fervent time in schizophrenia research.

  7. Hypnosis--A Neglected Tool for Client Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Roswitha M.

    1993-01-01

    Calls clinical hypnosis valuable treatment modality that deserves to be more widely used by social workers. Presents overview of hypnosis, distinguishing between directive, Ericksonian, and permissive hypnosis. Presents characteristics of hypnotic trance and differing capacities of individuals in trance. Describes how permissive hypnosis is used…

  8. Hypnosis--A Neglected Tool for Client Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsor, Roswitha M.

    1993-01-01

    Calls clinical hypnosis valuable treatment modality that deserves to be more widely used by social workers. Presents overview of hypnosis, distinguishing between directive, Ericksonian, and permissive hypnosis. Presents characteristics of hypnotic trance and differing capacities of individuals in trance. Describes how permissive hypnosis is used…

  9. Controlled outcome studies of child clinical hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Barbara; Gava, Nicoletta

    2013-09-01

    Background Hypnosis is defined as "as an interaction in which the hypnotist uses suggested scenarios ("suggestions") to encourage a person's focus of attention to shift towards inner experiences". Aim of the work The focus of this review is to summarize the findings of controlled outcome studies investigating the potential of clinical hypnosis in pediatric populations. We will examine the following themes: anesthesia, acute and chronic pain, chemotherapy-related distress, along with other specific medical issues. Results Hypnosis is an effective method to reduce pain and anxiety before, during and after the administration of anesthetics, during local dental treatments, invasive medical procedures and in burn children. Hypnosis can be successfully used to manage recurrent headaches, abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and chemotherapy-related distress. Hypnosis has an important role in managing symptoms and improving the quality of life of children suffering from asthma and cystic fibrosis and in facilitating the treatment of insomnia in school-age children. Finally, hypnosis can be effectively used for the treatment of some habitual disorders such as nocturnal enuresis and dermatologic conditions, including atopic dermatitis and chronic eczema Conclusions Clinical hypnosis seems to be a useful, cheap and side-effects free tool to manage fear, pain and several kinds of stressful experiences in pediatric populations. Children who receive self-hypnosis trainings achieve significantly greater improvements in their physical health, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  10. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  11. Tranceformations: hypnosis in brain and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David

    2013-04-01

    In this review, the role of hypnosis and related psychotherapeutic techniques are discussed in relation to the anxiety disorders. In particular, anxiety is addressed as a special form of mind/body problem involving reverberating interaction between mental and physical distress. The history of hypnosis as a therapeutic discipline is reviewed, after which neurobiological evidence of the effect of hypnosis on modulation of perception in the brain. Specific brain regions involved in hypnosis are reviewed, notably the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The importance of hypnotizability as a trait, stable variability in hypnotic responsiveness, is discussed. Analogies between the hypnotic state and dissociative reactions to trauma are presented, and the uses of hypnosis in treating posttraumatic stress disorder, stressful situations, and phobias as well as outcome data are reviewed. Effects of hypnosis on control of somatic processes are discussed, and then effects of psychosocial support involving Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy and hypnosis on survival time for cancer patients are evaluated. The evidence indicates an important role for hypnosis in managing anxiety disorders and anxiety related to medical illness.

  12. Hypnosis in the treatment of functional infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitz, M A

    1995-07-01

    The literature was reviewed and found to contain sparse information regarding the applicability of clinical hypnosis in the treatment of functional infertility. Two cases were then described in which hypnosis based on imagery and a relaxation strategy was successful in facilitating pregnancy in both instances. The treatment was considered to have resulted in beneficial modification of attitude, optimism, and mind-body interaction.

  13. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  14. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method.

  15. Use of hypnosis, meditation, and biofeedback in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D

    Hypnosis utilizes trance to access otherwise inaccessible repressed or unconscious memories and features of the psyche and control of physiology not attainable in the ordinary conscious waking state. Medical uses of hypnosis in dermatology include reducing discomfort from itching or skin pain, altering ingrained dysfunctional habits such as scratching, promoting healing of skin disorders, searching for psychosomatic aspects of skin disorders and alleviating them, and reframing cognitive and emotional dysfunctional patterns related to skin disorders. Meditation uses trance to center and balance. Medical uses of meditation in dermatology include relaxation to promote healing of skin disorders and refocusing with respect to the meaning and emotional negative valance of skin disorders. Biofeedback in dermatology employs instrumentation with visual or auditory feedback to permit conscious awareness and alteration of physiologic phenomena such as sweating as measured by galvanic skin resistance and skin temperature measured by temperature detecting devices, promoting relaxation and healing. These methods and techniques permit access to and intervention in otherwise inaccessible areas that can influence skin disorders. With proper use, they are very safe, with minimal, if any, side effects and sometimes produce significant results where other methods have failed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypnosis in the Management of Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Philip M

    2015-03-01

    Hypnosis has been used to manage insomnia and disorders of arousal. The alteration in the state of consciousness produced during hypnotic trance is more similar to relaxed reverie than sleep. Hypnosis typically occurs in a state of repose and the accomplished subject may have no recollection of the experience during a trance, 2 commonalities with sleep. Because hypnosis allows for relaxation, increased suggestibility, posthypnotic suggestion, imagery rehearsal, access to preconscious cognitions and emotions, and cognitive restructuring, disorders of sleep such as the insomnias, parasomnias, and related mood or anxiety disorders can be amenable to this therapeutic intervention.

  17. Hypnosis as therapy for functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Q

    2017-01-01

    Suggestion in hypnosis has been applied to the treatment of functional neurologic symptoms since the earliest descriptions of hypnosis in the 19th century. Suggestion in this sense refers to an intentional communication of beliefs or ideas, whether verbally or nonverbally, to produce subjectively convincing changes in experience and behavior. The recognition of suggestion as a psychologic process with therapeutic applications was closely linked to the derivation of hypnosis from earlier healing practices. Animal magnetism, the immediate precursor of hypnosis, arrived at a psychologic concept of suggestion along with other ideas and practices which were then incorporated into hypnosis. Before then, other forms of magnetism and ritual healing practices such as exorcism involved unintentionally suggestive verbal and nonverbal stimuli. We consider the derivation of hypnosis from these practices not only to illustrate the range of suggestive processes, but also the consistency with which suggestion has been applied to the production and removal of dissociative and functional neurologic symptoms over many centuries. Nineteenth-century practitioners treated functional symptoms with induction of hypnosis per se; imperative suggestions, or commands for specific effects; "medical clairvoyance" in hypnotic trance, in which patients diagnosed their own condition and predicted the time and manner of their recovery; and suggestion without prior hypnosis, known as "fascination" or "psychotherapeutics." Modern treatments largely involve different types of imperative suggestion with or without hypnosis. However, the therapeutic application of suggestion in hypnosis to functional and other symptoms waned in the first half of the 20th century under the separate pressures of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. In recent decades suggestion in hypnosis has been more widely applied to treating functional neurologic symptoms. Suggestion is typically applied within the context of other

  18. Impact of a lecture about empirical bases of hypnosis on beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis among Cuban health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Marta; Capafons, Antonio; Espejo, Begoña; Mendoza, M Elena; Guerra, Mayda; Enríquez Santos, José Angel; Díaz-Purón, Sandra; Guirado, Israel García; Castilla, Carmen Dolores Sosa

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether a lecture on hypnosis can modify attitudes and misconceptions about hypnosis. The sample consisted of 97 health professionals from institutions in Havana City, Cuba. Group 1 consisted of 46 participants who received a lecture on hypnosis. Group 2 consisted of 51 participants who received a lecture about urology. and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist was applied before and after the lecture. Results indicated that there were significant differences between the groups: Group 1 showed more positive attitudes toward hypnosis. However, both groups showed similar misconceptions about hypnosis and memory, which changed significantly in Group 1 after receiving the lecture about hypnosis but not in Group 2. Therefore, the lecture about hypnosis had a significant impact in correcting participants' misconceptions about memory and hypnosis.

  19. Overview of Ergogenic Properties of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1980-01-01

    Evidence tends to support the individual nature of hypnosis effects and seems to generally limit the appropriateness of hypnotic intervention as an aid in promoting muscular output during physical activity. (JD)

  20. [Practice of hypnosis in the nurse care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadrot, Georges Lambert

    2014-12-01

    Hypnosis is practicing in hospital, especially in palliative care and in pain consultation. This technique is used in a well-defined field by doctors, psychologists and caregivers, all specificially trained.

  1. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Chiarioni; Olafur S Palsson; William E Whitehead

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves aRentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action.

  2. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective.

  3. [Placement of a portacath under hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Élisabeth

    2015-04-01

    The portacath reflects the cancer and its future treatments. Its insertion causes high levels of anxiety for patient. Thanks to medical hypnosis, he can use its internal resources to help them manage the situation and the symptoms he feels.

  4. EEG correlates of virtual reality hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Ciorciari, Joseph; Carbis, Colin; Liley, David

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated hypnosis-related electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence and power spectra changes in high and low hypnotizables (Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale) induced by a virtual reality hypnosis (VRH) induction system. In this study, the EEG from 17 participants (Mean age = 21.35, SD = 1.58) were compared based on their hypnotizability score. The EEG recording associated with a 2-minute, eyes-closed baseline state was compared to the EEG during a hypnosis-related state. This novel induction system was able to produce EEG findings consistent with previous hypnosis literature. Interactions of significance were found with EEG beta coherence. The high susceptibility group (n = 7) showed decreased coherence, while the low susceptibility group (n = 10) demonstrated an increase in coherence between medial frontal and lateral left prefrontal sites. Methodological and efficacy issues are discussed.

  5. Posthypnotic amnesia for material learned before hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R A; Barnier, A J; Mallard, D; Tibbits, R

    1999-01-01

    The impact of a suggestion for posthypnotic amnesia on material learned either before or during hypnosis was investigated across 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, very high, high, and low hypnotizable participants learned a word list either before or immediately after a hypnotic induction. During hypnosis, participants were given a suggestion for posthypnotic amnesia for the word list. After hypnosis, they were tested on recall, word-fragment, and word-recognition tasks. Experiment 2 replicated and extended Experiment 1 through application of the real-simulating paradigm. Across the 2 experiments, there was no difference in the performance of participants who learned the word list either before or during hypnosis. Although amnesia on direct memory measures was associated with high hypnotizability (Experiment 1), an explanation based on demand characteristics could not be excluded (Experiment 2). The implications of these findings for the use of post-hypnotic amnesia as a laboratory analog of disorders of autobiographical memory are discussed.

  6. Kenneth s. Bowers, interactionism and hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council, James R; Frischholz, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Like most seminal thinkers in hypnosis, Kenneth Bowers' interests and contributions have ranged beyond that particular domain. The list of his published works is impressive by anyone's standards, and includes important contributions in the areas of health, psychotherapy, and hypnosis. This paper will focus on his major contribution to personality theory, "Situationism in Psychology: An Analysis and Critique," published in 1973 in the Psychological Review.

  7. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.......Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience....

  8. A meta-analysis of hypnosis for chronic pain problems: a comparison between hypnosis, standard care, and other psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomonori; Fujino, Haruo; Nakae, Aya; Mashimo, Takashi; Sasaki, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis is regarded as an effective treatment for psychological and physical ailments. However, its efficacy as a strategy for managing chronic pain has not been assessed through meta-analytical methods. The objective of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of hypnosis for managing chronic pain. When compared with standard care, hypnosis provided moderate treatment benefit. Hypnosis also showed a moderate superior effect as compared to other psychological interventions for a nonheadache group. The results suggest that hypnosis is efficacious for managing chronic pain. Given that large heterogeneity among the included studies was identified, the nature of hypnosis treatment is further discussed.

  9. Hibernation Control Mechanism and Possible Applications to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.

    Mammalian hibernation, characterized by the ability to survive temporarily at low body temperatures close to 0oC, has been reported to increase resistance to various lethal events such as low body temperature, severe ischemia, bacterial infection and irradiation, and to prolong the life span. The application of this physiological phenomenon to space life has been dreamed of. However, realization of this dream has been prevented by a poor understanding of the control mechanisms of hibernation. Recent findings of a novel and unique protein complex (HP) in the blood of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, which is controlled by the endogenous circannual rhythm of hibernation, allowed new developments in understanding the molecular mechanism of hibernation and its physiological significance. From these studies, two hormones regulated by the brain were identified as promising candidate molecules controlling HP production in the liver, assuming that hibernation is controlled via the neuroendocrine system and regulated by the endogenous circannual rhythm in the brain. A circannual HP rhythm was observed in chipmunks maintaining euthermia under conditions of constant warmth, suggesting that the physiological control of hibernation progresses without a lowering of body temperature. Furthermore, the study of HP rhythm on longevity revealed that a circannual rhythm plays an essential role in the much longer life span of hibernators. The present progress in hibernation research may open a new pathway for manipulating a circannual rhythm controlling hibernation in humans. In the future, this will make it feasible to take advantage of hibernation in space life.

  10. Hypnosis and Empathy: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deirdre

    2016-01-01

    This article takes its inspiration from Wickramasekera II's empathic involvement theory of hypnosis. That model illuminates the mutual territory of hypnosis and empathy-common to much interaction between hypnotist and subject, and to the internal process of subjects as they enact suggestions of the hypnotist. However, the present article suggests that the overlap is not as ubiquitous as the empathic involvement theory asserts. Other aspects of hypnosis involve disengagement from real persons in the environment and dissociating from other ego states of the self. Amnesia and certain uses of focused attention in the hypnotic context run counter to empathy. The fantasizer type of high hypnotizables experiences hypnosis more empathically than do the equally hypnotizable dissociater type. This article also explores the relationship of hypnosis and empathy to other related states, including meditation, dreaming, and psychedelic drugs. The conclusion is that empathy is an important component of many hypnotic phenomena, but that the relationship is as partial and complex as the manner in which other traits, such as imagery ability and dissociation, map onto hypnosis.

  11. Pain perception, hypnosis and 40 Hz oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rodney J; Williams, John D; Haenschel, Corinna; Gruzelier, John H

    2002-11-01

    A number of brain regions are associated with the subjective experience of pain. This study adds to our understanding of the neural mechanisms involved in pain by considering the relation between cortical oscillations in response to pain, with and without hypnosis and hypnotic analgesia, and the subjective experience of pain. Thirty-three subjects' neural responses (EEG) were measured during the 40-540 ms period following phasic electrical stimulations to the right hand, under control and hypnosis conditions. Resultant FFT amplitudes for frequencies ranging from 8 to 100 Hz were computed. These were grouped into 7 scalp topographies, and for each frequency, relations between these topographies and pain ratings, performance and stimulus intensity measures were assessed. Gamma activity (32-100 Hz) over prefrontal scalp sites predicted subject pain ratings in the control condition (r=0.50, P=0.004), and no other frequency/topography combination did. This relation was present in both high and low hypnotisable subjects and was independent of performance and stimulus intensity measures. This relation was unchanged by hypnosis in the low hypnotisable subjects but was not present in the highs during hypnosis, suggesting that hypnosis interferes with this pain/gamma relation. This study provides evidence for the role of gamma oscillations in the subjective experience of pain. Further, it is in keeping with the view that hypnosis involves the dissociation of prefrontal cortex from other neural functions.

  12. Hypnosis--there's an app for that: a systematic review of hypnosis apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J; Green, Joseph P; Montgomery, Guy H

    2013-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%); 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use.

  13. Burnout syndrome and analytical hypnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolusson, Susanna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author aims to discuss her experience that patients with Burnout syndromes need to recover in a unique individualised relational therapy and that they need a slower pace than national authorities are implementing through contemporary national guidelines for health and care systems. The author reviews published definitions of the syndrome and then presents two cases to illustrate the principle of finding the patients’ own resources, the value of exploring the history of their drive to achieve and also how to utilize resistance as information about defenses and their functions. She uses hypnosis, hypnoanalysis and ego state imagery as a tool for finding the patients’ pace, needs and unique ways for recovery.

  14. Hypnosis and related clinical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, F H

    1978-06-01

    The essential aspect in the experience of the hypnotized person is the altered or distorted perception that is suggested to him. Not all people are capable of the experience, but it is possible that spontaneous distortions occur in those with high hypnotizability. These distortions are frequently experienced as frightening symptoms. The author draws attention to the similarity between hysterical symptoms and events in hypnosis and to the high hypnotic responsivity in hysterical subjects reported in the clinical literature of the nineteenth century. Phobic patients have relatively high hypnotic responsivity. The author believes that it is sometimes possible to predict hypnotizability from clinical behavior, and that hypnotic responsivity can be utilized in psychodynamically sensitive therapy to teach such patients that they can learn to gain control of their symptoms.

  15. Factors that contribute to the willingness to try "street hypnosis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Orin C; Gao, Xuan

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a context-specific approach to examine people's willingness to try hypnosis under various conditions and the factors that contribute to their willingness. It examined 378 participants, who completed a web-based hypnosis survey. The results showed that people's willingness to try hypnosis varies by context. Specifically, people are more willing to try hypnosis when it is framed as "peak focus" rather than "hypnosis" and when they perceive the environment as being safer. Moreover, factors including participants' demographics, hypnotists' demographics (relative to the subjects'), participants' control bias, and knowledge of hypnosis affect people's degrees of willingness to try hypnosis, depending on the specific context. The results suggest further analysis of hypnosis occurring in public contexts and the effects it may have on attitudes and therapeutic outcomes.

  16. Alterations in electrodermal activity and cardiac parasympathetic tone during hypnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kekecs, Z; Szekely, A.; Varga, K.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring autonomic nervous system (ANS) changes during hypnosis is critical for understanding the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon and for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypnosis in different medical conditions. To assess ANS changes during hypnosis, electrodermal activity and pulse rate variability (PRV) were measured in 121 young adults. Participants either received hypnotic induction (hypnosis condition) or listened to music (control condition), and both ...

  17. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical practice and future researches.

  18. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical...

  19. The Use of Clinical Hypnosis in a College Counseling Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Herbert A.

    This report describes the use of hypnosis at the Hiram College Counseling Center, a counseling technique that has been especially helpful in academic, athletic, and personal improvement areas. The induction techniques of hypnosis are described as well as the use of hyperempiria. The use of hypnosis in improving study habits and alleviating test…

  20. The Use of Clinical Hypnosis in a College Counseling Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Herbert A.

    This report describes the use of hypnosis at the Hiram College Counseling Center, a counseling technique that has been especially helpful in academic, athletic, and personal improvement areas. The induction techniques of hypnosis are described as well as the use of hyperempiria. The use of hypnosis in improving study habits and alleviating test…

  1. Hysteria, hypnosis, psychopathology. History and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L

    1975-12-01

    A historical outline is given of the search for an explanation of the still elusive nature of hysteria and hypnosis, their mutual relationship, and that which they bear to psychopathology. Charcot regarded hypnosis as an artificially induced hysterical neurosis, and it was he who first introduced Freud to these two states. Freud was the first to see in hypnosis an experimental instrument for understanding psychopathological mechanisms. His subsequent conceptualization of psychoanalysis derived from these two phenomena at this decisive period. In 1895 Freud attempted to achieve a psychophysiological synthesis of the mental apparatus in his "Project for a Scientific Psychology," but then decided not to publish it. Whether or not recent advance in neurophysiology are sufficiently important bo bring about this synthesis remains an open question. In recent years some psychoanalysts have become interested in hypnosis, which one of them described as a focus for psychophysiological and psychoanalytic investigations. Any theory of the psychical apparatus which does not account for such an obvious psychical phenomenon must necessarily be incomplete. Since Charcot, hysteria presents hardly any new openings for experimental work. It is suggested that the solution of psyche-soma interaction might be sought in the study of hypnosis. It is postulated that hypnosis is a "fourth organismic state," not as yet objectifiable (in contradistinction to the waking state, sleep, and dreaming): a kind of natural or inborn mechanism which acts as one of the regulators of man's relationships with the environment. The author discusses briefly the aims and methodology of future interdisciplinary research on hypnosis, and the study of the transition from one state of consciousness to another, and their potential application to a wide range of subjects, namely, wherever man's relations with the environment are involved.

  2. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  3. Hypnosis control based on the minimum concentration of anesthetic drug for maintaining appropriate hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Eiko; Nishigaki, Yuki; Kanda, Chiaki; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shirakami, Gotaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypnosis control method using Auditory Evoked Potential Index (aepEX) as a hypnosis index. In order to avoid side effects of an anesthetic drug, it is desirable to reduce the amount of an anesthetic drug during surgery. For this purpose many studies of hypnosis control systems have been done. Most of them use Bispectral Index (BIS), another hypnosis index, but it has problems of dependence on anesthetic drugs and nonsmooth change near some particular values. On the other hand, aepEX has an ability of clear distinction between patient consciousness and unconsciousness and independence of anesthetic drugs. The control method proposed in this paper consists of two elements: estimating the minimum effect-site concentration for maintaining appropriate hypnosis and adjusting infusion rate of an anesthetic drug, propofol, using model predictive control. The minimum effect-site concentration is estimated utilizing the property of aepEX pharmacodynamics. The infusion rate of propofol is adjusted so that effect-site concentration of propofol may be kept near and always above the minimum effect-site concentration. Simulation results of hypnosis control using the proposed method show that the minimum concentration can be estimated appropriately and that the proposed control method can maintain hypnosis adequately and reduce the total infusion amount of propofol.

  4. The Adaptive Response to Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-23

    Balslev-Clausen, A., J. M. McCarthy and H. V. Carey. 2003. Hibernation reduces pancreatic amylase levels in ground squirrels. Comp. Biochem...pathogens, despite the long term absence of food intake during the winter months. The results shown below support the conclusion that hibernators do...proposal but related to overall objective: Effect of hibernation on pancreatic amylase levels: This award also supported a small study that examined

  5. Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Price, Donald D

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in the philosophical and neurobiological studies of consciousness provide promising frameworks to investigate the neurobiology of hypnosis. A model of consciousness phenomenology is described to demonstrate that the experiential dimensions characterizing hypnosis (relaxation and mental ease, absorption, orientation and monitoring, and self-agency) reflect basic phenomenal properties of consciousness. Changes in relaxation-mental ease and absorption, produced by standard hypnotic procedures, are further associated with changes in brain activity within structures critically involved in the basic representation of the body-self and the regulation of states of consciousness. The combination of experiential and modern brain imaging methods offers a unique perspective on hypnotic phenomena and provides new observations consistent with the proposition that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

  6. [Hypnotic communication and hypnosis in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrli, Hans

    2014-07-02

    In addition to usual medical care it is often critical to consider the patient's inner world in order to sensitively differentiate between harmful and helpful suggestive elements. The respective abilities in terms of hypnotic communication can be easily learned. Confident, empathic attention and a calm, understanding and figurative language narrowing the focus on positive emotions and positive change, which have been shown to improve the patient's chances of healing, are of particular importance. Proper clinical hypnosis goes one step further: it makes explicit use of suggestions, trance, and trance phenomena. The major clinical indications for hypnosis include psychosomatic disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, depression, and pain syndromes. Hypnosis can also be employed as an adjunct for surgical therapy.

  7. Enhancing imagery through hypnosis: a performance aid for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, D R

    2000-10-01

    This value of imagery in sports is widely acknowledged. The contribution of hypnosis to enhancing athletes' performance is also recognized, but the value of hypnosis in enhancing imagery has little recognition. The reason for this neglect is explored. The study used Martens' Sport Imagery Questionnaire, which asked the participants to image 4 different situations in their own sport--practicing alone, practicing in front of others, watching a teammate, and competing. Participants reported their subjective impression of vividness on four dimensions--visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and affective. The 14 athletes participating imaged each situation in and out of hypnosis--half of the time the imagery in hypnosis came first and half after. The participants reported that the imagery under hypnosis was more intense for each dimension and more intense for each situation. Whether the imagery was done under hypnosis first or after was not significant. The findings suggest that hypnosis substantially enhances imagery intensity and effectiveness.

  8. Mechanisms responsible for decreased glomerular filtration in hibernation and hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, G. E.; Musacchia, X. J.; Jones, S. B.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, red blood cell and plasma volumes, and relative distribution of cardiac output were made on hibernating and hypothermic adult male and female golden hamsters weighing 120-140 g to study the mechanisms underlying the elimination or marked depression of renal function in hibernation and hypothermia. The results suggest that the elimination or marked depression in renal function reported in hibernation and hypothermia may partly be explained by alterations in cardiovascular system function. Renal perfusion pressure which decreases nearly 60% in both hibernation and hypothermia and a decrease in plasma volume of roughly 35% in the hypothermic animal might both be expected to markedly alter glomerular function.

  9. Hypnosis and Mindfulness: The Twain Finally Meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Akira

    2016-04-01

    Mindfulness meditation (or simply mindfulness) is an ancient method of attention training. Arguably, developed originally by the Buddha, it has been practiced by Buddhists over 2,500 years as part of their spiritual training. The popularity in mindfulness has soared recently following its adaptation as Mindfulness-Based Stress Management by Jon Kabat-Zinn (1995). Mindfulness is often compared to hypnosis but not all assertions are accurate. This article, as a primer, delineates similarities and dissimilarities between mindfulness and hypnosis in terms of 12 specific facets, including putative neuroscientific findings. It also provides a case example that illustrates clinical integration of the two methods.

  10. Hibernal Emergence of Chironomidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Baranov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of Chironomidae were detected emerging in the Crimea during the period from December 2010 to March 2013. Twenty-three are Orthocladiinae and 4 are Chironominae (one Chironomini and three Tanytarsini species. Nine species are recorded for the first time in Crimea. At the genus-level the hibernal emergence in Crimea shows resemblance to the patterns reported for streams in Kansas.

  11. Modification of glial response in hibernation: a patch-clamp study on glial cells acutely isolated from hibernating land snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Ljiljana; Bataveljic, Danijela; Andjus, Pavle R; Moldovan, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Miodrag; Petkovic, Branka

    2014-12-01

    Hibernation is a dormant state of some animal species that enables them to survive harsh environmental conditions during the winter seasons. In the hibernating state, preservation of neuronal rhythmic activity at a low level is necessary for maintenance of suspended forms of behavior. As glial cells support rhythmic activity of neurons, preservation of brain function in the hibernating state implies accompanying modification of glial activity. A supportive role of glia in regulating neuronal activity is reflected through the activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channels (Kir). Therefore, we examined electrophysiological response, particularly Kir current response, of glial cells in mixture with neurons acutely isolated from active and hibernating land snail Helix pomatia. Our data show that hibernated glia have significantly lower inward current density, specific membrane conductance, and conductance density compared with active glia. The observed reduction could be attributed to the Kir currents, since the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current density was significantly lower in hibernated glia. Accordingly, a significant positive shift of the current reversal potential indicated a more depolarized state of hibernated glia. Data obtained show that modification of glial current response could be regulated by serotonin (5-HT) through an increase of cGMP as a secondary messenger, since extracellular addition of 5-HT or intracellular administration of cGMP to active glia induced a significant reduction of inward current density and thus mimicked the reduced response of hibernated glia. Lower Kir current density of hibernated glia accompanied the lower electrical activity of hibernated neurons, as revealed by a decrease in neuronal fast inward Na+ current density. Our findings reveal that glial response is reduced in the hibernating state and suggest seasonal modulation of glial activity. Maintenance of low glial activity in hibernation could be important for preservation of brain

  12. Therapeutic hypnosis, psychotherapy, and the digital humanities: the narratives and culturomics of hypnosis, 1800-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Mortimer, Jane; Rossi, Kathryn

    2013-04-01

    Culturomics is a new scientific discipline of the digital humanities-the use of computer algorithms to search for meaning in large databases of text and media. This new digital discipline is used to explore 200 years of the history of hypnosis and psychotherapy in over five million digitized books from more than 40 university libraries around the world. It graphically compares the frequencies of English words about hypnosis, hypnotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and their founders from 1800 to 2008. This new perspective explore issues such as: Who were the major innovators in the history of therapeutic hypnosis, psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy? How well does this new digital approach to the humanities correspond to traditional histories of hypnosis and psychotherapy?

  13. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  14. Cardiac function adaptations in hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2010-03-01

    Research on the cardiovascular physiology of hibernating mammals may provide insight into evolutionary adaptations; however, anesthesia used to handle wild animals may affect the cardiovascular parameters of interest. To overcome these potential biases, we investigated the functional cardiac phenotype of the hibernating grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) during the active, transitional and hibernating phases over a 4 year period in conscious rather than anesthetized bears. The bears were captive born and serially studied from the age of 5 months to 4 years. Heart rate was significantly different from active (82.6 +/- 7.7 beats/min) to hibernating states (17.8 +/- 2.8 beats/min). There was no difference from the active to the hibernating state in diastolic and stroke volume parameters or in left atrial area. Left ventricular volume:mass was significantly increased during hibernation indicating decreased ventricular mass. Ejection fraction of the left ventricle was not different between active and hibernating states. In contrast, total left atrial emptying fraction was significantly reduced during hibernation (17.8 +/- 2.8%) as compared to the active state (40.8 +/- 1.9%). Reduced atrial chamber function was also supported by reduced atrial contraction blood flow velocities and atrial contraction ejection fraction during hibernation; 7.1 +/- 2.8% as compared to 20.7 +/- 3% during the active state. Changes in the diastolic cardiac filling cycle, especially atrial chamber contribution to ventricular filling, appear to be the most prominent macroscopic functional change during hibernation. Thus, we propose that these changes in atrial chamber function constitute a major adaptation during hibernation which allows the myocardium to conserve energy, avoid chamber dilation and remain healthy during a period of extremely low heart rates. These findings will aid in rational approaches to identifying underlying molecular mechanisms.

  15. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrast, Robert A

    2017-03-16

    Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  16. Incorporating Hypnosis into Pediatric Clinical Encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Pendergrast

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of licensed health professionals who care for children have been trained in clinical hypnosis. The evidence base for the safety and efficacy of this therapeutic approach in a wide variety of conditions is also growing. Pediatricians and other health professionals who have received training may wish to apply these skills in appropriate clinical scenarios but still may be unsure of the practical matters of how to incorporate this skill-set into day to day practice. Moreover, the practical application of such skills will take very different forms depending on the practice setting, types of acute or chronic conditions, patient and family preferences, and the developmental stages of the child or teen. This article reviews the application of pediatric clinical hypnosis skills by describing the use of hypnotic language outside of formal trance induction, by describing natural trance states that occur in children and teens in healthcare settings, and by describing the process of planning a clinical hypnosis encounter. It is assumed that this article does not constitute training in hypnosis or qualify its readers for the application of such skills; rather, it may serve as a practical guide for those professionals who have been so trained, and may serve to inform other professionals what to expect when referring a patient for hypnotherapy. The reader is referred to specific training opportunities and organizations.

  17. How hibernation and hypothermia help to improve anticoagulant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrij, Edwin L; Henning, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Winter is coming. Some animals successfully cope with the hostility of this season by hibernating. But how do hibernators survive the procoagulant state of months of immobility at very low body temperatures, with strongly decreased blood flow and increased blood viscosity? Changing the coagulation s

  18. Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Dynamics in a Hibernating Mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P.; Sahoo, Daisy; Drover, Victor A.; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Carey, Hannah V.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernating mammals cease feeding during the winter and rely primarily on stored lipids to fuel alternating periods of torpor and arousal. How hibernators manage large fluxes of lipids and sterols over the annual hibernation cycle is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and cholesterol transport and storage in ground squirrels studied in spring, summer, and several hibernation states. Cholesterol levels in total plasma, HDL and LDL particles were elevated in hibernators compared with spring or summer squirrels. Hibernation increased plasma apolipoprotein A-I expression and HDL particle size. Expression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase was 13-fold lower in hibernators than in active season squirrels. Plasma triglycerides were reduced by fasting in spring but not summer squirrels. In hibernators plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was elevated during torpor whereas triglycerides were low relative to normothermic states. We conclude that the switch to a lipid-based metabolism during winter, coupled with reduced capacity to excrete cholesterol creates a closed system in which efficient use of lipoproteins is essential for survival. PMID:22195001

  19. Photographic recording of natural activity in hibernating bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge

    1970-01-01

    In the past decade there has been an increasing awareness that spontaneous activity in hibernating mammals is not a mere accidental imperfection in the mechanism of hibernation but, on the contrary, a regular and important feature of it. Several recent investigations (e.g. Kristofferson & Soivio, 19

  20. WITHDRAWN: Hypnosis for children undergoing dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harasi, Sharifa; Ashley, Paul F; Moles, David R; Parekh, Susan; Walters, Val

    2017-06-20

    Managing children is a challenge that many dentists face. Many non-pharmacological techniques have been developed to manage anxiety and behavioural problems in children, such us: 'tell, show & do', positive reinforcement, modelling and hypnosis. The use of hypnosis is generally an overlooked area, hence the need for this review. This systematic review attempted to answer the question: What is the effectiveness of hypnosis (with or without sedation) for behaviour management of children who are receiving dental care in order to allow successful completion of treatment?Null hypothesis: Hypnosis has no effect on the outcome of dental treatment of children. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), and PsycINFO. Electronic and manual searches were performed using controlled vocabulary and free text terms with no language restrictions. Date of last search: 11th June 2010. All children and adolescents aged up to 16 years of age. Children having any dental treatment, such as: simple restorative treatment with or without local anaesthetic, simple extractions or management of dental trauma. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were independently extracted, in duplicate, by two review authors. Authors of trials were contacted for details of randomisation and withdrawals and a quality assessment was carried out. The methodological quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed using the criteria described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.2. Only three RCTs (with 69 participants) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Statistical analysis and meta-analysis were not possible due to insufficient number of studies. Although there are a considerable number of anecdotal accounts indicating the benefits of using hypnosis in paediatric dentistry, on the basis of the three studies meeting the inclusion criteria for this review there

  1. Enhanced oxidative capacity of ground squirrel brain mitochondria during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Mallory A; Schwartz, Christine; Andrews, Matthew T

    2017-03-01

    During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA). Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA, resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation. We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared with spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation. To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA. Respiration rates of isolated brain mitochondria through complex I of the electron transport chain were more than twofold higher in TOR and IBA than in SP (P mitochondria compared with TOR and IBA (P mitochondria function more effectively during the hibernation season, allowing for rapid production of energy to meet demand when extreme physiological changes are occurring. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Hypnosis and top-down regulation of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin B; Cleeremans, Axel; Raz, Amir; Lynn, Steven Jay

    2017-02-04

    Hypnosis is a unique form of top-down regulation in which verbal suggestions are capable of eliciting pronounced changes in a multitude of psychological phenomena. Hypnotic suggestion has been widely used both as a technique for studying basic science questions regarding human consciousness but also as a method for targeting a range of symptoms within a therapeutic context. Here we provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the characteristics and neurocognitive mechanisms of hypnosis. We review evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental psychopathology, and clinical psychology regarding the utility of hypnosis as an experimental method for modulating consciousness, as a model for studying healthy and pathological cognition, and as a therapeutic vehicle. We also highlight the relations between hypnosis and other psychological phenomena, including the broader domain of suggestion and suggestibility, and conclude by identifying the most salient challenges confronting the nascent cognitive neuroscience of hypnosis and outlining future directions for research on hypnosis and suggestion.

  3. Hypnosis for cancer care: over 200 years young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Schnur, Julie B; Kravits, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Hypnosis has been used to provide psychological and physical comfort to individuals diagnosed with cancer for nearly 200 years. The goals of this review are: 1) to describe hypnosis and its components and to dispel misconceptions; 2) to provide an overview of hypnosis as a cancer prevention and control technique (covering its use in weight management, smoking cessation, as an adjunct to diagnostic and treatment procedures, survivorship, and metastatic disease); and 3) to discuss future research directions. Overall, the literature supports the benefits of hypnosis for improving quality of life during the course of cancer and its treatment. However, a great deal more work needs to be done to explore the use of hypnosis in survivorship, to understand the mediators and moderators of hypnosis interventions, and to develop effective dissemination strategies.

  4. The myth of hypnosis: the need for remythification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Myths or misconceptions concerning hypnosis are regarded among the major barriers to effective implementation of hypnosis. Contemporary hypnotherapists are expected to elicit patients' misconceptions and to provide explanations that distinguish between mystical and scientific perceptions of hypnosis and that offer a picture of the state of the art of hypnosis. Dealing with misconceptions on a rational and cognitive level seems to have the ability to change a patient's conscious knowledge and understanding of hypnosis. Nevertheless, deeply rooted and emotionally saturated misbeliefs with historical-cultural origins still prevail. This article focuses on the prehypnotic phase of therapy and proposes remythification to deal with the myth of hypnosis. This approach aims to promote the hypnotherapeutic process by utilizing myth-related misconceptions.

  5. Pain perception and hypnosis: findings from recent functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Caltagirone, Saverio Simone; Savoja, Valeria; Piacentino, Daria; Callovini, Gemma; Manfredi, Giovanni; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Hypnosis modulates pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. By reviewing functional neuroimaging studies focusing on pain perception under hypnosis, the authors aimed to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring in hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Different changes in brain functionality occurred throughout all components of the pain network and other brain areas. The anterior cingulate cortex appears to be central in modulating pain circuitry activity under hypnosis. Most studies also showed that the neural functions of the prefrontal, insular, and somatosensory cortices are consistently modified during hypnosis-modulated pain conditions. Functional neuroimaging studies support the clinical use of hypnosis in the management of pain conditions.

  6. The effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Ramazan; Ozcan, Osman; Dane, Senol

    2013-01-01

    Uslu et al. (2012 ) suggested that hypnotic status can modulate cerebral blood flow. The authors investigated the effects of hypnosis on heart rate variability (HRV). In women, HRV decreased during hypnosis. Posthypnotic values were higher compared to prehypnotic and hypnotic values. Women had highest HRV parameters in the posthypnotic condition. It appears that hypnosis can produce cardiac and cognitive activations. Hypnotherapy may be useful in some cardiac clinical conditions characterized by an autonomic imbalance or some cardiac arrhythmias.

  7. Disassembly of the Staphylococcus aureus hibernating 100S ribosome by an evolutionarily conserved GTPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arnab; Yap, Mee-Ngan F

    2017-09-11

    The bacterial hibernating 100S ribosome is a poorly understood form of the dimeric 70S particle that has been linked to pathogenesis, translational repression, starvation responses, and ribosome turnover. In the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and most other bacteria, hibernation-promoting factor (HPF) homodimerizes the 70S ribosomes to form a translationally silent 100S complex. Conversely, the 100S ribosomes dissociate into subunits and are presumably recycled for new rounds of translation. The regulation and disassembly of the 100S ribosome are largely unknown because the temporal abundance of the 100S ribosome varies considerably among different bacterial phyla. Here, we identify a universally conserved GTPase (HflX) as a bona fide dissociation factor of the S. aureus 100S ribosome. The expression levels hpf and hflX are coregulated by general stress and stringent responses in a temperature-dependent manner. While all tested guanosine analogs stimulate the splitting activity of HflX on the 70S ribosome, only GTP can completely dissociate the 100S ribosome. Our results reveal the antagonistic relationship of HPF and HflX and uncover the key regulators of 70S and 100S ribosome homeostasis that are intimately associated with bacterial survival.

  8. Hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savedoff Aaron D

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-hypnosis has been taught routinely at the SUNY Upstate Medical University for treatment of pulmonary symptoms thought to be amenable to psychological therapy. While using hypnosis for relaxation, four individuals, including a patient with cystic fibrosis, reported development of blue-tinted vision. Based on a search of the literature, we believe this is the first published report of hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision. Case presentation The patient reported blue-tinted vision when he used hypnosis on an almost daily basis for seven years. The visual change typically occurred when he was relaxed. Moreover, a concurrent erection in the absence of sexual thoughts usually was present. The other three individuals reported blue-tinted vision after learning how to use hypnosis for relaxation as part of a group hypnosis instruction. Conclusion The blue-tinted vision experienced by the individuals in this report may be the result of an hypnosis-induced primary change in cognitive processing. Additionally, as the relaxing effect of hypnosis can be associated with a reduction in blood pressure and increased blood flow, hypnosis-associated blue-tinted vision also may be related to retinal vasodilation.

  9. Alterations in electrodermal activity and cardiac parasympathetic tone during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekecs, Zoltán; Szekely, Anna; Varga, Katalin

    2016-02-01

    Exploring autonomic nervous system (ANS) changes during hypnosis is critical for understanding the nature and extent of the hypnotic phenomenon and for identifying the mechanisms underlying the effects of hypnosis in different medical conditions. To assess ANS changes during hypnosis, electrodermal activity and pulse rate variability (PRV) were measured in 121 young adults. Participants either received hypnotic induction (hypnosis condition) or listened to music (control condition), and both groups were exposed to test suggestions. Blocks of silence and experimental sound stimuli were presented at baseline, after induction, and after de-induction. Skin conductance level (SCL) and high frequency (HF) power of PRV measured at each phase were compared between groups. Hypnosis decreased SCL compared to the control condition; however, there were no group differences in HF power. Furthermore, hypnotic suggestibility did not moderate ANS changes in the hypnosis group. These findings indicate that hypnosis reduces tonic sympathetic nervous system activity, which might explain why hypnosis is effective in the treatment of disorders with strong sympathetic nervous system involvement, such as rheumatoid arthritis, hot flashes, hypertension, and chronic pain. Further studies with different control conditions are required to examine the specificity of the sympathetic effects of hypnosis.

  10. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience.

  11. Decreases in body temperature and body mass constitute pre-hibernation remodelling in the Syrian golden hamster, a facultative mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayama, Yuichi; Ando, Lisa; Tamura, Yutaka; Miura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi

    2016-04-01

    Hibernation is an adaptive strategy for surviving during periods with little or no food availability, by profoundly reducing the metabolic rate and the core body temperature (T b). Obligate hibernators (e.g. bears, ground squirrels, etc.) hibernate every winter under the strict regulation of endogenous circannual rhythms, and they are assumed to undergo adaptive remodelling in autumn, the pre-hibernation period, prior to hibernation. However, little is known about the nature of pre-hibernation remodelling. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) are facultative hibernators that can hibernate irrespective of seasons when exposed to prolonged short photoperiod and cold ambient temperature (SD-Cold) conditions. Their T b set point reduced by the first deep torpor (DT) and then increased gradually after repeated cycles of DT and periodic arousal (PA), and finally recovered to the level observed before the prolonged SD-Cold in the post-hibernation period. We also found that, before the initiation of hibernation, the body mass of animals decreased below a threshold, indicating that hibernation in this species depends on body condition. These observations suggest that Syrian hamsters undergo pre-hibernation remodelling and that T b and body mass can be useful physiological markers to monitor the remodelling process during the pre-hibernation period.

  12. Energy homeostasis regulatory peptides in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardi, János; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Szentirmai, Eva; Kapás, Levente; Krueger, James M

    2011-05-15

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are inactive for up to 6 months during hibernation. They undergo profound seasonal changes in food intake, body mass, and energy expenditure. The circa-annual regulation of metabolism is poorly understood. In this study, we measured plasma ghrelin, leptin, obestatin, and neuropeptide-Y (NPY) levels, hormones known to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in ten grizzly bears. Blood samples were collected during the active summer period, early hibernation and late hibernation. Plasma levels of leptin, obestatin, and NPY did not change between the active and the hibernation periods. Plasma total ghrelin and desacyl-ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased during the inactive winter period compared to summer levels. The elevated ghrelin levels may help enhance body mass during pre-hibernation, while the low plasma ghrelin concentrations during hibernation season may contribute to the maintenance of hypophagia, low energy utilization and behavioral inactivity. Our results suggest that ghrelin plays a potential role in the regulation of metabolic changes and energy homeostasis during hibernation in grizzly bears.

  13. [Cybernetic conceptualization of the levels of hypnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollina Mangiameli, G

    1980-04-28

    The synaptic function of the different associational levels of cortex and cortico-subcortical depending on inputs memorised in synchronism at each level, is probably responsible, on a broad scale of values, for auto- or heteroinducible levels of hypnosis due to inputs solicited by extraneuronal values determining feed-back with inputs recorded in neuronal DNA. This hypothesis is outlined here with reference to the same Author's "Metodica psicoterapica su elementi di cultura cibernetica" (Minerva Medica, 63, 968, 1972). Sophronic levels, and levels of hypnosis and hypnotism are, in the light of elements of cybernetic culture, neurophysiologically referrable not only to qualitatively different causes, and more specifically to the final cause triggering electrobiochemical reactions. They are, in other words, referrable to the electron and its dynamics, increasingly well known today to students of cybernetics.

  14. Automaticity and hypnosis: a sociocognitive account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, S J

    1997-07-01

    This article provides an overview of a new theory of suggested involuntariness in hypnosis, developed in conjunction with Irving Kirsch. The theory is based on the following ideas. First, high hypnotizable participants enter hypnosis with a conscious intention to feel and behave in line with suggested experiences and movements. Second, people who are easily hypnotized hold firm expectations that they will succeed in following the suggestions of the hypnotist. Third, the intention and expectation in turn function as response sets in the sense that they trigger the hypnotic response automatically. Fourth, given the intention to feel and behave in line with the hypnotist's suggestions, hypnotized individuals show no hesitation to experience the suggested movements as involuntary because (a) these movements are actually triggered automatically, and (b) the intention to cooperate with the hypnotist as well as the expectation to be able to do so create a heightened readiness to experience these actions as involuntary.

  15. Hypnosis, memory, and frontal executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvolden, Peter; Woody, Erik Z

    2004-01-01

    According to the dissociated-control hypothesis forwarded by Woody and Bowers (1994), the effects of hypnosis are consistent with attenuated frontal lobe functioning. The present study was designed to compare the performance of participants with high and low hypnotic ability on a variety of memory tasks thought to be sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, as well as some control memory tasks not considered to be sensitive to such functioning. Results generally indicated that participants with high hypnotic ability have more difficulty with tasks sensitive to frontal lobe functioning, including free recall, proactive interference, and source amnesia tasks, both within and outside of the context of hypnosis. These differences, which were not found for nonfrontal tasks, are generally supportive of the dissociated control theory of hypnotic responding.

  16. Elucidating Unconscious Processing With Instrumental Hypnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eLandry

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers leverage bottom-up suppression to unlock the underlying mechanisms of unconscious processing. However, a top-down approach – for example via hypnotic suggestion – paves the road to experimental innovation and complementary data that afford new scientific insights concerning attention and the unconscious. Drawing from a reliable taxonomy that differentiates subliminal and preconscious processing, we outline how an experimental trajectory that champions top-down suppression techniques, such as those practiced in hypnosis, is uniquely poised to further contextualize and refine our scientific understanding of unconscious processing. Examining subliminal and preconscious methods, we demonstrate how instrumental hypnosis provides a reliable adjunct that supplements contemporary approaches. Specifically, we provide an integrative synthesis of the advantages and shortcomings that accompany a top-down approach to probe the unconscious mind. Our account provides a larger framework for complementing the results from core studies involving prevailing subliminal and preconscious techniques.

  17. Dissociation in hypnosis and multiple personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, K S

    1991-07-01

    The first part of this paper examines the concept of dissociation in the context of hypnosis. In particular, the neodissociative and social psychological models of hypnosis are compared. It is argued that the social psychological model, in describing hypnotic enactments as purposeful, does not adequately distinguish between behavior that is enacted "on purpose" and behavior that serves or achieves a purpose. 2 recent dissertations (Hughes, 1988; Miller, 1986) from the University of Waterloo are summarized, each of which supports the neodissociative view that hypnotic behavior can be purposeful (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is achieved) and nonvolitional (in the sense that the suggested state of affairs is not achieved by high level executive initiative and ongoing effort). The second part of the paper employs a neodissociative view of hypnosis to help understand the current epidemic of multiple personality disorder (MPD). In particular, it is argued that many symptoms of MPD are implicitly suggested effects--particularly prone to occur in persons who have a lifelong tendency to use dissociative type defenses. The present author believes that this account is easier to sustain conceptually and empirically than the current view, which states that a secondary (tertiary, etc.) personality accounts for the striking phenomenological discontinuities experienced by MPD patients.

  18. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Alcoholism: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the history and theory of alcoholism and hypnosis and proposes a theoretical model of alcholism based on self-esteem. Suggets that hypnosis may be an effective tool in the treatment of alcoholism with cure as the goal, and calls for more consistency in theory and practice. (JAC)

  19. The Use of Hypnosis in Improving Reading Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading improvement of university students. Finds marginally significant improvement in total vocabulary and comprehension scores and greatest improvement in students with initially low reading scores. Sees group hypnosis as an efficient and economically feasible instructional…

  20. A case study of improved performance in archery using hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, C; Bortoli, L

    1995-12-01

    Active-alert hypnosis and traditional hypnosis procedures can be combined and applied in sport following the lines of an isomorphic model. A case study of improved shooting performance in an adult expert archer after 20 weeks of mental training is reported.

  1. Hypnosis in the Treatment of Alcoholism: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the history and theory of alcoholism and hypnosis and proposes a theoretical model of alcholism based on self-esteem. Suggets that hypnosis may be an effective tool in the treatment of alcoholism with cure as the goal, and calls for more consistency in theory and practice. (JAC)

  2. Neuro-hypnotism: prospects for hypnosis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2013-02-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of hypnosis have been subject to speculation since the phenomenon got its name. Until recently, much of this research has been geared toward understanding hypnosis itself, including the biological bases of individual differences in hypnotizability, state-dependent changes in cortical activity occurring with the induction of hypnosis, and the neural correlates of response to particular hypnotic suggestions (especially the clinically useful hypnotic analgesia). More recently, hypnosis has begun to be employed as a method for manipulating subjects' mental states, both cognitive and affective, to provide information about the neural substrates of experience, thought, and action. This instrumental use of hypnosis is particularly well-suited for identifying the neural correlates of conscious and unconscious perception and memory, and of voluntary and involuntary action.

  3. Trance and the trickster: hypnosis as a liminal phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Stanley

    2005-04-01

    This paper makes the case that hypnotic phenomena are liminal in nature and that hypnotic practitioners (such as Milton Erickson) share many traits with traditional societies' "tricksters." The ambiguous nature of hypnosis has been apparent since the days of Mesmer's animal magnetism. Hypnotized people often report hallucinations that confound their ordinary distinctions between reality and illusion, external and internal processes, and many other binary oppositions, including time and space as well as mind and body. In addition, hypnosis can obscure the distinction between fact and fiction in one's memory, as is evident in the "recovered memory" controversy. The role played by imagination is central to both indigenous rituals and hypnosis, and hypnosis is a multifaceted phenomenon requiring explanation at multiple levels. Some investigators and practitioners have missed the importance of the social context in which hypnosis occurs, while others have come close to destroying the most interesting and useful hypnotic phenomena under the guise of objectivity.

  4. A Review of the Development of Sport Hypnosis as a Performance Enhancement Method for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    William F Straub; John J Bowman

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to trace the historical milestones in the emergence of sport hypnosis from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The authors reviewed some important definitional conceptualizations of hypnosis from the work of Braid, Bernheim, Freud, Hull and Erickson. Erickson laid the groundwork for the modern definitions of hypnosis and eventually of sport hypnosis. Clinical sport hypnosis was defined as: “helping athletes overcome a variety o...

  5. Maintenance of a fully functional digestive system during hibernation in the European hamster, a food-storing hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitten, Mathieu; Oudart, Hugues; Habold, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Some small mammals limit energy expenditure during winter conditions through torpor bouts, which are characterized by a decrease in body temperature and metabolic rate. Individuals arise periodically from torpor to restore critical functions requiring euthermia. Although most of the species involved do not feed during hibernation and rely on body reserves to fulfil energy requirements (fat-storing species), others hoard food in a burrow (food-storing species) and can feed during interbout euthermy. Whereas fat-storing species undergo a marked atrophy of the digestive tract, food-storing species have to maintain a functional digestive system during hibernation. Our study aimed to evaluate the absorption capacities of a food-storing species, the European hamster, throughout the annual cycle. In vivo intestinal perfusions were conducted in different groups of hamsters (n=5) during the different life periods, namely before hibernation, in torpor, during interbout euthermy, and during summer rest. The triglyceride, non-esterified free fatty acid, starch, glucose and protein composition of the perfusate was evaluated before and after the 1h perfusion of a closed intestinal loop. Triglyceride, starch and protein hydrolysis rates were similar in hibernating (torpid and euthermic) and non-hibernating hamsters. Intestinal absorption of free fatty acid was also similar in all groups. However, glucose uptake rate was higher during hibernation than during the summer. In contrast with fat-storing species, the intestinal absorption capacities of food-storing species are fully maintained during hibernation to optimize nutrient assimilation during short interbout euthermy. In particular, glucose uptake rate is increased during hibernation to restore glycaemia and ensure glucose-dependent pathways.

  6. Hibernation is associated with increased survival and the evolution of slow life histories among mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbill, Christopher; Bieber, Claudia; Ruf, Thomas

    2011-11-22

    Survival probability is predicted to underlie the evolution of life histories along a slow-fast continuum. Hibernation allows a diverse range of small mammals to exhibit seasonal dormancy, which might increase survival and consequently be associated with relatively slow life histories. We used phylogenetically informed GLS models to test for an effect of hibernation on seasonal and annual survival, and on key attributes of life histories among mammals. Monthly survival was in most cases higher during hibernation compared with the active season, probably because inactivity minimizes predation. Hibernators also have approximately 15 per cent higher annual survival than similar sized non-hibernating species. As predicted, we found an effect of hibernation on the relationships between life history attributes and body mass: small hibernating mammals generally have longer maximum life spans (50% greater for a 50 g species), reproduce at slower rates, mature at older ages and have longer generation times compared with similar-sized non-hibernators. In accordance with evolutionary theories, however, hibernating species do not have longer life spans than non-hibernators with similar survival rates, nor do they have lower reproductive rates than non-hibernators with similar maximum life spans. Thus, our combined results suggest that (i) hibernation is associated with high rates of overwinter and annual survival, and (ii) an increase in survival in hibernating species is linked with the coevolution of traits indicative of relatively slow life histories.

  7. Successful Treatment of Ptyalism Gravidarum With Concomitant Hyperemesis Using Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2015-10-01

    Ptyalism gravidarum, or sialorrhea, is the excessive secretion of saliva during pregnancy. Treatment of ptyalism gravidarum is often challenging due to its unknown etiologies. This article discusses a case of ptyalism gravidarum with concomitant hyperemesis in which the condition was successfully treated with hypnosis. A 28-year-old woman presented with ptyalism 2 months into her pregnancy and hyperemesis 3 months into pregnancy with associated vomiting that occurred following every meal. Hypnosis was administered at week 16 of pregnancy to eliminate ptyalism and hyperemesis, to prepare for childbirth, and to increase overall psychological well-being. Ptyalism resolved by week 36, concurrent with the final hypnosis session.

  8. The impact of stage hypnosis on audience members and participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Jay Lynn, Steven; Meyer, Eric

    2004-07-01

    Before and after a stage-hypnosis performance, 67 audience members and 6 participants completed the Hypnotic Attitudes Questionnaire (HAQ), the Posthypnotic Experience Scale (PES), and several questions related to attitudes about performing in public. Audience members' beliefs about hypnosis (HAQ total and factor scores),experience ratings (PES factor scores: pleasantness, anger/irritability,anxiety), and responses to the performance-related questions changed in a positive direction after the performance. The participants in the show reported no significant pre- to postperformance changes. How-ever, there were indications that the on stage participants exhibited generally favorable attitudes toward hypnosis and performing before they engaged in the actual performance.

  9. Using Hypnosis to Enhance Learning Second Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Yakup; Çimen, O Arda; Yetkiner, Zeynep Ebrar

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we measure the effects of hypnosis and suggestions for learning second language vocabulary. Participants (N = 70) were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or a control group. They were pre-tested, and then presented 21 Spanish words, post-tested immediately and 1 week later. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with group (experimental versus control) as the between-subjects factor, and time as the within-subjects factor. The experimental group performed significantly better in both tests. Our results indicate that hypnosis is beneficial for second language vocabulary learning and retrieval.

  10. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  11. Integration of hypnosis into pediatric palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Kohen, Daniel P

    2017-06-27

    At least 8 million children would need specialized pediatric palliative care (PPC) services annually worldwide, and of the more than 42,000 children and teenagers dying annually in the United States, at least 15,000 children would require PPC. Unfortunately, even in resource-rich countries the majority of children dying from serious advanced illnesses are suffering from unrelieved, distressing symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, and anxiety. State of the art treatment and prevention of those symptoms requires employing multi-modal therapies, commonly including pharmacology, rehabilitation, procedural intervention, psychology, and integrative modalities. This article describes the current practice of integrating hypnosis into advanced pain and symptom management of children with serious illness. Three case reports of children living with a life-limiting condition exemplify the effective use of this clinical modality to decrease distressing symptoms and suffering. Hypnosis for pediatric patients experiencing a life-limiting disease not only provides an integral part of advanced symptom management, but also supports children dealing with loss and anticipatory loss, sustains and enhances hope and helps children and adolescents live fully, making every moment count, until death.

  12. Hibernating bears as a model for preventing disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; McGee, M.E.; Harvey, K.B.; Vaughan, M.R.; Robbins, C.T.

    2006-01-01

    The hibernating bear is an excellent model for disuse osteoporosis in humans because it is a naturally occurring large animal model. Furthermore, bears and humans have similar lower limb skeletal morphology, and bears walk plantigrade like humans. Black bears (Ursus americanus) may not develop disuse osteoporosis during long periods of disuse (i.e. hibernation) because they maintain osteoblastic bone formation during hibernation. As a consequence, bone volume, mineral content, porosity, and strength are not adversely affected by annual periods of disuse. In fact, cortical bone bending strength has been shown to increase with age in hibernating black bears without a significant change in porosity. Other animals require remobilization periods 2-3 times longer than the immobilization period to recover the bone lost during disuse. Our findings support the hypothesis that black bears, which hibernate for as long as 5-7 months annually, have evolved biological mechanisms to mitigate the adverse effects of disuse on bone porosity and strength. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Renal Sympathetic Denervation: Hibernation or Resurrection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papademetriou, Vasilios; Doumas, Michael; Tsioufis, Costas

    2016-01-01

    The most current versions of renal sympathetic denervation have been invented as minimally invasive approaches for the management of drug-resistant hypertension. The anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology of renal sympathetic innervation provide a strong background supporting an important role of the renal nerves in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) and volume. In addition, historical data with surgical sympathectomy and experimental data with surgical renal denervation indicate a beneficial effect on BP levels. Early clinical studies with transcatheter radiofrequency ablation demonstrated impressive BP reduction, accompanied by beneficial effects in target organ damage and other disease conditions characterized by sympathetic overactivity. However, the failure of the SYMPLICITY 3 trial to meet its primary efficacy end point raised a lot of concerns and put the field of renal denervation into hibernation. This review aims to translate basic research into clinical practice by presenting the anatomical and physiological basis for renal sympathetic denervation, critically discussing the past and present knowledge in this field, where we stand now, and also speculating about the future of the intervention and potential directions for research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Metabolic Flexibility: Hibernation, Torpor, and Estivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, James F

    2016-03-15

    Many environmental conditions can constrain the ability of animals to obtain sufficient food energy, or transform that food energy into useful chemical forms. To survive extended periods under such conditions animals must suppress metabolic rate to conserve energy, water, or oxygen. Amongst small endotherms, this metabolic suppression is accompanied by and, in some cases, facilitated by a decrease in core body temperature-hibernation or daily torpor-though significant metabolic suppression can be achieved even with only modest cooling. Within some ectotherms, winter metabolic suppression exceeds the passive effects of cooling. During dry seasons, estivating ectotherms can reduce metabolism without changes in body temperature, conserving energy reserves, and reducing gas exchange and its inevitable loss of water vapor. This overview explores the similarities and differences of metabolic suppression among these states within adult animals (excluding developmental diapause), and integrates levels of organization from the whole animal to the genome, where possible. Several similarities among these states are highlighted, including patterns and regulation of metabolic balance, fuel use, and mitochondrial metabolism. Differences among models are also apparent, particularly in whether the metabolic suppression is intrinsic to the tissue or depends on the whole-animal response. While in these hypometabolic states, tissues from many animals are tolerant of hypoxia/anoxia, ischemia/reperfusion, and disuse. These natural models may, therefore, serve as valuable and instructive models for biomedical research.

  15. Hypnosis before diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheseaux, Nicole; de Saint Lager, Alix Juillet; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the efficiency of hypnosis prior to medical procedures. Different databases were analyzed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypnosis to control interventions. All RCTs had to report pain or anxiety. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 968 patients were included; study size was from 20 to 200 patients (14 RCTs ≤ 60 patients). Fourteen RCTs included 830 adults and 4 RCTs included 138 children. Twelve of 18 RCTs had major quality limitations related to unclear allocation concealments, provider's experience in hypnosis, patient's adherence to hypnotic procedures, and intention-to-treat design. This systematic review observed major methodological limitations in RCTs on hypnosis prior to medical procedures.

  16. Preferences for descriptors of hypnosis: the international point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Samantha O; Trenkle, Bernhard; Gallawa, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Despite the apparently definitive findings of the Christensen (2005) survey of published members of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH), disagreement about which term best describes the capacity to experience hypnosis and theoretical preference has continued. SCEH, although international, represents primarily North Americans. Preferences of international clinicians and researchers were inadequately represented, so the authors surveyed preferences from attendees of the International Congress of the International Society of Hypnosis in 2012 in Bremen, Germany. The term trance, translated as trance capacity or trance ability for this study, was overwhelmingly preferred over the other options. Hypnosis was recognized as an identifiable state by 88.46% of respondents, whereas only 11.54% viewed it as a sociocognitive phenomenon (role-play, expectancy, etc.).

  17. Hypnosis for Acute Procedural Pain: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Cassie; Sliwinski, Jim; Yu, Yimin; Johnson, Aimee; Fisher, William; Kekecs, Zoltán; Elkins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Clinical evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of acute procedural pain was critically evaluated based on reports from randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Results from the 29 RCTs meeting inclusion criteria suggest that hypnosis decreases pain compared to standard care and attention control groups and that it is at least as effective as comparable adjunct psychological or behavioral therapies. In addition, applying hypnosis in multiple sessions prior to the day of the procedure produced the highest percentage of significant results. Hypnosis was most effective in minor surgical procedures. However, interpretations are limited by considerable risk of bias. Further studies using minimally effective control conditions and systematic control of intervention dose and timing are required to strengthen conclusions.

  18. Autonomic responses to suggestions for cold and warmth in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, A; Mariauzouls, C; Wyler, F; Bircher, A J; Wyler-Harper, J

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether suggestions for cold or warmth during hypnosis affect fingertip skin temperature. Hypnosis without specific suggestions for cold or warmth ('neutral hypnosis') caused a drop in respiration frequency, however, pulse rate, fingertip skin temperature, and electrodermal activity were not affected. The cold and warmth suggestions decreased and increased fingertip skin temperature, respectively. Compared with the neutral trance phase, the other three autonomic variables measured were also affected by suggestions for cold. However, there was no association between the changes in autonomic variables induced by suggestions and hypnotizability scores measured by the 'Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Adults'. Fingertip skin temperature was mostly affected when the images used for the cold and warmth suggestions during hypnosis included experiences of physical temperature and psychological stress or relaxation, indicating that the psychological content of the imagery amplified the autonomic response.

  19. Breast Biopsy: The Effects of Hypnosis and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Arnoldo; Sánchez-Jáuregui, Teresa; Juárez-García, Dehisy M; García-Solís, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacies of audio-recorded hypnosis with background music and music without hypnosis in the reduction of emotional and physical disturbances in patients scheduled for breast biopsy in comparison with a control group. A total of 75 patients were randomly assigned to 3 different groups and evaluated at baseline and before and after breast biopsy using visual analog scales of stress, pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, optimism, and general well-being. The results showed that, before breast biopsy, the music group presented less stress and anxiety, whereas the hypnosis with music group presented reduced stress, anxiety, and depression and increased optimism and general well-being. After the biopsy, the music group presented less anxiety and pain, whereas the hypnosis group showed less anxiety and increased optimism.

  20. Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Patrick; Delaunay, Laurent; Dannappel, Thomas; Baracchini, Dominique; Marcadet-Fredet, Sabine; Moreau, Olivier; Pacaud, Luc; Przyrowski, Daniel; Marret, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Levitas et al. (2006) showed in a cohort study that hypnosis during embryo transfer (ET) increased pregnancy ratio by 76%. In order to evaluate hypnosis during ET in a general population, the authors performed a randomized prospective controlled study comparing diazepam (usual premedication) administered before ET plus muscle relaxation versus hypnosis plus placebo in 94 patients. Additionally, the authors studied anxiety pre and post ET. Anxiety scores were not different in the two groups before and after ET. No difference in pregnancy and birth ratio was found in the two groups. Hypnosis during ET is as effective as diazepam in terms of pregnancy ratio and anxiolytic effects, but with fewer side effects and should be routinely available.

  1. Hypnosis for sedation in transesophageal echocardiography: a comparison with midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Gulay; Dogan, Yuksel; Demir, Guray; Tulubas, Evrim; Hergunsel, Oya; Tekdos, Yasemin; Dogan, Murat; Bilgi, Deniz; Abut, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), being a displeasing intervention, usually entails sedation. We aimed to compare the effects of hypnosis and midazolam for sedation in TEE. A prospective single-blinded study conducted on patients scheduled for TEE between April 2011 and July 2011 at a university in Istanbul, Turkey. A total of 41 patients underwent sedation using midazolam and 45 patients underwent hypnosis. Patients were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test for anxiety and continuous performance test (CPT) for alertness before and after the procedure. The difficulty of probing and the overall procedure rated by the cardiologist and satisfaction scores of the patients were also documented. Anxiety was found to be less and attention more in the hypnosis group, as revealed by STAI and CPT test scores (P Hypnosis proved to be associated with positive therapeutic outcomes for TEE with regard to alleviation of anxiety and maintenance of vigilance, thus providing more satisfaction compared to sedation with midazolam.

  2. The use of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery in sport psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, Thomas S; Bogacki, David F

    2005-10-01

    Hypnosis is a procedure during which a mental health professional suggests that a patient experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. The purpose of this article is to briefly describe the use of various methods of relaxation, hypnosis, and imagery techniques available to enhance athletic performance. The characteristics that these techniques have in common include relaxation, suggestibility, concentration, imaginative ability, reality testing, brain function, autonomic control, and placebo effect. Case studies are provided for illustration.

  3. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted justification, perpetuates…

  4. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effectiveness of hypnosis therapy and Gestalt therapy as depression treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González-Ramírez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effectiveness of two psychological therapies to treat depression in the Culiacan population, Mexico. According to criteria of MINI (international Neuropsychiatric interview, 30 individuals from a total of 300 were selected and diagnosed with some kind of depression. Patients were divided in three groups: 1 treatment with hypnosis therapy, 2 treatment with Gestalt-hypnosis therapy, and 3 control group. Before and after the treatments the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI was applied to know the depression level of the analyzed groups. The results show that the three groups were presenting a moderated level of depression. The groups under hypnosis therapy and Gestalt-hypnosis therapy show statistical differences between pre-test and post-test. The hypnosis therapy shows significant statistic differences to treat depression with respect to the other two groups. In conclusion, the therapeutic hypnosis is an effective treatment and has relevance to treat depression, while other therapeutic treatments tend to be slow and with minor result. This study is the first of this kind carried out in Culiacan in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  6. Oxytocin enhances social persuasion during hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Hung, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28), who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a) increased trust in the hypnotist, (b) reduced social anxiety, or (c) enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion.

  7. Hypnosis Attenuates Executive Cost of Prospective Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Gyula; Szendi, István; Juhász, Marianna; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Boncz, István; Keresztes, Attila; Pajkossy, Péter; Racsmány, Mihály

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory is the ability to formulate and carry out actions at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. This study aimed to identify the effect of hypnosis on prospective memory performance and to analyze the involvement of executive control processes in intention realization in a hypnotically altered state of consciousness. In 1 experiment, manipulating hypnotic instruction in a within-subject fashion, the authors explored the event-based prospective memory performance of 23 volunteers in 3 conditions: baseline, expectation, and execution. The primary result was that executing prospective memory responses, at the same accuracy rate, produced a significantly lower cost of ongoing responses in terms of response latency in the hypnotic state than in wake condition.

  8. Oxytocin enhances social persuasion during hypnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available It has long been argued that hypnosis cannot promote behaviors that people will not otherwise engage in. Oxytocin can enhance trust in others, and may promote the extent to which a hypnotized person complies with the suggestion of a hypnotist. This double-blind placebo study administered oxytocin or placebo to high hypnotizable participants (N = 28, who were then administered hypnotic suggestions for socially unorthodox behaviors, including swearing during the experiment, singing out loud, and dancing in response to a posthypnotic cue. Participants who received oxytocin were significantly more likely to swear and dance than those who received the placebo. This finding may be interpreted in terms of oxytocin increasing social compliance in response as a function of (a increased trust in the hypnotist, (b reduced social anxiety, or (c enhanced sensitivity to cues to respond to experimental expectations. These results point to the potential role of oxytocin in social persuasion.

  9. “Mesmeric Revelation”: Art as Hypnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zane Gillespie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between percipient and the narrative purpose in Poe’s “Mesmeric Revelation”, arguing ultimately that the various questions raised by this relationship have a great deal in common with altered-state theories of hypnosis. It challenges predictable interpretations of this short story in an effort to open up a new avenue for exploring not only the art of fiction, but, by logical extension, all other branches of creative activity as well. Primary emphasis is given to the nature of the percipient's reduced peripheral awareness as (she appreciates a work of art, in this case, “Mesmeric Revelation”, and how, according to Poe’s “The Philosophy of Composition”, the cultivation of this focused attention lies at the heart of the most effective artistic products.

  10. Hypnosis Training and Education: Experiences with a Norwegian One-Year Education Course in Clinical Hypnosis for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheim, Maren Ø; Helgeland, Helene

    2017-01-01

    Although the efficacy of clinical hypnosis is well documented, its implementation in clinical practice is far from completed and there are few reports of systematic, professional training. This article gives a historical overview and description of a 1-year training program in clinical hypnosis which started in Norway in 2008 and has been held yearly since then. We describe the present education course with respect to aims, conceptual framework, structure, target groups, teaching themes, and experiences. The following factors have been considered of importance for the success of this program: The extent and duration of the course, the focus on demonstrations, experiential skill-building and exercises, and that the education is rooted in acknowledged clinical, academic, and educational environments. The participants' evaluations tell stories of mastery and positive experiences with hypnosis as a therapeutic tool in their clinical practice. However, many struggle to understand the various concepts of hypnosis, trance, and suggestions. Some find it hard to get started and challenging to integrate hypnosis in their clinical practice. Finally, some report scarce opportunities to apply their newly acquired skills at their work places and limited support by their leaders. The development of systematic, professional training programs as described in this article may be of importance for further implementation. However, this will also require that clinicians and leaders in universities and professional environments, and policymakers at higher levels, recognize clinical hypnosis as a valid and efficient choice of treatment. This must be reflected in dedicated efforts to ensure successful implementation in practice.

  11. Spontaneous firing in olfactory bulb neurons of Bufo bufo gargarizans in and after hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuancheng Liang; Shaokang Bian; Xia Peng; Liwen Wang

    2011-01-01

    Microelectrode technique was used to record the spontaneous electrical activities of the neurons in olfactory bulb of the Bufo bufo gargarizans, both in hibernation and after hibernation. This study investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of amphibian olfactory bulb in the period of hibernation and after hibernation and its effects on the start of hibernation and spontaneous awakening. The research showed four forms of spontaneous firings: single spontaneous firing, burst spontaneous firing, irregular spontaneous firing and consecutive single spontaneous firing. The single spontaneous firing includes slow depolarized spontaneous firing and fast depolarized spontaneous firing, and the slow depolarized spontaneous firing occurs only during the hibernation period. In hibernation, the low amplitude and low frequency firing with a longer duration may be relevant to maintaining the tonicity of the central nervous system in toads that are in hibernation, and this kind of firing may also provide an excited basis for their arousal from hibernation. After hibernation, the amplitude and frequency of firing increase, but the firing duration gets shorter. This form of short-term firing, which may be a phenomenon of sensory neurons fast adapting, is one of the neuronal mechanisms for the arousal of hibernating animals.

  12. Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Pan

    Full Text Available Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH, homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD, fumarylacetoacetase (FAH, involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.

  13. Adaptation of phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolic pathway to hibernation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yijian; Cui, Jie; Liu, Yang; McAllan, Bronwyn M; Liao, Chen-Chung; Zhang, Shuyi

    2013-01-01

    Some mammals hibernate in response to harsh environments. Although hibernating mammals may metabolize proteins, the nitrogen metabolic pathways commonly activated during hibernation are not fully characterized. In contrast to the hypothesis of amino acid preservation, we found evidence of amino acid metabolism as three of five key enzymes, including phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), fumarylacetoacetase (FAH), involved in phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism were co-upregulated during hibernation in two distantly related species of bats, Myotis ricketti and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. In addition, the levels of phenylalanine in the livers of these bats were significantly decreased during hibernation. Because phenylalanine and tyrosine are both glucogenic and ketogenic, these results indicate the role of this catabolic pathway in energy supply. Since any deficiency in the catabolism of these two amino acids can cause accumulations of toxic metabolites, these results also suggest the detoxification role of these enzymes during hibernation. A higher selective constraint on PAH, HPD, and HGD in hibernators than in non-hibernators was observed, and hibernators had more conserved amino acid residues in each of these enzymes than non-hibernators. These conserved amino acid residues are mostly located in positions critical for the structure and activity of the enzymes. Taken together, results of this work provide novel insights in nitrogen metabolism and removal of harmful metabolites during bat hibernation.

  14. [Hypnosis integrated in burn care: impact on the healthcare team's stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, Olivier; Davadant, Maryse; Cromec, Ioan; Berger, Mette M

    2013-09-11

    Hypnosis for burn care was introduced in 2004 in the CHUV burn center showing great benefit for burned patients. Whereas advantages of hypnosis for the patient are well established, the impact on the medical staff remains poorly assessed. This manuscrit reviews current attested benefits of hypnosis for patients, specially for burned patients. The results of a recent study assessing the impact of hypnosis on the staffs level of stress caused by burn treatment, will also be introduced.

  15. Financial Liberalization Or Repression?

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, James

    2009-01-01

    While financial liberalization has always been advocated in developing countries, experiences with it do not always produce desirable outcomes. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with financial liberalization and repression, this study highlights that the overall effectiveness of the reform programs depends on the relative strength of each financial sector policy implemented. Using India as a case study, the results indicate that interest rate controls, statutory liquidity...

  16. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  17. Life in the cold: links between mammalian hibernation and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-02-01

    The biological process of aging is the primary determinant of lifespan, but the factors that influence the rate of aging are not yet clearly understood and remain a challenging question. Mammals are characterized by >100-fold differences in maximal lifespan, influenced by relative variances in body mass and metabolic rate. Recent discoveries have identified long-lived mammalian species that deviate from the expected longevity quotient. A commonality among many long-lived species is the capacity to undergo metabolic rate depression, effectively re-programming normal metabolism in response to extreme environmental stress and enter states of torpor or hibernation. This stress tolerant phenotype often involves a reduction in overall metabolic rate to just 1-5% of the normal basal rate as well as activation of cytoprotective responses. At the cellular level, major energy savings are achieved via coordinated suppression of many ATP-expensive cell functions; e.g. global rates of protein synthesis are strongly reduced via inhibition of the insulin signaling axis. At the same time, various studies have shown activation of stress survival signaling during hibernation including up-regulation of protein chaperones, increased antioxidant defenses, and transcriptional activation of pro-survival signaling such as the FOXO and p53 pathways. Many similarities and parallels exist between hibernation phenotypes and different long-lived models, e.g. signal transduction pathways found to be commonly regulated during hibernation are also known to induce lifespan extension in animals such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. In this review, we highlight some of the molecular mechanisms that promote longevity in classic aging models C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice, while providing a comparative analysis to how they are regulated during mammalian hibernation.

  18. [Possibilities of hypnosis and hypnosuggestive methods in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubovits, Edit

    2011-03-01

    Fear of death, pain, or the recurrence of the illness of tumor patients can narrow their attention to a point where a spontaneous altered state of consciousness occurs. In these cases hypnosis either in formal psychotherapy or embedded into the everyday communication with the physician can effectively complement other already known medical and psychological techniques. Although numerous studies have reported the beneficial physical and mental changes induced by hypnosis, for a long time there were not enough research to affect evidence-based medicine. New studies meeting the most rigorous methodological standards, new reviews and the characteristics of hypnosis shown by neuroimaging techniques support the acceptance of this method. Hypnosis is used and studied with adult and child tumor patients alike mostly in the areas of anxiety, pain, nausea, vomiting, quality of life, mood amelioration, immune system and hot flushes. Most of the assays describe hypnosis as an empirically validated treatment technique that in most cases surpass attention diversion, coping trainings, cognitive behavior and relaxation techniques and other regular treatments. In this paper we review these observations.

  19. Hypnosis for Smoking Relapse Prevention: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Timothy P; Duncan, Carol L; Solkowitz, Sharon N; Huggins, Joy; Simon, Joel A

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypnosis would be more effective than standard behavioral counseling in helping smokers to remain abstinent. A total of 140 current smokers were enrolled in a randomized controlled smoking cessation trial at an urban Veterans Affairs medical center. Participants (n = 102) who were able to quit for at least 3 days received either a hypnosis or behavioral relapse prevention intervention. Both relapse prevention interventions consisted of two 60 min face-to-face sessions and four 20 min follow-up phone calls (two phone calls per week). At 26 weeks, the validate\\d point-prevalence quit rate was 35% for the hypnosis group and 42% for the behavioral counseling group (relative risk = 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.40). At 52 weeks, the validated quit rate was 29% for the hypnosis group and 28% for the behavioral group (relative risk  = 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.91). It was concluded that hypnosis warrants further investigation as an intervention for facilitating maintenance of quitting.

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of hypnosis effects on gastric myoelectrical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Enck

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The effects of hypnosis on physiological (gastrointestinal functions are incompletely understood, and it is unknown whether they are hypnosis-specific and gut-specific, or simply unspecific effects of relaxation. DESIGN: Sixty-two healthy female volunteers were randomly assigned to either a single session of hypnotic suggestion of ingesting an appetizing meal and an unappetizing meal, or to relax and concentrate on having an appetizing or unappetizing meal, while the electrogastrogram (EGG was recorded. At the end of the session, participants drank water until they felt full, in order to detect EGG-signal changes after ingestion of a true gastric load. During both conditions participants reported their subjective well-being, hunger and disgust at several time points. RESULTS: Imagining eating food induced subjective feelings of hunger and disgust as well as changes in the EGG similar to, but more pronounced than those seen with a real gastric water load during both hypnosis and relaxation conditions. These effects were more pronounced when imagining an appetizing meal than with an unappetizing meal. There was no significant difference between the hypnosis and relaxation conditions. CONCLUSION: Imagination with and without hypnosis exhibits similar changes in subjective and objective measures in response to imagining an appetizing and an unappetizing food, indicating high sensitivity but low specificity.

  1. Long-term follow-up of self-hypnosis training for recurrent headaches: what the children say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Daniel P

    2010-10-01

    The author sent surveys to 178 consecutive youths previously referred for hypnosis for headaches. The survey sought current status of headaches: treatment, application of self-hypnosis, headache intensity, frequency, duration after self-hypnosis, generalization of self-hypnosis to other problems, and attitudes regarding self-hypnosis and life stresses. Of 134 delivered surveys, 52 were returned complete. Years after treatment, 85% (44/52) reported continued relief with self-hypnosis, 44% (23/52) reported decreased headache frequency, 31% (16/52) noted decreased severity, and 56% (29/52) reported that self-hypnosis reduced headache intensity. Many (26/52) emphasized the value of self-hypnosis to life stresses. In children and adolescents, self-hypnosis is associated with significant improvement of headaches and with an enduring positive effect for many years following training. Results suggest common and spontaneous generalizability of self-hypnosis by young people to modulation of other problems in their lives.

  2. Comparison of different EEG features in estimation of hypnosis susceptibility level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadi, Golnaz; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2012-05-01

    Hypnosis has long been known to be associated with heightened control over physical processes and researchers put it under consideration because of its usage as a therapeutic tool in many medical and psychological problems. Determination of hypnosis susceptibility level is important before prescribing any hypnotic treatment. In this study different features are introduced to classify hypnotizability levels. These features were extracted from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals which were recorded from 32 subjects during hypnosis suggestion. Based on the obtained result, a method was suggested to estimate the hypnosis susceptibility level from hypnosis EEG signals instead of using traditional clinical subjective tests.

  3. Transient positive and negative experiences accompanying stage hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H J; Kitner-Triolo, M; Clarke, S W; Olesko, B

    1992-11-01

    Frequency of positive and negative experiences accompanying stage hypnosis was assessed in follow-up interviews with 22 participants of university-sponsored performances. Most subjects described their experience positively (relaxing, interesting, exciting, satisfying, illuminating, and pleasurable), but some described it negatively (confusing, silly, annoying, and frightening). Five subjects (22.7%) reported partial or complete amnesia; all were highly responsive to the stage hypnosis suggestions. One subject was completely unable to breach amnesia and felt annoyed and frightened. Five subjects (22.7%) believed the hypnotist had control over their behavior. Participants (n = 15) tested subsequently on the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962) were mostly moderately to highly hypnotizable (M = 7.07), and the scores correlated significantly (r = .68) with the percentage of passed stage hypnosis suggestions.

  4. Mechanisms of hypnosis: toward the development of a biopsychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Tomé-Pires, Catarina; Lee, Jikwan; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil; Miró, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports the efficacy of hypnotic treatments, but there remain many unresolved questions regarding how hypnosis produces its beneficial effects. Most theoretical models focus more or less on biological, psychological, and social factors. This scoping review summarizes the empirical findings regarding the associations between specific factors in each of these domains and response to hypnosis. The findings indicate that (a) no single factor appears primary, (b) different factors may contribute more or less to outcomes in different subsets of individuals or for different conditions, and (c) comprehensive models of hypnosis that incorporate factors from all 3 domains may ultimately prove to be more useful than more restrictive models that focus on just 1 or a very few factors.

  5. Raising Relational Critical Consciousness to Enhance Empathy in Clinical Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, H Luis

    2016-01-01

    Empathic involvement theory suggests that a trance-like experience occurs when a cross-relational empathic connection is achieved. The empathically-laden relational phenomenon is thought to enhance hypnosis. Empathic involvement theory suggests hypnotizables are highly empathic. By the same token, the relational empathic connection necessitates a highly empathic practitioner of hypnosis. In the United States, where values of individualism are thought to be socially embedded and internalized, practitioners of hypnosis and clients alike may be impeded by an individually oriented worldview to empathically connect with others. Raising a relational critical consciousness is promoted as a way to increase sensitivity to the marginalization of relationships, limit empathic-effort burn-out, and promote cross-relational empathic connection.

  6. The use of hypnosis in therapy to increase happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruysschaert, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    In their journey through life, most people are looking for happiness. Definitions of happiness and the concepts of a pleasant, good, meaningful, and a full life are reviewed. Next, Seligman's (2002) concept of "authentic happiness" and a happiness formula, S+C+V (Set + Circumstances + Variables), are discussed. An integration of happiness, as a goal, and hypnosis, as a facilitative approach, are presented. Hypnotic techniques with case examples are given. Hypnosis is presented as an efficient companion intervention to work on these variables in a creative way and to pave the way to a happy and full life. The following results are presented: (1) hypnosis allows for increased executive attention with control of emotions, (2) focusing on positive imagery contributes to strengthening "happy pathways," and (3) emotions about the past, present, and future are subject to change.

  7. Hypnosis and dental anesthesia in children: a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Adeline; Lucas-Polomeni, Marie-Madeleine; Robert, Jean-Claude; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Wodey, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The authors of this prospective study initially hypothesized that hypnosis would lower the anxiety and pain associated with dental anesthesia. Thirty children aged 5 to 12 were randomly assigned to 2 groups receiving hypnosis (H) or not (NH) at the time of anesthesia. Anxiety was assessed at inclusion in the study, initial consultation, installation in the dentist's chair, and at the time of anesthesia using the modified Yale preoperative anxiety scale (mYPAS). Following anesthesia, a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a modified objective pain score (mOPS) were used to assess the pain experienced. The median mYPAS and mOPS scores were significantly lower in the H group than in the NH group. Significantly more children in the H group had no or mild pain. This study suggests that hypnosis may be effective in reducing anxiety and pain in children receiving dental anesthesia.

  8. Encoding and recall of parsed stories in hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzur, A; Fabbro, F; Clarici, A; Braun, S; Bava, A

    1998-12-01

    To define the relationship between aspects of memory concerning encoding and recall of short texts and hypnosis, standardized stories were narrated to 12 subjects, both during ordinary state of consciousness and after hypnotic induction by means of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (Form C). The narrative material used as a stimulus was based on several stories taken from popular oral tradition, previously analyzed according to the classic criteria proposed by Rumelhart in 1975 and Mandler and Johnson in 1977. The subjects' memory performance during both experimental conditions was tape-recorded and compared with the analysis of the original stories (Terminal Nodes) as well as with the higher linguistic structures of the scheme (Basic Nodes), according to Rumelhart's typology. During hypnosis, the subjects recalled significantly fewer narrative elements at both levels of analysis (Terminal Nodes and Basic Nodes). We conclude that hypnosis does not enhance recent memory.

  9. Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Genotypes and the Subjective Experiences of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katonai, E R; Szekely, Anna; Vereczkei, A; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Bányai, Éva I; Varga, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Hypnotizability is related to the Val(158)Met polymorphism of the COMT gene. The authors' aim was to find associations between candidate genes and subjective dimensions of hypnosis; 136 subjects participated in hypnosis and noninvasive DNA sampling. The phenomenological dimensions were tapped by the Archaic Involvement Measure (AIM), the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and the Dyadic Interactional Harmony Questionnaire (DIH). The main results were that the "Need of dependence" subscale of AIM was associated with the COMT genotypes. The GG subgroup showed higher scores, whereas AA had below average scores on the majority of the subjective measures. An association between the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the intimacy scores on the DIH was also evident. The effects are discussed in the social-psychobiological model of hypnosis.

  10. CLINICAL HYPNOSIS AND CHRONICLE PAIN: TOWARD A COMPLEX PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio da Silva Neubern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to build initial theoretical notions on complex thought of Edgar Morin as an alternative to understanding of the relationship between hypnosis and chronic pain. Starting with a critique of the dominant instrumentalist thinking in the field, which is often too simplistic, this paper will focuse on two main axes: a subjectivity and animality as possible fields for qualifying chronic pain and b the relationship between subject, unconscious processes and change during hypnosis. The work is completed highlighting the relevance of some complex concepts to the topic : the hologram, which highlights the multiple socio-cultural and biological influences, in contrast to the individualistic perspective on pain and hypnosis; the configurational organization, highlighting the singular aspect of the semiotic production of the subject and the particular logic of the fields subjectivity and animality ; and awareness that, as an emerging quality in trance, the subject is located in mediating condition and not chronic pain experience driver.

  11. The role of hypnosis and related techniques in insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypnosis is a widespread technique in psychotherapy with applicability in various psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. Although there are very few studies in this area of research, some results argue in favor of using hypnosis for various sleep disorders. Insomnia is a common health problem, in both primary form and associated with other pathologies, causing a reduction of self-efficiency/cognitive abilities and an overall decreased life quality. Classical psychotropic medication that is commonly used to treat insomnia can cause significant side effects, produce phenomena of dependence and is generally effective only during the period of treatment. Since the current means of pharmacologic treatment for insomnia present significant limitations, especially when treating chronic insomnia, a more suitable alternative could be attained by non-pharmacological approaches such as hypnosis.

  12. Meditation and Hypnosis: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Hypnosis and meditation, as a whole, form a heterogeneous complex of psychosomatic techniques able to control mind and body regulation. Hypnosis has been pragmatically used for limited therapeutic targets, while Eastern meditation has much wider philosophical and existential implications, aiming for a radical liberation from all illusions, attachments, suffering and pain. The available data on the history, phenomenology, and neuropsychology of hypnosis and meditation show several common features, such as the following: (a) induction based on focused attention; (b) capability to reach an intentional control of both biologic-somatic activities and conscious-unconscious processes; (c) activation/deactivation of several brain areas and circuits (e.g., the default modality network and pain neuromatrix) with a relevant overlapping between the two.

  13. A Neutral Control Condition for Hypnosis Experiments: "Wiki" Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Katalin; Kekecs, Zoltán; Myhre, P S; Józsa, Emese

    2017-01-01

    A new control condition called Wiki is introduced. Key themes of each test suggestion of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, were matched by a corresponding extract from Wikipedia.org. The authors compared phenomenological reports of participants across 4 conditions: hypnosis split into high and low hypnotizable subgroups, music, and Wiki condition, using the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. High hypnotizables undergoing hypnosis reported higher altered experience and altered states of awareness than individuals in the Wiki condition, supporting the authors' hypothesis that the Wiki condition does not evoke an altered state of consciousness (internal dialogue, volitional control, and self-awareness did not differ). Wiki might be a viable control condition in hypnosis research given further examination.

  14. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  15. Placebo versus "standard" hypnosis rationale: attitudes, expectancies, hypnotic responses, and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Michelle; Cleere, Colleen; Lynn, Steven Jay; Kirsch, Irving

    2013-10-01

    In this study participants were provided with either the standard rationale that accompanies the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: A (Shor & Orne, 1962) or a rationale that presented hypnosis as a nondeceptive placebo, consistent with Kirsch's (1994) sociocognitive perspective of hypnosis. The effects of the placebo and standard rationales were highly comparable with respect to hypnotic attitudes; prehypnotic expectancies; objective, subjective, and involuntariness measures of hypnotic responding; as well as a variety of subjective experiences during hypnosis, as measured by the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (Pekala, 1982). Differences among correlations were not evident when measures were compared across groups. However, indices of hypnotic responding were correlated with attitudes in the hypnosis but not the placebo condition, and, generally speaking, the link between subjective experiences during hypnosis and measures of hypnotic responding were more reliable in the placebo than the hypnosis group. Researcher findings are neutral with respect to providing support for altered state versus sociocognitive models of hypnosis.

  16. Hypnosis Attitudes: Treatment Effects and Associations With Symptoms in Individuals With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Maria Elena; Capafons, Antonio; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Attitudes about hypnosis are associated with hypnotic responsiveness. However, little is known about how hypnosis attitudes change with treatment and if those changes are associated with better outcomes. This study examined whether an intervention based on the Valencia Model of Waking Hypnosis combined with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy changed attitudes about hypnosis in a sample of patients with a history of cancer. The results indicated that the intervention improved attitudes toward hypnosis, relative to a control intervention, and the improvements remained stable at 3-month follow-up. Analyses also showed that changes in some attitudes were associated with treatment-related improvements. The findings are consistent with the idea that attitudes about hypnosis play a role in hypnosis treatment outcome, supporting the importance of addressing such beliefs at the onset of and throughout treatment.

  17. Hypnosis in patients with perceived stress - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, S; Brinkhaus, B; Teut, M

    2017-06-19

    Although hypnosis and hypnotherapy have become more popular in recent years, the evidence for hypnosis to influence perceived stress is unclear. In this systematic review we searched and evaluated randomized clinical studies investigating the effect of hypnosis on perceived stress reduction and coping. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Review of Effects, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and PubMed were systematically screened from their inception until December 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting about hypnosis or hypnotherapy for stress reduction in healthy participants. Risk of Bias was assessed according the Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. Nine RCTs with a total of 365 participants met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Most included participants were medical students, predominantly female (n = 211). Mean age of participants ranged in most studies between 20 and 25 years, in three studies the mean ages were between 30 and 42 years. Perceived stress was measured by a wide range of psychological questionnaires including Face Valid Stress Test, Stress Thermometer, and immunological data was collected. All nine included studies used explorative designs and showed a high risk of bias. Six out of nine studies reported significant positive effects of hypnosis for stress reduction in the main outcome parameter compared to control groups (3 active controls, 3 no therapy controls). Immunological outcomes were assessed in six studies, the results were inconclusive. Due to exploratory designs and high risk of bias, the effectiveness of hypnosis or hypnotherapy in stress reduction remains still unclear. More high quality clinical research is urgently needed.

  18. Response of gut microbiota to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were allocated to either torpid, fed active, or fasted active groups. Hibernation was successfully induced by maintaining darkness at 4 degrees C. Flow cytometry analysis of cecal bacteria showed that 96-h fasting reduced the total gut bacteria. This period of fasting also reduced the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the cecal contents. In contrast, total bacterial numbers and concentrations of short chain fatty acids were unaffected by hibernation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments indicated that fasting and hibernation modulated the cecal microbiota. Analysis of 16S rRNA clone library and species-specific real-time quantitative PCR showed that the class Clostridia predominated in both active and torpid hamsters and that populations of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucin degrader, were increased by fasting but not by hibernation. From these results, we conclude that the gut microbiota responds differently to fasting and hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

  19. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation. PMID:27229882

  1. Experimental evidence for beneficial effects of projected climate change on hibernating amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üveges, Bálint; Mahr, Katharina; Szederkényi, Márk; Bókony, Veronika; Hoi, Herbert; Hettyey, Attila

    2016-05-27

    Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates today, experiencing worldwide declines. In recent years considerable effort was invested in exposing the causes of these declines. Climate change has been identified as such a cause; however, the expectable effects of predicted milder, shorter winters on hibernation success of temperate-zone Amphibians have remained controversial, mainly due to a lack of controlled experimental studies. Here we present a laboratory experiment, testing the effects of simulated climate change on hibernating juvenile common toads (Bufo bufo). We simulated hibernation conditions by exposing toadlets to current (1.5 °C) or elevated (4.5 °C) hibernation temperatures in combination with current (91 days) or shortened (61 days) hibernation length. We found that a shorter winter and milder hibernation temperature increased survival of toads during hibernation. Furthermore, the increase in temperature and shortening of the cold period had a synergistic positive effect on body mass change during hibernation. Consequently, while climate change may pose severe challenges for amphibians of the temperate zone during their activity period, the negative effects may be dampened by shorter and milder winters experienced during hibernation.

  2. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  3. The Adaptive Response to Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Hibernation reduces pancreatic amylase levels in ground squirrels. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 134:573 – 578. Carey, H.V., C.A. Rhoads and T.Y. Aw. 2003...expression in rodents and humans is associated with microbial susceptibility. A wide variety of stimuli that activate pro-apopotic signaling pathways are... amylase levels in ground squirrels. (see Balslev- Clausen, et al., 2003, in list of published papers). Exocrine pancreatic activity is critical to GI

  4. Hibernation induces pentobarbital insensitivity in medulla but not cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Keith B Hengen; Behan, Mary; Carey, Hannah V.; Jones, Mathew V.; Johnson, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    The 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernating species, is a natural model of physiological adaption to an extreme environment. During torpor, body temperature drops to 0–4°C, and the cortex is electrically silent, yet the brain stem continues to regulate cardiorespiratory function. The mechanisms underlying selective inhibition in the brain during torpor are not known. To test whether altered GABAergic function is involved in regional and seasonal differences in neu...

  5. Neural Signaling Metabolites May Modulate Energy Use in Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Kelly L; Frare, Carla; Rice, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Despite an epidemic in obesity and metabolic syndrome limited means exist to effect adiposity or metabolic rate other than life style changes. Here we review evidence that neural signaling metabolites may modulate thermoregulatory pathways and offer novel means to fine tune energy use. We extend prior reviews on mechanisms that regulate thermogenesis and energy use in hibernation by focusing primarily on the neural signaling metabolites adenosine, AMP and glutamate.

  6. Financial repression and fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, KL; Lensink, R

    1997-01-01

    This paper develops a simulation model to assess the consequences of government's trying to raise revenues through financial repression in developing countries. The measures of financial repression studied are (1) government borrowing from the banking sector to finance its budget deficit (2) governm

  7. Glucagon secretion in the hibernating edible dormouse (Glis glis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Hamsany, M; Thari, A; Sutter, B

    1985-01-01

    Plasma glucose and glucagon concentrations were measured in edible dormice during the bout of hibernation, arousal and active periods. During lethargy, plasma glucose and glucagon were low, compared to active values and did not fluctuate throughout the phase. During rewarming, plasma glucose regularly increased from 17 degrees to 37 degrees C while plasma glucagon rose after the 17 degrees C stage and reached the higher values at 26 degrees C, then slightly decreased at 37 degrees C. During arousal, plasma levels of free amino acids progressively increased. The effect of temperature and secretagogue (glucose and arginine) on glucagon secretion was studied using perfused pancreas from hibernating edible dormouse. In vitro rewarming of pancreas induced an increase in glucagon secretion. Glucagon secretion was regulated by glucose (inhibitory effect) and by arginine (stimulating effect) up to 25 degrees C. The effect of temperature and glucagon on oxygen uptake of hibernating edible dormouse brown fat was studied using an in vitro technique. Rewarming strongly increased oxygen consumption from 10 to 37 degrees C. Glucagon enhanced oxygen consumption up to 20 degrees C.

  8. On the centenary of Charcot: hysteria, suggestibility and hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L

    1984-06-01

    In studying hysteria by means of hypnosis, Charcot placed emphasis on the psychological aetiology of the neuroses. Among his pupils, Freud alone grasped this epistemological turning-point, from which he made his great discoveries. But hysteria and hypnosis still remain today largely unknown. We have not yet elucidated the 'mysterious leap' between the psychological and the somatic for the former, and between the relational and the instrumental for the latter. While psychoanalysts have constantly concerned themselves with hysteria, they have shown a lack of interest in hypnosis after Freud abandoned its practice. According to Freud, thanks to transference, affect would be controlled by cognition, a viewpoint eminently suited to satisfy his rationalistic outlook. Affect, however, remains an unknown realm. The affective relationship has, at all events, acquired an ever-increasing importance in psychoanalysis during the last few years, with the emphasis on the early mother-child relationship. The 'affective locus' remains the basic, as well as the most obscure, element in the hypno-suggestive relationship. The behaviourist approach, which quantifies the 'vertical' dimension in depth, is a limited one. The study of the 'horizontal' dimension of subjective experience represents a new line of research, which may make it possible to distinguish different forms of hypnosis. The understanding of hypno-suggestion may throw light on psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and the human sciences in general.

  9. Teaching Hypnosis to Psychiatry Residents and Psychology Interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean

    This is a description of a hypnosis training seminar taught at the University of California at Los Angeles to people with training and experience in psychotherapy who are licensed--or to be licensed--mental health professionals. The course described stresses the students' active participation as hypnotists and encourages a rapid transition from…

  10. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  11. Brain states and hypnosis research✩,✩✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Research in cognitive neuroscience now considers the state of the brain prior to the task an important aspect of performance. Hypnosis seems to alter the brain state in a way which allows external input to dominate over internal goals. We examine how normal development may illuminate the hypnotic state. PMID:20060745

  12. Hypnosis in pediatrics: applications at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the utility of hypnosis for patients who presented to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center over a 30 month period. Methods Hypnotherapy was offered to 303 patients from May 1, 1998 – October 31, 2000. Patients offered hypnotherapy included those thought to have pulmonary symptoms due to psychological issues, discomfort due to medications, or fear of procedures. Improvement in symptoms following hypnosis was observed by the pulmonologist for most patients with habit cough and conversion reaction. Improvement of other conditions for which hypnosis was used was gauged based on patients' subjective evaluations. Results Hypnotherapy was associated with improvement in 80% of patients with persistent asthma, chest pain/pressure, habit cough, hyperventilation, shortness of breath, sighing, and vocal cord dysfunction. When improvement was reported, in some cases symptoms resolved immediately after hypnotherapy was first employed. For the others improvement was achieved after hypnosis was used for a few weeks. No patients' symptoms worsened and no new symptoms emerged following hypnotherapy. Conclusions Patients described in this report were unlikely to have achieved rapid improvement in their symptoms without the use of hypnotherapy. Therefore, hypnotherapy can be an important complementary therapy for patients in a pediatric practice.

  13. Hypnosis in Educational Programs: Its Implications As an Educational Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Joseph

    Although hypnosis has not been extensively used in education, a review of past research reveals five areas which might benefit from hypnotherapy: (1) motivation, (2) study habits, (3) concentration, (4) remedial reading, and (5) test anxiety. A questionnaire focusing on these areas was developed to determine the attitude of professional personnel…

  14. Teaching Hypnosis to Psychiatry Residents and Psychology Interns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean

    This is a description of a hypnosis training seminar taught at the University of California at Los Angeles to people with training and experience in psychotherapy who are licensed--or to be licensed--mental health professionals. The course described stresses the students' active participation as hypnotists and encourages a rapid transition from…

  15. Hypnosis and Smoking: A Five-Session Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Helen H.

    An active five-session, individualized treatment approach to the stopping of smoking is described. This approach emphasized the following: (a) the feedback, in and out of hypnosis, of the client's own reasons for quitting, (b) the visualization of both positive and negative smoking experiences meaningful to the client, (c) maintaining contact with…

  16. Hypnosis for the Management of Anticipatory Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravits, Kathy G.

    2015-01-01

    CASE STUDYBJ is a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She was treated with surgical removal of the primary tumor and sentinel node biopsy. Following surgery, she received chemotherapy. She was given antiemetic therapy prior to and immediately following chemotherapy. She began to experience significant and persistent nausea with intermittent episodes of vomiting after the second cycle of chemotherapy. She completed her chemotherapy but still experienced nausea and vomiting in response to several cues, such as smelling food cooking and going to the hospital. Her nausea and vomiting resulted in segregation from her family during meal time, which negatively impacted her quality of life. A hypnosis consultation was requested, and BJ was cooperative. She reported feeling very nauseated at the time of the interview. Hypnosis was discussed; her questions were answered, and the potential risks and benefits of hypnosis were reviewed. She agreed that she would like to try hypnosis. A hypnosis assessment was conducted and revealed that she had a history of profound motion sickness and severe, chronic childhood trauma associated with feelings of anxiety and hypervigilance. The therapeutic suggestions that were used with BJ included hypnotic suggestions for relaxation and removal of discomfort. A metaphor describing the central processing of the anticipatory nausea and vomiting as a thermostat that could be adjusted to reduce and eliminate the sensation was used to suggest that she could control her perceptions and in turn control the nausea. Posthypnotic suggestions included that at the earliest awareness of discomfort, rubbing the throat would eliminate that discomfort, and cooking aromas would be transformed into her favorite fragrance. Reversal went smoothly, and BJ reported satisfaction with the experience. BJ experienced significant reduction in symptoms after the first session. She had two more sessions, at which time she was able to eat

  17. Increased brain histamine H3 receptor expression during hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anichtchik Oleg V

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is a state of extremely reduced physiological functions and a deep depression of CNS activity. We have previously shown that the histamine levels increase in the brain during hibernation, as does the ratio between histamine and its first metabolite, suggesting increased histamine turnover during this state. The inhibitory histamine H3 receptor has both auto- and heteroreceptor function, rendering it the most likely histamine receptor to be involved in regulating the activity of histamine as well as other neurotransmitters during hibernation. In view of accumulating evidence that there is a global depression of transcription and translation during hibernation, of all but a few proteins that are important for this physiological condition, we reasoned that an increase in histamine H3 receptor expression would clearly indicate an important hibernation-related function for the receptor. Results In this study we show, using in situ hybridization, that histamine H3 receptor mRNA increases in the cortex, caudate nucleus and putamen during hibernation, an increase that is accompanied by elevated receptor binding in the cerebral cortex, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. These results indicate that there is a hibernation-related increase in H3 receptor expression in cortical neurons and in striatopallidal and striatonigral GABAergic neurons. GTP-γ-S binding autoradiography shows that the H3 receptors in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra can be stimulated by histamine throughout the hibernation cycle, suggesting that they are functionally active during hibernation. Conclusions These results show that the histamine H3 receptor gene is one of the few with a transcript that increases during hibernation, indicating an important role for the receptor in regulating this state. Moreover, the receptor is functionally active in the basal ganglia, suggesting a function for it in regulating e.g. dopaminergic transmission

  18. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kelly; Middleton, Philippa; Cyna, Allan M; Matthewson, Mandy; Jones, Leanne

    2016-05-19

    This review is one in a series of Cochrane reviews investigating pain management for childbirth. These reviews all contribute to an overview of systematic reviews of pain management for women in labour, and share a generic protocol. This review updates an earlier version of the review of the same title. To examine the effectiveness and safety of hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and the reference lists of primary studies and review articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTS comparing preparation for labour using hypnosis and/or use of hypnosis during labour, with or without concurrent use of pharmacological or non-pharmacological pain relief methods versus placebo, no treatment or any analgesic drug or technique. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. Where possible we contacted study authors seeking additional information about data and methodology. We included nine trials randomising a total of 2954 women. The risk of bias in trials was variable, there were several well-designed large trials and some trials where little was reported about trial design. Although eight of the nine trials assessed antenatal hypnotherapy, there were considerable differences between these trials in timing and technique. One trial provided hypnotherapy during labour. In this updated review we compared hypnosis interventions with all control groups (main comparison) and also with specific control conditions: standard care (nine RCTs), supportive counselling (two RCTs) and relaxation training (two RCTs).In the main comparison, women in the hypnosis group were less likely to use pharmacological pain relief or analgesia than those in the control groups, (average risk ratio (RR) 0.73, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94, eight studies, 2916 women; very low-quality evidence; random-effects model). There were no clear differences between

  19. Brain correlates of hypnosis: A systematic review and meta-analytic exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Mathieu; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir

    2017-02-23

    Imaging of the living human brain elucidates the neural dynamics of hypnosis; however, few reliable brain patterns emerge across studies. Here, we methodically assess neuroimaging assays of hypnosis to uncover common neural configurations using a twofold approach. First, we systematically review research on the neural correlates of hypnotic phenomena; then, we meta-analyze these collective data seeking specific activation and deactivation patterns that typify hypnosis. Anchored around the role of top-down control processes, our comprehensive examination focuses on the involvement of intrinsic brain networks known to operationalize cognitive control and self-referential cognition, including the executive, salience, and default networks. We discuss how these neural dynamics may relate to contemporary theories of hypnosis and show that hypnosis correlates with activation of the lingual gyrus-a brain region involved in higher-order visual processing and mental imagery. Our findings help to better understand the neurobiological substrates comprising the appellation hypnosis.

  20. Chronic daily headache: helping adolescents help themselves with self-hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Daniel P

    2011-07-01

    Although the evidence is clear that hypnosis has been an effective treatment for recurrent headaches in children, review of the literature revealed no previous reports of hypnosis for youth with the condition of chronic daily headache. Two adolescents with continuing chronic daily headaches were taught self-hypnosis through careful attention to individual strengths and finding the hypnotic elements within the clinical encounters. Self-reports of intensity, frequency, and duration of headaches described substantial benefit from learning and practicing self-hypnosis after little to no benefit from pharmacologic and other nonpharmacologic therapies. These results and analogous success with several other adolescents with chronic daily headache support the further use of self-hypnosis training for this condition. As a self-regulation technique that is quickly and easily learned by most young people, self-hypnosis training holds considerable promise for effectively treating and perhaps preventing chronic daily headaches in children and adolescents.

  1. An empirical test of Woody and Bowers's dissociated-control theory of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Graham A; Sheehan, Peter W

    2004-07-01

    Woody and Bowers's dissociated-control theory predicts impaired performance on tasks indexing frontally mediated supervisory attentional functions during hypnosis, especially for high susceptibles. This prediction is tested using Stroop task behavioral performance to measure aspects of anterior-mediated supervisory attentional function. All measures of anterior-mediated attentional functions significantly declined during hypnosis. Interactions be-tween susceptibility and hypnosis condition showed specific changes among hypnotized high susceptibles. Total Stroop errors (failures of attentional suppression) were significantly higher in hypnosis for high, but not low, susceptibles. Tellegen's experiential mental set was highest for hypnotized highs. Use of rehearsal strategy (instrumental set) decreased significantly in hypnosis but more so for highs than lows. Results suggest that "absorption" in hypnosis may be a consequence of dissociated anterior attentional control. It is proposed that dissociated control emerges from the functional disconnection of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

  2. The brain activity of pain relief during hypnosis and placebo treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kirjanen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Placebo treatment and hypnosis are both examples of top-down regulation and are used to treat pain. However, it is unclear whether hypnosis produces anything more than a placebo effect when measuring brain activity changes. This literature review examines research articles published from 1997 onwards regarding the neurophysiology of pain relief during hypnosis or placebo treatments using functional brain imaging (fMRI or PET. The focus was on acute produced nociceptive pain. There seems to be both similarities and clear differences in the brain activity changes between hypnosis and placebo treatments. These results show that hypnosis is not equal to common placebo in terms of brain activity thus questioning the suggestion that the pain reducing properties of hypnosis are just one form of placebo effect.

  3. Reduction of body temperature governs neutrophil retention in hibernating and nonhibernating animals by margination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Dugbartey, George J.; Boerema, Ate S.; Talaei, Fatemeh; Herwig, Annika; Goris, Maaike; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Carey, Hannah V.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2013-01-01

    Low body temperature leads to decrease of circulating neutrophils due to margination in hibernating and nonhibernating animals. Hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism, called torpor, interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. During deep and daily (shallow) torpor, the number of circulati

  4. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A Chow

    Full Text Available Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears.

  5. Temporal organisation of hibernation in wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Daan, S; Strijkstra, AM; Heldmaier, G.

    2001-01-01

    The temporal pattern of hibernation was studied in three genotypes of Syrian hamsters with different circadian periodicity to assess a potential circadian control of alternating torpor and euthermy. We recorded the pattern of hibernation by measuring activity in continuous dim light and constant env

  6. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind?Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Sawni; Cora Collette Breuner

    2017-01-01

    Mind–body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t’ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind–body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate th...

  7. What motivates professionals to learn and use hypnosis in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Joseph; Gelkopf, Marc; Golan, Gaby; Shahamorov, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The authors devised and validated a questionnaire assessing the various possible motivations for learning and using hypnosis and administered it to 125 Israeli psychologists, physicians, and dentists who study and/or use hypnosis in their clinical work. The results suggest that most professionals were motivated by a desire to improve their professional performance and that a majority of professionals were primarily influenced in their desire to learn hypnosis by colleagues in academically or clinically oriented settings.

  8. Effects of age, weight, hormones, and hibernation on breeding success in boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Szymanski, D C; Keyster, E D

    2010-03-01

    The goals of this study were to test the effects of exogenous hormones and hibernation on breeding behavior and gamete release by boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas). Each year, a subset of 77 toads was hibernated and then paired with hibernated or nonhibernated mates and treated with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analogue (LHRHa), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or left untreated. Amplexus and egg and sperm production were recorded. At 1 yr of age, only 19% of pairs exhibited amplexus, and no sperm or eggs were produced. At 2 and 3 yr of age, most male toads treated with LHRHa exhibited amplexus (56.9% and 100%, respectively). Among 2-yr-old males, amplexus was more prevalent (Pbreeding success, males should be hibernated and treated with LHRHa. In contrast, female productivity was enhanced by improving their body condition instead of subjecting them to hibernation prior to LHRHa treatment.

  9. The Gut Microbiota Modulates Energy Metabolism in the Hibernating Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Felix; Ståhlman, Marcus; Ilkayeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals to conserve energy during food shortage in winter. Brown bears double their fat depots during summer and use these stored lipids during hibernation. Although bears seasonally become obese, they remain metabolically healthy. We analyzed...... the microbiota of free-ranging brown bears during their active phase and hibernation. Compared to the active phase, hibernation microbiota had reduced diversity, reduced levels of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, and increased levels of Bacteroidetes. Several metabolites involved in lipid metabolism, including...... triglycerides, cholesterol, and bile acids, were also affected by hibernation. Transplantation of the bear microbiota from summer and winter to germ-free mice transferred some of the seasonal metabolic features and demonstrated that the summer microbiota promoted adiposity without impairing glucose tolerance...

  10. Reinforcement learning versus proportional-integral-derivative control of hypnosis in a simulated intraoperative patient

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Brett L; Quasny, Todd M; Doufas, Anthony G

    2011-01-01

    .... We investigated the application of reinforcement learning (RL), an intelligent systems control method, to closed-loop BIS-guided, propofol-induced hypnosis in simulated intraoperative patients...

  11. Glutathione redox balance in hibernating Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyi; Niu, Cuijuan; Liu, Yukun; Chen, Bojian

    2017-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) system is a critical component of antioxidant defense, which is important for hibernating survive of turtle hatchlings. The present work measured changes at the mRNA level of genes involved in GSH synthesis, GSH reduction and GSH utilization, as well as enzyme activity, in Pelodiscus sinensis hatchlings during hibernation. Samples were taken in the field at pre-hibernation (17°C, Mud temperature (MT)), hibernation (5.8°C, MT) and arousal (20.1°C, MT). Cerebral total GSH content decreased during hibernation, recovered after arousal along with a stable ratio of GSH/GSSG. Hepatic total GSH increased after arousal and pushed the ratio of GSH/GSSG to a more reduced status. Cerebral glutathione reductase (GR) mRNA and activity were depressed during hibernation then recovered after arousal. However, hepatic GR mRNA elevated during hibernation but its activity did not change. Tissue-specific changes of GR activity and mRNA may promote these tissue-specific changes of GSH redox. Hibernation caused little effect on mRNA level of glutathione synthetase (GS) while arousal induced them in the brain and liver. Most Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoform mRNAs did not change in both brain and liver during hibernation, then induced after arousal. Cerebral and hepatic GST activities kept stable throughout the entire experiment. Our results showed that GSH system may play a more important role in antioxidant defense in the liver while mainly maintaining stable redox balance in the brain of hibernating P. sinensis hatchings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Titin isoform switching is a major cardiac adaptive response in hibernating grizzly bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Wu, Yiming; Granzier, Henk

    2008-07-01

    The hibernation phenomenon captures biological as well as clinical interests to understand how organs adapt. Here we studied how hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extremely low heart rates without developing cardiac chamber dilation. We evaluated cardiac filling function in unanesthetized grizzly bears by echocardiography during the active and hibernating period. Because both collagen and titin are involved in altering diastolic function, we investigated both in the myocardium of active and hibernating grizzly bears. Heart rates were reduced from 84 beats/min in active bears to 19 beats/min in hibernating bears. Diastolic volume, stroke volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction were not different. However, left ventricular muscle mass was significantly lower (300 +/- 12 compared with 402 +/- 14 g; P = 0.003) in the hibernating bears, and as a result the diastolic volume-to-left ventricular muscle mass ratio was significantly greater. Early ventricular filling deceleration times (106.4 +/- 14 compared with 143.2 +/- 20 ms; P = 0.002) were shorter during hibernation, suggesting increased ventricular stiffness. Restrictive pulmonary venous flow patterns supported this conclusion. Collagen type I and III comparisons did not reveal differences between the two groups of bears. In contrast, the expression of titin was altered by a significant upregulation of the stiffer N2B isoform at the expense of the more compliant N2BA isoform. The mean ratio of N2BA to N2B titin was 0.73 +/- 0.07 in the active bears and decreased to 0.42 +/- 0.03 (P = 0.006) in the hibernating bears. The upregulation of stiff N2B cardiac titin is a likely explanation for the increased ventricular stiffness that was revealed by echocardiography, and we propose that it plays a role in preventing chamber dilation in hibernating grizzly bears. Thus our work identified changes in the alternative splicing of cardiac titin as a major adaptive response in hibernating grizzly

  13. Pancreatic A and B cell stimulation in euthermic and hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris): effects of glucose and arginine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florant, G L; Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Bauman, W A; Sutter, B C

    1986-01-01

    In euthermic and hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris), the pancreatic A and B cells respond in the appropriate secretory manner to glucose or arginine injection. Although reduced, this response, is clearly present in hibernating marmots. When glucose is administered to euthermic or hibernating marmots, plasma insulin concentrations rise and glucagon levels fall. While similar results are obtained in hibernation, the time period of the response is much longer due to the slowing of temperature dependent metabolic processes. Injection of L-arginine stimulates an increase in plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon as expected. Measurements of plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon under basal conditions, suggest that there are no significant differences between any phase of hibernation (eg. entrance, deep hibernation, arousal) and euthermia. These results provide indirect evidence that the pancreatic A and B cells of hibernating marmots continue to function in order to help regulate plasma glucose concentration.

  14. Advantageous Use of Hypnosis in a Case of Psychogenic Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Roopa

    2016-04-01

    This case study describes in detail the role of hypnosis in treatment of a case of psychogenic vomiting. The patient, a 60-yearold woman, had been suffering for 9 months from episodes of vomiting which resulted in weight loss, dehydration, and hypokalemia. She was a conscientious woman with high standards of behavior, which did not allow an expression of the extreme hostility she felt toward her daughter-in-law. Hypnotherapeutic sessions reduced her anxiety, restored her sleep, improved mood, and helped deepen rapport, all of which created the ideal setting for Gestalt's empty chair technique. Integrating hypnosis greatly enhanced the quality of the empty chair dialogue, which by bringing about a shift in the patient's emotions from hostility to sympathy, facilitated recovery.

  15. Hypnosis and belief: A review of hypnotic delusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    Hypnosis can create temporary, but highly compelling alterations in belief. As such, it can be used to model many aspects of clinical delusions in the laboratory. This approach allows researchers to recreate features of delusions on demand and examine underlying processes with a high level of experimental control. This paper reviews studies that have used hypnosis to model delusions in this way. First, the paper reviews studies that have focused on reproducing the surface features of delusions, such as their high levels of subjective conviction and strong resistance to counter-evidence. Second, the paper reviews studies that have focused on modelling underlying processes of delusions, including anomalous experiences or cognitive deficits that underpin specific delusional beliefs. Finally, the paper evaluates this body of research as a whole. The paper discusses advantages and limitations of using hypnotic models to study delusions and suggests some directions for future research.

  16. Facilitating memory with hypnosis, focused meditation, and eye closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Graham F; Brunas-Wagstaff, Jo; Cole, Jon; Knapton, Luke; Winterbottom, James; Crean, Vicki; Wheatcroft, Jacqueline

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments examined some features of hypnotic induction that might be useful in the development of brief memory-facilitation procedures. The first involved a hypnosis procedure designed to facilitate face identification; the second employed a brief, focused-meditation (FM) procedure, with and without eye closure, designed to facilitate memory for an emotional event. The third experiment was a check for simple motivation and expectancy effects. Limited facilitation effects were found for hypnosis, but these were accompanied by increased confidence in incorrect responses. However, eye closure and FM were effective in facilitating free recall of an event without an increase in errors. FM reduced phonemic fluency, suggesting that the effectiveness of FM was not due to simple changes in expectancy or motivation.

  17. Hypnosis: a Technique at the Service of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Cabrera Macías

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypnosis is an effective complement in the treatment of many psychological and medical disorders. The objective of this article is to expose hypnosis’s historical precedents and to point out its contribution in the treatment of various diseases. Was checked the results of precedent researches with clinical relevance, showing that, when hypnosis is used as a complement for other medical and psychological interventions, its efficiency is increased. Its main applications are focus in to relieve pain, dream’s disorders, smoking cessation, the obesity, the asthma, enuresis in children, skin diseases, the drop of anxiety symptoms, sexual failure, the develop of capacity for attention and creative skills. It is also used in the treatment of immunological disorders, the drop of symptoms in patient with fibromyalgia, in disorders of irritable colon and children with stomach disorders.

  18. Variation of parasitism patterns in bats during hibernation: the effect of host species, resources, health status, and hibernation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawa, Tomasz; Nagy, Zoltan

    2016-10-01

    During critical periods of food shortage or variable climatic conditions, the choice of an appropriate host can increase the survival and reproductive performance of parasites. In turn, one of the unique adaptations to periodical food shortages is hibernation, which is often found among insectivorous bat species in the temperate zone. While hibernating, bats are completely defenseless against both predators and ectoparasites, their immune and endocrine systems are diminished, and survival is dependent on the accumulated fat reserves. Differences in the health status or in the rate of consumption of the resources might also explain species-specific differences in ectoparasite abundance, especially between closely related host species, such as the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) and the lesser mouse-eared bat (M. blythii) during hibernation. In the present study, the abundance of two ecologically distinct (summer and winter) types of ectoparasites was examined in terms of its influence on the body condition and hemoglobin content of the two host species. The effects of demographic factors, such as host sex and age, were also investigated. Despite a similar pattern of deteriorating body condition and hemoglobin concentration, M. myotis was more parasitized than was M. blythii. The marked decrease in hemoglobin content in first-year females of both host species correlated with the highest parasite load and indicated a risk of anemia. At the intraspecific level, ectoparasite abundance was not correlated with body condition (resources), but it negatively affected hemoglobin content; however, this mostly concerned M. blythii, which had a lower parasite load. Therefore, it can be concluded that interspecific differences in ectoparasite abundance may result from parasites selecting the host species that is less sensitive to their activity. In turn, in summer ectoparasites, the preference for female hosts is probably attributable to the likelihood of reinfection

  19. The response set theory of hypnosis: expectancy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, I

    2001-07-01

    A recent exposition of the response set theory of hypnosis (Kirsch, 2000) contained incorrect and misleading figures. The correct figures illustrated a complementary relation between mental and physiological phenomena. The figures as published erroneously suggested that the author espoused epiphenomenalism. As shown in this corrected version, Kirsch proposes that mind states and body states be considered as two ways of viewing a single psychophysiological phenomenon.

  20. Dissociation in Hysteria and Hypnosis: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Vaughan; Oakley, David A.; Halligan, Peter W; Deeley, Quinton

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Jean-Martin Charcot proposed the radical hypothesis that similar brain processes were responsible for the unexplained neurological symptoms of 'hysteria', now typically diagnosed as 'conversion disorder' or 'dissociative (conversion) disorder', and the temporary effects of hypnosis. While this idea has been largely ignored, recent cognitive neuroscience studies indicate that (i) hypnotisability traits are associated with a tendency to develop dissociative symptoms in the s...

  1. Augmenting sedation with hypnosis in drug-dependent patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, D. P.; Lu, G. P.; Hersh, E. V.

    1995-01-01

    The successful use of conscious sedation in patients physically dependent on centrally acting drugs is problematic for the dental anesthesiologist because of the concomitant development of tolerance to standard sedative agents. Dosage requirements necessary to adequately sedate these patients are often higher than recommended and carry an increased risk of drug overdose. The following report summarizes our experience with 18 drug-dependent patients in whom hypnosis was employed in conjunction...

  2. Hypnosis and imaging of the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Mathieu; Raz, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Over more than two decades, studies using imaging techniques of the living human brain have begun to explore the neural correlates of hypnosis. The collective findings provide a gripping, albeit preliminary, account of the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in hypnotic phenomena. While substantial advances lend support to different hypotheses pertaining to hypnotic modulation of attention, control, and monitoring processes, the complex interactions among the many mediating variables largely hinder our ability to isolate robust commonalities across studies. The present account presents a critical integrative synthesis of neuroimaging studies targeting hypnosis as a function of suggestion. Specifically, hypnotic induction without task-specific suggestion is examined, as well as suggestions concerning sensation and perception, memory, and ideomotor response. The importance of carefully designed experiments is highlighted to better tease apart the neural correlates that subserve hypnotic phenomena. Moreover, converging findings intimate that hypnotic suggestions seem to induce specific neural patterns. These observations propose that suggestions may have the ability to target focal brain networks. Drawing on evidence spanning several technological modalities, neuroimaging studies of hypnosis pave the road to a more scientific understanding of a dramatic, yet largely evasive, domain of human behavior.

  3. Hypnosis, hypnotic suggestibility, memory, and involvement in films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Reed; Lynn, Steven Jay; Condon, Liam

    2015-05-01

    Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Description of current hypnosis practice in French university hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabridon, G; Nekrouf, N; Bioy, A

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis is very fashionable as an entertainment through TV shows searching for new sensational experiences. What about its practice in the medical world? The aim of this article is to answer to this question. Therefore, we contacted every French University Hospital of each region to find out if hypnosis was practiced for the care of pain (hypnoanalgesia), for chirurgical procedures (hypnosedation) and in adult psychiatry care units (hypnotherapy). For this last practice, we also questioned the type of indications. All 30 of the French University Hospitals had replied by November 2015. Hypnoanalgesia is practiced by all and two-thirds offer hypnosedation. Hypnotherapy is practiced by 40 % of the University Hospitals, 91,7 % for anxiety disorders, 66,7 % for psychotraumatic care and 25 % for mood disorders. Therefore, hypnosis seems to have found its place in the care of pain and as an anesthetic to replace standard procedures. However, the use of hypnotherapy in psychiatry is less frequent, indications for its use being variable and not very consensual. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Different Thermostability of Skeletal Muscle Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from Hibernating and Euthermic Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IDDAR Abdelghani; CAMPOS Luis A.; SANCHO Javier; SERRANO Aurelio; SOUKRI Abdelaziz

    2003-01-01

    In previous study, we demonstrated that the specific activity of D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) in skeletal muscle of induced hibernating jerboa (hibernating GAPDH) was 3-4 folds lower than that of the one in the skeletal muscle of the euthermic jerboa (euthermic GAPDH). A significant decrease in both GAPDH protein and GapC mRNA levels occurs when hibernating, but the purified hibernating GAPDH is less active than the euthermic GAPDH. To investigate the physico-chemical basis of this lower activity, the behaviour during thermal inactivation of skeletal muscle GAPDH from hibernating and euthermic tissues was examined by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence emission, circular dichroism and ultraviolet absorption. A clear resistance to thermal denaturation was observed in the hibernating GAPDH compared with the euthermic GAPDH. The different temperature of denaturation found in these proteins by both fluorimetry and circular dichroism indicates that there might exist conformational changes of GAPDH upon hibernation that could affect the stability of this enzyme.

  6. Differential expression analysis of Liprin-α2 in hibernating bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A PCR-based subtractive hybridization technique was used to identify genes up-regulated in the hibernating bat brain to explore the molecular mechanism of hibernation. Three genes, Liprin-α2, PTP4A2 and CAMKKβ were differentially expressed in hibernating bat brain tissue compared to active bat brain tissue. One of them, Liprin-α2, which has recently been shown to have the key function in the organization of presynaptic and postsynaptic multiprotein complexes was studied in detail. We demonstrated that the expression level of Liprin-α2 was up-regulated almost 4-fold in hibernating bat brains by RT-PCR compared to levels in active bats. The differential expression pattern of Liprin-α2 was also detected in muscle, fat, brain and heart tissue of hibernating bats by real-time quantitative PCR. The result indicated that Liprin-α2 was over-expressed in brain and heart tissue and down-regulated in muscle and fat. In brain tissue of hibernating bats, Liprin-α2 expression was statistically significantly higher than in brain tissue of active controls (P = 0.029).The precise control of transcriptional level and the distinctively differential expression pattern of Liprin-α2 in different organs during circannual hibernation may have important physiological significance, not only in maintaining normal function of many key organs but also in effectively conserving limited energy resources without physiological damage.

  7. Hypothalamic gene expression underlying pre-hibernation satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C; Hampton, M; Andrews, M T

    2015-03-01

    Prior to hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) enter a hypophagic period where food consumption drops by an average of 55% in 3 weeks. This occurs naturally, while the ground squirrels are in constant environmental conditions and have free access to food. Importantly, this transition occurs before exposure to hibernation conditions (5°C and constant darkness), so the ground squirrels are still maintaining a moderate level of activity. In this study, we used the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence the hypothalamic transcriptomes of ground squirrels before and after the autumn feeding transition to examine the genes underlying this extreme change in feeding behavior. The hypothalamus was chosen because it is known to play a role in the control and regulation of food intake and satiety. Overall, our analysis identified 143 genes that are significantly differentially expressed between the two groups. Specifically, we found five genes associated with feeding behavior and obesity (VGF, TRH, LEPR, ADIPOR2, IRS2) that are all upregulated during the hypophagic period, after the feeding transition has occurred. We also found that serum leptin significantly increases in the hypophagic group. Several of the genes associated with the natural autumnal feeding decline in 13-lined ground squirrels show parallels to signaling pathways known to be disrupted in human metabolic diseases, like obesity and diabetes. In addition, many other genes were identified that could be important for the control of food consumption in other animals, including humans.

  8. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation

    CERN Document Server

    Mroz, P; Pietrukowicz, P; Szymanski, M K; Soszynski, I; Wyrzykowski, L; Poleski, R; Kozlowski, S; Skowron, J; Ulaczyk, K; Skowron, D; Pawlak, M

    2016-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars (CVs) are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf (primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, over $10^4$ times in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of $10^4-10^6$. In between, the system's properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a $10^{-9} M_{\\odot}$/year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for $10^3-10^6$ years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again - with acc...

  9. Down regulation of sodium channels in the central nervous system of hibernating snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, T; Battonyai, I; Pirger, Z

    2014-05-28

    Hibernation, as behavior, is an evolutionary mode of adaptation of animal species to unfavorable environmental conditions. It is generally characterized by suppressed metabolism, which also includes down regulation of the energy consuming ion-channel functioning. Experimental data regarding decreased ion-channel function are scarce. Therefore, our goal was to study the possible down regulation of voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV) subtypes in the neurons of hibernating snails. Our immunohistochemical experiments revealed that the expression of NaV1.8-like channels in the central nervous system was substantially down regulated in hibernating animals. In contrast to NaV1.8-like, the NaV1.9-like channels were present in neurons independently from hibernating and non-hibernating states. Our western blot data supported the immunohistochemical results according to which the band of the NaV1.8-like channel protein was less intensively labeled in the homogenate of the hibernating snails. The NaV1.9-like immunoreactivity was equally present both in hibernating and active snails. Micro-electrophysiological experiments show that in hibernating snails both NaV1.8- and NaV1.9-like currents are substantially decreased compared to that of the active snails. The contradictory electrophysiological and immunohistochemical or western blot data suggest that the molecular mechanisms of the "channel arrest" could be different in diverse NaV channel subtypes. Climate changes will affect temperature extremes and a question is how different species beyond their physiological tolerance will or able to adapt to changing environment. Hibernation is an important mode of adaptation to extreme climatic variations, and pursuant to this the present results may contribute to the study of the behavioral ecology.

  10. Seasonal and regional differences in gene expression in the brain of a hibernating mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Schwartz

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation presents a unique opportunity to study naturally occurring neuroprotection. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme physiological changes in body temperature, oxygen consumption, and heart rate without suffering neurological damage from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Different brain regions show markedly different activity during the torpor/arousal cycle: the cerebral cortex shows activity only during the periodic returns to normothermia, while the hypothalamus is active over the entire temperature range. Therefore, region-specific neuroprotective strategies must exist to permit this compartmentalized spectrum of activity. In this study, we use the Illumina HiSeq platform to compare the transcriptomes of these two brain regions at four collection points across the hibernation season: April Active, October Active, Torpor, and IBA. In the cerebral cortex, 1,085 genes were found to be differentially expressed across collection points, while 1,063 genes were differentially expressed in the hypothalamus. Comparison of these transcripts indicates that the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus implement very different strategies during hibernation, showing less than 20% of these differentially expressed genes in common. The cerebral cortex transcriptome shows evidence of remodeling and plasticity during hibernation, including transcripts for the presynaptic cytomatrix proteins bassoon and piccolo, and extracellular matrix components, including laminins and collagens. Conversely, the hypothalamic transcriptome displays upregulation of transcripts involved in damage response signaling and protein turnover during hibernation, including the DNA damage repair gene RAD50 and ubiquitin E3 ligases UBR1 and UBR5. Additionally, the hypothalamus transcriptome also provides evidence of potential mechanisms underlying the hibernation phenotype, including feeding and satiety signaling, seasonal timing mechanisms, and fuel

  11. Are Anesthesia Providers Ready for Hypnosis? Anesthesia Providers' Attitudes Toward Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Alexander B; Sheinberg, Rosanne; Bertram, Amanda; Seymour, Anastasia Rowland

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to measure current attitudes toward hypnosis among anesthesia providers using an in-person survey distributed at a single grand rounds at a single academic teaching hospital. One hundred twenty-six anesthesia providers (anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists) were included in this study. A 10-question Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved questionnaire was developed. One hundred twenty-six (73% of providers at the meeting) anesthesia providers completed the survey. Of the respondents, 54 (43%) were anesthesiologists, 42 (33%) were trainees (interns/residents/fellows) in anesthesia, and 30 (24%) were nurse anesthetists. Over 70% of providers, at each level of training, rated their knowledge of hypnosis as either below average or having no knowledge. Fifty-two (42%) providers agreed or strongly agreed that hypnotherapy has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia, while 103 (83%) believed that positive suggestion has a place in the clinical practice of anesthesia (p hypnosis were that it is too time consuming (41%) and requires special training (34%). Only three respondents (2%) believed that there were no reasons for using hypnosis in their practice. These data suggest that there is a self-reported lack of knowledge about hypnosis among anesthesia providers, although many anesthesia providers are open to the use of hypnosis in their clinical practice. Anesthesia providers are more likely to support the use of positive suggestion in their practice than hypnosis. Practical concerns should be addressed if hypnosis and therapeutic verbal techniques are to gain more widespread use.

  12. Measured outcomes with hypnosis as an experimental tool in a cardiovascular physiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Giordano, Nunzia; Andreatta, Elisa; Regaldo, Giuseppe; Tosello, Maria T; Rossi, Augusto M; Bordin, Daniele; Giacomello, Margherita; Facco, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The authors detail their multidisciplinary collaboration of cardiologists, physiologists, neurologists, psychologists, engineers, and statisticians in researching the effects of hypnosis on the cardiovascular system and their additions to that incomplete literature. The article details their results and provides guidelines for researchers interested in replicating their research on hypnosis' effect on the cardiovascular system.

  13. Use of Hypnosis by Psychologists in a Pediatric Setting: Establishing and Maintaining Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Donald J.; Hoffmann, Claudia

    The use of hypnosis in a pediatric setting has the potential for yielding effective results. Obstacles to its use are inappropriate training of psychologists in pediatric psychology, resistance to hypnosis from the pediatricians and mental health professionals, fragmented communication, and constant demand for space and time. Success of hypnosis…

  14. State-of-the-Art Pediatric Hypnosis Training: Remodeling Curriculum and Refining Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Daniel P; Kaiser, Pamela; Olness, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Training in pediatric hypnosis has been part of clinical hypnosis education in the United States since 1976. Workshops expanded over time and are now taught by highly experienced pediatric clinicians across the globe. In 1987, a small vanguard of North American faculty, academic pediatricians, and pediatric psychologists taught a 3-day pediatric hypnosis workshop at the national meeting of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (SDBP). This model of annual tri-level concurrent workshops (introductory, intermediate, and advanced) was sponsored by the SDBP for 24 years. In 2009, the National Pediatric Hypnosis Training Institute (NPHTI) assembled, and in 2010, offered its first annual workshops. This article documents this history of pediatric hypnosis education and describes NPHTI's remodeling and ongoing refinement toward a state-of-the-art curriculum with innovative methodology based upon (1) current research about adult experiential and small group learning; (2) design principles for presentations that maximize adult learning and memory; and (3) evaluations by participants and faculty. These underpinnings-including clinical training videos, individualized learning choices, emphasis on personalized, goal-oriented sessions, and advances in faculty selection, and ongoing development-are applicable to adult training models. Integration of developmental and self-regulation strategies may be more unique to pediatric hypnosis skills training programs. The conclusion proposes expansion of pediatric hypnosis education and elimination of related barriers toward goals that all children learn self-hypnosis (SH) for mind-body health.

  15. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Performed a meta-analysis on 18 studies in which a cognitive-behavioral therapy was compared with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. Results indicated that hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome, even though there were few procedural differences between the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Effects seemed particularly…

  16. Hypnosis and Rational-Emotive Therapy as Used in Teaching Improved Auto Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoos, Yosikazu Spencer; Johnson, David Pittman

    1983-01-01

    Detailes a method incorporating hypnosis and Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) into a procedure termed Rational-Emotive Hypnosis. Indicates several areas in which clients often have difficulty engaging successfully in RET, and offers hypnotic techniques to overcome such problems. Both direct and indirect hypnotic procedures are examined. (JAC)

  17. A Review of the Development of Sport Hypnosis as a Performance Enhancement Method for Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F Straub

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to trace the historical milestones in the emergence of sport hypnosis from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The authors reviewed some important definitional conceptualizations of hypnosis from the work of Braid, Bernheim, Freud, Hull and Erickson. Erickson laid the groundwork for the modern definitions of hypnosis and eventually of sport hypnosis. Clinical sport hypnosis was defined as: “helping athletes overcome a variety of psychological symptoms and problems” [1] Attention was given to both research and conceptual literature on the role of hypnosis in sport. Contributions of leading sport psychologists, e.g., Bruce Ogilvie, Lars-Eric Uneståhl, Terry Orlick, Ken Ravizza, Brent Rushall, Robert Nideffer, Kay Porter, Maxwell Maltz, whose work in mental training, laid the foundation for sport hypnosis were presented. Finally, the future of sport hypnosis was explored as an empirically demonstrated methodology for expanding the range of mental skills training.

  18. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Performed a meta-analysis on 18 studies in which a cognitive-behavioral therapy was compared with the same therapy supplemented by hypnosis. Results indicated that hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome, even though there were few procedural differences between the hypnotic and nonhypnotic treatments. Effects seemed particularly…

  19. Hypnosis as an Adjunct to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Obesity: A Meta-analytic Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, David B.; Faith, Myles S.

    1996-01-01

    A meta-analysis for six weight-loss studies comparing the efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) alone to CBT plus hypnotherapy. Notes that "the addition of hypnosis substantially enhanced treatment outcome." Concludes that the addition of hypnosis to CBT for weight loss results in, at most, a small enhancement of treatment…

  20. Hypnosis and Rational-Emotive Therapy as Used in Teaching Improved Auto Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoos, Yosikazu Spencer; Johnson, David Pittman

    1983-01-01

    Detailes a method incorporating hypnosis and Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET) into a procedure termed Rational-Emotive Hypnosis. Indicates several areas in which clients often have difficulty engaging successfully in RET, and offers hypnotic techniques to overcome such problems. Both direct and indirect hypnotic procedures are examined. (JAC)

  1. Use of Hypnosis by Psychologists in a Pediatric Setting: Establishing and Maintaining Credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Donald J.; Hoffmann, Claudia

    The use of hypnosis in a pediatric setting has the potential for yielding effective results. Obstacles to its use are inappropriate training of psychologists in pediatric psychology, resistance to hypnosis from the pediatricians and mental health professionals, fragmented communication, and constant demand for space and time. Success of hypnosis…

  2. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kayikci, Omur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluc......Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration...... and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression...

  3. The unified theory of repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdelyi, Matthew Hugh

    2006-10-01

    Repression has become an empirical fact that is at once obvious and problematic. Fragmented clinical and laboratory traditions and disputed terminology have resulted in a Babel of misunderstandings in which false distinctions are imposed (e.g., between repression and suppression) and necessary distinctions not drawn (e.g., between the mechanism and the use to which it is put, defense being just one). "Repression" was introduced by Herbart to designate the (nondefensive) inhibition of ideas by other ideas in their struggle for consciousness. Freud adapted repression to the defensive inhibition of "unbearable" mental contents. Substantial experimental literatures on attentional biases, thought avoidance, interference, and intentional forgetting exist, the oldest prototype being the work of Ebbinghaus, who showed that intentional avoidance of memories results in their progressive forgetting over time. It has now become clear, as clinicians had claimed, that the inaccessible materials are often available and emerge indirectly (e.g., procedurally, implicitly). It is also now established that the Ebbinghaus retention function can be partly reversed, with resulting increases of conscious memory over time (hypermnesia). Freud's clinical experience revealed early on that exclusion from consciousness was effected not just by simple repression (inhibition) but also by a variety of distorting techniques, some deployed to degrade latent contents (denial), all eventually subsumed under the rubric of defense mechanisms ("repression in the widest sense"). Freudian and Bartlettian distortions are essentially the same, even in name, except for motive (cognitive vs. emotional), and experimentally induced false memories and other "memory illusions" are laboratory analogs of self-induced distortions.

  4. Using elements of hypnosis prior to or during pediatric dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Benjamin; Bercovich, Roly; Blumer, Sigalit

    2013-01-01

    Most dental practitioners are familiar with pediatric patients expressing dental fear or anxiety. Occasionally, the dentist may encounter a situation where all behavioral techniques fail, while, for some reason, premedication or general anesthesia are contraindicated or rejected by the patient or his/her parents and a different approach is required. Hypnosis may solve the problem in some cases. The purpose of this study was to review the literature about techniques that use elements of hypnosis and hypnotic techniques prior to or during pediatric dental treatment. There is a limited amount of literature regarding the use of hypnosis and hypnotic elements in pediatric dentistry. Induction techniques, reframing, distraction, imagery suggestions, and hypnosis are identified, although mostly anecdotally, while there are very few structured controlled studies. Nevertheless, the advantages of using hypnotic elements and hypnosis in pediatric dentistry are evident.

  5. Deficits of encoding in hypnosis: a result of altered state of awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Kramer, Sam L; Tharp, Amanda G; Harmon, Kevin A; Cejas, Gregory P; Costa, Salvatore C

    2013-04-01

    Because no studies have examined learning in hypnosis in an academic setting, the current study tested whether learning in hypnosis impacts test performance. Participants (N = 43) were randomly assigned into a hypnosis or a control group. Participants listened to an academic lecture, answered questions about their hypnotic depth, and completed a quiz based on the lecture. The data was analyzed using multilevel modeling predicting test performance from group placement. Learning in the hypnosis predicted significantly worse performance compared to the control group. This relationship was significantly mediated by attention, which had a positive relationship to test performance. However, the altered state of awareness produced by the hypnosis condition was associated with a more significant decrease in test performance.

  6. Exploring the Bone Proteome to Help Explain Altered Bone Remodeling and Preservation of Bone Architecture and Strength in Hibernating Marmots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Alison H; Roteliuk, Danielle M; Gookin, Sara E; McGrew, Ashley K; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Condon, Keith W; Prenni, Jessica E; Wojda, Samantha J; Florant, Gregory L; Donahue, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Periods of physical inactivity increase bone resorption and cause bone loss and increased fracture risk. However, hibernating bears, marmots, and woodchucks maintain bone structure and strength, despite being physically inactive for prolonged periods annually. We tested the hypothesis that bone turnover rates would decrease and bone structural and mechanical properties would be preserved in hibernating marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Femurs and tibias were collected from marmots during hibernation and in the summer following hibernation. Bone remodeling was significantly altered in cortical and trabecular bone during hibernation with suppressed formation and no change in resorption, unlike the increased bone resorption that occurs during disuse in humans and other animals. Trabecular bone architecture and cortical bone geometrical and mechanical properties were not different between hibernating and active marmots, but bone marrow adiposity was significantly greater in hibernators. Of the 506 proteins identified in marmot bone, 40 were significantly different in abundance between active and hibernating marmots. Monoaglycerol lipase, which plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system, was 98-fold higher in hibernating marmots compared with summer marmots and may play a role in regulating the changes in bone and fat metabolism that occur during hibernation.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis compared with biofeedback for adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, G; Rintala, D H; Jensen, M P; Fukui, T; Smith, D; Williams, W

    2015-02-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is common and results in significant costs to individuals, families and society. Although some research supports the efficacy of hypnosis for CLBP, we know little about the minimum dose needed to produce meaningful benefits, the roles of home practice and hypnotizability on outcome, or the maintenance of treatment benefits beyond 3 months. One hundred veterans with CLBP participated in a randomized, four-group design study. The groups were (1) an eight-session self-hypnosis training intervention without audio recordings for home practice; (2) an eight-session self-hypnosis training intervention with recordings; (3) a two-session self-hypnosis training intervention with recordings and brief weekly reminder telephone calls; and (4) an eight-session active (biofeedback) control intervention. Participants in all four groups reported significant pre- to post-treatment improvements in pain intensity, pain interference and sleep quality. The hypnosis groups combined reported significantly more pain intensity reduction than the control group. There was no significant difference among the three hypnosis conditions. Over half of the participants who received hypnosis reported clinically meaningful (≥ 30%) reductions in pain intensity, and they maintained these benefits for at least 6 months after treatment. Neither hypnotizability nor amount of home practice was associated significantly with treatment outcome. The findings indicate that two sessions of self-hypnosis training with audio recordings for home practice may be as effective as eight sessions of hypnosis treatment. If replicated in other patient samples, the findings have important implications for the application of hypnosis treatment for chronic pain management. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  9. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Slothower, Molly P

    2006-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17). When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children. PMID:16914044

  10. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Szymański, Michał K.; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, Jan; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2016-09-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars—novae, dwarf novae, and nova-likes—are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf star (the primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (the secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, with a ten-thousandfold increase in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of ten thousand to a million years. In between, the system’s properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a billionth of a solar mass per year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate in the binary, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for a thousand to a million years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again—with accretion returning to the pre-eruption level and leading to a new nova explosion. The hibernation model predicts cyclical evolution of cataclysmic variables through phases of high and low mass-transfer. The theory gained some support from the discovery of ancient nova shells around the dwarf novae Z Camelopardalis and AT Cancri, but direct evidence for considerable mass-transfer changes prior, during and after nova eruptions has not hitherto been found. Here we report long-term observations of the classical nova V1213 Cen (Nova Centauri 2009) covering its pre- and post-eruption phases and precisely documenting its evolution. Within the six years before the explosion, the system revealed dwarf nova outbursts indicative of a low mass-transfer rate. The post-nova is two orders of magnitude brighter than the pre-nova at minimum light with no trace of

  11. The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mróz, Przemek; Udalski, Andrzej; Pietrukowicz, Paweł; Szymański, Michał K; Soszyński, Igor; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Poleski, Radosław; Kozłowski, Szymon; Skowron, Jan; Ulaczyk, Krzysztof; Skowron, Dorota; Pawlak, Michał

    2016-09-29

    Cataclysmic variable stars-novae, dwarf novae, and nova-likes-are close binary systems consisting of a white dwarf star (the primary) that is accreting matter from a low-mass companion star (the secondary). From time to time such systems undergo large-amplitude brightenings. The most spectacular eruptions, with a ten-thousandfold increase in brightness, occur in classical novae and are caused by a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of the white dwarf. Such eruptions are thought to recur on timescales of ten thousand to a million years. In between, the system's properties depend primarily on the mass-transfer rate: if it is lower than a billionth of a solar mass per year, the accretion becomes unstable and the matter is dumped onto the white dwarf during quasi-periodic dwarf nova outbursts. The hibernation hypothesis predicts that nova eruptions strongly affect the mass-transfer rate in the binary, keeping it high for centuries after the event. Subsequently, the mass-transfer rate should significantly decrease for a thousand to a million years, starting the hibernation phase. After that the nova awakes again-with accretion returning to the pre-eruption level and leading to a new nova explosion. The hibernation model predicts cyclical evolution of cataclysmic variables through phases of high and low mass-transfer. The theory gained some support from the discovery of ancient nova shells around the dwarf novae Z Camelopardalis and AT Cancri, but direct evidence for considerable mass-transfer changes prior, during and after nova eruptions has not hitherto been found. Here we report long-term observations of the classical nova V1213 Cen (Nova Centauri 2009) covering its pre- and post-eruption phases and precisely documenting its evolution. Within the six years before the explosion, the system revealed dwarf nova outbursts indicative of a low mass-transfer rate. The post-nova is two orders of magnitude brighter than the pre-nova at minimum light with no trace of dwarf

  12. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  13. [Hypnosis as a resource in palliative care. A qualitative study of the contribution of hypnosis to the care of oncology patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teike Luethi, Fabienne; Currat, Thierry; Spencer, Brenda; Jayet, Nicolas; Cantin, Boris

    2012-09-01

    Hypnosis is recognised in medicine as an effective complementary therapy. However, few qualitative data are available concerning the benefits it may bring. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to examine the contribution of hypnosis to the care of advanced cancer patients. Results demonstrate that hypnosis is an effective and efficient means of developing the resources of people suffering from serious illness. After an average of four hypnotherapy sessions, patients said they were able to locate previously unexploited resources within themselves and were able to become autonomous in the use of self-hypnosis. The major benefit reported concerned a reduction in anxiety. For patients experiencing anxiety about death, hypnosis allowed them, within a therapeutic environment perceived as safe, to explore different facets of their fears and to develop adaptive strategies. Aside from slight fatigue experienced during the sessions, no adverse side-effects were reported. In conclusion, this study exploring the effects of hypnosis allowed us to identify important benefits for patients suffering from advanced cancer. Consequently, replication on a larger scale is recommended in order to ascertain the extent to which it is possible to generalise from these results and in order better to define the characteristics of patients most likely to benefit from this therapy.

  14. The relationship of sleep with temperature and metabolic rate in a hibernating primate.

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    Andrew D Krystal

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: It has long been suspected that sleep is important for regulating body temperature and metabolic-rate. Hibernation, a state of acute hypothermia and reduced metabolic-rate, offers a promising system for investigating those relationships. Prior studies in hibernating ground squirrels report that, although sleep occurs during hibernation, it manifests only as non-REM sleep, and only at relatively high temperatures. In our study, we report data on sleep during hibernation in a lemuriform primate, Cheirogaleus medius. As the only primate known to experience prolonged periods of hibernation and as an inhabitant of more temperate climates than ground squirrels, this animal serves as an alternative model for exploring sleep temperature/metabolism relationships that may be uniquely relevant to understanding human physiology. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: We find that during hibernation, non-REM sleep is absent in Cheirogaleus. Rather, periods of REM sleep occur during periods of relatively high ambient temperature, a pattern opposite of that observed in ground squirrels. Like ground squirrels, however, EEG is marked by ultra-low voltage activity at relatively low metabolic-rates. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm a sleep-temperature/metabolism link, though they also suggest that the relationship of sleep stage with temperature/metabolism is flexible and may differ across species or mammalian orders. The absence of non-REM sleep suggests that during hibernation in Cheirogaleus, like in the ground squirrel, the otherwise universal non-REM sleep homeostatic response is greatly curtailed or absent. Lastly, ultra-low voltage EEG appears to be a cross-species marker for extremely low metabolic-rate, and, as such, may be an attractive target for research on hibernation induction.

  15. The hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel as a model organism for potential cold storage of platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Scott T.; Richters, Karl E.; Melin, Travis E.; Liu, Zhi-Jian; Hordyk, Peter J.; Benrud, Ryan R.; Geiser, Lauren R.; Cash, Steve E.; Simon Shelley, C.; Howard, David R.; Ereth, Mark H.; Sola-Visner, Martha C.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernating mammals have developed many physiological adaptations to extreme environments. During hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) must suppress hemostasis to survive prolonged body temperatures of 4–8°C and 3–5 heartbeats per minute without forming lethal clots. Upon arousal in the spring, these ground squirrels must be able to quickly restore normal clotting activity to avoid bleeding. Here we show that ground squirrel platelets stored in vivo at 4–8°C wer...

  16. Metabolic changes in summer active and anuric hibernating free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos.

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    Peter Stenvinkel

    Full Text Available The brown bear (Ursus arctos hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.

  17. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats.

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    Estók, Péter; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-02-23

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

  18. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

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    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  19. Long-term video surveillance and automated analyses reveal arousal patterns in groups of hibernating bats

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    Hayman, David T.S.; Cryan, Paul; Fricker, Paul D.; Dannemiller, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding natural behaviours is essential to determining how animals deal with new threats (e.g. emerging diseases). However, natural behaviours of animals with cryptic lifestyles, like hibernating bats, are often poorly characterized. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an unprecedented disease threatening multiple species of hibernating bats, and pathogen-induced changes to host behaviour may contribute to mortality. To better understand the behaviours of hibernating bats and how they might relate to WNS, we developed new ways of studying hibernation across entire seasons.We used thermal-imaging video surveillance cameras to observe little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) and Indiana bats (M. sodalis) in two caves over multiple winters. We developed new, sharable software to test for autocorrelation and periodicity of arousal signals in recorded video.We processed 740 days (17,760 hr) of video at a rate of >1,000 hr of video imagery in less than 1 hr using a desktop computer with sufficient resolution to detect increases in arousals during midwinter in both species and clear signals of daily arousal periodicity in infected M. sodalis.Our unexpected finding of periodic synchronous group arousals in hibernating bats demonstrate the potential for video methods and suggest some bats may have innate behavioural strategies for coping with WNS. Surveillance video and accessible analysis software make it now practical to investigate long-term behaviours of hibernating bats and other hard-to-study animals.

  20. Hormonal control of lipolysis from the white adipose tissue of hibernating jerboa (Jaculus orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau-Hamsany, C; Castex, C; Hoo-Paris, R; Kacemi, N; Sutter, B

    1988-01-01

    1. Plasma glucose, glycerol, free fatty acids and total lipid content of the white adipose tissue were measured in euthermic and hibernating jerboa. 2. During hibernation, plasma glucose and glycerol were low compared to the euthermic animals, whereas there was no obvious difference in plasma free fatty acids. The white adipose tissue lipid content was strongly reduced in the hibernating state. 3. The effect of lipolytic hormones (norepinephrine and glucagon) and antilipolytic hormone (insulin) on in vitro glycerol release by adipose tissue isolated from hibernating or euthermic jerboa has been studied. 4. The white adipose tissue from hibernating jerboa presented a higher sensitivity to norepinephrine and glucagon than that of euthermic jerboa; insulin did not modify either basal glycerol release or lipolysis induced by the two lipolytic hormones at low temperatures (7 degrees C) and during the rewarming (from 7 degrees C to 37 degrees C) of the tissue slices. 5. These results suggested that white adipose tissue constitutes an important source of substrates derived from lipolysis during hibernation.

  1. Changes in calpains and calpastatin in the soleus muscle of Daurian ground squirrels during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Xi; He, Yue; Gao, Yun-Fang; Wang, Hui-Ping; Goswami, Nandu

    2014-10-01

    We investigated changes in muscle mass, calpains, calpastatin and Z-disk ultrastructure in the soleus muscle (SOL) of Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) after hibernation or hindlimb suspension to determine possible mechanisms by which muscle atrophy is prevented in hibernators. Squirrels (n=30) were divided into five groups: no hibernation group (PRE, n=6); hindlimb suspension group (HLS, n=6); two month hibernation group (HIB, n=6); two day group after 90±12 days of hibernation (POST, n=6); and forced exercise group (one time forced, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise) after arousal (FE, n=6). Activity and protein expression of calpains were determined by casein zymography and western blotting, and Z-disk ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The following results were found. Lower body mass and higher SOL muscle mass (mg) to total body mass (g) ratio were observed in HIB and POST; calpain-1 activity increased significantly by 176% (P=0.034) in HLS compared to the PRE group; no significant changes were observed in calpain-2 activity. Protein expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 increased by 83% (P=0.041) and 208% (P=0.029) in HLS compared to the PRE group, respectively; calpastatin expression increased significantly by 180% (Pcalpain activity and consequently calpain-mediated protein degradation by highly elevated calpastatin protein expression levels may be an important mechanism for preventing muscle protein loss during hibernation and ensuring that Z-lines remained ultrastructurally intact.

  2. The Effectiveness of Hypnosis Intervention for Labor: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-10-01

    Hypnosis has been shown to help pregnant women experience improved labor and postpartum periods. The present study compares the differences between experimental (n = 23) and control groups (n = 22) on specific variables measured both during labor and 24 hr postpartum. The participants in the experimental group received the hypnosis intervention at weeks 16, 20, 28, and 36 of pregnancy, while those in the control group received only routine antenatal care. The data collected at the labor stage describe the length of the labor stage, pain relief used during labor, the method of delivery, and the type of assisted vaginal delivery. Within 24 hr of delivery, data on neonatal birth weight, neonatal Apgar scores, and self-reported pain were obtained. The labor stage results showed no significant differences in the length of the second and third stages of labor. Although the participants in the experimental group reported higher pain levels immediately prior to, during, and immediately after delivery, their use of pethidine during labor was significantly lower than the control group participants. None of the experimental group participants opted for an epidural, and they had a greater number of assisted vaginal deliveries than the control group participants. The 24 hr postpartum results showed that the neonates of the experimental group participants had nonsignificantly higher Apgar scores than those of the women in the control group. Group differences in neonatal weight were not significant. The results of the present study indicate that hypnosis is useful for assisting pregnant women during labor and the postpartum period.

  3. Traditional and alert hypnosis for education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, David M

    2011-10-01

    In laboratory research, hypnotic suggestions have increased simple learning performance. There is also evidence that hypnosis may be used to increase higher level cognitive processes such as reading speed and listening comprehension. But using a traditional, relaxed, eyes-closed induction made it difficult to read and take tests and do other activities involved in independent academic performance. The subsequent development and refinement of an alert, eyes-open induction and appropriate suggestions made it possible for students to significantly increase reading comprehension and academic performance.

  4. Inversion-based propofol dosing for intravenous induction of hypnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, F.; Ionescu, C.; Latronico, N.; Paltenghi, M.; Visioli, A.; Vivacqua, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we propose an inversion-based methodology for the computation of a feedforward action for the propofol intravenous administration during the induction of hypnosis in general anesthesia. In particular, the typical initial bolus is substituted with a command signal that is obtained by predefining a desired output and by applying an input-output inversion procedure. The robustness of the method has been tested by considering a set of patients with different model parameters, which is representative of a large population.

  5. Effects of hypnosis during pregnancy: A psychophysiological study on maternal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Fabien; Grévin-Laroche, Corinne; Josse, Elisabeth; Polidori, Guillaume; Quinart, Hervé; Taïar, Redha

    2017-05-01

    Because it induces a state of reduced awareness and deep relaxation, hypnosis is thought to be efficient at relieving stress and anxiety. This study examined whether hypnosis may alter the pattern and time evolution of maternal and fetal stress. Here we report a 23-yrs-old primigravida woman at 31-weeks' gestation who underwent daily sessions of hypnosis during one week. An A (baseline)-B (intervention) - A' (return to baseline) design was used. Each study phase lasted one week. The State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) was completed daily. Uterine contractions as well as maternal and fetal heart rate were recorded over 24-h periods in each of the study phase. Uterine contractions and maternal systolic blood pressure showed clear reductions during the hypnosis phase. In addition, a statistically significant declining trend in anxiety scores was observed during the hypnosis phase, and anxiety re-increased in the return-to-baseline phase (p<0.05). Coefficient of variation of maternal heart rate was found to be considerably lower during the hypnosis phase. Our results suggest that a short-lived hypnosis intervention (combined with standard care) holds sufficient promise for antenatal stress relief to justify testing its efficacy in larger groups of pregnant women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypnosis Antenatal Training for Childbirth (HATCh: a randomised controlled trial [NCT00282204

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    Baghurst Peter

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although medical interventions play an important role in preserving lives and maternal comfort they have become increasingly routine in normal childbirth. This may increase the risk of associated complications and a less satisfactory birth experience. Antenatal hypnosis is associated with a reduced need for pharmacological interventions during childbirth. This trial seeks to determine the efficacy or otherwise of antenatal group hypnosis preparation for childbirth in late pregnancy. Methods/design A single centre, randomised controlled trial using a 3 arm parallel group design in the largest tertiary maternity unit in South Australia. Group 1 participants receive antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth administered by a qualified hypnotherapist with the use of an audio compact disc on hypnosis for re-enforcement; Group 2 consists of antenatal hypnosis training in preparation for childbirth using an audio compact disc on hypnosis administered by a nurse with no training in hypnotherapy; Group 3 participants continue with their usual preparation for childbirth with no additional intervention. Women > 34 and Discussion If effective, hypnosis would be a simple, inexpensive way to improve the childbirth experience, reduce complications associated with pharmacological interventions, yield cost savings in maternity care, and this trial will provide evidence to guide clinical practice.

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Plus Hypnosis for Distress During Breast Radiotherapy: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Sucala, Madalina; Dillon, Matthew J; Schnur, Julie B

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy is a common and effective treatment for women with breast cancer. However, radiotherapy has also been shown to adversely affect patients' emotional well-being. Currently, few mind-body interventions are designed to improve patients' quality of life during radiotherapy. One intervention which has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the breast cancer radiotherapy setting is Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to either the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis (n = 50) or Attention Control (n = 50) group. Results revealed significant benefits of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis on emotional distress at the mid-point (d = 0.54), the conclusion (d = 0.64), and 4 weeks following the conclusion (d = 0.65) of radiotherapy (all ps < 0.05). In summary, results support further study of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis as an evidence-based intervention to reduce emotional distress in women with breast cancer. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis has the benefits of being brief, noninvasive, lacking side-effects, and producing beneficial effects which last beyond the conclusion of radiotherapy. Given these strengths, we propose that Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy plus Hypnosis is a strong candidate for greater dissemination and implementation in cancer populations.

  8. Mysteries of hypnosis and the self are revealed by the psychology and neuroscience of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasekera, Ian E

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self. The EIT proposes that the experience of hypnosis is embodied in a system of neural networks in the brain that utilizes empathy-related processes, adaptive resonance between perceptual input and top-down expectancies, and connectionist learning algorithms to (a) empathically enact the affect, cognition, body language, response expectancies, social roles, sensations, etc. that are presented to them during hypnosis in accordance with socio-cognitive theories of hypnosis; (b) engage in a convergent psychophysiological relationship with another person in accordance with psychoanalytic, Ericksonian, and polyvagal/social engagement system theories; (c) alter the empathic self/other (theory of mind) coding of phenomenological experiences during hypnosis in accordance with aspects of the neo-dissociative and socio-cognitive traditions; and (d) develop an experiential understanding of the illusion of self that may lead, in some people, to its transcendence in accordance with Bon-Buddhist, Dzogchen, and transpersonal scholars. A unified definition of hypnosis is proposed based on findings in the empathic neuroscience of hypnosis as well as a working model of the neuromatrix of the self.

  9. Hypnosis in breast cancer care: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Paul, Anna; Langhorst, Jost; Kümmel, Sherko; Dobos, Gustav J

    2015-01-01

    Many breast cancer patients and survivors experience pain and emotional stress related to their disease, its diagnostic procedures, or treatment. Hypnosis has long been used for the treatment of such symptoms. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of hypnosis in women with breast cancer, breast cancer survivors, and in women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, and CAMBASE were screened through February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypnosis in women with breast cancer or undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy. RCTs on postmenopausal women without a history of breast cancer were also eligible. Primary outcomes were pain, distress, fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and hot flashes. Safety was defined as secondary outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed by 2 reviewers independently using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Thirteen RCTs with 1357 patients were included. In women undergoing diagnostic breast biopsy (3 RCTs), hypnosis positively influenced pain and distress; 1 RCT on breast cancer surgery found effects of hypnosis on pain, distress, fatigue, and nausea. For women undergoing radiotherapy (3 RCTs), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy improved distress and fatigue. In 3 RCTs on women with and without a history of breast cancer experiencing hot flashes, hypnosis improved hot flashes and distress. Three RCTs on women with metastatic breast cancer found effects on pain and distress. This systematic review found sparse but promising evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis in breast cancer care. While more research is needed to underpin these results, hypnosis can be considered as an ancillary intervention in the management of breast cancer-related symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Hypnosis can reduce pain in hospitalized older patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigo, Sheila; Herrmann, François R; Moret, Véronique; Déramé, Laurence; Giannelli, Sandra; Gold, Gabriel; Pautex, Sophie

    2016-01-15

    Chronic pain is a common and serious health problem in older patients. Treatment often includes non pharmacological approaches despite a relatively modest evidence base in this population. Hypnosis has been used in younger adults with positive results. The main objective of this study was to measure the feasibility and efficacy of hypnosis (including self hypnosis) in the management of chronic pain in older hospitalized patients. A single center randomized controlled trial using a two arm parallel group design (hypnosis versus massage). Inclusion criteria were chronic pain for more than 3 months with impact on daily life activities, intensity of > 4; adapted analgesic treatment; no cognitive impairment. Brief pain inventory was completed. Fifty-three patients were included (mean age: 80.6 ± 8.2--14 men; 26 hypnosis; 27 massage. Pain intensity decreased significantly in both groups after each session. Average pain measured by the brief pain index sustained a greater decrease in the hypnosis group compared to the massage group during the hospitalisation. This was confirmed by the measure of intensity of the pain before each session that decreased only in the hypnosis group over time (P = 0.008). Depression scores improved significantly over the time only in the hypnosis group (P = 0.049). There was no effect in either group 3 months post hospitals discharge. Hypnosis represents a safe and valuable tool in chronic pain management of hospitalized older patients. In hospital interventions did not provide long term post discharge relief. ISRCTN15615614; registered 2/1/2015.

  11. The Effect of Hypnosis on Anxiety in Patients With Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ying; Liu, Ying-Mei; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2017-06-01

    Anxiety is a common form of psychological distress in patients with cancer. One recognized nonpharmacological intervention to reduce anxiety for various populations is hypnotherapy or hypnosis. However, its effect in reducing anxiety in cancer patients has not been systematically evaluated. This meta-analysis was designed to synthesize the immediate and sustained effects of hypnosis on anxiety of cancer patients and to identify moderators for these hypnosis effects. Qualified studies including randomized controlled trials (RCT) and pre-post design studies were identified by searching seven electronic databases: Scopus, Medline Ovidsp, PubMed, PsycInfo-Ovid, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Plus with FT-EBSCO, and SDOL. Effect size (Hedges' g) was computed for each study. Random-effect modeling was used to combine effect sizes across studies. All statistical analyses were conducted with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, version 2 (Biostat, Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Our meta-analysis of 20 studies found that hypnosis had a significant immediate effect on anxiety in cancer patients (Hedges' g: 0.70-1.41, p < .01) and the effect was sustained (Hedges' g: 0.61-2.77, p < .01). The adjusted mean effect size (determined by Duvan and Tweedie's trim-and-fill method) was 0.46. RCTs had a significantly higher effect size than non-RCT studies. Higher mean effect sizes were also found with pediatric study samples, hematological malignancy, studies on procedure-related stressors, and with mixed-gender samples. Hypnosis delivered by a therapist was significantly more effective than self-hypnosis. Hypnosis can reduce anxiety of cancer patients, especially for pediatric cancer patients who experience procedure-related stress. We recommend therapist-delivered hypnosis should be preferred until more effective self-hypnosis strategies are developed. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. The physiological link between metabolic rate depression and tau phosphorylation in mammalian hibernation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens T Stieler

    Full Text Available Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein are hallmarks of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. Increased tau phosphorylation is assumed to represent an early event in pathogenesis and a pivotal aspect for aggregation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the regulation of tau phosphorylation in vivo and the causes for its increased stage of phosphorylation in AD are still not well understood, a fact that is primarily based on the lack of adequate animal models. Recently we described the reversible formation of highly phosphorylated tau protein in hibernating European ground squirrels. Hence, mammalian hibernation represents a model system very well suited to study molecular mechanisms of both tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation under in vivo physiological conditions. Here, we analysed the extent and kinetics of hibernation-state dependent tau phosphorylation in various brain regions of three species of hibernating mammals: arctic ground squirrels, Syrian hamsters and black bears. Overall, tau protein was highly phosphorylated in torpor states and phosphorylation levels decreased after arousal in all species. Differences between brain regions, hibernation-states and phosphosites were observed with respect to degree and kinetics of tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, we tested the phosphate net turnover of tau protein to analyse potential alterations in kinase and/or phosphatase activities during hibernation. Our results demonstrate that the hibernation-state dependent phosphorylation of tau protein is specifically regulated but involves, in addition, passive, temperature driven regulatory mechanisms. By determining the activity-state profile for key enzymes of tau phosphorylation we could identify kinases potentially involved in the differentially regulated, reversible tau phosphorylation that occurs during hibernation. We show that in black bears hibernation is associated with

  13. Some polite applause for the 2003 APA Division 30 definition of hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Erik; Sadler, Pamela

    The authors argue that the new definition of hypnosis by Division 30 of the American Psychological Association contains questionable information about the role of imagination in hypnosis, about the use versus omission of the word hypnosis in inductions, and about the nature of individual differences and their relation to the standardized scales. In addition, the definition appears to conflate formal and exemplar-based types of definition, and it does not seem particularly well-tuned to the interests of lay persons. The authors advance some suggestions for future definitional efforts.

  14. Advancing Research and Practice: The Revised APA Division 30 Definition of Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Barabasz, Arreed F; Council, James R; Spiegel, David

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, being heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.

  15. Hypnosis as a model of functional neurologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeley, Q

    2017-01-01

    In the 19th century it was recognized that neurologic symptoms could be caused by "morbid ideation" as well as organic lesions. The subsequent observation that hysteric (now called "functional") symptoms could be produced and removed by hypnotic suggestion led Charcot to hypothesize that suggestion mediated the effects of ideas on hysteric symptoms through as yet unknown effects on brain activity. The advent of neuroimaging 100 years later revealed strikingly similar neural correlates in experiments matching functional symptoms with clinical analogs created by suggestion. Integrative models of suggested and functional symptoms regard these alterations in brain function as the endpoint of a broader set of changes in information processing due to suggestion. These accounts consider that suggestions alter experience by mobilizing representations from memory systems, and altering causal attributions, during preconscious processing which alters the content of what is provided to our highly edited subjective version of the world. Hypnosis as a model for functional symptoms draws attention to how radical alterations in experience and behavior can conform to the content of mental representations through effects on cognition and brain function. Experimental study of functional symptoms and their suggested counterparts in hypnosis reveals the distinct and shared processes through which this can occur.

  16. The Power of mind: Blocking visual perception by hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B; Hecht, H; Naumann, E; Miltner, W H R

    2017-07-07

    The present study investigated the effects of suggestion on the processing of visual stimuli. Participants counted rare visual stimuli presented on a screen, once during a hypnosis condition where they were suggested that their vision of the screen is blocked by a virtual wooden board in front of their eyes and once during a control condition without suggestion. In the hypnosis condition, counting performance was about 20% worse than in the control condition. At the same time, the P3b amplitude of the event-related brain potential was about 37% reduced. Smaller P3b amplitudes were significantly associated with deficient counting performance, and this effect was largest in participants who reported the blockade as real. In contrast, earlier brain responses (N1, P2) that reflect basic processing of the visual stimuli were not affected by the suggested blockade. We conclude that the suggestion of the blockade affects later stages of visual perception, leaving early processes intact. This illustrates the impact of suggestions and the power of mind.

  17. Hibernal habitat selection by Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) in a northern New England montane landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2016-01-01

    Poikilothermic species, such as amphibians, endure harsh winter conditions via freeze-tolerance or freeze-avoidance strategies. Freeze-tolerance requires a suite of complex, physiological mechanisms (e.g., cryoprotectant synthesis); however, behavioral strategies (e.g., hibernal habitat selection) may be used to regulate hibernaculum temperatures and promote overwintering survival. We investigated the hibernal ecology of the freeze-tolerant Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) in north-central Maine. Our objectives were to characterize the species hibernaculum microclimate (temperature, relative humidity), evaluate hibernal habitat selection, and describe the spatial arrangement of breeding, post-breeding, and hibernal habitats. We monitored 15 frogs during two winters (2011/12: N = 10; 2012/13: N = 5), measured hibernal habitat features at micro (2 m) and macro (10 m) spatial scales, and recorded microclimate hourly in three strata (hibernaculum, leaf litter, ambient air). We compared these data to that of 57 random locations with logistic regression models, Akaike Information Criterion, and Kolmogorov–Smirnov tests. Hibernaculum microclimate was significantly different and less variable than leaf litter, ambient air, and random location microclimate. Model averaging indicated that canopy cover (−), leaf litter depth (+), and number of logs and stumps (+; microhabitat only) were important predictors of Wood Frog hibernal habitat. These habitat features likely act to insulate hibernating frogs from extreme and variable air temperatures. For example, decreased canopy cover facilitates increased snowpack depth and earlier snowpack accumulation and melt. Altered winter temperature and precipitation patterns attributable to climate change may reduce snowpack insulation, facilitate greater temperature variation in the underlying hibernacula, and potentially compromise Wood Frog winter survival.

  18. Modulation of gene expression in heart and liver of hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus

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    Yan Jun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hibernation is an adaptive strategy to survive in highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. The molecular and genetic basis of hibernation physiology in mammals has only recently been studied using large scale genomic approaches. We analyzed gene expression in the American black bear, Ursus americanus, using a custom 12,800 cDNA probe microarray to detect differences in expression that occur in heart and liver during winter hibernation in comparison to summer active animals. Results We identified 245 genes in heart and 319 genes in liver that were differentially expressed between winter and summer. The expression of 24 genes was significantly elevated during hibernation in both heart and liver. These genes are mostly involved in lipid catabolism and protein biosynthesis and include RNA binding protein motif 3 (Rbm3, which enhances protein synthesis at mildly hypothermic temperatures. Elevated expression of protein biosynthesis genes suggests induction of translation that may be related to adaptive mechanisms reducing cardiac and muscle atrophies over extended periods of low metabolism and immobility during hibernation in bears. Coordinated reduction of transcription of genes involved in amino acid catabolism suggests redirection of amino acids from catabolic pathways to protein biosynthesis. We identify common for black bears and small mammalian hibernators transcriptional changes in the liver that include induction of genes responsible for fatty acid β oxidation and carbohydrate synthesis and depression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbohydrate catabolism, cellular respiration and detoxification pathways. Conclusions Our findings show that modulation of gene expression during winter hibernation represents molecular mechanism of adaptation to extreme environments.

  19. Comparison of sestamibi, thallium, echocardiography and PET for the detection of hibernating myocardium

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    Barrington, S.F.; Hallett, W.A.; O' Doherty, M.J.; Nunan, T.O. [Clinical PET Centre, Guys and St Thomas' s Hospitals, SE1 7EH, London (United Kingdom); Chambers, J.; Roxburgh, J.C. [Cardiothoracic Centre, Guys and St Thomas' s Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-03-01

    The detection of hibernating myocardium is important because revascularisation results in improved function and prognosis in patients with hibernation but not in those with non-viable myocardium. The primary aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of four techniques with respect to hibernation in the same study population with 6-12 months of follow-up. Twenty-five males underwent rest-stress sestamibi and delayed (>18 h) thallium scintigraphy, high-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography and nitrogen-13 ammonia/fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (NH{sub 3}/FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The pre-operative ejection fraction was 36.2% ({+-}7.3%). Follow-up was 8.1 ({+-}2.8) months. Using postoperative improvement in wall motion on echocardiography as the gold standard, 6/34 dysfunctional vascular territories were hibernating. The mean uptake of all tracers was significantly higher in hibernating than in non-viable territories (P<0.05). Normal perfusion or mismatch on PET (FDG>NH{sub 3} uptake) and the pattern of response to dobutamine on echocardiography were also predictive of recovery (P<0.001 and P=0.02 respectively). Univariate logistic regression identified sestamibi, ammonia and FDG as independent predictors of hibernation. FDG-PET was, however, the only independent predictor using multivariate analysis. The nuclear techniques had high negative predictive values (NPV) of {>=}95% but lower positive predictive values (PPV) of 45%-75% as compared with echocardiography, which had an NPV of 87% and a PPV of 100%. PET was the most powerful predictor of hibernation although the combination of a technique with a high PPV (echocardiography) and a high NPV (PET or sestamibi) may represent the optimal clinical choice. (orig.)

  20. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

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    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  1. Control of respiratory motion by hypnosis intervention during radiotherapy of lung cancer I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongmao; Deng, Jie; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy.

  2. Yearning for the Vastness of the Sea: Reflections and Commentary on Professional Training in Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elgan L

    2017-01-01

    Educational programs are a major focus of most professional hypnosis societies. Many of these programs rely on traditional curricula and teaching strategies with variable success. The articles in this special issue examine and critique these training models and suggest innovative approaches to professional education with an emphasis on more uniform course content and goals and more dynamic and effective educational processes. A convergence of themes is noted and examined including the need to continue to expand the acceptance and utilization of clinical hypnosis, the importance of attending to broader clinical competence beyond hypnosis skills, the need for faculty development and evaluation, and the imperative that course content reflects academic rigor and contemporary science as well as providing for demonstration and supervised clinical practice. These themes are explicated for the development of new training paradigms and for continued programs in the field of clinical hypnosis.

  3. Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, E; Pasquali, S; Zanette, G; Casiglia, E

    2013-09-01

    A female patient with multiple chemical sensitivity and previous anaphylactoid reactions to local anaesthetics was admitted for removal of a thigh skin tumour under hypnosis as sole anaesthesia. The hypnotic protocol included hypnotic focused analgesia and a pre-operative pain threshold test. After inducing hypnosis, a wide excision was performed, preserving the deep fascia, and the tumour was removed; the patient's heart rate and blood pressure did not increase during the procedure. When the patient was de-hypnotised, she reported no pain and was discharged immediately. Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

  4. Innovations in the Treatment of Bulimia: Transpersonal Psychology, Relaxation, Imagination, Hypnosis, Myth, and Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Written for counselors who must help clients deal with bulimia, this article reviews bulimia's most obvious physical signs and symptoms, etiology, and behavioral characteristics. Considers innovative counseling approaches including Transpersonal Psychology, relaxation training, imagination, fantasy, hypnosis, myths, and rituals. (Author)

  5. Innovations in the Treatment of Bulimia: Transpersonal Psychology, Relaxation, Imagination, Hypnosis, Myth, and Ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael H.

    1991-01-01

    Written for counselors who must help clients deal with bulimia, this article reviews bulimia's most obvious physical signs and symptoms, etiology, and behavioral characteristics. Considers innovative counseling approaches including Transpersonal Psychology, relaxation training, imagination, fantasy, hypnosis, myths, and rituals. (Author)

  6. The effects of encoding in hypnosis and post-hypnotic suggestion on academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nicholas; Kramer, Sam; Tharp, Amanda; Costa, Salvatore; Hawley, Phillip

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between proactive learning in hypnosis, post-hypnotic suggestion, and academic performance. Participants (N = 56) were randomly assigned to a control group or a treatment group. The treatment group was hypnotized and read a passage while in hypnosis. Concurrently, they were given a post-hypnotic suggestion, which attempted to aid recognition and performance on a test immediately following the hypnosis session. Both groups completed a multiple-choice test based on the aforementioned passage. An analysis of covariance discerned the effect of proactive learning and post-hypnotic suggestion on test performance, while controlling for the variance introduced by scholastic aptitude as measured by the ACT. Results indicated that the hypnosis sessions predicted significantly impaired test performance.

  7. Hypnosis for Symptom Control in Cancer Patients at the End-of-Life: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H; Sucala, Madalina; Baum, Tessa; Schnur, Julie B

    2017-01-01

    Hypnosis has been shown to alleviate symptoms and side effects of cancer and its treatment. However, less is known about the use of hypnosis at the end of life in individuals with cancer. Our goal was to systematically review the literature on the use of hypnosis to manage the most common symptoms of end-of-life cancer patients: fatigue, sleep disturbances, pain, appetite loss, and dyspnea. EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, PsychINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched from inception through November 7, 2016. No studies met the inclusion criteria. It appears that hypnosis has never been rigorously tested as a means to ameliorate the most common symptoms in individuals with cancer at the end of their lives. This finding is troubling, as it strongly implies that a population most in need has been largely neglected. However, a clear future research direction is revealed that may have significant clinical impact.

  8. Treating bulimia with hypnosis and low-level light therapy: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Eleanor; Sassack, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This case report describes an effort to control bulimia nervosa by combining low-level laser therapy (LLLT)-the application of red and near-infrared light to specific body points-and hypnosis. A 29-year old female with a 14-year history of bulimia received one session of LLLT combined with hypnosis. Two weeks later, following a measurable decrease in bulimic episodes (purging), a session of psychotherapy and hypnosis was administered. Six months post-treatment, the patient has experienced a complete cessation of purging activities without recurrence. LLLT, when used in conjunction with hypnosis and psychotherapy, was effective in managing bulimia and may prove useful in treating other eating disorders.

  9. A Case of Successful Use of Hypnosis in the Treatment of Parasomnia Overlap Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, William C; Kurz, Peter J; Kohler, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    A young male patient was successfully treated for parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) using hypnosis. In 2006, this 16-year-old patient underwent a clinical evaluation for episodes of sleep talking, sleepwalking, and dream enactment. This initial assessment was followed by polysomnographic evaluation, a brain MRI, and three sessions of treatment using hypnosis. From the beginning, until the last contact in December 2011, benefits from the hypnotic suggestions were noted and documented.

  10. Hypnosis as a Valuable Tool for Surgical Procedures in the Oral and Maxillofacial Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Gil; Alves, Luiza; Zaninotto, Ana Luiza; Falcão, Denise Pinheiro; de Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2017-04-01

    Hypnosis is a valuable tool in the management of patients who undergo surgical procedures in the maxillofacial complex, particularly in reducing and eliminating pain during surgery and aiding patients who have dental fear and are allergic to anesthesia. This case report demonstrates the efficacy of hypnosis in mitigating anxiety, bleeding, and pain during dental surgery without anesthesia during implant placement of tooth 14, the upper left first molar.

  11. Hypnosis and Axillary Compartment Block for Breast Cancer Surgery: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzier, Régis; Achelous, Sylviane; Salvignol, Geneviève; Jouve, Eva

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has been proven to be a powerful tool in the management of anxiety and pain. It allows for an increase of pain threshold, which can reach the level of surgical analgesia. Recently injection of local anesthetics around the serratus muscle has been presented as an alternative to paravertebral block for cancer breast surgery. We report the successful use of hypnosis in combination with an axillary compartment block for lumpectomy and axillary lymph node dissection.

  12. Seasonal restructuring of the ground squirrel gut microbiota over the annual hibernation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hannah V; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Many hibernating mammals suspend food intake during winter, relying solely on stored lipids to fuel metabolism. Winter fasting in these species eliminates a major source of degradable substrates to support growth of gut microbes, which may affect microbial community structure and host-microbial interactions. We explored the effect of the annual hibernation cycle on gut microbiotas using deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from ground squirrel cecal contents. Squirrel microbiotas were dominated by members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Verrucomicrobia. UniFrac analysis showed that microbiotas clustered strongly by season, and maternal influences, diet history, host age, and host body temperature had minimal effects. Phylogenetic diversity and numbers of operational taxonomic units were lowest in late winter and highest in the spring after a 2-wk period of refeeding. Hibernation increased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, phyla that contain species capable of surviving on host-derived substrates such as mucins, and reduced relative abundance of Firmicutes, many of which prefer dietary polysaccharides. Hibernation reduced cecal short-chain fatty acid and ammonia concentrations, and increased and decreased concentrations of acetate and butyrate, respectively. These results indicate that the ground squirrel microbiota is restructured each year in a manner that reflects differences in microbial preferences for dietary vs. host-derived substrates, and thus the competitive abilities of different taxa to survive in the altered environment in the hibernator gut.

  13. The role of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate in metabolic suppression during hibernation and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christopher; Staples, James F

    2010-06-01

    Hibernation elicits a major reduction in whole-animal O(2) consumption that corresponds with active suppression of liver mitochondrial electron transport capacity at, or downstream of, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). During arousal from the torpor phase of hibernation this suppression is reversed and metabolic rates rise dramatically. In this study, we used the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to assess isolated liver mitochondrial respiration during the torpor phase of hibernation and various stages of arousal to elucidate a potential role of SDH in metabolic suppression. State 3 and state 4 respiration rates were seven- and threefold lower in torpor compared with the summer-active and interbout euthermic states. Respiration rates increased during arousal so that when body temperature reached 30 degrees C in late arousal, state 3 and state 4 respiration were 3.3- and 1.8-fold greater than during torpor, respectively. SDH activity was 72% higher in interbout euthermia than in torpor. Pre-incubating with isocitrate [to alleviate oxaloacetate (OAA) inhibition] increased state 3 respiration rate during torpor by 91%, but this rate was still fourfold lower than that measured in interbout euthermia. Isocitrate pre-incubation also eliminated differences in SDH activity among hibernation bout stages. OAA concentration correlated negatively with both respiration rates and SDH activity. These data suggest that OAA reversibly inhibits SDH in torpor, but cannot fully account for the drastic metabolic suppression observed during this hibernation phase.

  14. Changes in the Golgi apparatus of neocortical and hippocampal neurons in the hibernating hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eAntón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hibernating animals have been used as models to study several aspects of the plastic changes that occur in the metabolism and physiology of neurons. These models are also of interest in the study of Alzheimer’s disease because the microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated during the hibernation state known as torpor, similar to the pretangle stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Hibernating animals undergo torpor periods with drops in body temperature and metabolic rate, and a virtual cessation of neural activity. These processes are accompanied by morphological and neurochemical changes in neurons, which reverse a few hours after coming out of the torpor state. Since tau has been implicated in the structural regulation of the neuronal Golgi apparatus (GA we have used Western Blot and immunocytochemistry to analyze whether the GA is modified in cortical neurons of the Syrian hamster at different hibernation stages. The results show that, during the hibernation cycle, the GA undergo important structural changes along with differential modifications in expression levels and distribution patterns of Golgi structural proteins. These changes were accompanied by significant transitory reductions in the volume and surface area of the GA elements during torpor and arousal stages as compared with euthermic animals

  15. Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelants, Fabienne; Pospiech, Audrey; Momeni, Mona; Watremez, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS). Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology. PMID:27635132

  16. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind–Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Breuner, Cora Collette

    2017-01-01

    Mind–body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t’ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind–body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind–body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind–body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents. PMID:28338644

  17. The facilitating effect of clinical hypnosis on motor imagery: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Schramm, Stephanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2012-05-16

    Hypnosis is increasingly being employed in therapy of neurologically impaired patients. In fact, reports from neuropsychological practice point out that neurological patients with a loss of motor abilities achieve successful rehabilitation by means of motor imagery during hypnosis. This approach was shown to be effective even if the patients' ability to imagine movements was impaired or lost. The underlying mechanisms of "how" and "where" hypnosis affects the brain, however, are largely unknown. To identify the brain areas involved in motor imagery under hypnosis, we conducted an fMRI study in which we required healthy human subjects either to imagine or to execute repetitive finger movements during a hypnotic trance. We observed fMRI-signal increases exclusively related to hypnosis in the left superior frontal cortex, the left anterior cingulate gyrus and left thalamus. While the superior frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate were active related more to movement performance than to imagery, the thalamus was activated only during motor imagery. These areas represent central nodes of the salience network linking primary and higher motor areas. Therefore, our data substantiate the notion that hypnosis enhances motor imagery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind–Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Sawni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mind–body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t’ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind–body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind–body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind–body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents.

  19. THE METHOD OF HYPNO-CIRCUMCISION IN KLINIK KHITAN PLUS HYPNOSIS IN PABUWARAN PURWOKERTO UTARA SUBDISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mujib

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the method of hypno-circumcision in the clinic. Generally, the service of circumcision still uses a conventional method and less of attention toward the psychological side. Whereas, this factor is very important on how affecting the patients view’s toward circumcision. The main goal of this research is to know the implementation of hypnosis in medical field, especially circumcision process in Klinik Khitan Plus Hypnosis Pabuwaran.The method used in this research is descriptive-analysis. This method is used to provide an overview of the method of hypno-circumcision in Klinik Khitan Plus Hypnosis. This research found that method of hypno-circumcision in Klinik Khitan Plus Hypnosis is similar with hypnosis in general. The method of hypno-circumcision into four stages: preparation stage, induction stage, suggestion stage and termination stage. Preparation of hypno-circumcision in Klinik Khitan Plus Hypnosis begins from consultation to Ms. Novi as receptionist. Then, Induction is a main way to bring someone from conscious to subconscious mind. Giving suggestion is the core stage in the process of hypno-circumcision. Last stage is termination which defines as a gradual step to bring the subject to consciousness.

  20. Hypnosis in the Perioperative Management of Breast Cancer Surgery: Clinical Benefits and Potential Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Potié

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarize data published on the use of perioperative hypnosis in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery (BCS. Indeed, the majority of BCS patients experience stress, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and pain. Correct management of the perioperative period and surgical removal of the primary tumor are clearly essential but can affect patients on different levels and hence have a negative impact on oncological outcomes. This review examines the effect of clinical hypnosis performed during the perioperative period. Thanks to its specific properties and techniques allowing it to be used as complementary treatment preoperatively, hypnosis has an impact most notably on distress and postoperative pain. During surgery, hypnosis may be applied to limit immunosuppression, while, in the postoperative period, it can reduce pain, anxiety, and fatigue and improve wound healing. Moreover, hypnosis is inexpensive, an important consideration given current financial concerns in healthcare. Of course, large randomized prospective studies are now needed to confirm the observed advantages of hypnosis in the field of oncology.

  1. Clinical Hypnosis, an Effective Mind-Body Modality for Adolescents with Behavioral and Physical Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Breuner, Cora Collette

    2017-03-24

    Mind-body medicine is a system of health practices that includes meditation/relaxation training, guided imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback, yoga, art/music therapy, prayer, t'ai chi, and psychological therapies such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Clinical hypnosis is an important mind-body tool that serves as an adjunct to conventional medical care for the adolescent patient. Clinical hypnosis specifically uses self-directed therapeutic suggestions to cultivate the imagination and facilitate the mind-body connection, leading to positive emotional and physical well-being. There are many similarities between clinical hypnosis and other mind-body/self-regulatory modalities such as visual imagery, mindfulness meditation, yoga, and biofeedback that incorporate experiential learning and mechanisms for change. They may be viewed as subtypes of the hypnotic experience and share the common experience of trance as the entrée into self-empowered change in physiologic and psychological states. Clinical hypnosis can be used by health care providers to teach adolescents coping skills to deal with a wide variety of conditions such as chronic headaches, recurrent abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, grief and bereavement, phobias, anger, family stressors, sleep disorders, or enuresis. Clinical vignettes are given to help illustrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in adolescents.

  2. History of research centers and professional hypnosis societies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, E R

    1993-07-01

    The brief history of hypnosis in America begins with William James's chapter in his Principles of Psychology that got hypnosis off to a good start as a legitimate part of psychology. In the 20th century, before World War II, the idea of performing scientific investigations of hypnosis took place at Harvard University through William McDougall, at the University of Wisconsin and Yale University under Clark Hull, and, in its clinical aspects particularly, through the personal efforts of Milton H. Erickson. The resurgence after World War II is related to the use of hypnosis with war casualties during the war and with the development of clinical psychology. The aspects of the history emphasized here are the founding of continuing institutes and research centers, some theoretical cleavages that have persisted to this day, and the establishment of hypnosis societies with their journals, annual meetings, and workshops, including an International Society of Hypnosis. The history of Division 30 within the American Psychological Association brings the story up to date.

  3. Distribution of endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Shengzhou; Zhou, Naizhen; Wang, Chaolin; Wu, Xiaobing

    2014-10-01

    The digestive tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body; the distribution pattern of endocrine cells varies with different pathological and physiological states. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distributed density of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), gastrin (GAS), somatostatin (SS) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactive (IR) cells in the digestive tract of Alligator sinensis during the active and hibernating period by immunohistochemical (IHC) method. The results indicated that 5-HT-IR cells were distributed throughout the entire digestive tract, which were most predominant in duodenum and jejunum. The density increased significantly in stomach and duodenum during hibernation. GAS-IR cells were limited in small stomach and small intestine. The density decreased significantly in small stomach during hibernation, while increased in duodenum. What's more, most of the endocrine cells in duodenum were generally spindle shaped with long cytoplasmic processes ending in the lumen during hibernation. SS-IR cells were limited in stomach and small stomach. The density increased in stomach while decreased in small stomach during hibernation, meanwhile, fewer IR cells occurred in small intestine. VIP-IR cells occurred in stomach and small stomach. The density decreased in small stomach, while increased in stomach during hibernation. These results indicated that the endocrine cells in different parts of digestive tract varied differently during hibernation, their changes were adaptive response to the hibernation.

  4. Hibernation is associated with depression of T-cell independent humoral immune responses in the 13-lined ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Henning, Robert H.; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Carey, Hannah V.

    Mammalian hibernation consists of periods of low metabolism and body temperature (torpor), interspersed by euthermic arousal periods. The function of both the innate and adaptive immune system is suppressed during hibernation. In this study, we analyzed the humoral adaptive immune response to a

  5. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-Ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Hansen, Rasmus; Overgaard, Michael Toft;

    2016-01-01

    hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms, (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature, and decreased protease activity......Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5-7 months without eating, drinking, urinating and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing...... the proteome, metabolome, and hematologic features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma...

  6. Phenomenology, Hypnosis, and Chronic Pain: Steps for Clinical Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio da Silva Neubern

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes phenomenological notions of self-image and body schema as an explicative and clinical possibility for the relationship between hypnosis and chronic pain. It begins with a critique of the medical and nomothetic approach taken by contemporary research that does not usually address clinical issues, and then addresses a case study where a person suffering from chronic pain related both body schema and self-image is submitted to hypnotherapy. The study concludes that there is no linear relationship between such notions and that chronic pain is uniquely configured to each person. This requires a clinical and qualitative approach to access and understand chronic pain, both in terms of classic phenomenological notions of time, space, and material experiences, as well as socio-cultural dimensions that contribute to producing feelings related to the daily experiences of the subjects.

  7. Are hypnosis and dissociation related? New evidence for a connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jonathan M; Korman, Brandon M; Gold, Steven N

    2015-01-01

    The authors revisit the question of the existence of a relationship between hypnotizability and dissociative capacity. In the present study, the State Scale of Dissociation (SSD) replaced the commonly employed Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) as a measure of dissociation, due to the latter capturing primarily pathological aspects of dissociation. Relationships between the Harvard Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), the SSD, and the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) were assessed in the context of hypnosis. Robust results were found when comparing pre- to post-SSD scores, suggesting heightened nonpathological forms of dissociation are indeed related to hypnotizability. The appropriateness of the DES and similar trait-based measures for evaluating hypnotic phenomena is discussed as well as the relationships between PCI and SSD subscales.

  8. Hypnosis and inhibition as viewed by Heidenhain and Pavlov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1996-01-01

    About 1880, Rudolf Heidenhain, then Professor of Physiology and Histology at the University of Breslau, experimentally studied hypnotic phenomena. Heidenhain explained hypnosis physiologically, in terms of cortical inhibition. Subsequently, I.P. Pavlov, who in 1877 and again in 1884 was Heidenhain's student at Breslau, encountered hypnotic phenomena during conditional reflex experiments. In 1910, Pavlov described hypnotic states and explained them (as had Heidenhain three decades earlier), in terms of partial inhibition of the cortex. As the concepts of inhibition and excitation are cornerstones of Pavlov's theory of higher nervous activity, it is of historical interest to search for influences that led Pavlov to incorporate the concept of inhibition into his theory. It is most likely that Pavlov first encountered the concept of central inhibition in the 1860s when reading I.M. Sechenov's The Reflexes of the Brain (1863/1866) and that the importance of the concept was augmented by Heidenhain's use of it in explaining hypnotic phenomena.

  9. Expect the unexpected: ability, attitude, and responsiveness to hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Grant; Woody, Erik Z; Wilson, K Shannon; Nash, Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Participants' expectancies and hypnotic performance throughout the course of a standardized, individually administered hypnotic protocol were analyzed with a structural equation model that integrated underlying ability, expectancy, and hypnotic response. The model examined expectancies and ability as simultaneous predictors of hypnotic responses as well as hypnotic responses as an influence on subsequent expectancies. Results of the proposed model, which fit very well, supported each of the 4 major hypothesized effects: Expectancies showed significant stability across the course of the hypnosis protocol; expectancies influenced subsequent hypnotic responses, controlling for latent ability; hypnotic responses, in turn, affected subsequent expectancies; and a latent trait underlay hypnotic responses, controlling for expectancies. Although expectancies had a significant effect on hypnotic responsiveness, there was an abundance of variance in hypnotic performance unexplained by the direct or indirect influence of expectation and compatible with the presence of an underlying cognitive ability.

  10. Grizzly bears exhibit augmented insulin sensitivity while obese prior to a reversible insulin resistance during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, O Lynne; Jansen, Heiko T; Galbreath, Elizabeth; Morgenstern, Kurt; Gehring, Jamie Lauren; Rigano, Kimberly Scott; Lee, Jae; Gong, Jianhua; Shaywitz, Adam J; Vella, Chantal A; Robbins, Charles T; Corbit, Kevin C

    2014-08-01

    The confluence of obesity and diabetes as a worldwide epidemic necessitates the discovery of new therapies. Success in this endeavor requires translatable preclinical studies, which traditionally employ rodent models. As an alternative approach, we explored hibernation where obesity is a natural adaptation to survive months of fasting. Here we report that grizzly bears exhibit seasonal tripartite insulin responsiveness such that obese animals augment insulin sensitivity but only weeks later enter hibernation-specific insulin resistance (IR) and subsequently reinitiate responsiveness upon awakening. Preparation for hibernation is characterized by adiposity coupled to increased insulin sensitivity via modified PTEN/AKT signaling specifically in adipose tissue, suggesting a state of "healthy" obesity analogous to humans with PTEN haploinsufficiency. Collectively, we show that bears reversibly cope with homeostatic perturbations considered detrimental to humans and describe a mechanism whereby IR functions not as a late-stage metabolic adaptation to obesity, but rather a gatekeeper of the fed-fasting transition.

  11. The hibernating mobile phone: Dead storage as a barrier to efficient electronic waste recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Garrath T; Smalley, Grace; Suckling, James R; Lilley, Debra; Lee, Jacquetta; Mawle, Richard

    2017-02-01

    Hibernation, the dead storage period when a mobile phone is still retained by the user at its end-of-life, is both a common and a significant barrier to the effective flow of time-sensitive stock value within a circular economic model. In this paper we present the findings of a survey of 181 mobile phone owners, aged between 18-25years old, living and studying in the UK, which explored mobile phone ownership, reasons for hibernation, and replacement motives. This paper also outlines and implements a novel mechanism for quantifying the mean hibernation period based on the survey findings. The results show that only 33.70% of previously owned mobile phones were returned back into the system. The average duration of ownership of mobile phones kept and still in hibernation was 4years 11months, with average use and hibernation durations of 1year 11months, and 3years respectively; on average, mobile phones that are kept by the user are hibernated for longer than they are ever actually used as primary devices. The results also indicate that mobile phone replacement is driven primarily by physical (technological, functional and absolute) obsolescence, with economic obsolescence, partly in response to the notion of being 'due an upgrade', also featuring significantly. We also identify in this paper the concept of a secondary phone, a recently replaced phone that holds a different function for the user than their primary phone but is still valued and intentionally retained by the user, and which, we conclude, should be accounted for in any reverse logistics strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Kuang

    Full Text Available Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1 is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2, a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1 was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2 protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2 and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  13. Seasonal abundance and mortality of Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in a hibernation refuge

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. S. Santos; L. R. Redaelli; DIEFENBACH L. M. G.; ROMANOWSKI,H. P.; Prando,H. F.; R. C. Antochevis

    2006-01-01

    Oebalus poecilus (Dallas) is an important pest affecting irrigated rice in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It hibernates during the coldest months of the year in refuges such as bamboo litter. This study examined O. poecilus hibernation to determine the causes of mortality during this period. The study was conducted in a 140 m² bamboo plantation located in a rice-growing area in Eldorado do Sul County (30° 02’ S and 51° 23’ W), RS. During June 2000 to April 2002, 63 samples of litter were taken in...

  14. The effect of hypnosis on pain and peripheral blood flow in sickle-cell disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ravi R; Martin, Sarah R; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten; Coates, Thomas D; Zeltzer, Lonnie K; Tsao, Jennie C

    2017-01-01

    Vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOCs) are the "hallmark" of sickle-cell disease (SCD) and can lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. Increased sympathetic nervous system activation during VOCs and/or pain can result in vasoconstriction, which may increase the risk for subsequent VOCs and pain. Hypnosis is a neuromodulatory intervention that may attenuate vascular and pain responsiveness. Due to the lack of laboratory-controlled pain studies in patients with SCD and healthy controls, the specific effects of hypnosis on acute pain-associated vascular responses are unknown. The current study assessed the effects of hypnosis on peripheral blood flow, pain threshold, tolerance, and intensity in adults with and without SCD. Fourteen patients with SCD and 14 healthy controls were included. Participants underwent three laboratory pain tasks before and during a 30-minute hypnosis session. Peripheral blood flow, pain threshold, tolerance, and intensity before and during hypnosis were examined. A single 30-minute hypnosis session decreased pain intensity by a moderate amount in patients with SCD. Pain threshold and tolerance increased following hypnosis in the control group, but not in patients with SCD. Patients with SCD exhibited lower baseline peripheral blood flow and a greater increase in blood flow following hypnosis than controls. Given that peripheral vasoconstriction plays a role in the development of VOC, current findings provide support for further laboratory and clinical investigations of the effects of cognitive-behavioral neuromodulatory interventions on pain responses and peripheral vascular flow in patients with SCD. Current results suggest that hypnosis may increase peripheral vasodilation during both the anticipation and experience of pain in patients with SCD. These findings indicate a need for further examination of the effects of hypnosis on pain and vascular responses utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. Further evidence may help

  15. [Hypnosis for anxiety and phobic disorders: A review of clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissolo, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Hypnosis is classically presented as a useful psychotherapy for various psychiatric conditions, especially in the field of stress and anxiety. However, its place in therapeutic of chronic anxiety disorders remains unclear and questioned. Thus, the goal of this systematic review was to analyse the papers reporting clinical data on the efficacy of hypnosis in anxiety disorders. A literature search was conducted on Pubmed to retrieve all original papers, published between 1980 and 2015, reporting clinical information on the efficacy of hypnosis in six categories of anxiety disorders. Each paper has been assessed from a methodological point of view, and the results have been analysed. Only three controlled studies have been identified, one in panic disorder and two in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The other papers related open-design studies (4 articles), or single case reports (20 articles). The controlled study conducted in panic disorder suggested that the combination of hypnosis with cognitive-behavior therapy was not an effective strategy, and this negative result was also obtained in one of the studies conducted in PTSD. The third study, including 48 Indonesian children with PTSD, showed a significant improvement with a specific hypnosis technique adapted to the local culture. Other papers related also positive results but in non-controlled studies or in case reports, their conclusions cannot be generalized. To date, evidence is negative or insufficient to support the efficacy of hypnosis in chronic anxiety disorders, in any categories whatsoever - including phobia or PTSD. Specific further studies are needed to identify some potential profiles predictive of response to hypnosis in these conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Hypnosis Classes to Enhance the Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    2017-07-01

    The Healing Skills Project, consisting of five, four-session self-hypnosis classes, was a pilot-study to evaluate the impact of self-hypnosis on the quality of life for breast cancer patients. The impact of self-hypnosis in women with breast cancer was measured using a self-report instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast, pre- and post-intervention (Brady, et al., 1997; Maratia, Cedillo, & Rejas, 2016). After employing the self-hypnosis interventions, statistically significant changes were noted on 16 of the 36 items, despite the small sample size (N = 23). In summary, participants reported significantly less trouble meeting the needs of their family; less side effects; felt less ill, sad, and nervous; had less worry about dying and their condition getting worse; less shortness of breath; less swelling or tenderness in their arms; and less worry about the effects of stress on their illness. Participants also reported being significantly more able to enjoy life and sleep well; enjoy the usual things they do for fun; more content with their quality of life; feeling more attractive and more like a woman. Additionally, on a brief evaluation of the intervention form 86% of the participants indicated that the self-hypnosis classes were very useful and 100% indicated that it contributed to a noticeably improved quality of life. The pilot study offers support for the value of teaching self-hypnosis to breast cancer patients. This article includes an outline of the protocol for the four-session self-hypnosis classes.

  17. RNAi and heterochromatin repress centromeric meiotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Chad; Higuchi, Emily C; Phadnis, Naina

    2010-01-01

    to genetic disabilities, including birth defects. The basis by which centromeric meiotic recombination is repressed has been largely unknown. We report here that, in fission yeast, RNAi functions and Clr4-Rik1 (histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase) are required for repression of centromeric recombination...

  18. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques J. Frigault

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differentially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. TUG1 transcript levels were significantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  19. Up-regulation of Long Non-coding RNA TUG1 in Hibernating Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques J. Frigault; Daneck Lang-Ouellette; Pier Morin Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation is associated with multiple physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes that allow animals to endure colder temperatures. We hypothesize that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-coding transcripts with diverse functions, are differ-entially expressed during hibernation. In this study, expression levels of lncRNAs H19 and TUG1 were assessed via qRT-PCR in liver, heart, and skeletal muscle tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). TUG1 transcript levels were signifi-cantly elevated 1.94-fold in skeletal muscle of hibernating animals when compared with euthermic animals. Furthermore, transcript levels of HSF2 also increased 2.44-fold in the skeletal muscle in hibernating animals. HSF2 encodes a transcription factor that can be negatively regulated by TUG1 levels and that influences heat shock protein expression. Thus, these observations support the differential expression of the TUG1–HSF2 axis during hibernation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for differential expression of lncRNAs in torpid ground squirrels, adding lncRNAs as another group of transcripts modulated in this mammalian species during hibernation.

  20. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  1. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  2. Can Waking Suggestion Be as Effective as Hypnosis in Increasing Reading Efficiency? A Consideration for Educational Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappie, David Alexander

    The primary problem was concerned with the uses of hypnosis and waking suggestions as means of improving reading efficiency. A second problem concerned rectifying research design inadequacies related to hypnosis experiments. The procedure used pretest scores secured for rate, comprehension, and vocabulary. Subjects were placed in experimental and…

  3. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  4. Can Waking Suggestion Be as Effective as Hypnosis in Increasing Reading Efficiency? A Consideration for Educational Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappie, David Alexander

    The primary problem was concerned with the uses of hypnosis and waking suggestions as means of improving reading efficiency. A second problem concerned rectifying research design inadequacies related to hypnosis experiments. The procedure used pretest scores secured for rate, comprehension, and vocabulary. Subjects were placed in experimental and…

  5. Metabolic hormone FGF21 is induced in ground squirrels during hibernation but its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany T Nelson

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a natural adaptation that allows certain mammals to survive physiological extremes that are lethal to humans. Near freezing body temperatures, heart rates of 3-10 beats per minute, absence of food consumption, and depressed metabolism are characteristic of hibernation torpor bouts that are periodically interrupted by brief interbout arousals (IBAs. The molecular basis of torpor induction is unknown, however starved mice overexpressing the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 promote fat utilization, reduce body temperature, and readily enter torpor-all hallmarks of mammalian hibernation. In this study we cloned FGF21 from the naturally hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus and found that levels of FGF21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in serum are elevated during hibernation torpor bouts and significantly elevated during IBAs compared to summer active animals. The effects of artificially elevating circulating FGF21 concentrations 50 to 100-fold via adenoviral-mediated overexpression were examined at three different times of the year. This is the first time that a transgenic approach has been used in a natural hibernator to examine mechanistic aspects of hibernation. Surgically implanted transmitters measured various metrics of the hibernation phenotype over a 7-day period including changes in motor activity, heart rate and core body temperature. In April fed-state animals, FGF21 overexpression decreased blood insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, effects similar to those seen in obese mice. However, elevated FGF21 concentrations did not cause torpor in these fed-state animals nor did they cause torpor or affect metabolic parameters in fasted-state animals in March/April, August or October. We conclude that FGF21 is strongly regulated during torpor and IBA but that its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor in naturally hibernating ground squirrels.

  6. Hypnosis enhances recall memory: a test of forced and non-forced conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fligstein, D; Barabasz, A; Barabasz, M; Trevisan, M S; Warner, D

    1998-04-01

    Visual memory recall in hypnosis was investigated. To address criterion shift problems in previous studies, both forced and non-forced recall procedures were used. Previous methodological weaknesses with regard to hypnotizability and hypnotic depth were also addressed. Over 300 volunteers were screened for hypnotizability using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A (Shor & Orne, 1962). Final high and low hypnotizability groups were selected using the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Participants in each hypnotizability group were randomly assigned to either forced or non-forced recall conditions and to hypnosis or waking conditions. Participants were shown 60 slides of line drawings and then tested immediately in 3 recall periods. Analysis of variance results showed that those exposed to hypnosis and to a forced recall procedure were significantly more confident of their responses to correct items than those exposed to a non-forced recall procedure or a waking condition. Participants exposed to hypnosis and forced recall procedures recalled more correct items than those exposed to a waking condition. The findings support the hypermnesic effects of hypnosis when participants are required to provide a fixed number of responses.

  7. Effect of hypnosis on masseter EMG recorded during the 'resting' and a slightly open jaw posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Enaizan, N; Davey, K J; Lyons, M F; Cadden, S W

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to determine whether minimal levels of electromyographic activity in the masseter muscle are altered when individuals are in a verified hypnotic state. Experiments were performed on 17 volunteer subjects (8 male, 9 female) all of whom gave informed consent. The subjects were dentate and had no symptoms of pain or masticatory dysfunction. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were made from the masseter muscles and quantified by integration following full-wave rectification and averaging. The EMGs were obtained (i) with the mandible in 'resting' posture; (ii) with the mandible voluntarily lowered (but with the lips closed); (iii) during maximum voluntary clenching (MVC). The first two recordings were made before, during and after the subjects were in a hypnotic state. Susceptibility to hypnosis was assessed with Spiegel's eye-roll test, and the existence of the hypnotic state was verified by changes in ventilatory pattern. On average, EMG levels expressed as percentages of MVC were less: (i) when the jaw was deliberately lowered as opposed to being in the postural position: (ii) during hypnosis compared with during the pre- and post-hypnotic periods. However, analysis of variance followed by post hoc tests with multiple comparison corrections (Bonferroni) revealed that only the differences between the level during hypnosis and those before and after hypnosis were statistically significant (P hypnosis, it appears that part of that EMG is of biological origin.

  8. [A role for hypnosis in cataract surgery: Report of 171 procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agard, E; Pernod, C; El Chehab, H; Russo, A; Haxaire, M; Dot, C

    2016-03-01

    To study the effectiveness of relaxation hypnosis in outpatient cataract surgery. Prospective study of 171 patients undergoing cataract surgery under hypnosis, performed by the same nurse anesthetist. The procedures were performed by 2 senior surgeons, A and B (A=78 surgeries, and B=93 surgeries) under topical anesthesia and with a 2.2-mm mini-incision. The hypnosis group (n=102) was compared to a control group (n=69) according to quantitative, objective criteria: hemodynamic changes and the need for intravenous medication in operating room, as well as subjective, qualitative criteria: surgical comfort, effectiveness of hypnosis, and patient satisfaction. Subgroup analyses by surgeon, 1st and 2nd eye surgery, were performed. Hemodynamic parameters were not significantly different between the 2 groups: systolic blood pressure (P=0.06) and maximum heart rate (P=0.25). However, the use of intraoperative intravenous medication was significantly higher in the control group (49.3% versus 21.6%, Phypnosis group reported a mean comfort rating of 8.4/10, and 100% were satisfied with this hypnosis experience. Preliminary results of this study are very positive for all three parties: patient/anesthetist/surgeon. They are leading to an expanded university training program for operating room personnel in order to improve quality of care and reduce premedication in elderly patients so as to facilitate their return to home. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of hypnosis-based treatment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna ePalmieri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and its devastating neurodegenerative consequences have an inevitably psychological impact on patients and their caregivers: however, although it would be strongly needed, there is a lack of research on the efficacy of psychological intervention. Our aim was to investigate the effect of hypnosis-based intervention on psychological and perceived physical wellbeing in patients and the indirect effect on caregivers. Methods: We recruited 8 ALS volunteers patients as a pilot sample for an hypnosis intervention and self-hypnosis training protocol lasting one month. Anxiety and depression level was measured in patients and caregivers at pre and post treatment phase. Quality of life and perceived physical symptoms changes were also investigated in patients. Results: One month pre-post treatment improvement in depression, anxiety and quality of life was clearly clinically observed and confirmed by psychometric analyses on questionnaire data. Moreover, decreases in physical symptoms such as pain, sleep disorders, emotional lability and fasciculations were reported by our patients. Improvements in caregiver psychological wellbeing, likely as a consequence of patients psychological and perceived physical symptomatology improvement, were also observed. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, even if at a preliminary level, this is the first report on efficacy psychological intervention protocol on ALS patients. The findings provide initial support for using hypnosis and self-hypnosis training to manage some ALS physical consequences and mainly to cope its dramatic psychological implications for patients and, indirectly, for their caregivers.

  10. Warming up for sleep? - ground squirrels sleep during arousals from hibernation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Barnes, Brian M.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (δ power

  11. WARMING UP FOR SLEEP - GROUND-SQUIRRELS SLEEP DURING AROUSALS FROM HIBERNATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAAN, S; BARNES, BM; STRIJKSTRA, AM

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity (delta-p

  12. Ambient temperature during torpor affects NREM sleep EEG during arousal episodes in hibernating European ground squirrels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Ambient temperature (T-a) systematically affects the frequency of arousal episodes in mammalian hibernation. This variation might hypothetically be attributed to temperature effects on the rate of sleep debt increase in torpor. We studied this rate by recording sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) in

  13. Dissimilarity of slow-wave activity enhancement by torpor and sleep deprivation in a hibernator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkstra, AM; Daan, S

    1998-01-01

    Sleep regulation processes have been hypothesized to be involved in function and timing of arousal episodes in hibernating ground squirrels. We investigated the importance of sleep regulation during arousal episodes by sleep deprivation experiments. After sleep deprivation of 4, 12, and 24 h,

  14. Thermotelemetric study on the hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (Linnaeus, 1758), under natural circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, R.E.M.B.; Gelder, van J.J.; Lenders, A.

    1989-01-01

    By means of radio-thermotelemetry a study was made of the thermoregulatory patterns during hibernation of a common hamster, Cricetus cricetus (L., 1758) under natural conditions. In the euthermic state, body temperature (Tb) fluctuated between 36.4 and 38.6°C with Tb higher than 37.0°C probably indi

  15. Waking self-hypnosis efficacy in cognitive-behavioral treatment for pathological gambling: an effectiveness clinical assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Daniel; Montesinos, Rosa; Capafons, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pathological gambling has a long-term success rate of more than 50%. This study evaluated the effect of self-hypnosis in cognitive-behavioral treatment of pathological gamblers. Forty-nine participants were assigned to 2 groups. Both groups received a cognitive-behavioral protocol, and Group 1, the no-hypnosis group, received an 11-session intervention and Group 2, the hypnosis group, received 7 sessions that included self-hypnosis. Both groups were equal in gambling chronicity, frequency, intensity, change motivation, and problems derived from gambling. All participants reported significant improvement in gambling behavior and consequences at both treatment end and 6-month follow-up. Data show no differences between the interventions in abstinence, therapeutic compliance, fulfillment, and satisfaction. Results suggest that self-hypnosis reinforces treatment and can be a supportive technique for future brief interventions.

  16. Cholecystokinin activation of central satiety centers changes seasonally in a mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P; Raybould, Helen E; Carey, Hannah V

    2011-05-01

    Hibernators that rely on lipids during winter exhibit profound changes in food intake over the annual cycle. The mechanisms that regulate appetite changes in seasonal hibernators remain unclear, but likely consist of complex interactions between gut hormones, adipokines, and central processing centers. We hypothesized that seasonal changes in the sensitivity of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to the gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) may contribute to appetite regulation in ground squirrels. Spring (SPR), late summer (SUM), and winter euthermic hibernating (HIB) 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) were treated with intraperitoneal CCK (100 μg/kg) or vehicle (CON) for 3h and Fos expression in the NTS was quantified. In CON squirrels, numbers of Fos-positive neurons in HIB were low compared to SPR and SUM. CCK treatment increased Fos-positive neurons in the NTS at the levels of the area postrema (AP) and pre AP during all seasons and at the level of the rostral AP in HIB squirrels. The highest absolute levels of Fos-positive neurons were found in SPR CCK squirrels, but the highest relative increase from CON was found in HIB CCK squirrels. Fold-changes in Fos-positive neurons in SUM were intermediate between SPR and HIB. Thus, CCK sensitivity falls from SPR to SUM suggesting that seasonal changes in sensitivity of NTS neurons to vagally-derived CCK may influence appetite in the active phase of the annual cycle in hibernating squirrels. Enhanced sensitivity to CCK signaling in NTS neurons of hibernators indicates that changes in gut-brain signaling may contribute to seasonal changes in food intake during the annual cycle.

  17. 基于Hibernate JPA和JQuery框架的数据查询研究与实现%Research and Implementation of Data Query Based on Hibernate JPA and JQuery Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭莹宇

    2012-01-01

    This article researches the base theory of Hibernate JPA query framework, and describes the method and process of data query designed and implemented by JPA and Jquery. In addition, the article summarizes the characteristics and advantages of data query based on Hibernate JPA query framework.%在研究Hibernate JPA查询技术理论的基础上,阐述JPA结合视图组件JQuery框架技术设计和实现数据查询的方法过程.着重总结Hibernate JPA结合JQuery框架实现数据查询的特点以及相对其它技术的优势.

  18. The effect of self-hypnosis on duration of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-01-01

    the usual antenatal care were compared. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of labor, birth complications, lactation success, caring for the child, and preferred future mode of delivery. RESULTS: No differences were found across the three groups on duration from arriving at the birth department until...... the expulsive phase of second stage of labor, the duration of the expulsive phase, or other birth outcomes. Fewer emergency and more elective cesarean sections occurred in the hypnosis group. No difference was seen across the groups for lactation success or caring for the child but fewer women in the hypnosis......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of a brief course in self-hypnosis for childbirth on duration of the labor and other birth outcomes. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial. SETTING: Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 1222 healthy nulliparous women...

  19. Local identifiability and sensitivity analysis of neuromuscular blockade and depth of hypnosis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M M; Lemos, J M; Coito, A; Costa, B A; Wigren, T; Mendonça, T

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the local identifiability and sensitivity properties of two classes of Wiener models for the neuromuscular blockade and depth of hypnosis, when drug dose profiles like the ones commonly administered in the clinical practice are used as model inputs. The local parameter identifiability was assessed based on the singular value decomposition of the normalized sensitivity matrix. For the given input signal excitation, the results show an over-parameterization of the standard pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models. The same identifiability assessment was performed on recently proposed minimally parameterized parsimonious models for both the neuromuscular blockade and the depth of hypnosis. The results show that the majority of the model parameters are identifiable from the available input-output data. This indicates that any identification strategy based on the minimally parameterized parsimonious Wiener models for the neuromuscular blockade and for the depth of hypnosis is likely to be more successful than if standard models are used.

  20. Effect of Hypnosis During Administration of Local Anesthesia in Six- to 16-year-old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Jyoti; Panda, Anup; Garg, Iti

    2016-01-01

    Hypnosis is a tool that can help pediatric dentists allay fear or increase patient cooperation while administering local anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypnosis altered a patient's physical and/or verbal resistance and oxygen saturation or heart rate during administration of local anesthesia. Two hundred six- to 16-year-olds were randomly allocated to either a control group or an experimental group that received hypnotic induction prior to the delivery of local anesthesia. Subjects were monitored for signs of physical or verbal resistance and changes in pulse rate and oxygen saturation at baseline and upon administration of local anesthetic. Children under hypnosis exhibited significantly less resistance to administration of local anesthesia (Phypnosis may increase patient cooperation, decrease resistance during painful procedures, and lead to a lower heart rate.

  1. The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and anxiety on eyewitness memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, D J; Bothwell, R K; Brigham, J C

    1997-01-01

    The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and motivational instructions on accuracy of recall for factual information and facial recognition accuracy following a stressful event were assessed. None of the three techniques had a significant effect on factual memory or susceptibility to suggestion as assessed by true-false and multiple-choice tests. However, participants high in hypnotic susceptibility showed somewhat better memory on the true-false test, and hypnosis affected performance on the two photograph line-ups. In addition, hypnosis appeared to enhance facial recognition accuracy for participants who were low in anxiety, but not for those high in anxiety. Finally, there was evidence of a curvilinear relationship between self-reported anxiety at time of retrieval and facial recognition accuracy.

  2. Anterior brain functions and hypnosis: a test of the frontal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, S; Revonsuo, A; Hämäläinen, H; Markela, J; Gruzelier, J

    2001-04-01

    Neuropsychological frontal lobe tests were used to compare individuals with high (n = 8) and low (n = 9) hypnotizability during both baseline and hypnosis conditions. Subjects were assessed on two hypnotic susceptibility scales and a test battery that included the Stroop test, word fluency to letter- and semantic-designated categories, tests of simple reaction time and choice reaction time, a vigilance task, and a questionnaire of 40 self-descriptive statements of focused attention. Effects for hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis/control conditions were scant across the dependent variables. High hypnotizables scored higher on the questionnaire at baseline, and their performance on the word-fluency task during hypnosis was reduced to a greater extent than lows. Findings indicate that although the frontal area may play an important role regarding hypnotic response, the mechanisms seem to be much more complex than mere general inhibition.

  3. Effect of hypnosis on oral function and psychological factors in temporomandibular disorders patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Randi; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypnosis in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with focus on oral function and psychological outcomes. Forty women (mean age +/- s.d.: 38.6 +/- 10.8 years) suffering from TMD (mean duration 11.9 +/- 9.9 years) were randomized to four individual 1......, psychological symptoms (Symptom Check List 60), pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire), sleep difficulties (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and use of analgesics. Data were analyzed with between-groups within-subjects anovas. The hypnosis group significantly reduced the daily NRS pain scores...... from 4.5 +/- 2.1 at baseline to 2.9 +/- 2.4 after treatment (P hypnosis group also increased use of the coping strategy...

  4. Hypnosis for Hot Flashes and Associated Symptomsin Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R Lynae; Na, Hyeji; Yek, Ming Hwei; Elkins, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Women with breast cancer experience a host of physical and psychological symptoms, including hot flashes, sleep difficulties, anxiety, and depression. Therefore, treatment for women with breast cancer should target these symptoms and be individualized to patients' specific presentations. The current article reviews the common symptoms associated with breast cancer in women, then examines clinical hypnosis as a treatment for addressing these symptoms and improving the quality of life of women with breast cancer. Clinical hypnosis is an effective, nonpharmaceutical treatment for hot flashes and addressing many symptoms typically experienced by breast cancer patients. A case example is provided to illustrate the use of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of hot flashes with a patient with breast cancer.

  5. Optimized PID control of depth of hypnosis in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Fabrizio; Ionescu, Clara; Latronico, Nicola; Paltenghi, Massimiliano; Visioli, Antonio; Vivacqua, Giulio

    2017-06-01

    This paper addresses the use of proportional-integral-derivative controllers for regulating the depth of hypnosis in anesthesia by using propofol administration and the bispectral index as a controlled variable. In fact, introducing an automatic control system might provide significant benefits for the patient in reducing the risk for under- and over-dosing. In this study, the controller parameters are obtained through genetic algorithms by solving a min-max optimization problem. A set of 12 patient models representative of a large population variance is used to test controller robustness. The worst-case performance in the considered population is minimized considering two different scenarios: the induction case and the maintenance case. Our results indicate that including a gain scheduling strategy enables optimal performance for induction and maintenance phases, separately. Using a single tuning to address both tasks may results in a loss of performance up to 102% in the induction phase and up to 31% in the maintenance phase. Further on, it is shown that a suitably designed low-pass filter on the controller output can handle the trade-off between the performance and the noise effect in the control variable. Optimally tuned PID controllers provide a fast induction time with an acceptable overshoot and a satisfactory disturbance rejection performance during maintenance. These features make them a very good tool for comparison when other control algorithms are developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Event-Based control of depth of hypnosis in anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Luca; Beschi, Manuel; Padula, Fabrizio; Latronico, Nicola; Paltenghi, Massimiliano; Visioli, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of an event-based control strategy for the closed-loop control of the depth of hypnosis in anesthesia by using propofol administration and the bispectral index as a controlled variable. A new event generator with high noise-filtering properties is employed in addition to a PIDPlus controller. The tuning of the parameters is performed off-line by using genetic algorithms by considering a given data set of patients. The effectiveness and robustness of the method is verified in simulation by implementing a Monte Carlo method to address the intra-patient and inter-patient variability. A comparison with a standard PID control structure shows that the event-based control system achieves a reduction of the total variation of the manipulated variable of 93% in the induction phase and of 95% in the maintenance phase. The use of event based automatic control in anesthesia yields a fast induction phase with bounded overshoot and an acceptable disturbance rejection. A comparison with a standard PID control structure shows that the technique effectively mimics the behavior of the anesthesiologist by providing a significant decrement of the total variation of the manipulated variable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypnosis decouples cognitive control from conflict monitoring processes of the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Tobias; Jamieson, Graham; Gruzelier, John

    2005-10-01

    Hypnosis can profoundly alter sensory awareness and cognitive processing. While the cognitive and behavioral phenomena associated with hypnosis have long been thought to relate to attentional processes, the neural mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypnotic induction and the hypnotic condition are poorly understood. Here, we tested the proposal that highly hypnotizable individuals are particularly adept at focusing attention at baseline, but that their attentional control is compromised following hypnosis due to a decoupling between conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes of the frontal lobe. Employing event-related fMRI and EEG coherence measures, we compared conflict-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and control-related activity in the lateral frontal cortex (LFC) during Stroop task performance between participants of low and high hypnotic susceptibility, at baseline and after hypnotic induction. The fMRI data revealed that conflict-related ACC activity interacted with hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility, in that highly susceptible participants displayed increased conflict-related neural activity in the hypnosis condition compared to baseline, as well as with respect to subjects with low susceptibility. Cognitive-control-related LFC activity, on the other hand, did not differ between groups and conditions. These data were complemented by a decrease in functional connectivity (EEG gamma band coherence) between frontal midline and left lateral scalp sites in highly susceptible subjects after hypnosis. These results suggest that individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility are linked with the efficiency of the frontal attention system, and that the hypnotized condition is characterized by a functional dissociation of conflict monitoring and cognitive control processes.

  8. The role of endogenous H2S formation in reversible remodeling of lung tissue during hibernation in the Syrian hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Boerema, Ate S.; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Rob H.

    During hibernation, small mammals alternate between periods of metabolic suppression and low body temperature ('torpor') and periods of full metabolic recovery with euthermic temperatures ('arousal'). Previously, we demonstrated marked structural remodeling of the lung during torpor, which is

  9. [Use of hypnosis in treating a patient with dental anxiety: A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, J; Ratson, T

    2015-10-01

    Dental anxiety is quite common and may lead to dental neglect due to lack of regular visits to the dental clinic. The difficulties in managing anxious patients are characterized by prolonged visits, a tendency to cancel appointments and a tense atmo- sphere during treatment. The use of hypnosis while treating an anxious patient can help create a posi- tive environment and shorten the duration of dental appointments as well. The article describes a case in which hypnosis was used while treating a patient who had suffered from dental anxiety for over 20 years.

  10. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  11. Focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique: rapid self-hypnosis for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatone, Brooke

    2013-04-01

    This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective.

  12. Biochemical Foundations of Health and Energy Conservation in Hibernating Free-ranging Subadult Brown Bear Ursus arctos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welinder, Karen Gjesing; Hansen, Rasmus; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Brohus, Malene; Sønderkær, Mads; von Bergen, Martin; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Otto, Wolfgang; Lindahl, Tomas L; Arinell, Karin; Evans, Alina L; Swenson, Jon E; Revsbech, Inge G; Frøbert, Ole

    2016-10-21

    Brown bears (Ursus arctos) hibernate for 5-7 months without eating, drinking, urinating, and defecating at a metabolic rate of only 25% of the summer activity rate. Nonetheless, they emerge healthy and alert in spring. We quantified the biochemical adaptations for hibernation by comparing the proteome, metabolome, and hematological features of blood from hibernating and active free-ranging subadult brown bears with a focus on conservation of health and energy. We found that total plasma protein concentration increased during hibernation, even though the concentrations of most individual plasma proteins decreased, as did the white blood cell types. Strikingly, antimicrobial defense proteins increased in concentration. Central functions in hibernation involving the coagulation response and protease inhibition, as well as lipid transport and metabolism, were upheld by increased levels of very few key or broad specificity proteins. The changes in coagulation factor levels matched the changes in activity measurements. A dramatic 45-fold increase in sex hormone-binding globulin levels during hibernation draws, for the first time, attention to its significant but unknown role in maintaining hibernation physiology. We propose that energy for the costly protein synthesis is reduced by three mechanisms as follows: (i) dehydration, which increases protein concentration without de novo synthesis; (ii) reduced protein degradation rates due to a 6 °C reduction in body temperature and decreased protease activity; and (iii) a marked redistribution of energy resources only increasing de novo synthesis of a few key proteins. The comprehensive global data identified novel biochemical strategies for bear adaptations to the extreme condition of hibernation and have implications for our understanding of physiology in general.

  13. Translational repression by PUF proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chritton, Jacqueline J; Wickens, Marvin

    2010-06-01

    PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins provide a paradigm for mRNA regulatory proteins. They interact with specific sequences in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNAs and cause changes in RNA stability or translational activity. Here we describe an in vitro translation assay that reconstitutes the translational repression activity of canonical PUF proteins. In this system, recombinant PUF proteins were added to yeast cell lysates to repress reporter mRNAs bearing the 3'UTRs of specific target mRNAs. PUF proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans were active in the assay and were specific by multiple criteria. Puf5p, a yeast PUF protein, repressed translation of four target RNAs. Repression mediated by the HO 3'UTR was particularly efficient, due to a specific sequence in that 3'UTR. The sequence lies downstream from the PUF binding site and does not affect PUF protein binding. PUF-mediated repression was sensitive to the distance between the ORF and the regulatory elements in the 3'UTR: excessive distance decreased repression activity. Our data demonstrate that PUF proteins function in vitro across species, that different mRNA targets are regulated differentially, and that specific ancillary sequences distinguish one yeast mRNA target from another. We suggest a model in which PUF proteins can control translation termination or elongation.

  14. Increased oxidative stress and decreased activities of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the red blood cells of the hibernating black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.P.S.; Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, A.; Sheikh, A.M.; Brown, W. Ted; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, animals undergo metabolic changes that result in reduced utilization of glucose and oxygen. Fat is known to be the preferential source of energy for hibernating animals. Malonyldialdehyde (MDA) is an end product of fatty acid oxidation, and is generally used as an index of lipid peroxidation. We report here that peroxidation of lipids is increased in the plasma and in the membranes of red blood cells in black bears during hibernation. The plasma MDA content was about four fold higher during hibernation as compared to that during the active, non-hibernating state (P increased during hibernation (P increased oxidative stress, and have reduced activities of membrane-bound enzymes such as Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase. These changes can be considered part of the adaptive for survival process of metabolic depression. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical adaptations of mammalian hibernation: exploring squirrels as a perspective model for naturally induced reversible insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C-W.; Biggar, K.K.; Storey, K.B. [Carleton University, Department of Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-01-28

    An important disease among human metabolic disorders is type 2 diabetes mellitus. This disorder involves multiple physiological defects that result from high blood glucose content and eventually lead to the onset of insulin resistance. The combination of insulin resistance, increased glucose production, and decreased insulin secretion creates a diabetic metabolic environment that leads to a lifetime of management. Appropriate models are critical for the success of research. As such, a unique model providing insight into the mechanisms of reversible insulin resistance is mammalian hibernation. Hibernators, such as ground squirrels and bats, are excellent examples of animals exhibiting reversible insulin resistance, for which a rapid increase in body weight is required prior to entry into dormancy. Hibernator studies have shown differential regulation of specific molecular pathways involved in reversible resistance to insulin. The present review focuses on this growing area of research and the molecular mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis, and explores the roles of the Akt signaling pathway during hibernation. Here, we propose a link between hibernation, a well-documented response to periods of environmental stress, and reversible insulin resistance, potentially facilitated by key alterations in the Akt signaling network, PPAR-γ/PGC-1α regulation, and non-coding RNA expression. Coincidentally, many of the same pathways are frequently found to be dysregulated during insulin resistance in human type 2 diabetes. Hence, the molecular networks that may regulate reversible insulin resistance in hibernating mammals represent a novel approach by providing insight into medical treatment of insulin resistance in humans.

  16. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  17. Blood hibernation: a novel strategy to inhibit systemic inflammation and coagulation induced by cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jing; WU Xiao-dong; LIN Ke; Raphael C. Lui; AN Qi; TAO Kai-yu; DU Lei; LIU Jin

    2010-01-01

    Background Inflammation and coagulation are two intimately cross-linked defense mechanisms of most, if not all organisms to injuries. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), these two process-is are activated and interact with each other through several common pathways, which may result in subsequent organ dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that the addition of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), and aprotinin to the systemic circulation, hereby referred to as blood hibernation, would attenuate the inflammation and coagulation induced by CPB. Methods Thirty adult mongrel dogs were equally divided into five groups, anesthetized and placed on hypothermic CPB (32 C). Each group received respectively the following treatments: (1) inhalation of 40 ppm nitric oxide; (2) intravenous infusion of 20 ng·kg-1·min-1 of PGE1; (3) 80 000 kallikrein inhibitor units (KIU)/kg of aprotinin; (4) the combination of all three agents (blood hibernation group); and (5) no treatment (control group) during CPB. Activation of leukocyte, platelet, endothelial cell, and formation of thrombin were assessed after CPB.Results As compared with the other four groups, leukocyte counts were higher, while plasma elastase, interleukin-8, CD11b mRNA expression, myeloperoxidase activities and lung tissue leukocyte counts were lower in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups after CPB). Plasma prothrombin fragment (PTF)1+2, and platelet activation factors were lower, while platelet counts were higher in the blood hibernation group (P<0.05 versus other four groups at 6 and 12 hours after CPB). Electron microscopy showed endothelial pseudopods protrusion, with cell adherence in all four groups except the blood hibernation group where endothelial cells remained intact.Conclusion Blood hibernation, effected by the addition of nitric oxide, PGE1 and aprotinin to the circulating blood during extra-corporeal circulation, was observed to attenuate the inflammation and

  18. Nocturnal mouthpiece ventilation and medical hypnosis to treat severe obstructive sleep apnea in a child with cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, Sonia; Kadlub, Natacha; Delord, Vincent; Picard, Arnaud; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2013-09-01

    A 4-year old boy presented severe obstructive sleep apnoea due to complete nasal obstruction secondary to cherubism. Because of anticipatory anxiety due to numerous surgical interventions, medical hypnosis was proposed to facilitate non-invasive continuous positive pressure ventilation (CPAP) acceptance. CPAP by means of an oral interface was completely accepted after three hypnosis sessions and resulted in the correction of his obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome. This report highlights the benefit of medical hypnosis in facilitating CPAP acceptance as well as the efficacy of mouthpiece ventilation in a severe form of cherubism with complete nasal obstruction.

  19. The effect of hypnosis on pain and peripheral blood flow in sickle-cell disease: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt RR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ravi R Bhatt,1 Sarah R Martin,1 Subhadra Evans,2 Kirsten Lung,1 Thomas D Coates,3,4 Lonnie K Zeltzer,1 Jennie C Tsao1 1UCLA Pediatric Pain and Palliative Care Program, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4Children’s Center for Cancer and Blood Diseases, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Background: Vaso-occlusive pain crises (VOCs are the “hallmark” of sickle-cell disease (SCD and can lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. Increased sympathetic nervous system activation during VOCs and/or pain can result in vasoconstriction, which may increase the risk for subsequent VOCs and pain. Hypnosis is a neuromodulatory intervention that may attenuate vascular and pain responsiveness. Due to the lack of laboratory-controlled pain studies in patients with SCD and healthy controls, the specific effects of hypnosis on acute pain-associated vascular responses are unknown. The current study assessed the effects of hypnosis on peripheral blood flow, pain threshold, tolerance, and intensity in adults with and without SCD. Subjects and methods: Fourteen patients with SCD and 14 healthy controls were included. Participants underwent three laboratory pain tasks before and during a 30-minute hypnosis session. Peripheral blood flow, pain threshold, tolerance, and intensity before and during hypnosis were examined. Results: A single 30-minute hypnosis session decreased pain intensity by a moderate amount in patients with SCD. Pain threshold and tolerance increased following hypnosis in the control group, but not in patients with SCD. Patients with SCD exhibited lower baseline peripheral blood flow and a greater increase in blood flow following hypnosis than controls. Conclusion: Given that

  20. [Hypnosis and touch-massage to relieve pain at the end of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine; Moreaux, Thierry; Pasturel, Agnès; Wood, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of pain in palliative care requires specific expertise. "Complementary" methods, such as hypnosis or "Toucher-Massage", for example, not only have an effect on the prevention and treatment of pain, but also contribute to the overall support of the patient.

  1. Impact of Hypnosis Intervention in Alleviating Psychological and Physical Symptoms During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beevi, Zuhrah; Low, Wah Yun; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2016-04-01

    Physical symptoms (e.g., vomiting) and psychological symptoms (stress, anxiety, and depression) during pregnancy are common. Various strategies such as hypnosis are available to reduce these symptoms. The objective of the authors in this study is to investigate the impact of a hypnosis intervention in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy. A pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design was employed in this study. The hypnosis intervention was given to the experimental group participants at weeks 16 (baseline), 20 (time point 1), 28 (time point 2), and 36 (time point 3) of their pregnancy. Participants in the control group received only the traditional antenatal care. Participants from both groups completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) and a Pregnancy Symptoms Checklist at weeks 16, 20, 28 and 36 of pregnancy. Results indicated that stress and anxiety symptoms were significantly reduced for the experimental group, but not for the control group. Although mean differences for the depressive symptoms were not significant, the experimental group had lower symptoms at time point 3. The physical symptoms' results showed significant group differences at time point 3, indicating a reduction in the experience of physical symptoms for the experimental group participants. Our study showed that hypnosis intervention during pregnancy aided in reducing physical and psychological symptoms during pregnancy.

  2. Applying Hypnosis to Treat Problems in School-Age Children: Reviewing Science and Debunking Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; McClung, Ashley A.; Bressette, Keri A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical hypnosis, defined as a "therapeutic technique in which clinicians make suggestions to individuals who have undergone a procedure designed to relax them and focus their minds" (American Psychological Association, n.d.), is a relaxation-based tool that has uses in the treatment of anxiety, pain, and a range of stress-related…

  3. Hypnosis compared with group therapy and individual desensitization for dental anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod; Abrahamsen, Randi; Brødsgaard, I

    1996-01-01

    Effects of hypnotherapy (HT) and self-hypnosis training on extreme dental anxiety in adults aged 19-65 years were compared with group therapy (GT) and individual desensitization (SD) using scales of dental anxiety, dental beliefs, and fear of a next dentist (after specialist treatment). All...

  4. The history of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Hypnose (Netherlands Society of Hypnosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsen, A; Wilken, T

    2001-07-01

    The foundation and history of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Hypnose (Netherlands Society of Hypnosis or Nvvh) is described. The year 2001 marks the 70th anniversary of the Nvvh's creation. The article describes the accomplishments, leadership, and philosophy of the Society across the decades. Current professional and training directions are discussed.

  5. Hypnosis in Spain (1888-1905): from spectacle to medical treatment of mediumship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Towards the end of the nineteenth century, some Spanish physicians sought to legitimize hypnotherapy within medicine. At the same time, hypnotism was being popularized among the Spanish population through stage hypnosis shows. In order to extend the use of medical hypnotherapy, some physicians made efforts to demarcate the therapeutic use of hypnotic suggestion from its application for recreational purposes, as performed by stage hypnotists. However, in the eyes of some physicians, the first public session to legitimize hypnotherapy turned out to be a complete failure due to its similarities with a stage hypnosis performance. Apart from exploring this kind of hitherto little-known historical cases, we explore the role of spiritists in legitimizing medical hypnosis. At a time when Spanish citizens were still reluctant to accept hypnotherapy, the spiritists sponsored a charitable clinic where treatment using hypnosis was offered. We conclude that the clinic was effective in promoting the use of hypnotherapy, both among physicians as clinical practice, and as a medical treatment for patients from the less privileged classes of Spanish society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypnosis as an Adjunct Treatment for Distress Associated with Pediatric Cancer Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jerre Lee

    This paper reviews research literature pertaining to the pain and anxiety associated with pediatric cancer and the use of hypnosis as an adjunct treatment. It is noted that pain and anxiety are most often associated with the procedural treatment of cancer, and that the literature suggests that both pain and anxiety are multi-faceted constructs.…

  7. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  8. DEFINING THE HYPNOSIS FROM THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY: SOME LINES OF SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYPNOTICS PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cristóbal Ruiz Díaz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we defined hypnosis from a psychobiologic viewpoint. We understand this phenomenonas a particular “global state” in which the subject exhibit changes both in subjective – conscious state - and invisceral, automatic and behavioural process, al these as a result of integrative activity of the neuro-endocrinesystem (NES. Here we petend two objetives, the first: to outline a preliminar definition of hypnosis as a state,and the second: present a review of some neuroscientific studies about different hypnotic phenomena. Withinthe hypnotic phenomena, we select five of them of general interest: pain, perceptual modulation, emotionalevocation, phobia treatment and attentional conflict manegment in hipnosis. These are relevant due they may contribute unto a vast development in basic investigation and in aplied psychotherapy. Phobia investigation has demonstrate the positive effect in patients highly hypnotizable, this treatment aloud to restore the sympatic-vagal balance. The brain imaging results suggest an attentional change model, in which participate the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Emotional control studies stablished changes in evoqued potential in different cortical regions. The hypnosis posibillities to inhibit and to evoke emotions in front of specific virtual events are of enormous value in therapy. Attentional studies present the effect of specific suggestions in higly hipnotizable patients, the activity of ACC and visual cortex decrease significatively. These outcomes correlate with a lessen attentional conflict (attentional interference during Stroop paradigm. All these findingsdemonstrate that hypnosis is a productive field for basic and clinical investigation.

  9. The Law, Policy, and Politics of Formal Hypnosis in the Public Community College Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Steven Mark

    Information from printed sources, legal documents, and interviews with community college administrators formed the basis of an investigation of the legal, policy, and political implications of the use of formal hypnosis as an instructional augmentation in the community college classroom. Study findings included the following: (1) no formal policy…

  10. Control of Respiratory Motion by Hypnosis Intervention during Radiotherapy of Lung Cancer I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongmao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The uncertain position of lung tumor during radiotherapy compromises the treatment effect. To effectively control respiratory motion during radiotherapy of lung cancer without any side effects, a novel control scheme, hypnosis, has been introduced in lung cancer treatment. In order to verify the suggested method, six volunteers were selected with a wide range of distribution of age, weight, and chest circumference. A set of experiments have been conducted for each volunteer, under the guidance of the professional hypnotist. All the experiments were repeated in the same environmental condition. The amplitude of respiration has been recorded under the normal state and hypnosis, respectively. Experimental results show that the respiration motion of volunteers in hypnosis has smaller and more stable amplitudes than in normal state. That implies that the hypnosis intervention can be an alternative way for respiratory control, which can effectively reduce the respiratory amplitude and increase the stability of respiratory cycle. The proposed method will find useful application in image-guided radiotherapy.

  11. Applying Hypnosis to Treat Problems in School-Age Children: Reviewing Science and Debunking Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; McClung, Ashley A.; Bressette, Keri A.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical hypnosis, defined as a "therapeutic technique in which clinicians make suggestions to individuals who have undergone a procedure designed to relax them and focus their minds" (American Psychological Association, n.d.), is a relaxation-based tool that has uses in the treatment of anxiety, pain, and a range of stress-related…

  12. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  13. [Ornithine decarboxylase in mammalian organs and tissues at hibernation and artificial hypobiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinovich, O S; Aksenova, G E

    2013-01-01

    Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, EC 4.1.1.17.) is a short-lived and dynamically regulated enzyme of polyamines biosynthesis. Regulation of functional, metabolic and proliferative state of organs and tissues involves the modifications of the ODC enzymatic activity. The organ-specific changes in ODC activity were revealed in organs and tissues (liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and intestinal mucosa) of hibernating mammals - squirrels Spermophilus undulates - during the hibernating season. At that, a positive correlation was detected between the decline and recovery of the specialized functions of organs and tissues and the respective modifications of ODC activity during hibernation bouts. Investigation of changes in ODC activity in organs and tissues of non-hibernating mammals under artificial hypobiosis showed that in Wistar rats immediately after exposure to hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia (hypobiosis) the level of ODC activity was low in thymus, spleen, small intestine mucosa, neocortex, and liver. The most marked reduction in enzyme activity was observed in actively proliferating tissues: thymus, spleen, small intestine mucosa. In bone marrow of squirrels, while in a state of torpor, as well as in thymus of rats after exposure to hypothermia-hypoxia-hypercapnia, changes in the ODC activity correlated with changes in the rate of cell proliferation (by the criterion of cells distribution over cell cycle). The results obtained, along with the critical analysis of published data, indicate that the ODC enzyme is involved in biochemical adaptation of mammals to natural and artificial hypobiosis. A decline in the ODC enzymatic activity indicates a decline in proliferative, functional, and metabolic activity of organs and tissues of mammals (bone marrow, mucosa of small intestine, thymus, spleen, neocortex, liver, kidneys) when entering the state of hypobiosis.

  14. Insights into the regulation of muscle metabolism and growth in mice and hibernating grizzly bears

    OpenAIRE

    Mugahid (Megahed), Douaa (Doaa)

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction plays an important role in the regulation of muscle growth and metabolic signalling in striated muscle. Muscle disuse reduces mechanical input to the muscle, which results in a loss of muscle mass. Here I describe how titin's mechanically activated kinase domain affects muscle growth and metabolism via p62 and Akt signalling. I also demonstrate how changes in metabolic and growth signalling in hibernating grizzly bear help maintain muscle mass under conditio...

  15. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64- 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations.

  16. Homocysteine homeostasis and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in the brain of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zhang

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine is an important risk factor that increases cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease morbidity. In mammals, B vitamin supplementation can reduce homocysteine levels. Whether, and how, hibernating mammals, that essentially stop ingesting B vitamins, maintain homocysteine metabolism and avoid cerebrovascular impacts and neurodegeneration remain unclear. Here, we compare homocysteine levels in the brains of torpid bats, active bats and rats to identify the molecules involved in homocysteine homeostasis. We found that homocysteine does not elevate in torpid brains, despite declining vitamin B levels. At low levels of vitamin B6 and B12, we found no change in total expression level of the two main enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase, but a 1.85-fold increase in the expression of the coenzyme-independent betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT. BHMT expression was observed in the amygdala of basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex where BHMT levels were clearly elevated during torpor. This is the first report of BHMT protein expression in the brain and suggests that BHMT modulates homocysteine in the brains of hibernating bats. BHMT may have a neuroprotective role in the brains of hibernating mammals and further research on this system could expand our biomedical understanding of certain cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease processes.

  17. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Zappalorti, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) are one of the few snakes that spend the winter in underground hibernacula that they excavate. We report the use of hibernacula by Pine Snakes from 1986 to 2012 in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. We determined whether philopatry to a specific hibernaculum varied as a function of age, sex, and location of the hibernaculum. Three hibernacula were occupied nearly continuously for 27 yr by 1 to 27 snakes each year. With known-age snakes (N = 120), captured mainly as hatchlings and 2-yr-olds, we found that 23% were always philopatric. Philopatry was related to age of last capture, sex, and capture location. Philopatry was higher for 1) females compared with males, 2) snakes at two solitary hibernacula compared with a hibernaculum complex, and 3) snakes 6 yr old or younger, compared with older snakes. Of hatchlings found hibernating, 24% used the same hibernation site the next year, and 38% were located at year 4 or later. The number of snakes that always used the same hibernation site declined with the age of last capture. Snakes that entered hibernacula as hatchlings were found more often than those that entered as 2-yr-olds. For the seven snakes that were 14 yr or older, females were found 64– 86 % of the time, whereas males were found 15 to 50% of the time. Understanding the behavior and habitat requirements of snakes during different seasons is central to life-history analysis and for conserving viable populations. PMID:27011392

  18. Serum markers of bone metabolism show bone loss in hibernating bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse osteopenia was studied in hibernating black bears (Ursus americanus) using serum markers of bone metabolism. Blood samples were collected from male and female, wild black bears during winter denning and active summer periods. Radioimmunoassays were done to determine serum concentrations of cortisol, the carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide, and the carboxy-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen, which are markers of hone resorption and formation, respectively. The bone resorption marker was significantly higher during winter hibernation than it was in the active summer months, but the bone formation marker was unchanged, suggesting an imbalance in bone remodeling and a net bone loss during disuse. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the bone resorption marker, but not with the bone formation marker. The bone formation marker was four- to fivefold higher in an adolescent and a 17-year-old bear early in the remobilization period compared with the later summer months. These findings raise the possibility that hibernating black bears may minimize bone loss during disuse by maintaining osteoblastic function and have a more efficient compensatory mechanism for recovering immobilization-induced bone loss than that of humans or other animals.

  19. Subtropical mouse-tailed bats use geothermally heated caves for winter hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eran; Plotnik, Brit; Amichai, Eran; Braulke, Luzie J; Landau, Shmulik; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2015-04-07

    We report that two species of mouse-tailed bats (Rhinopoma microphyllum and R. cystops) hibernate for five months during winter in geothermally heated caves with stable high temperature (20°C). While hibernating, these bats do not feed or drink, even on warm nights when other bat species are active. We used thermo-sensitive transmitters to measure the bats' skin temperature in the natural hibernacula and open flow respirometry to measure torpid metabolic rate at different ambient temperatures (Ta, 16-35°C) and evaporative water loss (EWL) in the laboratory. Bats average skin temperature at the natural hibernacula was 21.7 ± 0.8°C, and no arousals were recorded. Both species reached the lowest metabolic rates around natural hibernacula temperatures (20°C, average of 0.14 ± 0.01 and 0.16 ± 0.04 ml O2 g(-1) h(-1) for R. microphyllum and R. cystops, respectively) and aroused from torpor when Ta fell below 16°C. During torpor the bats performed long apnoeas (14 ± 1.6 and 16 ± 1.5 min, respectively) and had a very low EWL. We hypothesize that the particular diet of these bats is an adaptation to hibernation at high temperatures and that caves featuring high temperature and humidity during winter enable these species to survive this season on the northern edge of their world distribution.

  20. Insulin secretion in the hibernating edible dormouse (Glis glis): in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, C; Tahri, A; Hoo-Paris, R; Sutter, B C

    1984-01-01

    Plasma glucose and insulin have been studied during lethargy and spontaneous arousal of hibernating edible dormouse. During lethargy blood glucose was low while plasma insulin remained at the same level as in other seasons. Plasma glucose and insulin did not fluctuate along the phase of lethargy. During spontaneous arousal plasma insulin rose strongly from the 17 degrees C stage, reaching the higher values at 26 degrees C while blood glucose was only 85 mg/100 ml, then decreased at 37 degrees C. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion was studied using perfused pancreas preparation from hibernating edible dormice. During the rewarming of the edible dormouse pancreas the insulin release did not occur in response to the absolute extracellular glucose level but occurred in response to a B cell membrane phenomenon which was dependent on the changing rate of glucose level. The effect of glucose and temperature on insulin secretion from perfused pancreas was compared between edible dormouse and homeotherm permanent, the rat. The B cell response to glucose of the dormouse pancreas increased up to 15 degrees C whereas that of the rat only from 25 degrees C. The dormouse insulin secretion reached a peak value at the 30 degrees C of temperature, whereas that of the rat progressively increased until 37 degrees C. These results showed that some biochemical adjustment or process of acclimatization took place in the B cells of the hibernators.

  1. What makes your brain suggestible? Hypnotizability is associated with differential brain activity during attention outside hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojan, Yann; Piguet, Camille; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2015-08-15

    Theoretical models of hypnosis have emphasized the importance of attentional processes in accounting for hypnotic phenomena but their exact nature and brain substrates remain unresolved. Individuals vary in their susceptibility to hypnosis, a variability often attributed to differences in attentional functioning such as greater ability to filter irrelevant information and inhibit prepotent responses. However, behavioral studies of attentional performance outside the hypnotic state have provided conflicting results. We used fMRI to investigate the recruitment of attentional networks during a modified flanker task in High and Low hypnotizable participants. The task was performed in a normal (no hypnotized) state. While behavioral performance did not reliably differ between groups, components of the fronto-parietal executive network implicated in monitoring (anterior cingulate cortex; ACC), adjustment (lateral prefrontal cortex; latPFC), and implementation of attentional control (intraparietal sulcus; IPS) were differently activated depending on the hypnotizability of the subjects: the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited, whereas IPS and ACC were less recruited by High susceptible individuals compared to Low. Our results demonstrate that susceptibility to hypnosis is associated with particular executive control capabilities allowing efficient attentional focusing, and point to specific neural substrates in right prefrontal cortex. We demonstrated that outside hypnosis, low hypnotizable subjects recruited more parietal cortex and anterior cingulate regions during selective attention conditions suggesting a better detection and implementation of conflict. However, outside hypnosis the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) was more recruited by highly hypnotizable subjects during selective attention conditions suggesting a better control of conflict. Furthermore, in highly hypnotizable subjects this region was more connected to the default mode network

  2. Identification of children who may benefit from self-hypnosis at a pediatric pulmonary center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler Susan C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emotional difficulties can trigger respiratory symptoms. Thus, children presenting with respiratory complaints may benefit from a psychological intervention. The purpose of this study was to define the proportion of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center who may benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, as a psychological intervention. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted for all newly referred patients to the SUNY Upstate Medical University Pediatric Pulmonary Center during an 18 month period beginning January 1, 2000. Patients were offered hypnosis if they presented with symptoms or signs suggestive of psychological difficulties. Hypnosis was taught in one or two 15–45 minute sessions by a pediatric pulmonologist. Results Of 725 new referrals, 424 were 0–5 years old, 193 were 6–11 years old, and 108 were 12–18 years old. Diagnoses of anxiety, habit cough, or vocal cord dysfunction accounted for 1% of the 0–5 year olds, 20% of the 6–11 year olds, and 31% of the 12–18 year olds. Hypnotherapy was offered to 1% of 0–5 year olds, 36% of 6–11 year olds, and 55% of 12–18 year olds. Of 81 patients who received instruction in self-hypnosis for anxiety, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, or inspiratory difficulties, 75% returned for follow-up, and among the returning patients 95% reported improvement or resolution of their symptoms. Conclusion A large number of patients referred to a Pediatric Pulmonary Center appeared to benefit from instruction in self-hypnosis, which can be taught easily as a psychological intervention.

  3. A Hibernation-Like State for Transplantable Organs: Is Hydrogen Sulfide Therapy the Future of Organ Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, George J; Bouma, Hjalmar R; Saha, Manujendra N; Lobb, Ian; Henning, Robert H; Sener, Alp

    2017-08-29

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, during which renal grafts from deceased donors are routinely cold stored to suppress metabolic demand and thereby limit ischemic injury. However, prolonged cold storage, followed by reperfusion, induces extensive tissue damage termed cold ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and puts the graft at risk of both early and late rejection. Recent Advances: Deep hibernators constitute a natural model of coping with cold IRI as they regularly alternate between 4°C and 37°C. Recently, endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell, has been implicated in organ protection in hibernation. In renal transplantation, H2S also seems to confer cytoprotection by lowering metabolism, thereby creating a hibernation-like environment, and increasing preservation time while allowing cellular processes of preservation of homeostasis and tissue remodeling to take place, thus increasing renal graft survival. Although the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of organ protection during hibernation have not been fully explored, mammalian hibernation may offer a great clinical promise to safely cold store and reperfuse donor organs. In this review, we first discuss mammalian hibernation as a natural model of cold organ preservation with reference to the kidney and highlight the involvement of H2S during hibernation. Next, we present recent developments on the protective effects and mechanisms of exogenous and endogenous H2S in preclinical models of transplant IRI and evaluate the potential of H2S therapy in organ preservation as great promise for renal transplant recipients in the future. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  4. Chilled frogs are hot: hibernation and reproduction of the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Frank E.; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Lemm, Jeffrey M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2015-01-01

    In the face of the sixth great extinction crisis, it is imperative to establish effective breeding protocols for amphibian conservation breeding programs. Captive efforts should not proceed by trial and error, nor should they jump prematurely to assisted reproduction techniques, which can be invasive, difficult, costly, and, at times, counterproductive. Instead, conservation practitioners should first look to nature for guidance, and replicate key conditions found in nature in the captive environment, according to the ecological and behavioral requirements of the species. We tested the effect of a natural hibernation regime on reproductive behaviors and body condition in the Endangered mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Hibernation had a clear positive effect on reproductive behavior, manifesting in vocal advertisement signaling, female receptivity, amplexus, and oviposition. These behaviors are critical components of courtship that lead to successful reproduction. Our main finding was that captive R. muscosa require a hibernation period for successful reproduction, as only hibernated females produced eggs and only hibernated males successfully fertilized eggs. Although hibernation also resulted in a reduced body condition, the reduction appeared to be minimal with no associated mortality. The importance of hibernation for reproduction is not surprising, since it is a major component of the conditions that R. muscosa experiences in the wild. Other amphibian conservation breeding programs can also benefit from a scientific approach that tests the effect of natural ecological conditions on reproduction. This will ensure that captive colonies maximize their role in providing genetic reservoirs for assurance and reintroduction efforts.

  5. Telomere dynamics in free-living edible dormice (Glis glis): the impact of hibernation and food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, Franz; Cornils, Jessica S; Smith, Steve; Moodley, Yoshan; Ruf, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    We studied the impact of hibernation and food supply on relative telomere length (RTL), an indicator for aging and somatic maintenance, in free-living edible dormice. Small hibernators such as dormice have ∼50% higher maximum longevity than non-hibernators. Increased longevity could theoretically be due to prolonged torpor directly slowing cellular damage and RTL shortening. However, although mitosis is arrested in mammals at low body temperatures, recent evidence points to accelerated RTL shortening during periodic re-warming (arousal) from torpor. Therefore, we hypothesized that these arousals during hibernation should have a negative effect on RTL. Here, we show that RTL was shortened in all animals over the course of ∼1 year, during which dormice hibernated for 7.5-11.4 months. The rate of periodic arousals, rather than the time spent euthermic during the hibernation season, was the best predictor of RTL shortening. This finding points to negative effects on RTL of the transition from low torpor to high euthermic body temperature and metabolic rate during arousals, possibly because of increased oxidative stress. The animals were, however, able to elongate their telomeres during the active season, when food availability was increased by supplemental feeding in a year of low natural food abundance. We conclude that in addition to their energetic costs, periodic arousals also lead to accelerated cellular damage in terms of RTL shortening. Although dormice are able to counteract and even over-compensate for the negative effects of hibernation, restoration of RTL appears to be energetically costly.

  6. Mitosis-associated repression in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Emilia; Lim, Bomyi; Guessous, Ghita; Falahati, Hanieh; Levine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Transcriptional repression is a pervasive feature of animal development. Here, we employ live-imaging methods to visualize the Snail repressor, which establishes the boundary between the presumptive mesoderm and neurogenic ectoderm of early Drosophila embryos. Snail target enhancers were attached to an MS2 reporter gene, permitting detection of nascent transcripts in living embryos. The transgenes exhibit initially broad patterns of transcription but are refined by repression in the mesoderm following mitosis. These observations reveal a correlation between mitotic silencing and Snail repression. We propose that mitosis and other inherent discontinuities in transcription boost the activities of sequence-specific repressors, such as Snail. © 2016 Esposito et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Effect of Distraction Technique and Hypnosis in Pain of Bone Marrow Aspiration in Children: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimorad Heidari Gorji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe present review study provides specific evidence to assess the impact of distraction techniques and hypnosis on the pain of bone marrow aspiration in children.Materials and MethodsThis review study aimed to determine the effects of distraction techniques and hypnosis on the controlling pain of bone marrow aspiration in children. Internal databases (SID, Magiran, IranMedex and Irandoc, and international databases (Google-Scholar, Medline, PubMed, Elsevier, ProQuest, Springer and Web of Science, were searched by using the Mesh key words including "cancer", "bone marrow", "aspiration", "distraction", "hypnosis", "pain", "children" and "pediatric", with no time limit since the foundation of these databases until December 2016.ResultsIn overall review of the articles, based on the issues expressed, the effect of most of various distraction interventions and hypnosis on the pain severity of children under the bone marrow aspiration procedure was significant and positive (P

  8. It takes two to tango: Phagocyte and lymphocyte numbers in a small mammalian hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenstein, Nadine; Langer, Franz; Stefanski, Volker; Fietz, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Immunity is energetically costly and competes for resources with other physiological body functions, which may result in trade-offs that impair fitness during demanding situations. Endocrine mediators, particularly stress hormones, play a central role in these relationships and directly impact leukocyte differentials. To determine the effects of external stressors, energetic restraints and competing physiological functions on immune parameters and their relevance for fitness, we investigated leukocyte profiles during the active season of a small obligate hibernator, the edible dormouse (Glis glis), in five different study sites in south-western Germany. The highly synchronized yearly cycle of this species and the close adaptation of its life history to the irregular abundance of food resources provide a natural experiment to elucidate mechanisms underlying variations in fitness parameters. In contrast to previous studies on hibernators, that showed an immediate recovery of all leukocyte subtypes upon emergence, our study revealed that hibernation results in depleted phagocyte (neutrophils and monocytes) stores that recovered only slowly. As the phenomenon of low phagocyte counts was even more pronounced at the beginning of a low food year and primarily immature neutrophils were present in the blood upon emergence, preparatory mechanisms seem to determine the regeneration of phagocytes before hibernation is terminated. Surprisingly, the recovery of phagocytes thereafter took several weeks, presumably due to energetic restrictions. This impaired first line of defense coincides with lowest survival probabilities during the annual cycle of our study species. Reduced survival could furthermore be linked to drastic increases in the P/L ratio (phagocytes/lymphocytes), an indicator of physiological stress, during reproduction. On the other hand, moderate augmentations in the P/L ratio occurred during periods of low food availability and were associated with increased

  9. 达乌尔黄鼠冬眠期间体温的变化和冬眠模式%Hibernation patterns and changes of body temperature in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus) during hibernation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 邢昕; 管淑君; 赵岩; 王子英; 王德华

    2011-01-01

    用植入式半导体温度记录元件iButton记录了达乌尔黄鼠冬眠季节及其前后的体温,分析了其冬眠模式和体温调节特点.结果显示:1)实验室条件下,达乌尔黄鼠冬眠季节长短的个体差异较大,可以分成深冬眠型、少冬眠型和不冬眠型三种类型;2)达乌尔黄鼠在冬季表现出深冬眠阵(最低体温Tbmin< 20℃,冬眠阵的持续时间BD>24 h)、短冬眠阵(Tbmin<20℃,BD≤24h)和日眠阵(Tbmin≥20℃,BD≤24 h)3种类型,最低体温分别为2.54℃ ±0.35℃、10.05℃±1.97℃和23.09℃±0.40℃,彼此之间差异显著.日眠阵阵间产热阶段的最高体温为38.09℃±0.17℃,高于深冬眠阵(37.31℃±0.15℃)和短冬眠阵(37.22℃±0.31℃);3)深冬眠阵和日眠阵中最低体温均与环境温度显著相关,冬眠过程中的最低体温为-2.43℃;4)深冬眠过程中,多数个体可以短时(≤3h)耐受-2℃~0℃的低温,激醒或继续维持深冬眠,无致死效应,但长时间(15 h)或过度低温(-5℃以下)的条件下,深冬眠的达乌尔黄鼠被激醒(70%)或死亡(30%),不能持续冬眠;5)入眠前10 d的体温日波动幅度显著增加,高于出眠后的日体温波动,且多数个体入眠前出现体温的“试降”.表明,冬眠前入眠的准备阶段,动物的体温调节已开始发生变化;冬季日眠的调节机制可能与冬眠不同;短时-2℃~0℃的低体温对深冬眠的达乌尔黄鼠无致死效应.%In order to understand the patterns of body temperature changes and hibernation, we used iButtons to monitor body temperatures (Tb) in a typical hibernator, the Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) , before, during, and after their hibernation period. Hibernation patterns and thermoregulation characteristics were analyzed. In the laboratory, there were great individual differences in the length of the hibernation time. Three types of torpor were distinguished, deep hibernation, short hibernation, and no

  10. Assessment of a short hypnosis in a paediatric operating room in reducing postoperative pain and anxiety: A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duparc-Alegria, Nathalie; Tiberghien, Karine; Abdoul, Hendy; Dahmani, Souhayl; Alberti, Corinne; Thiollier, Anne-Francoise

    2017-04-12

    To assess the impact of a short hypnotic session on postoperative anxiety and pain in major orthopaedic surgery. Despite specific information given before a scheduled paediatric surgery, perioperative anxiety can become important. Randomised Clinical Study. The study is an open single-centre randomised clinical study comparing a "control" group versus a "hypnosis" group receiving a short hypnosis pre-induction session as additional experimental analgesic procedure. The primary endpoint was the postoperative anxiety, blindly assessed using a visual analogue scale. The study involved 120 children (age 10-18 years). The results showed no difference between control group versus hypnosis group. Twenty-four hours after surgery (Day+1), the patient's anxiety score was not different between control and hypnosis groups (median [Q1-Q3]: 1 [0; 3] vs. 0 [0; 3], respectively, p = .17). Each group experienced a significant decrease in anxiety level between the day before surgery (Day-1) and the day after surgery (Day+1) (median ([Q1-Q3]) difference of the anxiety score: 2 [4; 0] and 2 [4; 0], respectively, p < .0001 in each group). The postoperative pain scores were low and not different between groups (median [Q1-Q3]: 2 [0; 3] in control group vs. 3 [1; 3] in hypnosis group, p = .57). This randomised study on a short hypnosis session performed in the operating room prior to a major surgery showed no difference in postoperative anxiety and pain levels. The decrease in anxiety and pain levels may be due to the addition of nurse pre-operative interviews and optimisation in communication in the operating room. As postoperative anxiety level was low in both control and hypnosis groups, nurse pre-operative interviews and nurse training in hypnosis may contribute to the optimisation of global management and decrease the postoperative anxiety level. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mammals Hibernate and Its Influencing Factors%哺乳动物的冬眠及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖雷

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the phenomenon of mammals hibernate in winter and its influence factors, make the mammals hibernate process in the behavior, the changes of physiological aspects can be better state, the definition,behavior and physical performance during the period of winter hibernation and influence factors of hibernation were expounded according to the research results of the hibernate both at home and abroad. The result showed that the behavior of mammals hibernate in winter was a combined action by behavior,physiology,genetic factors and so on. The'main factors that affecting mammals hibernate were environment temperature, temperature changes of themselves, nutrition factors and their own physical condition. Moreover, the significance of awakening during hibernate and the effect of hibernate on organs and gland of animals were elaborated.%为了明确哺乳动物冬眠的现象和导致其发生冬眠的影响因素,使哺乳动物在冬眠过程中的行为和生理等方面发生的变化能得以更好地阐述。结合国内外关于冬眠的研究成果,着重阐述了冬眠的定义、冬眠期间的行为和生理表现以及影响冬眠的因素。结果表明:哺乳动物的冬眠是行为、生理和遗传等多因素共同作用的结果,环境温度、自身体温变化、营养因素和自身生理调节是影响哺乳动物冬眠的主要因素。并阐述了冬眠间觉醒的意义以及冬眠对动物器官和腺体的影响。

  12. Repeated functional convergent effects of NaV1.7 on acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Li, Gong-Hua; He, Kai; Huang, Jing-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long; Murphy, Robert W; Shi, Peng

    2014-02-07

    Hibernating mammals need to be insensitive to acid in order to cope with conditions of high CO2; however, the molecular basis of acid tolerance remains largely unknown. The African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and hibernating mammals share similar environments and physiological features. In the naked mole-rat, acid insensitivity has been shown to be conferred by the functional motif of the sodium ion channel NaV1.7. There is now an opportunity to evaluate acid insensitivity in other taxa. In this study, we tested for functional convergence of NaV1.7 in 71 species of mammals, including 22 species that hibernate. Our analyses revealed a functional convergence of amino acid sequences, which occurred at least six times independently in mammals that hibernate. Evolutionary analyses determined that the convergence results from both parallel and divergent evolution of residues in the functional motif. Our findings not only identify the functional molecules responsible for acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals, but also open new avenues to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of acid insensitivity in mammals.

  13. Repression-Sensitization and Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined relationship between repression-sensitization (R-S) and visits to prison infirmary for males during a one-year period. Main effect for R-S dimension was significant for total number of visits, number of medically justified visits, and number of medically unjustified visits. Sensitizers had significantly more visits than repressors.…

  14. The great repression: chromatin and cryptic transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Bianca P; Fischer, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic chromatin structure is essential in correctly defining transcription units. Impairing this structure can activate cryptic promoters, and lead to the accumulation of aberrant RNA transcripts. Here we discuss critical pathways that are responsible for the repression of cryptic transcription and the maintenance of genome integrity.

  15. Political Repression in U.S. History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors of the essays in this book amass considerable historical evidence illustrating various forms of political repression and its relationship with democracy in the United States, from the late-eighteenth century to the present. They discuss efforts, made mostly but not only by government age

  16. Repression-Sensitization and Health Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, William F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined relationship between repression-sensitization (R-S) and visits to prison infirmary for males during a one-year period. Main effect for R-S dimension was significant for total number of visits, number of medically justified visits, and number of medically unjustified visits. Sensitizers had significantly more visits than repressors.…

  17. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...

  18. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide metabolites in the blood of free-ranging brown bears and their potential roles in hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revsbech, Inge G; Shen, Xinggui; Chakravarti, Ritu; Jensen, Frank B; Thiel, Bonnie; Evans, Alina L; Kindberg, Jonas; Fröbert, Ole; Stuehr, Dennis J; Kevil, Christopher G; Fago, Angela

    2014-08-01

    During winter hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) lie in dens for half a year without eating while their basal metabolism is largely suppressed. To understand the underlying mechanisms of metabolic depression in hibernation, we measured type and content of blood metabolites of two ubiquitous inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), in winter-hibernating and summer-active free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. We found that levels of sulfide metabolites were overall similar in summer-active and hibernating bears but their composition in the plasma differed significantly, with a decrease in bound sulfane sulfur in hibernation. High levels of unbound free sulfide correlated with high levels of cysteine (Cys) and with low levels of bound sulfane sulfur, indicating that during hibernation H2S, in addition to being formed enzymatically from the substrate Cys, may also be regenerated from its oxidation products, including thiosulfate and polysulfides. In the absence of any dietary intake, this shift in the mode of H2S synthesis would help preserve free Cys for synthesis of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant found at high levels in the red blood cells of hibernating bears. In contrast, circulating nitrite and erythrocytic S-nitrosation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, taken as markers of NO metabolism, did not change appreciably. Our findings reveal that remodeling of H2S metabolism and enhanced intracellular GSH levels are hallmarks of the aerobic metabolic suppression of hibernating bears.

  19. Thermoregulation and energetics in hibernating black bears: metabolic rate and the mystery of multi-day body temperature cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøien, Øivind; Blake, John; Barnes, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    Black bears overwintering in outdoor hibernacula in Alaska decrease metabolism to as low as 25 % basal rates, while core body temperature (T(b)) decreases from 37 to 38 °C to a mid-hibernation average of 33 °C. T b develops cycles of 1.6-7.3 days length within a 30-36 °C range, with no circadian component. We do not know the mechanism or function underlying behind the T(b) cycles, although bears avoid T(b) of thermoregulation. More intense shivering in the rising phase of cycles may contribute to the prevention of muscle disuse atrophy. Bears hibernating in cold conditions use more energy during hibernation than in warmer conditions. At T den below lower critical temperature, no extra energy expenditure results from T b cycling compared to keeping a stable T(b.)

  20. Database Middleware Based on Web Services and Hibernate%基于 Web Services 和 Hibernate 技术的数据库中间件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚福影; 卫文学

    2015-01-01

    For the management of some heterogeneous databases in different network is more flexible and convenient, the paper studies and analyzes the common database middleware, Hibernate framework and Web Service technology.Then aiming at the shortcomings of database middleware, the paper puts forward a new database middleware that was designed with Web Service technology and Hibernate framework.This scheme can transparently access databases without changing the original data storage method, ensure data integrity, consistency and security, and has higher development efficiency.%为了能够使不同网络中异构数据库的分布式数据管理更加灵活和简便,本文研究和分析常用的数据库中间件技术以及目前流行的开源ORM框架Hibernate和Web Service技术。针对目前数据库中间件不足之处,提出利用Web Service技术和Hibernate框架设计一种新的数据库访问中间件。该方案能在不改变原始数据的存储和管理方式下,较好地实现不同网络中异构数据源统一透明访问,保证数据完整性、一致性和安全性,具有较高的开发效率。

  1. Selective mobilization of saturated fatty acids in isolated adipocytes of hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels Ictidomys tridecemlineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edwin R; Armstrong, Christopher; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are not mobilized from adipocyte triacylglycerols uniformly but rather some are preferentially mobilized while others are preferentially retained. In many vertebrate species, the pattern of differential mobilization is determined by the physical and chemical properties of each fatty acid. Fatty acids with shorter chains and more double bonds tend to be more readily mobilized than others, a pattern observed both in whole-animal studies and in isolated adipocytes. Several hibernating species seem to break this pattern, however, and retain 18:2ω6 (linoleic acid) while mobilizing saturated fatty acids such as 18:0. We sought to confirm this pattern in adipocytes of a hibernator, the 13-lined ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, and to investigate mobilization patterns for the first time at hibernation temperature. We isolated adipocytes from summer active and winter torpid squirrels and incubated them with 1 μM norepinephrine at 4°C (7 h) and 37°C (90 min). We measured the proportion of each fatty acid in the adipose tissue and in the buffer at the end of incubation. Patterns of mobilization were similar in both seasons and incubation temperatures. Saturated fatty acids (18:0 and 16:0) were highly mobilized relative to the average, while some unsaturated fatty acids (notably, 18:1ω9 and 18:2ω6) were retained. We conclude that hibernators have unique mechanisms at the level of adipose tissue that preferentially mobilize saturated fatty acids. Additionally, we found that adipocytes from hibernating squirrels produced more glycerol than those from summer squirrels (regardless of temperature), indicating a higher lipolytic capacity in hibernating squirrels.

  2. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition regulates cardiac SERCA activity in a hibernator, the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Giroud

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6 lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (T(b and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6 in SR phospholipids (PL should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum T(b in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus in vitro at 35 °C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that SERCA activity strongly increased as the proportion of LA in SR PL increased but was negatively affected by the content of Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3. SR PL from hibernating hamsters were characterized by high proportions of LA and low proportions of DHA. As a result, SERCA activity was significantly higher during entrance into torpor and in torpor compared to inter-bout arousal. Also, animals with increased SERCA activity reached lower T(b during torpor. Interestingly, a subgroup of hamsters which never entered torpor but remained euthermic throughout winter displayed a phenotype similar to animals in summer. This was characterized by lower proportions of LA and increased proportions of DHA in SR membranes, which is apparently incompatible with torpor. We conclude that the PUFA composition of SR membranes affects cardiac function via modulating SERCA activity, and hence determines the minimum T(b tolerated by hibernators.

  3. Water-fat MRI in a hibernator reveals seasonal growth of white and brown adipose tissue without cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCannell, Amanda; Sinclair, Kevin; Friesen-Waldner, Lannette; McKenzie, Charles A; Staples, James F

    2017-03-21

    Obligate hibernators, such as ground squirrels, display circannual patterns which persist even under constant laboratory conditions, suggesting that they are regulated by endogenous rhythms. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during periodic arousals from hibernation when core body temperature rises spontaneously from 5 to 37 °C. In most small eutherians BAT growth requires several weeks of cold exposure. We hypothesized that in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), a hibernator, BAT growth is regulated, in part, by an endogenous rhythm and we predicted that this growth would precede the hibernation season without cold exposure. We tested this prediction using repeated water-fat magnetic resonance imaging over a year, including the hibernation season. Thoracic BAT depots increased in volume from spring through autumn even though animals were housed at ~22 °C. Subsequent cold exposure (5 °C) enlarged the thoracic BAT further. The fat fraction of this tissue fell significantly during the period of peak growth, indicating relative increases in non-triglyceride components, perhaps mitochondria or vasculature. We also found that the proportion of the body consisting of white adipose tissue (WAT) increased steadily from spring through autumn, and fell throughout hibernation, mirroring changes in body mass. Unlike BAT, WAT fat fractions remained constant (near 90%) throughout the year. Future studies will evaluate the significance of photoperiod and cold exposure on the growth of these tissues. We also found tissue with a fat fraction characteristic of BAT in the head near the eyes, a potentially novel discovery that requires further confirmation.

  4. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  5. Automatic word processing hypnosis and cognitive therapy for psychosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Gregory

    2014-07-01

    Hallucinations are often perceived as auditory and visual experiences emanating from outside the mind and it is this belief by patients that is a powerfully convincing factor in maintaining psychotic symptoms and accompanying distress. One of the main tasks of cognitive therapy for psychosis is to help the person recognize that the hallucinations emerge from within their own mind for some meaningful reason. A change in meaning can change a person's affective and behavioral responses to hallucinatory phenomena. Automatic Word Processing (AWP) hypnosis is a novel way to help a person realize that the hallucinations they perceive as external and distressful are really internally generated phenomena often based upon his or her life experiences. The case presented here illustrates how AWP hypnosis helped a 13-year-old girl access the internal material that shaped the form and content of visual and auditory hallucinations and interfered with her social and academic functioning.

  6. Attachment-Focused Hypnosis in Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma: Attunement, Representation, and Mentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    The relational and psychological functions of attunement, representation, and mentalization are essential components of a secure attachment experience. Psychotherapeutic approaches informed by attachment theory have gained significant empirical and clinical support, particularly in the area of complex trauma. Despite these advances, attachment-informed trauma treatment could benefit greatly from the experiential wealth that clinical hypnosis has to offer. In its utilization of shared attention, tone of voice, pacing, representational imagery, and hypnotic language, clinical hypnosis as a state, relationship, and technique offers psychotherapists a way of introducing a healthy attachment experience and renewing appropriate developmental functioning in patients who are survivors of complex trauma. In this article, attunement, representation, and mentalization are reviewed from a hypnotherapeutic perspective.

  7. Feature-based coding system: a new way of characterizing hypnosis styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Katalin; Kekecs, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    In this pilot study, the authors introduce a new system to assess hypnosis style. The Feature-Based Coding System (FBCS) comprises 24 standard individual hypnosis sessions, which were videotaped and coded according to both a previous and the new coding system. In addition, both subjects and hypnotists filled the Archaic Involvement Measure (AIM), the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI), and the Dyadic Interactional Harmony Questionnaire (DIH). The interrater agreement of FBCS was good and the construct Maternal-Paternal Axis had a good internal consistency (α = .95). Construct validity was also supported by the findings. Based on these results, a larger scale study is warranted to further establish the reliability and usefulness of this tool.

  8. The future orientation of constructive memory: an evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    We explore a new distinction between the future, prospective memory system being investigated in current neuroscience and the past, retrospective memory system, which was the original theoretical foundation of therapeutic hypnosis, classical psychoanalysis, and psychotherapy. We then generalize a current evolutionary theory of sleep and dreaming, which focuses on the future, prospective memory system, to conceptualize a new evolutionary perspective on therapeutic hypnosis and brief psychotherapy. The implication of current neuroscience research is that activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity are the psychobiological basis of adaptive behavior, consciousness, and creativity in everyday life as well as psychotherapy. We summarize a case illustrating how this evolutionary perspective can be used to quickly resolve problems with past obstructive procrastination in school to facilitate current and future academic success.

  9. Clinical hypnosis with a Little League baseball population: performance enhancement and resolving traumatic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Alex; Iglesias, Adam

    2011-01-01

    A model for the use of clinical hypnosis with a Little League population was proposed and outlined with dual emphasis: performance enhancement and resolving traumatic experiences. The Performance Enhancement Training Model was developed to enhance performance with this non-patient population. It employed clinical hypnosis to bring to fruition recommendations made by coaches to enhance players' batting proficiency. The second emphasis of the proposed model focused on the resolution of involuntary maladaptive habits secondary to a traumatic experience that impede or compromise optimum performance. Included in this category were detrimental defensive habits "at the plate" after a beaming by a pitch and detrimental defensive habits "on the field" after being hit by a batted ball.

  10. Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D L; Karkut, R T

    1994-10-01

    Increased rates of smoking initiation and smoking-related illness among women have narrowed the gender gap in smoking behavior. Past studies of performance by gender in prevention and treatment programs have reported reduced success with women and have suggested a need for stronger interventions having greater effects on both genders' smoking cessation. A field study of 93 male and 93 female CMHC outpatients examined the facilitation of smoking cessation by combining hypnosis and aversion treatments. After the 2-wk. program, 92% or 86 of the men and 90% or 84 of the women reported abstinence, and at 3-mo. follow-up, 86% or 80 of the men and 87% or 81 of the women reported continued abstinence. Although this field study in a clinical setting lacked rigorous measurement and experimental controls, the program suggested greater efficacy of smoking cessation by both sexes for combined hypnosis and aversion techniques.

  11. Clinical Hypnosis with Children and Adolescents—What? Why? How?: Origins, Applications, and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Kohen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article addresses the process, intention, and therapeutic value of clinical hypnosis with children and adolescents. A brief historical perspective is followed by a digest of the published laboratory and clinical research that has accelerated substantially over the past two decades. This review lends appropriate credence to the benefits and integration to clinical practice of this powerful tool for teaching young people self-regulation skills. The breadth of application is described, and several clinical vignettes are provided as examples of what is possible. In addition to the provision of the most relevant citations in the pediatric, psychological, and neuroscience literature, this synopsis concludes with information regarding availability of skill development training in pediatric clinical hypnosis.

  12. AUGMENTATIVE EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANDIN E1 ON PENTOBARBITAL HYPNOSIS MEDIATED BY 5-HT IN CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalendu Chanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins (PG are present in different tissues specially in brain tissues endowed with different central nervous system activities. Similarly, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT a biogenic amine with its presence in different central and peripheral tissues as neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of physiological functions specially hypnosis, convulsions, analgesia in rats, mice, cats and chicks etc. Pentobarbitone (PB induced sleep appear to be a serotonergic modulator activity in different animals. PGE1 potentiates the pentobarbitone hypnosis also mediated through serotonin. In the present study, PGE1 induced sleeping time in chicks was evaluated. Drugs affecting 5-HT synthesis, metabolism and receptor activity modulate the potentiating response, while adrenergic receptor antagonists did not showed any response. This study suggest that PGE1 potentiate PB induced sleep through serotonergic signaling pathway as PGE1 increased 5-HT synthesis rate in chick brain.

  13. Miocárdio hibernante: uma realidade clínica Hibernant myocardium: a clinical reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Marin-Neto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito da hibernação miocárdica implica a ocorrência de disfunção ventricular crônica, potencialmente reversível, causada por dissinergia regional, dependente de isquemia prolongada. Não tem fisiopatologia elucidada, em parte porque não existem modelos experimentais satisfatórios para seu estudo. Diversos métodos são capazes de demonstrar viabilidade miocárdica nas regiões que não exibem capacidade contrátil basal. O desmascaramento da hibernação nesses territórios pode ser feito mediante demonstração de reserva contrátil, de funcionamento normal da membrana celular, ou de metabolismo preservado. A correta identificação de miocárdio hibernante reveste-se de especial significado clínico, por suas implicações prognósticas quanto a intervenções de revascularização miocárdica, destinadas a reabilitar a função ventricular em muitos pacientes coronariopatas crônicos.Myocardial hibernation is believed to occur in ventricular dyssynergic regions chronically deprived of coronary flow enough to warrant the preservation of contractile function. Pathophysiology of this condition remains largely unclear, mainly because good experimental models for its study are still lacking. Various methods can be clinically employed to detect hibernation in patients with chronic ventricular dysfunction. These methods use the principle of unmasking contractile reserve, or are based on the demonstration of preserved membrane function or myocardium metabolism in the dyssynergic regions. The correct identification of viable hibernating myocardium is crucial in the process of deciding which coronary disease patients would potentially benefit from revascularization procedures.

  14. The histaminergic system in the brain: structural characteristics and changes in hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, P; Karlstedt, K; Sallmen, T; Peitsaro, N; Kaslin, J; Michelsen, K A; Anichtchik, O; Kukko-Lukjanov, T; Lintunen, M

    2000-02-01

    Histaminergic neurons in adult vertebrate brain are confined to the posterior hypothalamic area, where they are comprised of scattered groups of neurons referred to as the tuberomammillary nucleus. Histamine regulates hormonal functions, sleep, food intake, thermoregulation and locomotor activity, for example. In the zebrafish, Danio rerio, histamine was detected only in the brain, where also the histamine synthesizing enzyme L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) was expressed. It is possible that histamine has first evolved as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. We established sensitive quantitative in situ hybridization methods for histamine H(1) and H(2) receptors and HDC, to study the modulation of brain histaminergic system under pathophysiological conditions. A transient increase in H(1) receptor expression was seen in the dentate gyrus and striatum after a single injection of kainic acid, a glutamate analog. H(1) antagonists are known to increase duration of convulsions, and increased brain histamine is associated with reduced convulsions in animal models of epilepsy. No HDC mRNA was detected in brain vessels by in situ hybridization, which suggests lack of histamine synthesis by brain endothelial cells. This was verified by lack of HDC mRNA in a rat brain endothelial cell line, RBE4 cells. Both H(1) and H(2) receptor mRNA was found in this cell line, and the expression of both receptors was downregulated by dexamethasone. The findings are in agreement with the concept that histamine regulates blood-brain barrier permeability through H(1) and H(2) receptor mediated mechanisms. Hibernation is characterized by a drastic reduction of central functions. The activity of most transmitter systems is maintained at a very low level. Surprisingly, histamine levels and turnover were clearly elevated in hibernating ground squirrels, and the density of histamine-containing fibers was higher than in euthermic animals. It is possible that histamine actively

  15. Pre-hibernation performances of the OSIRIS cameras onboard the Rosetta spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, S.; La Forgia, F.; Da Deppo, V.; Lazzarin, M.; Bertini, I.; Ferri, F.; Pajola, M.; Barbieri, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, C.; Tubiana, C.; Küppers, M.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Sierks, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The ESA cometary mission Rosetta was launched in 2004. In the past years and until the spacecraft hibernation in June 2011, the two cameras of the OSIRIS imaging system (Narrow Angle and Wide Angle Camera, NAC and WAC) observed many different sources. On 20 January 2014 the spacecraft successfully exited hibernation to start observing the primary scientific target of the mission, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: A study of the past performances of the cameras is now mandatory to be able to determine whether the system has been stable through the time and to derive, if necessary, additional analysis methods for the future precise calibration of the cometary data. Methods: The instrumental responses and filter passbands were used to estimate the efficiency of the system. A comparison with acquired images of specific calibration stars was made, and a refined photometric calibration was computed, both for the absolute flux and for the reflectivity of small bodies of the solar system. Results: We found a stability of the instrumental performances within ±1.5% from 2007 to 2010, with no evidence of an aging effect on the optics or detectors. The efficiency of the instrumentation is found to be as expected in the visible range, but lower than expected in the UV and IR range. A photometric calibration implementation was discussed for the two cameras. Conclusions: The calibration derived from pre-hibernation phases of the mission will be checked as soon as possible after the awakening of OSIRIS and will be continuously monitored until the end of the mission in December 2015. A list of additional calibration sources has been determined that are to be observed during the forthcoming phases of the mission to ensure a better coverage across the wavelength range of the cameras and to study the possible dust contamination of the optics.

  16. Leptin regulates energy intake but fails to facilitate hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xin; Tang, Gang-Bin; Sun, Ming-Yue; Yu, Chao; Song, Shi-Yi; Liu, Xin-Yu; Yang, Ming; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    Body fat storage before hibernation affects the timing of immergence in Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Leptin is an adipose signal and plays vital role in energy homeostasis mainly by action in brain. To test the hypothesis that leptin plays a role in facilitating the process of hibernation, squirrels were administrated with recombinant murine leptin (1μg/day) through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection for 12 days during fattening. From day 7 to 12, animals were moved into a cold room (5±1°C) with constant darkness which functioned as hibernaculum. Energy intake, body mass and core body temperature (Tb) were continuously monitored throughout the course of experiment. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured under both warm and cold conditions. At the end of leptin administration, we measured the serum concentration of hormones related to energy regulation, mRNA expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Our results showed that during leptin administration, the cumulative food intake and increase of body mass were suppressed while Tb and RMR were unaltered. The proportion of torpid squirrels was not different between two groups. At the end of leptin administration, the expressions of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti gene-related protein were suppressed. There were no differences in UCP1 mRNA expression or protein content in BAT between groups. Our data suggest that leptin can affect energy intake via hypothalamic neuropeptides, but is not involved in the initiation of hibernation in fattening Daurian ground squirrels.

  17. Hypnosis as a treatment of chronic widespread pain in general practice: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grøndahl Jan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnosis treatment in general practice is a rather new concept. This pilot study was performed to evaluate the effect of a standardized hypnosis treatment used in general practice for patients with chronic widespread pain (CWP. Methods The study was designed as a randomized control group-controlled study. Sixteen patients were randomized into a treatment group or a control group, each constituting eight patients. Seven patients in the treatment group completed the schedule. After the control period, five of the patients in the control group also received treatment, making a total of 12 patients having completed the treatment sessions. The intervention group went through a standardized hypnosis treatment with ten consecutive therapeutic sessions once a week, each lasting for about 30 minutes, focusing on ego-strengthening, relaxation, releasing muscular tension and increasing self-efficacy. A questionnaire was developed in order to calibrate the symptoms before and after the 10 weeks period, and the results were interpolated into a scale from 0 to 100, increasing numbers representing increasing suffering. Data were analyzed by means of T-tests. Results The treatment group improved from their symptoms, (change from 62.5 to 55.4, while the control group deteriorated, (change from 37.2 to 45.1, (p = 0,045. The 12 patients who completed the treatment showed a mean improvement from 51.5 to 41.6. (p = 0,046. One year later the corresponding result was 41.3, indicating a persisting improvement. Conclusion The study indicates that hypnosis treatment may have a positive effect on pain and quality of life for patients with chronic muscular pain. Considering the limited number of patients, more studies should be conducted to confirm the results. Trial Registration The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov and released 27.08.07 Reg nr NCT00521807 Approval Number: 05032001.

  18. Database Entity Persistence with Hibernate for the Network Connectivity Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    program using the Hibernate Object-Relational Mapping ( ORM ) framework . When instantiated, a Java class annotated as an Entity may be persisted via...other future technology or ORM framework if the need arises. The child DAOs concretely define the generic T type and generic Serialable ID type, which...8217 . (o .... -i\\j Po AJI NCAM Ettm~s HiOOm~te ORM lnlerr&ee ’ Re~d only L:l 1 ReadCnly NolseModel !.-:. .. .. ... ... se-e next ligu(e 1 for

  19. [Hypnosis as an effective management of a child with posttraumatic stress disorder after perineal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubiri, M-A; Peycelon, M; Audry, G; Auber, F

    2014-06-01

    Children and teenagers may face trauma that threatens their life, but also their psychological integrity. These injuries can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is the most common psychopathological consequence after a trauma. Age is not a protective factor and this disorder can be severe and may last over a long-term period. Effective therapies on PTSD are scarce and research on this topic is rare in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl affected by PTSD after a carousel accident at the age of 4 years. A therapy based on hypnosis and psychological support was rapidly effective. This psychotherapeutic option was chosen on the basis of common features shared by hypnosis and the posttraumatic symptoms. Clinical manifestations of PTSD disappeared after 4 weeks of therapy and the patient remained symptom-free during a 1-year follow-up. Our report suggests that hypnosis could be an effective therapy for children with PTSD. Prospective studies on a larger number of patients are needed to validate this hypothesis.

  20. Hypnosis modulates behavioural measures and subjective ratings about external and internal awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Noirhomme, Quentin; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth; Laureys, Steven

    2015-12-01

    In altered subjective states, the behavioural quantification of external and internal awareness remains challenging due to the need for reports on the subjects' behalf. With the aim to characterize the behavioural counterpart of external and internal awareness in a modified subjective condition, we used hypnosis during which subjects remain fully responsive. Eleven right-handed subjects reached a satisfactory level of hypnotisability as evidenced by subjective reports on arousal, absorption and dissociation. Compared to normal wakefulness, in hypnosis (a) participants' self-ratings for internal awareness increased and self-ratings for external awareness decreased, (b) the two awareness components tended to anticorrelate less and the switches between external and internal awareness self-ratings were less frequent, and (c) participants' reaction times were higher and lapses in key presses were more frequent. The identified imbalance between the two components of awareness is considered as of functional relevance to subjective (meta)cognition, possibly mediated by allocated attentional properties brought about by hypnosis. Our results highlight the presence of a cognitive counterpart in resting state, indicate that the modified contents of awareness are measurable behaviourally, and provide leverage for investigations of more challenging altered conscious states, such as anaesthesia, sleep and disorders of consciousness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hypnosis Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsson, Olafur S

    2015-10-01

    Hypnotherapy has been investigated for 30 years as a treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. There are presently 35 studies in the published empirical literature, including 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed clinical outcomes of such treatment. This body of research is reviewed comprehensively in this article. Twenty-four of the studies have tested hypnotherapy for adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 5 have focused on IBS or abdominal pain in children. All IBS hypnotherapy studies have reported significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, and 7 out of 10 RCTs in adults and all 3 RCTs in pediatric patient samples found superior outcomes for hypnosis compared to control groups. Collectively this body of research shows unequivocally that for both adults and children with IBS, hypnosis treatment is highly efficacious in reducing bowel symptoms and can offer lasting and substantial symptom relief for a large proportion of patients who do not respond adequately to usual medical treatment approaches. For other GI disorders the evidence is more limited, but preliminary indications of therapeutic potential can be seen in the single randomized controlled trials published to date on hypnotherapy for functional dyspepsia, functional chest pain, and ulcerative colitis. Further controlled hypnotherapy trials in those three disorders should be a high priority. The mechanisms underlying the impact of hypnosis on GI problems are still unclear, but findings from a number of studies suggest that they involve both modulation of gut functioning and changes in the brain's handling of sensory signals from the GI tract.

  2. Efficacy of Conversational Hypnosis and Propofol in Reducing Adverse Effects of Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izanloo, Azra; Fathi, Mehdi; Izanloo, Sara; Vosooghinia, Hassan; Hashemian, Alireza; Sadrzadeh, Sayyed Majid; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Background: As pain and nausea is usually associated with endoscopy procedure, its management is important to alleviate patients’ anxious in this regard. Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of conversational hypnosis in reducing anxiety and endoscopy-related complications as well as its role in increasing the satisfaction of patients exposed to endoscopic procedures. Patients and Methods: The participants of upper GI endoscopy procedure were randomly assigned to an experiment group (with conversational hypnosis intervention, n = 93) and a control group (n = 47). The participants’ hemodynamic indexes (HR, blood pressure, pulse oximetry), anxiety, satisfaction level, and complications resulted from the procedure were monitored and included in the self-administered questionnaire. Results: The results indicated that the participants in experiment group had a significant reduction of anxiety in the posttest. The adverse side effects such as vomiting, nausea, and hiccups in the experimental group was less than the control group, though this difference was not significant (P = 0.54). Conclusions: The results suggested that conversational hypnosis technique could reduce anxiety as well as the sedation process in invasive procedures such as endoscopy. PMID:26587402

  3. Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaqan, Ali; Bilal, Muhammad; Ilyas, Muhammad; Ijaz, Bilal; Ali Riaz, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH) during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI) systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery. PMID:27293475

  4. Staying the Course: Using Hypnosis to Help Cancer Patients Navigate Their Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginandes, Carol

    2017-07-01

    Although sometimes maligned and often misunderstood, clinical hypnosis can be utilized as a powerful adjunct for the treatment of mind-body conditions, including cancer. Unlike customary medical regimens that treat diseases of the body and psychotherapies that address disorders of the psyche, hypnosis is a uniquely customizable multi-tool that can augment the treatment of both physical and emotional disorders as well as their complex interactions. This article presents a longitudinal, phase-oriented, clinical model that uses hypnosis in a series of sequential interventions that incorporate targeted suggestions to address the unfolding phases of the cancer continuum. Five such phases of the cancer patient's trajectory, along with their associated medical and psychological challenges, are conceptualized. Each phase is illustrated by case examples from the author's clinical practice and by a discussion of relevant hypnotic approaches. On the somatic level, the intrinsic capacities of hypnotic phenomena, paired with suggestions, can be harnessed to effect perceptual and functional changes to offer symptom relief, re-establishment of systemic homeostasis, amelioration of cellular chemistry, and the acceleration of tissue healing. In the psychological realm, hypnotic strategies can be used to provide a much needed continuity of emotional support, a sense of mastery and self-agency, emotional regulation, and behavioral change.

  5. Promoting Safety in Hypnosis: A Clinical Instrument for the Assessment of Alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Hedy A

    2017-04-01

    Hypnosis has long demonstrated its power to facilitate various approaches to psychotherapy. Like other potent modalities, hypnosis may produce unwanted effects. Although its negative sequelae are usually mild and transient, more serious complications may occur. Recently, attention has been drawn to the powerful role of failures of dehypnosis or alerting/realerting in producing unwanted effects. Traditionally, alerting has been viewed as a relatively uncomplicated process that requires little more than the simple suggestion that the subject will return or awaken from trance, and exiting from trance has generally been considered the cessation of the phenomena suggested during induction and thereafter. Newer findings challenge these assumptions and suggest that restoring the subject to a prehypnotic baseline level of alertness is of equal or greater importance. Here, I describe the Howard Alertness Scale (HAS), with which subjects can be made aware of their baseline levels of alertness to help them understand the unique ways that their trance states differ from their normal alert states, and assess and measure their subjective perception of alertness before and after hypnosis. Furthermore, regular use of the HAS holds potential to enhance both the therapeutic alliance and the patient's sense of safety and mastery. The development and use of the HAS is discussed along with three vignettes illustrating its clinical application.

  6. The Hypnotic Induction in the Broad Scheme of Hypnosis: A Sociocognitive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Maxwell, Reed; Green, Joseph P

    2017-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians typically divide hypnosis into two distinct parts: the induction and the suggestions that follow. We suggest that this distinction is arbitrary and artificial. Different definitions of hypnosis ascribe different roles to the hypnotic induction, yet none clearly specifies the mechanisms that mediate or moderate subjective and behavioral responses to hypnotic suggestions. Researchers have identified few if any differences in responding across diverse hypnotic inductions, and surprisingly little research has focused on the specific ingredients that optimize responsiveness. From a sociocognitive perspective, we consider the role of inductions in the broader scheme of hypnosis and suggest that there is no clear line of demarcation between prehypnotic information, the induction, suggestions, and other constituents of the hypnotic context. We describe research efforts to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions, which encompass the induction and other aspects of the broader hypnotic framework, and conclude with a call for more research on inductions and suggestions to better understand their role within hypnotic interventions in research and clinical contexts.

  7. Control Law Design for Propofol Infusion to Regulate Depth of Hypnosis: A Nonlinear Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaqan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining the depth of hypnosis (DOH during surgery is one of the major objectives of anesthesia infusion system. Continuous administration of Propofol infusion during surgical procedures is essential but increases the undue load of an anesthetist in operating room working in a multitasking setup. Manual and target controlled infusion (TCI systems are not good at handling instabilities like blood pressure changes and heart rate variability arising due to interpatient variability. Patient safety, large interindividual variability, and less postoperative effects are the main factors to motivate automation in anesthesia. The idea of automated system for Propofol infusion excites the control engineers to come up with a more sophisticated and safe system that handles optimum delivery of drug during surgery and avoids postoperative effects. In contrast to most of the investigations with linear control strategies, the originality of this research work lies in employing a nonlinear control technique, backstepping, to track the desired hypnosis level of patients during surgery. This effort is envisioned to unleash the true capabilities of this nonlinear control technique for anesthesia systems used today in biomedical field. The working of the designed controller is studied on the real dataset of five patients undergoing surgery. The controller tracks the desired hypnosis level within the acceptable range for surgery.

  8. Self-hypnosis for anxiety associated with severe asthma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of asthma can be complicated by both medical and psychiatric conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux, chronic sinusitis, and anxiety. When symptoms of asthma are interpreted without regard to such conditions treatment may yield a suboptimal outcome. For example, anxiety-associated dyspnea, tachypnea, and chest tightness can be mistakenly interpreted as resulting from an exacerbation of asthma. Medical treatment directed only for asthma may thus lead to overuse of asthma medications and increased hospitalizations. Case Presentation The described case illustrates how a systemic steroid-dependent patient with asthma benefited from receiving care from a pediatric pulmonologist who also was well versed in the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety. By using self-hypnosis, the patient was able to reduce her dependence on bronchodilators. Following modification of her medical therapy under supervision of the pulmonologist, and regular use of hypnosis, the patient ultimately was weaned off her systemic steroid therapy. Conclusions This report emphasizes that anxiety must be considered as a comorbid condition in the treatment of asthma. Self-hypnosis can be a useful skill in the treatment of a patient with anxiety and asthma.

  9. Novel activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy: the general waking trance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest; Erickson-Klein, Roxanna; Rossi, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a highly edited version of a videotape made in 1980 by Marion Moore, M.D., showing Milton H. Erickson and Moore demonstrating novel, activity-dependent approaches to hand-levitation and therapeutic hypnosis on their subject, Ernest Rossi. Erickson's naturalistic and utilization approach is described in his very direct and surprising induction in a trance challenged patient. These novel, and surprising inductions are examples of how Erickson was prescient in developing activity-dependent approaches to therapeutic hypnosis and psychotherapy several generations before modern neuroscience documented the activity-dependent molecular-genomic mechanisms of memory, learning, and behavior change. Erickson describes a case where he utilized what he called, "The General Waking Trance" when he "dared" not use an obvious hypnotic induction. It is proposed that the states of intense mental absorption and response attentiveness that are facilitated by the general waking trance are functionally related to the three conditions neuroscientists have identified as novelty, enrichment, and exercise (both mental and physical), which can turn on activity-dependent gene expression and activity-dependent brain plasticity, that are the molecular-genomic and neural basis ofmemory, learning, consciousness, and behavior change. We recommend that the next step in investigating the efficacy of therapeutic hypnosis will be in partnering with neuroscientists to explore the possibilities and limitations of utilizing the activity-dependent approaches to hypnotic induction and the general waking trance in facilitating activity-dependent gene expression and brain plasticity.

  10. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S., E-mail: gsy3@psu.edu

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  11. Transthyretin represses neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells has been reportedly induced by the protein transthyretin (TTR). In human ocular tissue, TTR is generally considered to be secreted mainly by retinal pigment epithelial cells (hRPECs); however, whether TTR affects the development of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear. Methods Natural and simulated DR media were used to culture human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRECs). Hyperglycemia was simulated by increasing the glucose concentration from 5.5 mM up to 25 mM, while hypoxia was induced with 200 µM CoCl2. To understand the effects of TTR on hRECs, cell proliferation was investigated under natural and DR conditions. Overexpression of TTR, an in vitro wound-healing assay, and a tube formation assay were employed to study the repression of TTR on hRECs. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to study the mRNA levels of DR-related genes, such as Tie2, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Angpt1, and Angpt2. Results The proliferation of hRECs was significantly decreased in the simulated hyperglycemic and hypoxic DR environments. The cells were further repressed by added exogenous or endogenous TTR only under hyperglycemic conditions. The in vitro migration and tube formation processes of the hRECs were inhibited with TTR; furthermore, in the hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia/hypoxia environments, the levels of Tie2 and Angpt1 mRNA were enhanced with exogenous TTR, while those of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and Angpt1 were repressed. Conclusions In hyperglycemia, the proliferation, migration, and neovascularization of hRECs were significantly inhibited by TTR. The key genes for DR neovascularization, including Tie2, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Angpt1, and Angpt2, were regulated by TTR. Under DR conditions, TTR significantly represses neovascularization by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and tube formation of hRECs. PMID:27746673

  12. Polycomb repressive complex 1 controls uterine decidualization

    OpenAIRE

    Fenghua Bian; Fei Gao; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Jegga, Anil G; Artem Barski; Das, Sanjoy K.

    2016-01-01

    Uterine stromal cell decidualization is an essential part of the reproductive process. Decidual tissue development requires a highly regulated control of the extracellular tissue remodeling; however the mechanism of this regulation remains unknown. Through systematic expression studies, we detected that Cbx4/2, Rybp, and Ring1B [components of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)] are predominantly utilized in antimesometrial decidualization with polyploidy. Immunofluorescence analyses reveale...

  13. Comparison of hypnosis with conventional relaxation for antenatal and intrapartum use: a feasibility study in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Les R.; Guzvica, Sally A.

    1987-01-01

    A hypnosis programme for antenatal and intrapartum use has been developed and successfully introduced into a practice as an alternative to conventional relaxation training. Of 96 women from the practice who delivered during the 10-month period of the study 51 opted for the psychoprophylaxis and 45 for the hypnosis. Details of the pregnancy, labour and postnatal period were collected for both groups, together with a subjective assessment of their satisfaction with labour. Disparity between the ages and parity of the two groups made comparisons difficult. The duration of the first stage of labour was markedly reduced in the hypnosis group by 98 minutes for primiparas and 40 minutes for multiparas. A small (five minutes) increase in the length of the second stage may have been a result of the hypnotic relaxation. The verbalization has been amended accordingly. The hypnosis group were more satisfied with labour than the psychoprophylaxis group (mean satisfaction score 7.4 versus 5.6) and they reported other benefits of hypnosis, for example, reduction in anxiety and help with getting to sleep.Further studies are planned. PMID:3333169

  14. Assessing the immediate and maintained effects of hypnosis on self-efficacy and soccer wall-volley performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jamie; Jones, Marc; Greenlees, Iain

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of hypnosis on self-efficacy and soccer performance. Fifty-nine collegiate soccer players were randomly allocated to either a hypnosis (n = 30) or video attention-control group (n = 29). A pretest-posttest design with an additional 4-week follow-up was used. Self-efficacy was measured via a task-specific questionnaire comprising 10 items relating to good performance on a soccer wall-volley task. The hypnotic intervention comprised three sessions using ego-strengthening suggestions. The control group watched edited videos of professional soccer games. Results indicated that, following the intervention, the hypnosis group were more efficacious and performed better than the control group. These differences were also seen at the 4-week follow-up stage. Although changes in self-efficacy were associated with changes in performance, the effect of hypnosis on performance was not mediated by changes in self-efficacy. The study demonstrates that hypnosis can be used to enhance and maintain self-efficacy and soccer wall-volley performance.

  15. Hypnosis for reduction of background pain and pain anxiety in men with burns: A blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarizadeh, Hossein; Lotfi, Mojgan; Ajoudani, Fardin; Kiani, Arezou; Alinejad, Vahid

    2017-08-08

    'Background pain' and 'pain anxiety' are among the numerous problems of patients with burns. Non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions have been used to reduce background pain and pain anxiety. This study compared the effectiveness of hypnosis and 'neutral hypnosis' (as a placebo in the control group) in decreasing the background burn pain and pain anxiety of adult male survivors with burns. This is a blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Sixty men with burns were included in the minimisation method (30 individuals in the intervention group and 30 individuals in the control group). Four hypnotherapy sessions were performed every other day for each participant in the intervention group. Four neutral hypnosis sessions were performed every other day in the control group. Burn pain and pain anxiety of the patients in both groups were measured at the end of the second and fourth sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. There was no significant difference between the groups in the reduction in background pain intensity. There was a significant reduction in background pain quality and pain anxiety in the intervention group during the four hypnosis sessions. After two hypnotherapy sessions, a significant reduction was observed in the level of background pain quality and pain anxiety of participants. Hypnosis is effective in reducing background pain quality and pain anxiety of men with burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Recovery of Syrian hamster hippocampal signaling following its depression during oxygen-glucose deprivation is enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Mack, Jacob; Vitagliano, Nicholas; Hamilton, Jock S; Horowitz, John M; Horwitz, Barbara A

    2016-05-16

    Signal transmission over a hippocampal network of CA3 and CA1 neurons in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), facultative hibernators, has not been fully characterized in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We hypothesized that during OGD, hippocampal signal transmission fails first at the synapse between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons and that recovery of signal processing following OGD is more robust in hippocampal slices at cold temperature, from hamsters vs. rats, and from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters. To test these hypotheses, we recorded fEPSPs and population spikes of CA1 neurons at 25°C, 30°C, and 35°C in 400μm slices over a 15min control period with the slice in oxygenated aCSF containing glucose (control solution), a 10min treatment period (OGD insult) where oxygen was replaced by nitrogen in aCSF lacking glucose, and a 30min recovery period with the slice in the control solution. The initial site of transmission failure during OGD occurred at the CA3-CA1 synapse, and recovery of signal transmission was at least, if not more (depending on temperature), complete in slices from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters, and from non-hibernating hamsters vs. rats. Thus, hamster neuroprotective mechanisms supporting functional recovery were enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation.

  17. Immunoreactivities of IL-1β and IL-1R in oviduct of Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) during pre-hibernation and the breeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiqi; Liu, Yuning; Deng, Yu; Ma, Sihui; Sheng, Xia; Weng, Qiang; Xu, Meiyu

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese brown frog (Rana dybowskii) has one special physiological phenomenon, which is that its oviduct goes through expansion prior to hibernation instead of during the breeding period. In this study, we investigated the localization and expression level of interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and its functional membrane receptor type I (IL1R1) proteins in the oviduct of R. dybowskii during pre-hibernation and the breeding period. There were significant differences in both oviductal weight and pipe diameter, with values markedly higher in pre-hibernation than in the breeding period. Histologically, epithelium cells, glandular cells and tubule lumen were identified in the oviduct during pre-hibernation and the breeding period, while sizes of both cell types are larger in the pre-hibernation than those of the breeding period. IL-1β was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of epithelial and glandular cells in both periods, whereas IL-1R1 was observed in the membrane of epithelial and glandular cells in the breeding period, whereas only in epithelial cells during pre-hibernation. Consistently, the protein levels of IL-1β and IL-1R1 were higher in pre-hibernation as compared to the breeding period. These results suggested that IL-1β may play an important autocrine or paracrine role in oviductal cell proliferation and differentiation of R. dybowskii.

  18. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  19. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zukal

    Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  20. The hibernating 13-lined ground squirrel as a model organism for potential cold storage of platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Scott T; Richters, Karl E; Melin, Travis E; Liu, Zhi-jian; Hordyk, Peter J; Benrud, Ryan R; Geiser, Lauren R; Cash, Steve E; Simon Shelley, C; Howard, David R; Ereth, Mark H; Sola-Visner, Martha C

    2012-05-15

    Hibernating mammals have developed many physiological adaptations to extreme environments. During hibernation, 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) must suppress hemostasis to survive prolonged body temperatures of 4-8°C and 3-5 heartbeats per minute without forming lethal clots. Upon arousal in the spring, these ground squirrels must be able to quickly restore normal clotting activity to avoid bleeding. Here we show that ground squirrel platelets stored in vivo at 4-8°C were released back into the blood within 2 h of arousal in the spring with a body temperature of 37°C but were not rapidly cleared from circulation. These released platelets were capable of forming stable clots and remained in circulation for at least 2 days before newly synthesized platelets were detected. Transfusion of autologous platelets stored at 4°C or 37°C showed the same clearance rates in ground squirrels, whereas rat platelets stored in the cold had a 140-fold increase in clearance rate. Our results demonstrate that ground squirrel platelets appear to be resistant to the platelet cold storage lesions observed in other mammals, allowing prolonged storage in cold stasis and preventing rapid clearance upon spring arousal. Elucidating these adaptations could lead to the development of methods to store human platelets in the cold, extending their shelf life.

  1. [Spatial structure of the community of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) hibernating in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P; Kurmaeva, N M; Shepelev, A A; Il'in, V Iu

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka. The proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest parts of caves. Among wintering species, higher rates of occurrence and shelter occupancy are characteristic of Plecotus auritus. Myotis daubentonii, and M. mystacinus, whereas M. dasycneme and M. brandtii show the highest degree of aggregation. The optimal temperature range for the wintering of all bat species is 2-4 degrees C. Myotis brandtii, Eptesicus nilssonii, and M. daubentonii prefer to hibernate in open spaces of cave ceilings; M. mystacinus. E. serotinus, and Pl. auritus usually occupy the middle and upper parts of walls; while M. dasycneme and M. nattereri occur mainly in hollows on ceilings.

  2. Cardiomyocyte Remodeling in Atrial Fibrillation and Hibernating Myocardium: Shared Pathophysiologic Traits Identify Novel Treatment Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Weil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia and is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited treatment strategies for prevention of disease onset and progression. Development of novel therapies for primary and secondary prevention of AF is critical and requires improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the AF disease process. Translational and clinical studies conducted over the past twenty years have revealed that atrial remodeling in AF shares several important pathophysiologic traits with the remodeling processes exhibited by hibernating myocardium that develop in response to chronic ischemia. These shared features, which include an array of structural, metabolic, and electrophysiologic changes, appear to represent a conserved adaptive myocyte response to chronic stress that involves dedifferentiation towards a fetal phenotype to promote survival. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of AF, summarize studies supporting a common remodeling program in AF and hibernating myocardium, and propose future therapeutic implications of this emerging paradigm. Ultimately, better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of atrial myocyte remodeling during the onset of AF and the transition from paroxysmal to persistent stages of the disease may facilitate discovery of new therapeutic targets.

  3. Does functional recovery of hibernating myocardium coincide with improvement in perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Tonooka, Ichiro; Chiba, Junya; Abe, Shinya; Tsuiki, Kai; Tomoike, Hitonobu (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yasui, Shoji

    1992-03-01

    To determine how much recovery of hibernating myocardium coincide with perfusion improvement, 49 patients underwent radionuclide left ventriculography and exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy (Ex-Tl) before and one month after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The left ventricle was divided into 6 segments for the assessment of wall motion and Tl-201 uptake. One month after CABG, wall motion improvement was found in a total of 74 segments (seg A), and was also associated with perfusion improvement in 66 segments (89%). Although 8 segments showed wall motion improvement at follow-up examinations (seg B), 7 (88%) had been improved for perfusion one month after CABG. Preoperative akinesis or dyskinesis was more frequently observed for seg B (75%) than seg A (34%). Similarly, seg B was associated with lower %Tl-201 uptake as compared with seg A (74{+-}9% vs 83{+-}8%). In conclusion, perfusion recovery preceded recovery of hibernating myocardium in some segments, suggesting the involvement of stunned myocardium. These segments were associated with severe wall motion abnormality before CABG and lower Tl-201 uptake. (N.K.).

  4. Hypnosis and memory%催眠与记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧良; 张庆林

    2006-01-01

    目的:催眠记忆增强是由于被催眠者在回忆时,重复记忆已经学习过的材料的结果,而不是催眠真的能使人的记忆增强.催眠增强记忆是从记忆库中调出已经存在的记忆,而不是增加记忆.本文旨在综述催眠和记忆的关系.资料来源:应用计算机检索ProQuest Psychology Journal 1990-01/2005-08与催眠相关的文章,检索词"hypnosis and psychology,memory",限定文章语言种类为English;另外应用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库1995-01/2005-08与催眠相关的文章,检索词为"催眠,记忆".限定文章语言种类为中文.另查阅相关专著若干.资料选择:对资料进行初审,选择与催眠和记忆研究相关的文章,纳入标准:对催眠以及催眠的历史进行详细阐述的、催眠与记忆的相关研究.排除标准:排除文献中重复的研究.对符合要求的文章再查阅全文.资料提炼:在收集的25篇文献中,排除8篇重复性研究,其余17篇进行分类整理,用于综述,其中14篇选为参考文献,心理学专著3部.资料综合:催眠的历史悠久,埃及、巴比伦、罗马、玛稚等民族都有曾使用催眠治疗疾病的历史.在心理学中,有关催眠、催眠与记忆存在着一些争议.对于催眠的定义不同的学者有不同的看法;催眠是介于觉醒与催眠之间的心理状态,催眠者的暗示诱导使被催眠意识处于积极而活跃的状态,使潜意识中的大量信息被重新组合.催眠记忆增强不可能增加人们的记忆,催眠记忆增强是由于被催眠者试图重复记忆相同的材料的结果.催眠记忆中,被催眠者容易出现记忆错误与对自己催眠后回忆起来的错误信息过分自信.结论:催眠记忆增强中所说的记忆是指对已经学习过的信息回忆的增强,而不是说催眠能够增加人们的记忆,帮助人们学习新信息.在催眠记忆增强中容易出现记忆错误以及被催眠者对催眠中的记忆错误过分自信,

  5. Hypnosis and Local Anesthesia for Dental Pain Relief-Alternative or Adjunct Therapy?-A Randomized, Clinical-Experimental Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas Gerhard; Wolf, Dominik; Callaway, Angelika; Below, Dagna; d'Hoedt, Bernd; Willershausen, Brita; Daubländer, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This prospective randomized clinical crossover trial was designed to compare hypnosis and local anesthesia for experimental dental pain relief. Pain thresholds of the dental pulp were determined. A targeted standardized pain stimulus was applied and rated on the Visual Analogue Scale (0-10). The pain threshold was lower under hypnosis (58.3 ± 17.3, p local anesthesia. The pain stimulus was scored higher under hypnosis (3.9 ± 3.8) than with local anesthesia (0.0, p Local anesthesia was superior to hypnosis and is a safe and effective method for pain relief in dentistry. Hypnosis seems to produce similar effects observed under sedation. It can be used in addition to local anesthesia and in individual cases as an alternative for pain control in dentistry.

  6. Transcriptional activation of muscle atrophy promotes cardiac muscle remodeling during mammalian hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichi; Aguilar, Oscar A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2016-01-01

    Background. Mammalian hibernation in thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) is characterized by dramatic changes on a physiological and molecular level. During hibernation, mammalian hearts show a propensity to hypertrophy due to the need for increasing contractility to pump colder and more viscous blood. While cardiac hypertrophy is quite often a process characterized by decompensation, the ground squirrel studied is an excellent model of cardiac plasticity and cardioprotection under conditions of hypothermia and ischemia. The forkhead box O (Foxo) family of proteins and myogenin (MyoG) are transcription factors that control protein degradation and muscle atrophy by regulating the expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx and MuRF1. These ligases are part of the ubiquitin proteasome system by transferring ubiquitin to proteins and targeting these proteins for degradation. Regulation of Foxo1 and 3a occurs through phosphorylation at different residues. The threonine-24 (Thr-24) and serine-319 (Ser-319) residues on Foxo1, and the Thr-32 residue on Foxo3a are phosphorylated by Akt, leading to cytoplasmic localization of Foxo. We propose that the described mechanism contributes to the changes taking place in cardiac muscle throughout hibernation. Methods. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3a, as well as total protein levels of MyoG, MAFbx, and MuRF1, were studied using immunoblotting. Results. Immunoblotting results demonstrated upregulations in Foxo1 and Foxo3a total protein levels (1.3- and 4.5-fold increases relative to euthermic control, for Foxo1 and 3a respectively) during late torpor, and protein levels remained elevated throughout the rest of torpor and at interbout arousal. We also observed decreases in inactive, phosphorylated Foxo1 and 3a proteins during throughout torpor, where levels of p-Foxo1 Ser(319) and Thr(24), as well as p-Foxo3a Thr(32) decreased by at least 45% throughout torpor. MyoG was

  7. Transcriptional activation of muscle atrophy promotes cardiac muscle remodeling during mammalian hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichi Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mammalian hibernation in thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus is characterized by dramatic changes on a physiological and molecular level. During hibernation, mammalian hearts show a propensity to hypertrophy due to the need for increasing contractility to pump colder and more viscous blood. While cardiac hypertrophy is quite often a process characterized by decompensation, the ground squirrel studied is an excellent model of cardiac plasticity and cardioprotection under conditions of hypothermia and ischemia. The forkhead box O (Foxo family of proteins and myogenin (MyoG are transcription factors that control protein degradation and muscle atrophy by regulating the expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx and MuRF1. These ligases are part of the ubiquitin proteasome system by transferring ubiquitin to proteins and targeting these proteins for degradation. Regulation of Foxo1 and 3a occurs through phosphorylation at different residues. The threonine-24 (Thr-24 and serine-319 (Ser-319 residues on Foxo1, and the Thr-32 residue on Foxo3a are phosphorylated by Akt, leading to cytoplasmic localization of Foxo. We propose that the described mechanism contributes to the changes taking place in cardiac muscle throughout hibernation. Methods. Total and phosphorylated protein levels of Foxo1 and Foxo3a, as well as total protein levels of MyoG, MAFbx, and MuRF1, were studied using immunoblotting. Results. Immunoblotting results demonstrated upregulations in Foxo1 and Foxo3a total protein levels (1.3- and 4.5-fold increases relative to euthermic control, for Foxo1 and 3a respectively during late torpor, and protein levels remained elevated throughout the rest of torpor and at interbout arousal. We also observed decreases in inactive, phosphorylated Foxo1 and 3a proteins during throughout torpor, where levels of p-Foxo1 Ser319 and Thr24, as well as p-Foxo3a Thr32 decreased by at least 45% throughout torpor. MyoG was

  8. Selection of high temperatures for hibernation by the pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris: ecological advantages and energetic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, A.R.

    Daily metabolism was calculated from food consumption in pocket mice, Perognathus longimembris, at 8/sup 0/C, 18/sup 0/C, and 31/sup 0/C. At temperatures below thermal neutrality for this species, daily metabolism was related to the amount of time the mice spent in torpor. Ambient temperature has no net effect on the minimum energy expenditure during a typical 5-mo hibernation season. Once an animal has accumulated a food store of approximately 130 g of millet seeds, it has the minimum energy necessary to hibernate at any environmental temperature. Such temperature compensation results from the complex effects of temperature on (1) the ratio of time of euthermy to time of torpor, (2) the energetic cost per hour of torpor, (3) the energetic cost per hour of euthermy, and (4) the energetic cost of arousal from torpor. The amount of time spent in torpor was inversely dependent on the food supply, indicating that euthermia is preferred even during the hibernation season. Mice also maximize the time of euthermia by selecting high environmental temperatures at all times of the year. Torpor probably occurs naturally only during the winter when the highest temperatures available to the mice are below thermal neutrality. The maximization of the time of euthermia reduces the chances of freezing during hibernation and enhances the animal's ability to excape from predators.

  9. Low cardiac output as physiological phenomenon in hibernating, free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos) - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Arnemo, Jon; Swenson, Jon E

    2014-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Free-ranging brown bears demonstrate hemodynamics comparable to humans during active state, whereas during hibernation, we documented extremely low-flow hemodynamics. Understanding these physiological changes in bears may help to gain insight into the mechanisms of cardiogenic shock and heart...

  10. THE LIPID COMPOSITION OF TISSUE OF SCALY CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L. IN THE CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL CARBON HIBERNATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sysolyatin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Establish and compare the content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain pond carp active life condition and under artificial hibernation carbon. Methodology. The experiments were conducted on the Ukrainian scaly carp breed (Cyprinus caprio L. weighing 250–270 g. To conduct research to form two groups (control — 5 copies of the fish and an experimental — each point hypobiosis exposure to 5 copies of the fish. Introduction of fish hypobiotically state conducted for the use of a patented model artificial hibernation. The selection of material performed by opening the first and second fish group on the 3, 6 and 24 hours of exposure, then it is frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen. Lipid extraction after homogenization of brain tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and gills was performed according to Folch. The content of the total lipids (from the weight of the dry residue after extraction was determined using the gravimetric method. The separation into individual lipid fractions were determined thin layer chromatography by plates "Silufol". Quantitative determination of total phospholipids — hydroxamate method; cholesterol — colorimetric method with three ferric chlorides. All the results are treated variation-statistical method using the Student's t-tests. Findings. These results suggest that the content of total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol in the tissues of the carp pond in the active state of life is significantly different. The content of the total lipids in the liver, skeletal muscle, gill and brain in a carp pond introducing carbon dioxide into a state of artificial hibernation (hypercapnic hypoxia-medium is reduced in comparison with the control. Under these conditions, noted a slight increase in tissue phospholipids, as well as a significant increase in cholesterol and the coefficient (CL/PL, especially in the liver, indicating that the use of lipids in energy and adaptation processes

  11. Meditation with yoga, group therapy with hypnosis, and psychoeducation for long-term depressed mood: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lisa D; Waelde, Lynn C; Hastings, T Andrew; Chen, Xin-Hua; Symons, Barbara; Marshall, Jonathan; Kaufman, Adam; Nagy, Thomas F; Blasey, Christine M; Seibert, Elizabeth O; Spiegel, David

    2008-07-01

    This randomized pilot study investigated the effects of meditation with yoga (and psychoeducation) versus group therapy with hypnosis (and psychoeducation) versus psychoeducation alone on diagnostic status and symptom levels among 46 individuals with long-term depressive disorders. Results indicate that significantly more meditation group participants experienced a remission than did controls at 9-month follow-up. Eight hypnosis group participants also experienced a remission, but the difference from controls was not statistically significant. Three control participants, but no meditation or hypnosis participants, developed a new depressive episode during the study, though this difference did not reach statistical significance in any case. Although all groups reported some reduction in symptom levels, they did not differ significantly in that outcome. Overall, these results suggest that these two interventions show promise for treating low- to moderate-level depression.

  12. A conceptual review of the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise: neuroscience perspectives about the deep psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ernest L

    2002-10-01

    This conceptual review explores some speculative associations between the neuroscience of expectancy and surprise during stress and therapeutic hypnosis. Current neuroscience is exploring how novel interactions between the organism and the environment initiate cascades of gene expression, protein synthesis, neurogenesis, and healing that operate via Darwinian principles of natural variation and selection on all levels from the molecular-genomic to the subjective states of consciousness. From a neuroscience perspective, the novel and surprising experiences of consciousness appear to have as important a role as expectancy in memory, learning and behavior change in the psychobiology of therapeutic hypnosis. This paper explores how we may integrate the psychosocial genomics of expectancy and surprise in therapeutic hypnosis as a complex system of creative adaptation on all levels of human experience from mind to gene expression.

  13. The Pioneering Work of Enrico Morselli (1852-1929) in Light of Modern Scientific Research on Hypnosis and Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Chiara; Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro

    2017-01-01

    This article examines research on hypnosis and suggestion, starting with the nineteenth-century model proposed by Enrico Morselli (1852-1929), an illustrious Italian psychiatrist and psychologist. The authors conducted an original psychophysiological analysis of hypnosis, distancing the work from the neuropathological concept of the time and proposing a model based on a naturalistic approach to investigating mental processes. The issues investigated by Morselli, including the definition of hypnosis and analysis of specific mental processes such as attention and memory, are reviewed in light of modern research. From the view of modern neuroscientific concepts, some problems that originated in the nineteenth century still appear to be present and pose still-open questions.

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder managed successfully with hypnosis and the rewind technique: two cases in obstetric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P M

    2015-08-01

    Two obstetric patients presenting with post-traumatic stress disorder in the antenatal period are discussed. The first patient had previously had an unexpected stillborn delivered by emergency caesarean section under general anaesthesia. She developed post-traumatic stress disorder and presented for repeat caesarean section in her subsequent pregnancy, suffering flashbacks and severe anxiety. Following antenatal preparation with hypnosis and a psychological method called the rewind technique, she had a repeat caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, successfully managing her anxiety. The second patient suffered post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after developing puerperal psychosis during the birth of her first child. Before the birth of her second child, she was taught self-hypnosis, which she used during labour in which she had an uneventful water birth. These cases illustrate the potential value of hypnosis and alternative psychological approaches in managing women with severe antenatal anxiety.

  15. Identification of qRT-PCR reference genes for analysis of opioid gene expression in a hibernator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P; Ackermann, Laynez W; Denning, Gerene M; Carey, Hannah V

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has suggested that central and peripheral opioid signaling are involved in regulating torpor behavior and tissue protection associated with the hibernation phenotype. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of opioid peptide precursors and receptors in the brain and heart of summer ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and winter hibernating squirrels in the torpid or interbout arousal states. The use of appropriate reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression data can have profound effects on the analysis and interpretation of results. This may be particularly important when experimental subjects, such as hibernating animals, undergo significant morphological and/or functional changes during the study. Therefore, an additional goal of this study was to identify stable reference genes for use in qRT-PCR studies of the 13-lined ground squirrel. Expression levels of 10 potential reference genes were measured in the small intestine, liver, brain, and heart, and the optimal combinations of the most stable reference genes were identified by the GeNorm Excel applet. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations for reference genes to use in each tissue that would be suitable for comparative studies among different activity states. When appropriate normalization of mRNA levels was used, there were no changes in opioid-related genes in heart among the three activity states; in brain, DOR expression was highest during torpor, lowest in interbout arousal and intermediate in summer. The results support the idea that changes in DOR expression may regulate the level of neuronal activity in brain during the annual hibernation cycle and may contribute to hibernation-associated tissue protection.

  16. Tactile massage and hypnosis as a health promotion for nurses in emergency care-a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordby-Hörnell Elisabeth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explores nursing personnel's experiences and perceptions of receiving tactile massage and hypnosis during a personnel health promotion project. Nursing in a short term emergency ward environment can be emotionally and physically exhausting due to the stressful work environment and the high dependency patient care. A health promotion project integrating tactile massage and hypnosis with conventional physical activities was therefore introduced for nursing personnel working in this setting at a large university hospital in Sweden. Methods Four semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted with volunteer nursing personnel participants after the health promotion project had been completed. There were 16 participants in the focus groups and there were 57 in the health promotion intervention. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed with qualitative content analysis. Results The findings indicated that tactile massage and hypnosis may contribute to reduced levels of stress and pain and increase work ability for some nursing personnel. The sense of well-being obtained in relation to health promotion intervention with tactile massage and hypnosis seemed to have positive implications for both work and leisure. Self-awareness, contentment and self-control may be contributing factors related to engaging in tactile massage and hypnosis that might help nursing personnel understand their patients and colleagues and helped them deal with difficult situations that occurred during their working hours. Conclusion The findings indicate that the integration of tactile massage and hypnosis in personnel health promotion may be valuable stress management options in addition to conventional physical activities.

  17. Relationship between the tonic elevator mandibular activity and the vertical dimension during the states of vigilance and hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, A; Zuazola, R V; Sirhan, R M; Quiroz, M; Rocabado, M

    1990-04-01

    The variation of the tonic EMG elevator mandibular activity was studied as well as the consequent variation of the vertical dimension in two different experimental states: those of vigilance and hypnosis. In the state of vigilance, normal values of tonic EMG activity were recorded and a space of inocclusion (X = 2.22 mm) coincident with the postural mandibular position. Under hypnosis a significant reduction of the tonic EMG activity was observed (43 to 50%), together with a great increase of the inocclusion space (X = 8.90 mm).

  18. Unexpected consequences: women's experiences of a self-hypnosis intervention to help with pain relief during labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Kenneth; Downe, Soo; Hinder, Susan; Carr, Helen; Spiby, Helen; Whorwell, Peter

    2015-09-25

    Self-hypnosis is becoming increasingly popular as a means of labour pain management. Previous studies have produced mixed results. There are very few data on women's views and experiences of using hypnosis in this context. As part of a randomized controlled trial of self-hypnosis for intra-partum pain relief (the SHIP Trial) we conducted qualitative interviews with women randomized to the intervention arm to explore their views and experiences of using self-hypnosis during labour and birth. Participants were randomly selected from the intervention arm of the study, which consisted of two antenatal self-hypnosis training sessions and a supporting CD that women were encouraged to listen to daily from 32 weeks gestation until the birth of their baby. Those who consented were interviewed in their own homes 8-12 weeks after birth. Following transcription, the interviews were analysed iteratively and emerging concepts were discussed amongst the authors to generate organizing themes. These were then used to develop a principal organizing metaphor or global theme, in a process known as thematic networks analysis. Of the 343 women in the intervention group, 48 were invited to interview, and 16 were interviewed over a 12 month period from February 2012 to January 2013. Coding of the data and subsequent analysis revealed a global theme of 'unexpected consequences', supported by 5 organising themes, 'calmness in a climate of fear', 'from sceptic to believer', 'finding my space', 'delays and disappointments' and 'personal preferences'. Most respondents reported positive experiences of self-hypnosis and highlighted feelings of calmness, confidence and empowerment. They found the intervention to be beneficial and used a range of novel strategies to personalize their self-hypnosis practice. Occasionally women reported feeling frustrated or disappointed when their relaxed state was misinterpreted by midwives on admission or when their labour and birth experiences did not match

  19. Potential Synergism between Hypnosis and Acupuncture—Is the Whole More Than the Sum of Its Parts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Schiff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Both hypnosis and acupuncture have gained credibility over the years in their effectiveness for treating various health conditions. Currently, each of these treatments is administered in distinct settings and separate times. That is, even if patients receive both treatments as part of a multidimensional therapeutic program, they would typically receive them separately rather than simultaneously at the same session. This separation however might be undesirable since, at least theoretically, hypnosis and acupuncture could potentially augment each other if administered concomitantly. In this article we outline the rationale for this hypothesis and discuss the potential ramifications of its implementation.

  20. Bending the rules of transcriptional repression: tightly looped DNA directly represses T7 RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionberger, Troy A; Meyhöfer, Edgar

    2010-08-09

    From supercoiled DNA to the tight loops of DNA formed by some gene repressors, DNA in cells is often highly bent. Despite evidence that transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is affected in systems where DNA is deformed significantly, the mechanistic details underlying the relationship between polymerase function and mechanically stressed DNA remain unclear. Seeking to gain additional insight into the regulatory consequences of highly bent DNA, we hypothesize that tightly looping DNA is alone sufficient to repress transcription. To test this hypothesis, we have developed an assay to quantify transcription elongation by bacteriophage T7 RNAP on small, circular DNA templates approximately 100 bp in size. From these highly bent transcription templates, we observe that the elongation velocity and processivity can be repressed by at least two orders of magnitude. Further, we show that minicircle templates sustaining variable levels of twist yield only moderate differences in repression efficiency. We therefore conclude that the bending mechanics within the minicircle templates dominate the observed repression. Our results support a model in which RNAP function is highly dependent on the bending mechanics of DNA and are suggestive of a direct, regulatory role played by the template itself in regulatory systems where DNA is known to be highly bent. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Translational repression contributes greater noise to gene expression than transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Michał; Miekisz, Jacek; Kierzek, Andrzej M

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic effects in gene expression may result in different physiological states of individual cells, with consequences for pathogen survival and artificial gene network design. We studied the contributions of a regulatory factor to gene expression noise in four basic mechanisms of negative gene expression control: 1), transcriptional regulation by a protein repressor, 2), translational repression by a protein; 3), transcriptional repression by RNA; and 4), RNA interference with the translation. We investigated a general model of a two-gene network, using the chemical master equation and a moment generating function approach. We compared the expression noise of genes with the same effective transcription and translation initiation rates resulting from the action of different repressors, whereas previous studies compared the noise of genes with the same mean expression level but different initiation rates. Our results show that translational repression results in a higher noise than repression on the promoter level, and that this relationship does not depend on quantitative parameter values. We also show that regulation of protein degradation contributes more noise than regulated degradation of mRNA. These are unexpected results, because previous investigations suggested that translational regulation is more accurate. The relative magnitude of the noise introduced by protein and RNA repressors depends on the protein and mRNA degradation rates, and we derived expressions for the threshold below which the noise introduced by a protein repressor is higher than the noise introduced by an RNA repressor.

  2. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.

  3. Mechanism of catabolite repression of tryptophanase synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, H; Chao, D; Yanofsky, C; Saier, M H

    1994-08-01

    Repression of tryptophanase (tryptophan indole-lyase) by glucose and its non-metabolizable analogue methyl alpha-glucoside has been studied employing a series of isogenic strains of Escherichia coli lacking cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and altered for two of the proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), Enzyme I and Enzyme IIAGlc. Basal activity of tryptophanase was depressed mildly by inclusion of glucose in the growth medium, but inducible tryptophanase synthesis was subject to strong glucose repression in the parental strain, which exhibited normal PTS enzyme activities. Methyl alpha-glucoside was without effect in this strain. Loss of Enzyme I decreased sensitivity to repression by glucose but enhanced sensitivity to repression by methyl alpha-glucoside. Loss of Enzyme IIAGlc activity largely abolished repression by methyl alpha-glucoside but had a less severe effect on glucose repression. The repressive effects of both sugars were fully reversed by inclusion of cyclic AMP in the growth medium. Tryptophan uptake under the same conditions was inhibited weakly by glucose and more strongly by methyl alpha-glucoside in the parental strain. Inhibition by both sugars was alleviated by partial loss of Enzyme I. Inhibition by methyl alpha-glucoside appeared to be largely due to energy competition and was not responsible for repression of tryptophanase synthesis. Measurement of net production of cyclic AMP as well as intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP revealed a good correlation with intensity of repression. The results suggest that while basal tryptophanase synthesis is relatively insensitive to catabolite repression, inducible synthesis is subject to strong repression by two distinct mechanisms, one dependent on enzyme IIAGlc of the PTS and the other independent of this protein. Both mechanisms are attributable to depressed rates of cyclic AMP synthesis. No evidence for a cyclic-AMP-independent mechanism of catabolite

  4. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Christine E; Huschtscha, Lily I; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R; Hendrickson, Eric A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-06-30

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT.

  5. Similarities in acute phase protein response during hibernation in black bears and major depression in humans: A response to underlying metabolic depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiouris, J.A.; Chauhan, V.P.S.; Sheikh, A.M.; Chauhan, A.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hibernation with mild hypothermia and the stress of captivity on levels of six acute-phase proteins (APPs) in serial samples of serum from 11 wild and 6 captive black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780) during active and hibernating states. We hypothesize that during hibernation with mild hypothermia, bears would show an APP response similar to that observed in major depression. Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay was used to measure alpha2-macroglobulin and C-reactive protein, and a nephelometer to measure alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin. Levels of all other proteins except ceruloplasmin were significantly elevated during hibernation in both wild and captive bears at the p neurobiology of depression.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide metabolites in the blood of free-ranging brown bears and their potential roles in hibernation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Inge G; Shen, Xinggui; Chakravarti, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), in winter-hibernating and summer-active free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. We found that levels of sulfide metabolites were overall similar in summer-active and hibernating bears but their composition in the plasma...... differed significantly, with a decrease in bound sulfane sulfur in hibernation. High levels of unbound free sulfide correlated with high levels of cysteine (Cys) and with low levels of bound sulfane sulfur, indicating that during hibernation H2S, in addition to being formed enzymatically from the substrate...... Cys, may also be regenerated from its oxidation products, including thiosulfate and polysulfides. In the absence of any dietary intake, this shift in the mode of H2S synthesis would help preserve free Cys for synthesis of glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant found at high levels in the red blood...

  7. A Case Study of Hypnosis for Phagophobia: It's No Choking Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-04-01

    In this case study the author reviews the benefits of hypnosis for a 13-year-old female suffering from a specific phobia involving a fear of choking and generalized fear of swallowing that resulted in an episode of Restrictive Food Intake Disorder with associated significant weight loss. At the time of the initial consultation, three weeks after her choking episode, the patient weighed 93 pounds. Standing at 5'2", her Body Mass Index (BMI) was 17 (15th percentile) indicative of healthy weight for a child her age and height. She continued to lose weight over the course of 2 months and at her worst weighed 85 pounds (BMI = 15.5, 3rd percentile, classified as underweight). Prior to the incident, she weighed 105 pounds with a BMI of 19.2 (46th percentile). Treatment initially consisted of 12 hypnosis sessions (over a 5-month period), conducted on a weekly and eventually biweekly basis. A scheduled one-month follow-up visit was conducted following the 12th session, at which time the patient was consuming solid foods without fear of choking. Her BMI at that time was 18.7 (39th percentile). Two months after terminating treatment, the patient experienced a mild relapse triggered by conflicts with some female peers. After four additional hypnosis sessions, the patient's symptoms again remitted. During her last session we shared a pizza, providing clear and convincing evidence that she had overcome her fear of swallowing. She retained therapeutic benefits for at least 3 years following treatment.

  8. Hypnosis-induced mental training improves performance on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Gideon; Arnon, Zahi; Laniado, Monica; Schiff, Elad; Matter, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    Mental training (MT) is used extensively by musicians and athletes to improve their performance. Recently, it has been suggested as a training method for surgical trainees. We assessed the influence of MT, induced by hypnosis, on the performance of simulated tasks on a laparoscopic simulator, as compared to a non-specific relaxing intervention. 11 surgeons completed a proficiency-based training program on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) simulator, until they reached performance plateau of the peg transfer task. Thereafter, they received a single music session, as a relaxing intervention, followed by repeating of the peg transfer task. Then they went through a hypnosis session guided by an experienced psychologist, with suggestions of smooth flow of pegs from one position on the board to another, and re-performed the task. Plateau performance was 51.1 ± 6.9 s. After the music session performance improved by 6.3% to 47.9 ± 5.4 s (p = 0.86). After the MT session performance further improved by 15.3% to 40.1 ± 5.8 s (p = 0.009), which was a 21.6% improvement from baseline (p Hypnosis-induced MT significantly improves performance on the FLS simulator, which cannot be attributed to its relaxing qualities alone. This study contributes evidence to the effectiveness of MT in surgical skills acquisition and suggests that hypnotic techniques should be used in mental preparation processes. There is a need to further study these effects on operating room performance.

  9. Hypnosis-based psychodynamic treatment in ALS: a longitudinal study on patients and their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbub, Johann R.; Palmieri, Arianna; Broggio, Alice; Pagnini, Francesco; Benelli, Enrico; Sambin, Marco; Sorarù, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence of psychological treatment efficacy is strongly needed in ALS, particularly regarding long-term effects. Methods: Fifteen patients participated in a hypnosis treatment and self-hypnosis training protocol after an in-depth psychological and neurological evaluation. Patients' primary caregivers and 15 one-by-one matched control patients were considered in the study. Measurements of anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) were collected at the baseline, post-treatment, and after 3 and 6 months from the intervention. Bayesian linear mixed-models were used to evaluate the impact of treatment and defense style on patients' anxiety, depression, QoL, and functional impairment (ALSFRS-r), as well as on caregivers' anxiety and depression. Results: The statistical analyses revealed an improvement in psychological variables' scores immediately after the treatment. Amelioration in patients' and caregivers' anxiety as well as caregivers' depression, were found to persist at 3 and 6 months follow-ups. The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers. Notably, treated patients decline in ALSFRS-r score was observed to be slower than that of control group's patients. Discussion: Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers. The implications of peculiar psychodynamic factors and mind-body techniques are discussed. Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS. PMID:26136710

  10. Reinforcement learning versus proportional-integral-derivative control of hypnosis in a simulated intraoperative patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brett L; Quasny, Todd M; Doufas, Anthony G

    2011-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the efficacy of closed-loop control of anesthesia using bispectral index (BIS) as the controlled variable. Model-based and proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers outperform manual control. We investigated the application of reinforcement learning (RL), an intelligent systems control method, to closed-loop BIS-guided, propofol-induced hypnosis in simulated intraoperative patients. We also compared the performance of the RL agent against that of a conventional PID controller. The RL and PID controllers were evaluated during propofol induction and maintenance of hypnosis. The patient-hypnotic episodes were designed to challenge both controllers with varying degrees of interindividual variation and noxious surgical stimulation. Each controller was tested in 1000 simulated patients, and control performance was assessed by calculating the median performance error (MDPE), median absolute performance error (MDAPE), Wobble, and Divergence for each controller group. A separate analysis was performed for the induction and maintenance phases of hypnosis. During maintenance, RL control demonstrated an MDPE of -1% and an MDAPE of 3.75%, with 80% of the time at BIS(target) ± 5. The PID controller yielded a MDPE of -8.5% and an MDAPE of 8.6%, with 57% of the time at BIS(target) ± 5. In comparison, the MDAPE in the worst-controlled patient of the RL group was observed to be almost half that of the worst-controlled patient in the PID group. When compared with the PID controller, RL control resulted in slower induction but less overshoot and faster attainment of steady state. No difference in interindividual patient variation and noxious destabilizing challenge on control performance was observed between the 2 patient groups.

  11. Hypnotizability, hypnosis and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in healthy women: an ERP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Russo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis suggests that highly hypnotizable individuals (HHs) have more effective frontal attentional systems implementing control, monitoring performance, and inhibiting unwanted stimuli from conscious awareness, than low hypnotizable individuals (LHs). Recent studies, using prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex (ASR), suggest that HHs, in the waking condition, may show reduced sensory gating although they may selectively attend and disattend different stimuli. Using a within subject design and a strict subject selection procedure, in waking and hypnosis conditions we tested whether HHs compared to LHs showed a significantly lower inhibition of the ASR and startle-related brain activity in both time and intracerebral source localization domains. HHs, as compared to LH participants, exhibited (a) longer latency of the eyeblink startle reflex, (b) reduced N100 responses to startle stimuli, and (c) higher PPI of eyeblink startle and of the P200 and P300 waves. Hypnosis yielded smaller N100 waves to startle stimuli and greater PPI of this component than in the waking condition. sLORETA analysis revealed that, for the N100 (107 msec) elicited during startle trials, HHs had a smaller activation in the left parietal lobe (BA2/40) than LHs. Auditory pulses of pulse-with prepulse trials in HHs yielded less activity of the P300 (280 msec) wave than LHs, in the cingulate and posterior cingulate gyrus (BA23/31). The present results, on the whole, are in the opposite direction to PPI findings on hypnotizability previously reported in the literature. These results provide support to the neuropsychophysiological model that HHs have more effective sensory integration and gating (or filtering) of irrelevant stimuli than LHs.

  12. Wertheim's hypothesis on 'highway hypnosis': empirical evidence from a study on motorway and conventional road driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Gemma Pastor; Tejero, Pilar; Chóliz, Mariano; Chisvert, Mauricio; Monteagudo, M José

    2004-11-01

    This paper aims to study the phenomenon known as 'highway hypnosis' or 'driving without attention mode', which has been defined as a state showing sleepiness signs and attention slip resulting from driving a motor vehicle for a long period in a highly predictable environment with low event occurrence, this being the case with motorways and very familiar roads [Highway hypnosis: a theoretical analysis. In: Gale, A.G., Brown, I.D., Haslegrave, C.M., Moorhead, I., Taylor, S. (Eds.), Vision in Vehicles-III. Elsevier, North-Holland, pp. 467-472]. According to Wertheim's hypothesis on 'highway hypnosis', long-term driving on motorways and conventional roads, e.g. main roads, secondary roads--implies differences in the predictability of the movement pattern of the visual stimulation, in the eye musculature activity and in the type of feedback used in visual information processing (mostly extra-retinal on motorways and retinal and extra-retinal on conventional roads). All this ultimately leads to alertness differences between both road types. Our research is intended to provide empirical evidence from the hypothesis, based on the data recorded during the actual driving experience of a group of subjects on a motorway and a conventional road. We studied whether or not significant alertness differences were found-measured by EEG data relative to time periods of on-target eye-tracking performance--between motorway and conventional road driving. Our results partially support the hypothesis, as drowsiness proved to be higher on motorways than on conventional roads during the final driving period but not during the starting stage, when the opposite trend was noticed. This result could be explained by the fact that during the first driving periods the effects of the stimulus movement predictability had not yet become apparent, since they tend to show after a long drive.

  13. Hypnotizability, hypnosis and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in healthy women: an ERP analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis suggests that highly hypnotizable individuals (HHs have more effective frontal attentional systems implementing control, monitoring performance, and inhibiting unwanted stimuli from conscious awareness, than low hypnotizable individuals (LHs. Recent studies, using prepulse inhibition (PPI of the auditory startle reflex (ASR, suggest that HHs, in the waking condition, may show reduced sensory gating although they may selectively attend and disattend different stimuli. Using a within subject design and a strict subject selection procedure, in waking and hypnosis conditions we tested whether HHs compared to LHs showed a significantly lower inhibition of the ASR and startle-related brain activity in both time and intracerebral source localization domains. HHs, as compared to LH participants, exhibited (a longer latency of the eyeblink startle reflex, (b reduced N100 responses to startle stimuli, and (c higher PPI of eyeblink startle and of the P200 and P300 waves. Hypnosis yielded smaller N100 waves to startle stimuli and greater PPI of this component than in the waking condition. sLORETA analysis revealed that, for the N100 (107 msec elicited during startle trials, HHs had a smaller activation in the left parietal lobe (BA2/40 than LHs. Auditory pulses of pulse-with prepulse trials in HHs yielded less activity of the P300 (280 msec wave than LHs, in the cingulate and posterior cingulate gyrus (BA23/31. The present results, on the whole, are in the opposite direction to PPI findings on hypnotizability previously reported in the literature. These results provide support to the neuropsychophysiological model that HHs have more effective sensory integration and gating (or filtering of irrelevant stimuli than LHs.

  14. Hypnosis-based psychodynamic treatment in ALS: a longitudinal study on patients and their caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Roland Kleinbub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence of psychological treatment efficacy is strongly needed in ALS, particularly regarding long-term effects.Methods: Fifteen patients participated in a hypnosis treatment and self-hypnosis training protocol after an in-depth psychological and neurological evaluation. Patients’ primary caregivers and 15 one-by-one matched control patients were considered in the study.Measurements of anxiety, depression and quality of life were collected at the baseline, post-treatment, and after 3 and 6 months from the intervention. Bayesian linear mixed-models were used to evaluate the impact of treatment and defense style on patients’ anxiety, depression, quality of life, and functional impairment (ALSFRS-r, as well as on caregivers’ anxiety and depression.Results: The statistical analyses revealed an improvement in psychological variables’ scores immediately after the treatment. Amelioration in patients’ and caregivers’ anxiety as well as caregivers’ depression, were found to persist at 3 and 6 months follow-ups. The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers. Notably, treated patients decline in ALSFRS-r score was observed to be slower than that of control group’s patients.Discussion: Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers. The implications of peculiar psychodynamic factors and mind-body techniques are discussed. Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS.

  15. Stress management techniques in childhood and adolescence. Relaxation training, meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback: appropriate clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M S; Womack, W M

    1987-11-01

    Many childhood and adolescent stress-related symptoms have a psychophysiological component that involves muscular tension and/or autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Examples of this include recurrent headache, chest pain, abdominal pain, syncope, and dizziness. After a careful medical and psychosocial evaluation, the clinician may identify many patients who are appropriate for the application of stress reduction techniques such as progressive muscular relaxation, meditation, biofeedback, and relaxation/mental imagery (self-hypnosis). This review describes these techniques and their application with selected children and adolescents.

  16. Fuzzy control for closed-loop, patient-specific hypnosis in intraoperative patients: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brett L; Pyeatt, Larry D; Doufas, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the efficacy of closed-loop control of anesthesia using bispectral index (BIS) as the controlled variable, and the recent development of model-based, patient-adaptive systems has considerably improved anesthetic control. To further explore the use of model-based control in anesthesia, we investigated the application of fuzzy control in the delivery of patient-specific propofol-induced hypnosis. In simulated intraoperative patients, the fuzzy controller demonstrated clinically acceptable performance, suggesting that further study is warranted.

  17. Complementing the Latest APA Definition of Hypnosis: Sensory-Motor and Vascular Peculiarities Involved in Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Scattina, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to complement the recently revised American Psychological Association (APA) definition of hypnotizability. It (a) lists a few differences in sensorimotor integration between subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability scores in the ordinary state of consciousness and in the absence of suggestions, (b) proposes that hypnotizability-related cerebellar peculiarities may account for them, (c) suggests that the cerebellum could also be involved in cognitive aspects of hypnotizability and (d) explains why the information derived from studies of sensorimotor and cardiovascular aspects of hypnotizability may be relevant to its definition and useful in orienting further experimental research in the field of hypnosis.

  18. Paired-associate learning and recall of high and low imagery words: moderating effects of hypnosis, hypnotic susceptibility level, and visualization abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H J; Allen, S N

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between recall of low and high imagery paired-associate (P-A) words and hypnotic susceptibility, and the influence of hypnosis on recall as moderated by hypnotic level were examined. Subjects were assessed on 2 hypnotic susceptibility scales [Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility; Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C)]. Forty-one low (0-4 SHSS:C) and 41 highly (9-12 SHSS:C) hypnotizable college students were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: waking-hypnosis, hypnosis-waking, waking-waking, or hypnosis-hypnosis. Recall was significantly better for high than low imagery words. In the more sensitive within-subjects design, high hypnotizables recalled more P-A words during hypnosis than waking, and lows did not differ. In the between-subjects design, hypnotic level was not a moderator of performance during hypnosis. Low hypnotizables recalled more words in the within-subjects design. Visualization ability was a poor moderator of imagery-mediated learning. High imagery recall correlated significantly with Marks's (1973) Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (.25) and Paivio and Harshman's (1983) Individual Differences Questionnaire (IDQ) Verbal scale (.29), but not with the IDQ Imagery scale, the Mental Rotations Test (Vandenberg & Kuse, 1973), or the revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test (Likert & Quasha, 1941).

  19. What the public think about hypnosis and hypnotherapy: A narrative review of literature covering opinions and attitudes of the general public 1996-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krouwel, Matthew; Jolly, Kate; Greenfield, Sheila

    2017-06-01

    To describe the public's understanding of hypnosis and openness to hypnotherapy. A comprehensive search of English language peer reviewed journal articles from 1st January 1996-11th March 2016 was performed over 9 databases (Medline, PubMed, PsycARTICLES, CINAHL, Embase (excerpta medica), PsychInfo, Cochrane, Science citation index-expanded, Conference citation index) and a title-only search of Google scholar. 39 keyword combinations were employed: hypnosis, hypnotherapy, hypnotic, perception, beliefs, knowledge, view, opinion and understanding, in singular and plural where appropriate. A search of the bibliographies of eligible articles was undertaken. Inclusion criteria - Articles containing original data regarding the general public's attitudes towards hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Exclusion criteria - Non-therapy hypnosis (forensic, entertainment) materials and those concerned with groups likely to possess prior or professional knowledge of hypnosis, (hypnotists, clinicians and psychologists). Analysis was conducted in line with the questions. 31 articles were identified, covering diverse populations. Most people believe that: hypnosis is an altered state which requires collaboration to enter; once hypnotized perception changes; hypnotherapy is beneficial for psychological issues and is supportive of medical interventions; hypnosis can also enhance abilities especially memory. People are open to hypnotherapy subject to validation from the psychological or medical establishment. Similarity of opinion is more apparent than difference. Most people are positive towards hypnotherapy, and would consider its use under the right circumstances. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Sperm influences female hibernation success, survival and fitness in the bumble-bee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We present evidence that in the absence of the transfer of male gland compounds in the ejaculate as well as of behavioural male traits, such as mate guarding or harming of females, sperm itself affects female life-history traits such as hibernation success, female longevity and female fitness...... a lower performance as compared to singly inseminated queens. Apart from these main effects, sire groups (in situations of multiple insemination) affected queen longevity and fitness not independently of each other, i.e. certain sire group combinations were more harmful to queens than others. So far......, the cause(s) of these effects remain(s) elusive. Harmful male traits as detected here are not necessarily expected to evolve in social insects because males depend on females for a successful completion of a colony cycle and thus have strong convergent interests with their mates....