Sample records for hiba thujopsis dolabrata

  1. Biosynthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA from renewable carbon

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    Müller Roland H


    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays a growing demand for green chemicals and cleantech solutions is motivating the industry to strive for biobased building blocks. We have identified the tertiary carbon atom-containing 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA as an interesting building block for polymer synthesis. Starting from this carboxylic acid, practically all compounds possessing the isobutane structure are accessible by simple chemical conversions, e. g. the commodity methacrylic acid as well as isobutylene glycol and oxide. During recent years, biotechnological routes to 2-HIBA acid have been proposed and significant progress in elucidating the underlying biochemistry has been made. Besides biohydrolysis and biooxidation, now a bioisomerization reaction can be employed, converting the common metabolite 3-hydroxybutyric acid to 2-HIBA by a novel cobalamin-dependent CoA-carbonyl mutase. The latter reaction has recently been discovered in the course of elucidating the degradation pathway of the groundwater pollutant methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE in the new bacterial species Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. This discovery opens the ground for developing a completely biotechnological process for producing 2-HIBA. The mutase enzyme has to be active in a suitable biological system producing 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, which is the precursor of the well-known bacterial bioplastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. This connection to the PHB metabolism is a great advantage as its underlying biochemistry and physiology is well understood and can easily be adopted towards producing 2-HIBA. This review highlights the potential of these discoveries for a large-scale 2-HIBA biosynthesis from renewable carbon, replacing conventional chemistry as synthesis route and petrochemicals as carbon source.

  2. AcEST: BP921504 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DO Putatibe ubiquitin fusion degradation protein 1 (Fragment) OS=Thujopsis dolabrata Align length 69 Score (...n protein 1 (Fragment) OS=Thujopsis dolabrata GN=CC0822 PE=4 SV=1 Length = 179 Score = 69.7 bits (169), Expe

  3. AcEST: BP917725 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R20_CAEEL Nuclear hormone receptor family member nhr... 31 2.9 sp|Q9MSS0|MATK_THUDO Maturase K OS=Thujopsis ...FAALKALCIW 371 >sp|Q9MSS0|MATK_THUDO Maturase K OS=Thujopsis dolabrata GN=matK PE=3 SV=1 Length = 509 Score

  4. Effect of odors from coniferous woods on contingent negative variation (CNV); Shinyojuzai no nioi ga zuihansei insei hendo (CNV) ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terauchi, F. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kubo, M.; Aoki, H. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ogama, T. [Chiba University, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Education


    In order to clarify the effect of odors of seven coniferous woods on human, contingent negative variation (CNV) and electroencephalogram (EEG) were measured. Four of the species used, hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtuse), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora), and hiba (Thujopsis dolabrata var.hondai), were grown in Japan, and three of them, Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and western red cedar (Thuja plicata), were grown in the United States. The concentrations of their wood odors were analysed by gas-liquid chromatography. The total concentration of monoterpene hydrocarbon in the wood odors was held to less than 3ppb. The amplitudes of early components of CNV and the {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG at the frontal (Fz) and central (Cz) regions between in the presence and absence of wood odors were compared. 5 male and 5 female volunteers ranging in age from 20 to 26 were examined. The result obtained are summarized as follows: (1) In the presence of wood odors, the early CNV amplitudes at Fz decreased at a statistical level of significance of 5% or better. (2) The {alpha}/{beta} wave ratio of EEG increased significantly at Cz with bibs wood odor (p<0.01). (3) The decrease of the early CNV amplitude at Fz is related to the concentration of {alpha}-pinene in the wood odors. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Conifers in decorative arboretum of Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University

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    Eglacheva Arina


    Full Text Available The transformation that taking place during of spontaneous cultivars introduction have not taken into consideration for last 10 years. The plants introduction in the Botanic Garden PSU have a planned character in a northwest middle taiga. Decorative arboretum was laid in 2000 (Potapova, Prokhorov, 2010. By 2014, the conifers collection includes 159 specimens of 98 cultivars belonging to 28 species, 10 genera and 3 families (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Taxaceae. Taxa are presented as species with narrow native habitat (Microbiota decussata, Thujopsis dolabrata, Chamaecyparis pisifera, Picea omorika, and with a wide (Juniperus communis. Plants were planted gradually. Annual plant monitoring include measuring of height, width of the crown, trunk diameter, needles color, seed-bearing, damage. Based on the study was identified plants groups in growth rate, seed-bearing. The number of generative samples are increased from 17 to 53% during 2007-2014. Seed-bearing is not a constant parameter and depends on a complex of abiotic factors.

  6. Determinants of the Morning-Evening Home Blood Pressure Difference in Treated Hypertensives: The HIBA-Home Study

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    Lucas S. Aparicio


    Full Text Available Background. The morning home blood pressure (BP rise is a significant asymptomatic target organ damage predictor in hypertensives. Our aim was to evaluate determinants of home-based morning-evening difference (MEdiff in Argentine patients. Methods. Treated hypertensive patients aged ≥18 years participated in a cross-sectional study, after performing home morning and evening BP measurement. MEdiff was morning minus evening home average results. Variables identified as relevant predictors were entered into a multivariable linear regression analysis model. Results. Three hundred sixty-seven medicated hypertensives were included. Mean age was 66.2 (14.5, BMI 28.1 (4.5, total cholesterol 4.89 (1.0 mmol/L, 65.9% women, 11.7% smokers, and 10.6% diabetics. Mean MEdiff was 1.1 (12.5 mmHg systolic and 2.3 (6.1 mmHg diastolic, respectively. Mean self-recorded BP was 131.5 (14.1 mmHg systolic and 73.8 (7.6 mmHg diastolic, respectively. Mean morning and evening home BPs were 133.1 (16.5 versus 132 (15.7 systolic and 75.8 (8.4 versus 73.5 (8.2 diastolic, respectively. Significant beta-coefficient values were found in systolic MEdiff for age and smoking and in diastolic MEdiff for age, smoking, total cholesterol, and calcium-channel blockers. Conclusions. In a cohort of Argentine medicated patients, older age, smoking, total cholesterol, and use of calcium channel blockers were independent determinants of home-based MEdiff.

  7. A stepwise protocol for induction and selection of prominent coniferous cell cultures for the production of β-thujaplicin. (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Shichiken, Masahito; Ito, Chizuru; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taiji; Kato, Yasuo


    In order to demonstrate the potential of plant cell culture systems to produce a target natural bioactive compound, we proposed a stepwise protocol for β-thujaplicin production as follows. 1. Induction phase: Characteristics of callus cultures originating from newly flushed shoots of 10 conifer species were evaluated on different basal media such as Murashige and Skoog (MS), Schenk and Hildebrandt (SH), and Lloyd and McCown's Woody Plant medium (WP) containing 10 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) either alone or in combination with 1 μM of N6-benzyladenine (BA). The conifer species used were as follows: Chamaecyparis (C. obtusa Sieb. et Zucc. and C. pisifera Sieb. et Zucc.), Juniperus (J. chinensis L. 'Kaizuka', J. chinensis L. var. sargentii, and J. conferta Parlatore), Thuja (T. occidentalis L. and T. standishii (Gord.) Carr.), Thujopsis (T. dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. and T. dolabrata Sieb. et Zucc. var. hondae), and Cryptomeria (C. japonica D. Don). We observed the phenotypes of each callus to determine the optimal conditions for callus induction and to infer biosynthetic activity of the calli over 4-8 weeks. 2. Habituation phase: Each of the cell cultures obtained was transferred to a modified MS medium containing 680 mg L(-1) KH2PO4 and 10 μM Picloram to select the habituated cells with synchronous growth pattern. The growth of each cell culture was highly improved in the habituation medium, except that of J. chinensis 'Kaizuka'. 3. Metabolite-production phase: The concentration of β-thujaplicin (known as hinokitiol in Japan) in the shoots of donor trees and the habituated cell cultures was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histochemical characteristics of the cells were also observed using laser scanning microscopy (LSM) imaging. After the third step, we tested the biosynthetic activity of two habituated calli (C. obtusa and J. conferta) on a 0.3%, w/v, yeast extract (YE)-containing medium. We found significant improvement

  8. Reaction engineering studies for the production of 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid with recombinant Cupriavidus necator H 16. (United States)

    Hoefel, Torben; Wittmann, Eva; Reinecke, Liv; Weuster-Botz, Dirk


    Recombinant Cupriavidus necator H 16 with a novel metabolic pathway using a cobalamin-dependent mutase was exploited to produce 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) from renewable resources through microbial fermentation. 2-HIBA production capacities of different strains of C. necator H 16 deficient in the PHB synthase gene and genetically engineered to enable the production of 2-HIBA from the intracellular PHB precursor (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA were evaluated in 48 parallel milliliter-scale stirred tank bioreactors (V = 11 mL). The effects of media composition, limitations, pH, and feed rate were studied with respect to the overall process performances of the different recombinant strains. 2-HIBA production was at a maximum at nitrogen limiting conditions and if the pH was controlled between 6.8 and 7.2 under fed-batch operating conditions (intermittent fructose addition). The final concentration of 2-HIBA was 7.4 g L(-1) on a milliliter scale. Best reaction conditions identified on the milliliter scale were transferred to a laboratory-scale fed-batch process in a stirred tank bioreactor (V = 2 L). Two different process modes for the production of 2-HIBA, a single-phase and a dual-phase fermentation procedure, were evaluated and compared on a liter scale. The final concentration of 2-HIBA was 6.4 g L(-1) on a liter scale after 2 days of cultivation.

  9. Solid-state and solution-state coordination chemistry of lanthanide(III) complexes with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid. (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Yan; Goff, George S; Ewing, William C; Scott, Brian L; Runde, Wolfgang


    Despite the wide range of applications of α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) in biochemical processes, pharmaceutical formulations, and group and elemental separations of lanthanides and actinides, the structures and geometries of lanthanide-HIBA complexes are still not well understood. We reacted HIBA with lanthanides in aqueous solution at pH = 5 and synthesized 14 lanthanide-HIBA complexes of the formula [Ln(HIBA)(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))·H(2)O (Ln = La (1), Ce (2), Pr (3), Nd (4), Sm (5), Eu (6), Gd (7), Tb (8), Dy (9), Ho (10), Er (11), Tm (12), Yb (13), Lu (14)), isolating single crystals (1-7, 10, and 11) and powders (8, 9, and 12-14). Both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal a two-dimensional extended structure across the entire lanthanide series. The environment around the eight-coordinated Ln(III) atom is best described as a distorted dodecahedron, where HIBA acts as a monoanionic tridentate ligand with one carboxylato oxygen atom and one hydroxyl oxygen atom chelating to one Ln(III) center. The carboxylato oxygen atom from a second HIBA ligand bridges to a neighboring Ln(III) atom to form a two-dimensional extended structure. While the coordination mode for HIBA is identical across the lanthanide series, three different structure types are found for La, Ce-Ho, and Er-Lu. Solution characterization using (13)C NMR further confirmed a single solution complex under the crystallization conditions. Raman and UV-vis-NIR absorbance and diffuse reflectance spectra of HIBA-Ln(III) complexes were also measured.

  10. Exploiting mixtures of H2, CO2, and O2 for improved production of methacrylate precursor 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid by engineered Cupriavidus necator strains. (United States)

    Przybylski, Denise; Rohwerder, Thore; Dilßner, Cornelia; Maskow, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Müller, Roland H


    Current manufacturing of most bulk chemicals through petrochemical routes considerably contributes to common concerns over the depletion of fossil carbon sources and greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable future production of commodities thus requires the shift to renewable feedstocks in combination with established or newly developed synthesis routes. In this study, the potential of Cupriavidus necator H16 for autotrophic synthesis of the building block chemical 2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (2-HIBA) is evaluated. A novel biosynthetic pathway was implemented by heterologous expression of the 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-coenzyme A (2-HIB-CoA) mutase from Aquincola tertiaricarbonis L108, relying on a main intermediate of strain H16's C4 overflow metabolism, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. The intention was to direct the latter to 2-HIBA instead or in addition to poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Autotrophic growth and 2-HIBA (respectively, PHB) synthesis of wild-type and PHB-negative mutant strains were investigated producing maximum 2-HIBA titers of 3.2 g L(-1) and maximum specific 2-HIBA synthesis rates (q 2-HIBA) of about 16 and 175 μmol g(-1) h(-1), respectively. The obtained specific productivity was the highest reported to date for mutase-dependent 2-HIBA synthesis from heterotrophic and autotrophic substrates. Furthermore, expression of a G protein chaperone (MeaH) in addition to the 2-HIB-CoA mutase subunits yielded improved productivity. Analyzing the inhibition of growth and product synthesis due to substrate availability and product accumulation revealed a strong influence of 2-HIBA, when cells were cultivated at high titers. Nevertheless, the presented results imply that at the time the autotrophic synthesis route is superior to thus far established heterotrophic routes for production of 2-HIBA with C. necator.

  11. Hierarchical Brokering with Feedback Control Framework in Mobile Device-Centric Clouds

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    Chao-Lieh Chen


    Full Text Available We propose a hierarchical brokering architecture (HiBA and Mobile Multicloud Networking (MMCN feedback control framework for mobile device-centric cloud (MDC2 computing. Exploiting the MMCN framework and RESTful web-based interconnection, each tier broker probes resource state of its federation for control and management. Real-time and seamless services were developed. Case studies including intrafederation energy-aware balancing based on fuzzy feedback control and higher tier load balancing are further demonstrated to show how HiBA with MMCN relieves the embedding of algorithms when developing services. Theoretical performance model and real-world experiments both show that an MDC2 based on HiBA features better quality in terms of resource availability and network latency if it federates devices with enough resources distributed in lower tier hierarchy. The proposed HiBA realizes a development platform for MDC2 computing which is a feasible solution to User-Centric Networks (UCNs.

  12. Liquid chromatographic studies on the behaviour of Pu(III), Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) on a RP stationary phase in presence of α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaison, P.G.; Kumar, Pranaw; Telmore, Vijay M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Division


    Since plutonium possesses multiple oxidation states which can coexist in solution, a method for the identification of these oxidation states is important to understand its chemical processes. Liquid chromatographic studies were carried out to compare the chromatographic behaviour of different oxidation states of Pu in presence of the eluent, α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA). The three oxidation states of Pu viz. Pu(III), Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) were separated under optimised conditions. It was seen that the presence of the complexing agent influences the equilibrium of Pu(III)/(IV) as well as Pu(IV)/(VI) systems. Pu(III) to Pu(IV) conversion was found to be enhanced by high pH and concentration of HIBA whereas a relatively low pH and high concentration of HIBA promotes the conversion of Pu(VI) to Pu(IV).

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0075 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0075 ref|ZP_01585890.1| inner-membrane translocator [Dinoroseobacter s...hibae DFL 12] gb|ABV93145.1| inner-membrane translocator [Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12] ZP_01585890.1 1.3 26% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1349 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1349 ref|ZP_01585598.1| inner-membrane translocator [Dinoroseobacter s...hibae DFL 12] gb|ABV92275.1| Monosaccharide-transporting ATPase [Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12] ZP_01585598.1 4e-42 46% ...

  15. Assessment of the Natural Attenuation of NAPL Source Zones and Post-Treatment NAPL Source Zone Residuals (United States)


    0.1 ND 0.2 ND N i- Pentanoic Acid 0.07 ND 1.3 0.26 N Lactic Acid and HIBA 0.1 0.25 13 1.4 N Pentanoic Acid 0.07 ND 25 2.2 N Propionic Acid 0.07 ND...0.07 580 140 75 N Butyric Acid 0.07 80 22 1.5 N Hexanoic Acid 0.1 ND ND ND N i-Hexanoic Acid 0.1 0.45 ND ND N i- Pentanoic Acid 0.07 ND 0.98 0.33 N...Lactic Acid and HIBA 0.1 ND 0.46 ND N Pentanoic Acid 0.07 64 19 0.73 N Propionic Acid 0.07 270 140 20 N Pyruvic Acid 0.07 75 9.2 2.2 PQL

  16. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolites on HL-60 cells in vitro

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    Tang, G.H. [Xian Medical Univ. (China); Shen, Y.; Shen, H.M. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)] [and others


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used oxygenate in unleaded gasoline; however, few studies have been conducted on the toxicity of this compound. This study evaluates the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of MTBE and its metabolites in a human haemopoietic cell line, HL-60. The metabolites of MTBE studied include tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), and formaldehyde. Comet assay is used to assess DNA damage, and the cytotoxicity is investigated by lactate dehydrogenease (LDH) release. The results show no significant cytotoxic effects of MTBE, TBA, and HIBA over a concentration ranging from 1 to 30 mM. Formaldehyde, in contrast, causes a substantial LDH release at a concentration of 5 {mu}M. Hydrogen peroxide, a known oxidative agent, at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, produces a significant dose-related increase in DNA damage, whereas a much higher concentration of MTBE (1 to 30 mM) is required to produce a similar observation. The genotoxic effects of TBA and HIBA appear to be identical to that of MTBE. Conversely, DNA damage is observed for formaldehyde at a relatively low concentration range (5 to 100 {mu}M). These findings suggest that MTBE and its metabolites, except formaldehyde, have relatively low cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Correlation of retention of lanthanide and actinide complexes with stability constants and their speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, A.; Sivaraman, N.; Viswanathan, K.S.; Ghosh, Suddhasattwa; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group


    The present study describes a correlation that is developed from retention of lanthanide and actinide complexes with the stability constant. In these studies, an ion-pairing reagent, camphor-10-sulphonic acid (CSA) was used as the modifier and organic acids such as {alpha}-hydroxy isobutyric acid ({alpha}-HIBA), mandelic acid, lactic acid and tartaric acid were used as complexing reagent for elution. From these studies, a correlation has been established between capacity factor of a metal ion, concentration of ion-pairing reagent and complexing agent with the stability constant of metal complex. Based on these studies, it has been shown that the stability constant of lanthanide and actinide complexes can be estimated using a single lanthanide calibrant. Validation of the method was carried out with the complexing agents such as {alpha}-HIBA and lactic acid. It was also demonstrated that data from a single chromatogram can be used for estimation of stability constant at various ionic strengths. These studies also demonstrated that the method can be applied for estimation of stability constant of actinides with a ligand whose value is not reported yet, e.g., ligands of importance in the lanthanide-actinide separations, chelation therapy etc. The chromatographic separation method is fast and the estimation of stability constant can be done in a very short time, which is a significant advantage especially in dealing with radioactive elements. The stability constant data was used to derive speciation data of plutonium in different oxidation states as well as that of americium with {alpha}-HIBA. The elution behavior of actinides such as Pu and Am from reversed phase chromatographic technique could be explained based on these studies. (orig.)

  18. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and other fuel oxygenates by a new strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. (United States)

    François, Alan; Mathis, Hugues; Godefroy, Davy; Piveteau, Pascal; Fayolle, Françoise; Monot, Frédéric


    A strain that efficiently degraded methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was obtained by initial selection on the recalcitrant compound tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). This strain, a gram-positive methylotrophic bacterium identified as Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012, was also able to degrade tert-amyl methyl ether and tert-amyl alcohol. Ethyl tert-butyl ether was weakly degraded. tert-Butyl formate and 2-hydroxy isobutyrate (HIBA), two intermediates in the MTBE catabolism pathway, were detected during growth on MTBE. A positive effect of Co2+ during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on HIBA was demonstrated. The specific rate of MTBE degradation was 0.6 mmol/h/g (dry weight) of cells, and the biomass yield on MTBE was 0.44 g (dry weight) per g of MTBE. MTBE, TBA, and HIBA degradation activities were induced by MTBE and TBA, and TBA was a good inducer. Involvement of at least one monooxygenase during degradation of MTBE and TBA was shown by (i) the requirement for oxygen, (ii) the production of propylene epoxide from propylene by MTBE- or TBA- grown cells, and (iii) the inhibition of MTBE or TBA degradation and of propylene epoxide production by acetylene. No cytochrome P-450 was detected in MTBE- or TBA-grown cells. Similar protein profiles were obtained after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of crude extracts from MTBE- and TBA-grown cells. Among the polypeptides induced by these substrates, two polypeptides (66 and 27 kDa) exhibited strong similarities with known oxidoreductases.

  19. Main: 1V31 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tein Name=Mua22.17; Arabidopsis Thaliana Molecule: Hypothetical Protein Rafl11-05-P19; Chain: A; Fragment: Swib/Mdm2; Synonym: At5g14170 Protein; Engineered: Yes Structural Genomics, Unknown Function M.Yoneyama..., N.Tochio, S.Koshiba, M.Inoue, T.Kigawa, S.Yokoyama M.Yoneyama, N.Tochio, S.Kos...hiba, M.Inoue, T.Kigawa, S.Yokoyama Solution Structure Of The Swib/Mdm2 Domain Of The Hypothetical Protein A

  20. Two novel interpenetrated zinc(Ⅱ) and cadmium(Ⅱ) coordination polymers based on 4-imidazole-benzoate: Syntheses, crystal structures and properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI ZhengShuai; CHEN ShuiSheng; ZHANG ZhengHua; CHEN ManSheng; LIU GuangXiang; SUN WeiYin


    Two novel interpenetrated coordination polymers, [Zn(IBA)2]n (1) and {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]-4H2O}n (2),have been synthesized by using 4-imidazole-benzoic acid (HIBA) as ligand under hydrothermal con-ditions. Complex I crystallizes in a chiral space group and has a two-fold interpenetrated 2D network structure with (4,4) topology, while complex 2 is a 3D porous dia network with four nets interpene-trating each other. The SHG activity of 1 and the photoluminescent property of 2 have been investi-gated.

  1. Degradation of tert-butyl formate and its intermediates by an ozone/UV process. (United States)

    Garoma, Temesgen; Gurol, Mirat D; Thotakura, Lalitha; Osibodu, Olufisayo


    In this paper, the oxidation of tert-butyl formate (TBF) in aqueous solution by an ozone/UV process was described. The oxidation process was investigated experimentally in a semibatch reactor. The results of the study indicated that the ozone/UV process was very effective in oxidizing TBF. tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA), hydroxy-iso-butyraldehyde (HiBA), acetone, formaldehyde, and formic acid were identified as major primary intermediates during the oxidation of TBF. About 90% organic carbon balance was obtained indicating that most reaction intermediates have been identified and quantified. Some of the primary intermediates were also oxidized in the ozone/UV system. Accordingly, HiBA, acetone, formaldehyde, and formic acid were the primary intermediates of TBA oxidation. The oxidation of acetone in the ozone/UV system generated formaldehyde, pyruvaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid as primary intermediates. It was also observed that the reaction intermediates formed during the oxidation of TBF react well in the ozone/UV system and complete mineralization could be achieved by the process.

  2. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Isobutene (CAS No. 115-11-7) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies). (United States)


    500 and 2,000 ppm selection based on published metabolic elimination rates for Sprague-Dawley rats and B6C3F1 mice. Rats: Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats were exposed to isobutene at concentrations of 0, 500, 2,000, or 8,000 ppm 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 105 weeks. Survival of exposed males and females was similar to that of the chamber controls. Mean body weights of exposed groups were generally similar to those of the chamber controls throughout the study. 2-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid - Biomarker of Exposure 2-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA), the major urinary metabolite of isobutene, was measured in the urine of male and female rats as an indicator of isobutene exposure at 6, 12, and 18 months. The amount of HIBA excreted increased with increasing exposure concentration. However, when HIBA concentration was normalized to isobutene exposure concentration, the relative amount of HIBA excreted decreased with increasing exposure concentration, implying nonlinear kinetics. Pathology Findings: The incidence of thyroid gland follicular cell carcinoma in male rats exposed to 8,000 ppm was increased compared to the chamber control group and exceeded the historical control range. The incidences of hyaline degeneration of the olfactory epithelium were marginally increased in exposed rats; however, the severities of hyaline degeneration increased with increasing exposure concentration in males and females. Mice: Groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to isobutene at concentrations of 0, 500, 2,000, or 8,000 ppm 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 105 weeks. Survival of exposed males and females was similar to that of the chamber controls. Mean body weights of exposed mice were generally similar to those of the chamber controls throughout the study except for female mice exposed to 2,000 or 8,000 ppm, which weighed slightly less than chamber controls from about week 52 until week 92. 2-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid - Biomarker of Exposure: HIBA

  3. Effect of hydrogen ion beam treatment on Si nanocrystal/SiO{sub 2} superlattice-based memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Sheng-Wen; Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Chuang, Bing-Ru; Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Memory window and retention properties are improved employing HIBAS technique. • The O/Si ratio and radiative recombination are changed by HIBAS. • Memory properties are affected not only by Si NCs and O/Si ratio but also the RDCs. • The mechanism of hydrogen ion beam alters the memory properties is investigated. - Abstract: This study presents a novel route for synthesizing silicon-rich oxide (SRO)/SiO{sub 2} superlattice-based memory devices with an improved memory window and retention properties. The SiO{sub 2} and SRO superlattices are deposited by reactive sputtering. Specifically, the hydrogen ion beam is used to irradiate the SRO layer immediately after its deposition in the vacuum chamber. The use of the hydrogen ion beam was determined to increase oxygen content and the density of the Si nanocrystals. The memory window increased from 16 to 25.6 V, and the leakage current decreased significantly by two orders, to under ±20 V, for the hydrogen ion beam-prepared devices. This study investigates the mechanism into how hydrogen ion beam treatment alters SRO films and influences memory properties.

  4. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

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    Zardoya Rafael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis, and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia. The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P

  5. Problem Oriented Medical Record: Characterizing the Use of the Problem List at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. (United States)

    Franco, Mariano; Giussi Bordoni, Maria Victoria; Otero, Carlos; Landoni, Mariana Clara; Benitez, Sonia; Borbolla, Damian; Luna, Daniel


    Problem oriented medical record (POMR) was born in late sixties. Expecting an ordered, complete and updated medical record were some of the goals of its founder. Several healthcare institutions have included problem list into their clinical records but some concerns have been reported. These concerns are in reference to their voluminosity, incompleteness and outdatedness. This study attempts to understand how healthcare professionals are using the problem list at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA). We believe it is essential to understand the local reality applied to our own applications and cultural instances of documentation. This report is the basis from which several improvements could be made in order to meet the goals of Weed's proposal.

  6. Capítulo V. Aventuras y sufrimientos


    Hernández Hurtado, Juan Francisco


    Por fin pensó a ir a los EE.UU ya cuando tenia 20 años, a trabajar para ver si podia ganar un poco de dinero para acabar un poco la miseria. Hasta que por fin se resuelve y pide permiso. Sus padres se entristecen mucho por lo que habia de nuevo, penzaban que si su hijo se resolvía no lo volverían a ver porque en esos tiempos el que se hiba al “Norte” lo hacían como si ya se hubiera muerto, porque no habia más que trenes y para ellos hera un país muy lejos. Cada dia que les pedia el permiso, l...

  7. Predictive variables of the use of personal health record: the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires study. (United States)

    Martinez, Marcela; Baum, Analía; Gomez Saldaño, Ana María; Gomez, Adrian; Luna, Daniel; González Bernaldo de Quirós, Fernán


    although trends in consumer research suggest growing interest in using electronic PHRs, actual utilization of PHRs technologies is still low. to identify those conditions that make patients at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA) use a PHR. Analytic Cross-sectional study. the average age was 55.5 years (SD 19.8), 60.5% were female (39.5%, IC95%). The rate of enrolled were almost 50% and the rate of people usage was 29.1% (95% IC 28, 87 - 29.4). The patient's characteristics that influence in PHR usage were: the presence of at least one comorbidity (disabilities or chronic conditions), look for medical assistance during the last year, female and middle age. In this study the patient's characteristics that were most likely to use our PHR were similar to what another authors published. Future research is needed to understand social, cultural and organizational issues that influences into the rate of adoption and usage.

  8. Catabolism of methyl ter-butyl ether (MTBE): characterization of the enzymes of Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012 involved in MTBE degradation; Catabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE): caracterisation des enzymes impliquees dans la degradation du MTBE chez Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes Ferreira, N.


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to gasoline to meet the octane index requirement. its solubility in water and its poor biodegradability made the use of MTBE a great environmental concern, particularly regarding aquifers. We previously isolated M austroafricanum IFP 2012 able to use MTBE as a sole source of carbon and energy and the MTBE pathway was partially characterized. In the present study, which aimed at isolating the genes involved in MTBE biodegradation in order to use them for estimation of MTBE biodegradation capacities in contaminated environment, we isolated a new M. austroafricanum strain, IFP 2015. A new degradation intermediate, the 2-methyl 1,2-propane-diol (2-M1,2-PD), the product of tert-butanol (TBA) oxidation, was identified. We also determined the enzymes induced during growth of M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 on MTBF. Then, using the tools of protein analysis and of molecular biology, we isolated and cloned the mpd genes cluster in the plasmid pCL4D. Heterologous expression of the recombinant plasmid in M smegmatis tmc2 155, showed the involvement of an 2-M1,2-PD dehydrogenase (MpdB) and a hydroxy-iso-butyr-aldehyde dehydrogenase (MpdC), encoded by mpdB and mpdC, respectively. Both enzymes were responsible for the conversion of 2-M 1,2-PD to hydroxy-isobutyric acid (HIBA). A further survey of different M austroafricanum strains, including IFP 2012, IFP 2015 and JOBS (ex-M vaccae) showed the link between the ability to grow on C{sub 2} to C{sub 16} n-alkanes and the MTBE and TBA degradation capacities. The alkB gene was partially sequenced in all these strains. Expression of alkB was demonstrated in M. austroafricanum IFP 2012 after growth on propane, hexane, hexadecane and TBA. Finally, we identified 2-propanol as the intermediate of HIBA degradation. The gene encoding the 2-propanol:p-N,N'-dimethyl-4-nitroso-aniline (NDMA) oxidoreductase was detected M austroafricanum IFP 2012. (author)

  9. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration; Estudo da separacao de terras raras por eletromigracao em contra corrente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Sergio Machado


    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na{sup +}/K{sup +}, K{sup +}/Sm{sup +3}, K{sup +}/Eu{sup +3} and K{sup +}/Sm{sup +3}/Eu{sup +3} using the {alpha}-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the {alpha}-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  10. Study on Adsorption Behavior of Rare Earth Complexes on Nanometer-Size Titanium Dioxide with ICP-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁沛; 江祖成; 胡斌; 秦永超


    A new method of using nanometer TiO2 as solid-phase extractant coupled with ICP-AES was proposed for speciation of rare earth elements. The adsorption behavior of rare earth complexes on nanometer TiO2 was investigated. Effect of pH value, contact time, elution solution and interfering ions on the recovery of the rare earth complexes were studied. A quantitative recovery (>90%) was found in the pH range of 4~9.0 for Eu-citric, 4.5~9.0 for Eu-oxine and Eu-HIBA, and 6.5~9.0 for Eu3+. Eu-EDTA can not be adsorbed in the pH range studied. There is large difference in the adsorption behavior on nanometer TiO2 between rare earth element and its complexes. The possibility of application of nanometer TiO2 on the speciation of rare earth element was explored.

  11. RI and Target recovery system of Lanthanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. H.; Park, U. J.; Jung, S. H.; Kim, J. B.; Moon, J. H.; Nam, S. S.; Jang, K. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Separation of adjacent lanthanides is complicated process to obtain pure target nuclide. Several papers have reported that the ionic character change of lanthanides with appropriate chelating agents can isolate the target lanthanides. These specific agents to the metal ion are called as complexing agents including-HIBA, tartaric acid, mandelic acid, lactic acid etc. Radioisotope research division of KAERI has developed separating technique for target lanthanides, total 20mg scale, by using complexing agents and ion-pairing agents in cold state. The reactor-produced radiolanthanides have been pivotal for development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Some radiolanthanides show excellent theranostic effects in that they have proper Let (Linear Energy Transfer) to induce apoptosis for cancer treatment and gamma ray to use as a tracer for cancer diagnosis. This system was designed for automated separation of the (n,γ) reaction product. Especially, we are focused on getting the carrier free Ho-166 which is the first attempt at KAERI. Even though we have already developed to produce c.a Ho-166(carrier added form), we did not try to develop to produce carrier free Ho-166 since the separating process is difficult as well as production process follows double (n,γ) reaction. After HANARO is re-operated, we are schedule to produce n.c.a Ho by using this recovery system.

  12. A novel method for Co(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ) analysis by capillary electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ming Guo; Xiang Dong Xu; Hui Jing Zhang; Yong Gang Hu; Jie Zhang


    Based on the fact that some metal ions can catalyze the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of luminol with K3Fe(CN)6, a novel capillary electrophoresis CL method was developed for the determination of Co(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ). The separation was carried out with a 10 mmol/L sodium acetate solution containing 0.8 mmol/L luminol and 2.0 mmol/L α-HIBA (adjusted to pH 4.8 by Hac solution). The post-capillary reagent was 2.0 mmol/L K3Fe(CN)6 which was adjusted to pH 13.0 by NaOH solution. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) for Co(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ) were 7.5 × 10-11 mol/L and 7.5 × 10-9 mol/L, with the linear range of 7.5 × 10-9 mol/L to 1.0 × 10-6 mol/L and 7.5 × 10-8 mol/L to 5.0 × 10-5 mol/L,respectively.

  13. Separation and determination of lanthanides, thorium and uranium using a dual gradient in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Raut, Narendra M; Jaison, P G; Aggarwal, Suresh K


    Separation and determination of lanthanides, Th and U is of great relevance in different fields of science and technology. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using alpha-hydroxy isobutyric acid (alpha-HIBA) as an eluent on reversed-phase column modified to cation exchanger has been reported to achieve the separation. However, under those conditions, Th and U are eluted amongst lanthanides, making their quantification difficult due to overlapping with some of the lanthanides peaks. In this work, different chromatographic parameters (concentrations of eluent and ion interaction reagent, pH, etc.) were studied systematically to arrive at optimum chromatographic conditions. Using the dual (concentration and pH) gradient conditions, lanthanides, Th and U could be separated in 11 min by RP-HPLC with sequential elution of Th and U after the elution of all the lanthanides. The separation methodology was tested using SY-3 rock sample for the separation and determination of lanthanides, Th and U. The method allows an accurate determination of these elements in a single run using a single column. Also, the method is fast and cost-effective compared to the reported methods.

  14. Proyecto institucional para la educación médica continua en investigación clínica Continuing medical education: A clinical research institutional project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Fuentes


    Full Text Available En la Argentina, educar en investigación clínica consiste principalmente en cursos teóricos. En países desarrollados existen programas que generan el entorno propicio para un aprendizaje práctico y continuo. En el 2006, en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires se creó el Área de Investigación en Medicina Interna para formar profesionales capaces de participar en todas las etapas de la investigación clínica. El propósito de este estudio es describir el área y su impacto en la educación en investigación en medicina interna durante el período 2006-2008. El proyecto cuenta con un programa de capacitación en investigación clínica para residentes y otro de perfeccionamiento para becarios. Además de becas, asesoramiento en proyectos, ateneos sobre investigación clínica y registros de enfermedades prevalentes en medicina interna. Participan el 33% (6/18 de los clínicos de internación, se encuentran en formación 3 becarios y 7 monitores de investigación. 25 residentes pasaron por el programa de capacitación, completaron una propuesta de investigación 19 (76%. Se hicieron 59 presentaciones en congresos. Se encuentran en proceso de publicación 6 artículos originales y 2 en revisión por comités editoriales. De un cuestionario de evaluación del área, el 76% (35/46 considera que ha adquirido nuevas habilidades, y 93% (44/47 refiere que las utiliza en la práctica diaria. El 100% (47/47 considera que ha recibido orientación adecuada. El 97% (45/46 considera que sus ideas han sido respetadas. La implementación del área de investigación logró aumentar la capacitación y producción científica en investigación clínica independiente.In Argentina, education in clinical investigation is based on courses with theoric content. In developed countries programs with ongoing and practical content exist, generating the proper context to learn. In 2006, the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA

  15. Sistemas de Información en Salud: Integrando datos clínicos en diferentes escenarios y usuarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plazzotta

    Full Text Available Pese al avance tecnológico de las últimas décadas y a los múltiples beneficios documentados, la implementación de tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC en salud continúa siendo un importante desafío para las organizaciones de salud. Buscando contribuir al análisis de las múltiples variables involucradas a la hora de lograr implementaciones exitosas, aplicamos un modelo sociotécnico para analizar la experiencia de informatización de la capa clínica en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA. El marco conceptual aplicado consta de ocho dimensiones interconectadas que permiten revisar diferentes aspectos a tener en cuenta a la hora de diseñar, desarrollar, implementar, usar y evaluar la aplicación de TIC. Teniendo en cuenta la evolución de nuestro proyecto, lo dividimos en tres etapas, de forma tal que cada una de las dimensiones es analizada en cada una de las etapas. El modelo sociotécnico aplicado resultó en una adecuada herramienta de evaluación de nuestra implementación de TIC en salud, permitiéndonos el análisis de las ocho dimensiones, incluso de forma retrospectiva. Aplicando este análisis a cada una de las etapas de la evolución de nuestro proyecto institucional pudimos evidenciar que al tener en cuenta todos los aspectos en conjunto se facilitó la ejecución del mismo y nos permitió identificar aspectos por mejorar

  16. Right Diet: a television series to combat obesity among adolescents in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haifi AR


    Full Text Available Ahmad R Al-Haifi,1 Mohammad A Al-Fayez,1 Bader Al-Nashi,1 Buthaina I Al-Athari,1 Hiba Bawadi,2 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,31Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Health Sciences, Showaikh, Kuwait; 2Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, University of Bahrain and Arab Center for Nutrition, Kingdom of BahrainBackground: Adolescent obesity is a growing public health problem in Kuwait. Reducing obesity can lower the risk of several chronic diseases. Fourteen obese adolescent boys volunteered to participate in a 6-month multidimensional television series on weight loss.Methods: The adolescent boys were recruited through advertisements in schools. The program included counseling sessions, nutritional education, exercise, family support, peer group involvement, and incentives designed to motivate participants.Results: The mean age of the boys was 15.6 ± 0.8 years. On average, subjects lost 10.6 ± 8.9 kg in weight and gained 3.3 ± 1.6 cm in height during the study period. The difference in mean body mass index at baseline and at 6 months following intervention was significant (P < 0.001 at 36.8 ± 4.6 and 32.0 ± 5.4, kg/m2 respectively. Participants ranked counseling as the most important component of the program, followed by family support and type of program.Conclusion: This type of television series could be used as a model for future public health programs to prevent and control obesity among adolescents.Keywords: diet, television, obesity, adolescents

  17. Sistemas de Información en Salud: Integrando datos clínicos en diferentes escenarios y usuarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Plazzotta

    Full Text Available Pese al avance tecnológico de las últimas décadas y a los múltiples beneficios documentados, la implementación de tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC en salud continúa siendo un importante desafío para las organizaciones de salud. Buscando contribuir al análisis de las múltiples variables involucradas a la hora de lograr implementaciones exitosas, aplicamos un modelo sociotécnico para analizar la experiencia de informatización de la capa clínica en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA. El marco conceptual aplicado consta de ocho dimensiones interconectadas que permiten revisar diferentes aspectos a tener en cuenta a la hora de diseñar, desarrollar, implementar, usar y evaluar la aplicación de TIC. Teniendo en cuenta la evolución de nuestro proyecto, lo dividimos en tres etapas, de forma tal que cada una de las dimensiones es analizada en cada una de las etapas. El modelo sociotécnico aplicado resultó en una adecuada herramienta de evaluación de nuestra implementación de TIC en salud, permitiéndonos el análisis de las ocho dimensiones, incluso de forma retrospectiva. Aplicando este análisis a cada una de las etapas de la evolución de nuestro proyecto institucional pudimos evidenciar que al tener en cuenta todos los aspectos en conjunto se facilitó la ejecución del mismo y nos permitió identificar aspectos por mejorar

  18. The molecular signatures of Taxodiaceae / Cupressaceae / Taxaceae (TCT) leaf waxes in modern and ancient samples (United States)

    Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.


    Members of the Taxodiaceae/Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (TCT) complex of conifers originated sometime before the late Jurassic. Since that time the group has diverged to fill diverse ecological niches in desert, marsh, tundra, alpine, and coastal habitats and a variety of forest types. 175 species from 35 genera are now found across 6 continents. The aims of this research project are 1) to analyze and describe cuticular isoprenoid and acetogenic lipids from a diverse group of living members of the TCT complex and 2) to begin a search for these compounds and their diagenetic products in geological samples with known contributions from ancient TCT members. Hexane extracts of several hundred modern conifer specimens from more than 25 genera were studied in an attempt to find phylogenetic trends in the distribution and abundance of wax components. Diverse skeletal types of bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic diterpenes were found throughout the TCT complex. These compounds were found to have the highest absolute and relative abundance in several temperate rainforest and marsh endemics and the lowest relative abundance in desert adapted species. Large scale phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of individual diterpenes were not evident. Some species showed little intraspecific variation in diterpenes, while others showed considerable variability in diterpene products from one tree to another. The waxes of many members of the TCT complex are dominated by uniquely long-chain normal alkanes, with peak abundance at 33 and/or 35 carbons. This character is found within a phylogenetically distinct group of TCT -- including the genera Austrocedrus, Callitris, Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Diselma, Fitzroya, Juniperus, Libocedrus, Platycladus, Taxodium, Tetraclinis, Thuja, and Thujopsis -- and is seen in plants from extremely different habitats. We postulate that this group within the TCT complex shares a conserved very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongase