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Sample records for hib conjugada altoxoide

  1. Introducción de la vacuna conjugada contra Hib en Chile y Uruguay Introducing Hib conjugate vaccine in Chile and Uruguay

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    Mauricio Landaverde

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In some countries, the invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib has been practically eliminated thanks to vaccination. However, in much of the developing world, meningitides and pneumonias caused by these bacteria continue to be a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as high hospitalization costs. Because safe and effective conjugate vaccines are now available, the Special Program for Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization has recommended introducing them into the regular vaccination regimen of as many countries as possible. This has been done in Chile and Uruguay, where the Hib vaccine now forms part of the regular vaccination routine. When the vaccine was being introduced, both countries had difficulties they could have avoided if they had known of the experiences of other nations. Therefore, these two countries now offer the lessons they learned to other nations considering introducing the vaccine into their immunization programs. The most important lessons were to: strengthen the epidemiological surveillance system sufficiently in advance of introducing the vaccine; with th support of sicentific societies, present the technical information that justifies introducing the vaccine; seek community backing and acceptance; precisely establish in advance the presentation and dosage of the vaccine that is most appropriate for the country; and be certain to have the political and legal decisions needed to ensure the continuity of Hib vaccination in the future.

  2. Impacto de la vacuna conjugada en la incidencia de meningitis por Haemophilus influenzae en el Distrito Federal de Brasil: resultados de tres años de seguimiento Impact of anti-Hib conjugate vaccine on the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Brazil's Federal District: results of a three-year follow-up

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    Helen Selma de Abreu Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: Haemophilus influenzae del serotipo b (Hib es todavía un importante agente causal de procesos infecciosos. Su variante encapsulada es la causa de formas invasoras de enfermedad. En algunas poblaciones aborígenes, la incidencia de enfermedades causadas por Hib es mayor de 400 por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años. En los decenios de 1970 y 1980, tras la identificación de anticuerpos protectores contra la cápsula de Hib, se desarrollaron vacunas contra este microorganismo. OBJETIVO: Estimar el impacto que ha tenido desde su introducción, en marzo de 1998, la vacunación contra Hib en el Distrito Federal de Brasil. MÉTODO: Con los datos de base poblacional del Sistema de Vigilancia de la Secretaría de Salud del Distrito Federal de Brasil, se compararon las tasas de incidencia de meningitis correspondientes a los tres años anteriores y posteriores a la introducción de la vacuna. Se compararon también los cambios en su tendencia. RESULTADOS: Al comparar los dos períodos se advierte una reducción de aproximadamente 90% en la incidencia de meningitis por Hib, cambio que no ocurre en el caso de las meningitis ocasionadas por otros agentes bacterianos. Se registró un aumento proporcional de los casos entre los niños de 6 meses de edad y menores, debido a la reducción de la incidencia entre los mayores de esa edad. CONCLUSIÓN: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada en el Distrito Federal de Brasil redujo de 168 por 100 000 (1995-1997 a 15 por 100 000 (1999-2001 la incidencia de meningitis por Hib entre niños de 7 a 35 meses. Esto representa una reducción de 91,1%.INTRODUCTION: Type b Haemophilus influenzae (Hib continues to be an important causative agent of various infectious processes, and its encapsulated strains cause invasive disease. In some aboriginal populations, the incidence of Hib infections in children under five is greater than 400 per 100 000. In the seventies and eighties, vaccines against Hib were

  3. Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b)

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    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae Type b) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hib Disease (Haemophilus Influenzae ...

  4. Protect Your Child against Hib Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... each year in the United States. Because of vaccines, there are now fewer than 50 cases of severe Hib disease ... any problems with it. With any medicine, including vaccines, there is a ... their own in a few days. Mild side effects can include fever or redness, ...

  5. Feasibility study of the immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTPw/Hib (PRP-T Brazilian combination compared to a licensed vaccine in healthy children at 2, 4, and 6 months of age Estudo de viabilidade de imunogenicidade e segurança de uma nova vacina brasileira combinada DTPw/Hib (PRP-T, comparada com uma vacina registrada, em crianças de 2, 4 e 6 meses de idade

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    SueAnn Costa Clemens

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of infants with conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has been proven to reduce Hib meningitis by 95% and pneumoniae by 20%. The routine use of Hib vaccine is facilitated by the introduction of combination vaccines into the EPI (Expanded Plan of Immunization. The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an extemporaneously mixed DTPw/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis combination, using the technology of two Brazilian manufacturers, against a licensed DTPw/Hib European combination in 108 infants vaccinated at 2, 4 and 6 months according to the local national schedule. The Brazilian combination was highly immunogenic with Hib seroprotection rates (anti-PRP > 0.15 mg /ml of 98% after 2 doses and 100% after 3. Also for tetanus and pertussis the new Brazilian combination was as immunogenic as the European counterpart, except the diphtheria seroprotection rates and titers were lower. There was also no clinically relevant difference in reactogenicity. If these feasibility results are confirmed, the Brazilian DTPw/Hib combination should help to boost the uptake of Hib vaccination in Brazil.A vacinação contra (Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, utilizando vacinas conjugadas, provou reduzir em 95% os casos de meningite e em 20% as pneumonias por Hib. O uso rotineiro da vacina Hib foi facilitado pela introdução das vacinas combinadas no Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da mistura extemporânea da vacina combinada contra difteria-tétano-pertussis de células inteiras/Haemophilus influenzae (DTPw/Hib, de tecnologia e produção de 2 fabricantes brasileiros, à vacina européia registrada DTPw/Hib. Estudo realizado em 108 crianças em idade de 2, 4 e 6 meses, seguindo o esquema nacional de imunização. A vacina combinada brasileira foi altamente imunogênica, apresentando taxas de soroprote

  6. Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or having the spleen surgically removed) and HIV infection. A previously unvacci- nated child with one of these high-risk conditions should be given one dose of any licensed Hib vac- cine. Previously unvaccinated adults age 19 years and ...

  7. A new DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants in Latin America Nueva vacuna combinada DTPw-HB/Hib para la vacunación primaria y de refuerzo de menores de un año en América Latina

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    Miguel Tregnaghi

    2006-03-01

    , la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS recomendó que se incluyeran vacunas conjugadas contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (Hib en los programas de vacunación de niños menores de un año, siempre que ello estuviera en consonancia con las prioridades nacionales. La compañía GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals ha creado una nueva vacuna pentavalente que es una combinación de la vacuna contra la difteria (D, el tétanos (T y la tos ferina (P (con antígeno tosferínico a base de células completas y las vacunas contra la hepatitis B (HB y contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (Hib (DTPw-HB/Hib, con un total de 5 µg de fosfato de polirribosilrribitol (FPR. Hemos evaluado la inmunogenia y reactogenia observadas al aplicarse las dosis primaria y de refuerzo de esta nueva vacuna a niños sanos y las hemos comparado con las observadas al aplicar un régimen de referencia a base de las vacunas autorizadas DTPw-HB (Tritanrix y antiHib (Hiberix en forma de inyecciones simultáneas. MÉTODOS: Llevamos a cabo un estudio aleatorizado y con doble enmascaramiento de septiembre de 1998 a agosto de 1999 para establecer la inmunogenia y reactogenia observadas al administrarles a niños sanos la nueva vacuna combinada pentavalente (DTPw-HB/Hib en una sola inyección, y compararlas con las observadas con el régimen de referencia. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron excelentes respuestas inmunitarias con ambos regímenes. Todos los niños vacunados en ambos grupos alcanzaron concentraciones séricas protectoras de anticuerpos antiFPR > 0,15 µg un mes después de recibir la dosis primaria. La vacuna combinada DTPw-HB/Hib no dio resultados inferiores a los obtenidos con las vacunas autorizadas en términos de los porcentajes de seroprotección, seropositividad y respuesta frente a todos los componentes antigénicos de la vacuna. La persistencia de anticuerpos contra todos los antígenos contenidos en ella hasta el momento en que se administró la dosis de refuerzo fue parecida en ambos grupos, y

  8. Dot Blot para determinar la identidad antigénica en vacunas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F

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    Osmir Cabrera-Blanco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las autoridades regulatorias recomiendan el uso de técnicas de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear o técnicas serológicas para la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos presentes en las vacunas conjugadas. Con la aparición de las vacunas conjugadas multivalentes, se ha hecho necesario recurrir a técnicas inmunoquímicas con la utilización de anticuerpos monoclonales para aumentar la sensibilidad en la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos en dichas vacunas conjugadas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las condiciones óptimas de trabajo que permitieran utilizar la técnica del Dot Blot para determinar la identidad de los antígenos en vacunas conjugadas de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F. Para ello se estudiaron los tiempos de incubación, la influencia del reactivo en la solución de bloqueo; también las concentraciones óptimas del anticuerpo monoclonal y de los ingredientes farmacéuticos activos, así como los volúmenes de aplicación óptimos para estos y vacunas. Se utilizó un anticuerpo monoclonal contra el polisacárido capsular del serotipo 19F de neumococo. Las muestras empleadas en este trabajo fueron lotes de ingredientes farmacéuticos activos de conjugados de polisacárido capsular 19F y lotes de un candidato vacunal cubano conjugado heptavalente contra neumococos. Los resultados mostraron que para la determinación de la identidad antigénica fueron suficientes 10 µL de muestras de los principios activos a una concentración de 125 µg/mL e igual volumen para las vacunas heptavalentes. Quedó demostrado que una concentración de 1 µg/mL para el anticuerpo monoclonal y tiempos de incubación de 30 min a 37 °C fueron suficientes para la determinación. Estos resultados permiten concluir que quedaron establecidas las condiciones óptimas de trabajo para determinar la identidad antigénica por Dot Blot del polisacárido capsular de S. pneumoniae serotipo 19F presente en las vacunas

  9. Economic evaluations of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongmelaxme, Bunchai; Hammanee, Maythika; Phooaphirak, Wariya; Kotirum, Surachai; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2017-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, but China and Thailand have not used Hib vaccination in their national immunization programs. This systematic review aimed to update published economic evaluations of Hib vaccinations and to determine factors that potentially affected their cost-effectiveness. Searches were performed from the inception until December 2015 using 13 databases: CAB direct; CEA registry; EconLit; EMBASE; E-library; NHSEED; PAHO; POPLINE; PubMed; Redalyc project; RePEc; SciELO; and WHOLIS. Reference lists of relevant studies and grey literature were also searched. Full economic evaluations of Hib vaccination with results of costs and outcomes were included. The WHO checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Data from eligible studies were extracted using a standardized data collection form. Out of 830 articles, 27 were included. Almost half of the studies (12/27) were conducted in high-income countries. Twelve studies (12/27) investigated the Hib vaccine as an addition to the existing vaccination program. Most studies (17/27) examined a 3-dose schedule of Hib vaccine. Nineteen studies (19/27) reported the model used, where all were decision tree models. Most of the studies (23/27) demonstrated an economic value of Hib vaccination programs, key influential parameters being incidence rates of Hib disease and vaccine price. Hib vaccination programs are mostly found to be cost-effective across geographic regions and country income levels, and Hib vaccination is recommended for inclusion into all national immunization programs. The findings are expected to support policy-makers for making decisions on allocating limited resources of the Hib vaccination program effectively.

  10. The immunogenicity and safety of the new, Indonesian DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine compared to the DTwP/HB vaccine given with the Hib vaccine

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    Novilia Sjafri Bachtiar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib causes infection with predominant manifestations of pneumonia, meningitis, and other invasive diseases, occurring primarily in children aged under 2 years, particularly in infants.  The World Health Organization (WHO and Indonesian Technical Advisory Group for Immunization recommend to include the Hib vaccine into the national immunization program. The newly developed DTwP-HB-Hib combination vaccine is anticipated to be the preferred choice for Hib vaccine introduction; it is efficient, simple, and has higher coverage. Objective To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a new, combined Bio Farma DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine, compared to the registered Hib monovalent vaccine given simultaneously with the local DTwP-HB vaccine, when used as the primary vaccination of Indonesian infants. Methods A prospective, randomized, open-label, phase II study was conducted on the DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine compared to the Hib (registered vaccine given simultaneously with the DTwP-HB vaccine, in Bandung from July 2011 to January 2012. Infants were serially vaccinated at 6-11, 10-15, and 14-19 weeks. Serological assessments were done prior to the first vaccine dose and 28 days after the third dose. Safety was assessed from the time of first injection until 1 month after the last injection. Results Of 220 healthy infants enrolled, 211 completed the study, with 105 receiving the combined vaccine and 106 the two separate vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated. No differences in rates of local and systemic reactions were seen between the two methods of administration. No serious adverse events were considered to be related to the vaccines. In the DTwP-HB-Hib primary-vaccination group, at least 98% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines while 96% in the control group. Conclusion The DTwP-HB-Hib combined vaccine is immunogenic and safe, as well as

  11. Implications of private sector Hib vaccine coverage for the introduction of public sector Hib-containing pentavalent vaccine in India: evidence from retrospective time series data.

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    Sharma, Abhishek; Kaplan, Warren A; Chokshi, Maulik; Hasan Farooqui, Habib; Zodpey, Sanjay P

    2015-02-23

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available in India's private sector market since 1997. It was not until 14 December 2011 that the Government of India initiated the phased public sector introduction of a Hib (and DPT, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus)-containing pentavalent vaccine. Our objective was to investigate the state-specific coverage and behaviour of Hib vaccine in India when it was available only in the private sector market but not in the public sector. This baseline information can act as a guide to determine how much coverage the public sector rollout of pentavalent vaccine (scheduled April 2015) will need to bear in order to achieve complete coverage. 16 of 29 states in India, 2009-2012. Retrospective descriptive secondary data analysis. (1) Annual sales of Hib vaccines, by volume, from private sector hospitals and retail pharmacies collected by IMS Health and (2) national household surveys. State-specific Hib vaccine coverage (%) and its associations with state-specific socioeconomic status. The overall private sector Hib vaccine coverage among the 2009-2012 birth cohort was low (4%) and varied widely among the studied Indian states (minimum 0.3%; maximum 4.6%). We found that private sector Hib vaccine coverage depends on urban areas with good access to the private sector, parent's purchasing capacity and private paediatricians' prescribing practices. Per capita gross domestic product is a key explanatory variable. The annual Hib vaccine uptake and the 2009-2012 coverage levels were several times higher in the capital/metropolitan cities than the rest of the state, suggesting inequity in access to Hib vaccine delivered by the private sector. If India has to achieve high and equitable Hib vaccine coverage levels, nationwide public sector introduction of the pentavalent vaccine is needed. However, the role of private sector in universal Hib vaccine coverage is undefined as yet but it should not be neglected as a useful complement to

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of TetractHib (a vaccine combining DTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety and immunogenicity of TETRActHIB (a vaccine combining diphtheria and tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine (DTP) with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate conjugated to tetanus protein) (PRP-T)) was assessed in 131 Cape Town infants immunised at 6, 10 and 14 ...

  13. Using heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS) to solve integrated circuit manufacturing problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.; Knapp, J.A.; Werho, D.; Gregory, R.B.; Anthony, M.; Hurd, T.Q.; Diebold, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) is a new IBA tool for measuring extremely low levels of surface contamination on very pure substrates, such as Si wafers used in the manufacture of integrated circuits. HIBS derives its high sensitivity through the use of moderately low energy (∼ 100 keV) heavy ions (e.g., C 12 ) to boost the RBS cross-section to levels approaching 1,000 barns, and by using specially designed time-of-flight detectors which have been optimized to provide a large scattering solid angle with minimal kinematic broadening. A HIBS User Facility has been created which provides US industry, national laboratories, and universities with a place for conducting ultra-trace level surface contamination studies. A review of the HIBS technique is given and examples of using the facility to calibrate Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF) instruments and develop wafer cleaning processes are discussed

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Auckland children during the Hib vaccination era: 1995-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bonnie; Taylor, Susan; Drinkovic, Dragana; Roberts, Sally; Carter, Phil; Best, Emma

    2012-11-09

    To characterise Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease in the era of Hib vaccination, in children of the greater Auckland region of New Zealand. Identification of sterile site culture positive Hib via the Auckland hospital laboratories databases and national laboratory surveillance database in the time period; 1995 to 2009. There were a total of 26 cases in the Auckland Region. Over the 15-year period, the annual incidence of invasive Hib disease was 0.61 per 100,000 (95% CI: 0.4-0.9) for children aged under 15 years and 1.65 per 100,000 (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) for children aged under 5 years. Ninety-two percent were under 5 years and 54% were under 1 year. Sixty percent of the children were of Maori and Pacific ethnicity. The predominant diagnosis was meningitis, accounting for 15 cases (60%). There were no fatalities. Forty-eight percent of affected children were completely unimmunised with the Hib vaccine which has been fully funded on the National Immunisation Schedule since 1994. Since the introduction of the Hib vaccine, the disease rates have greatly reduced in the Auckland region. Although ethnic disparities have improved amongst the cases that occur, immunisation rates in cases are low and infants remain most at risk. Current emphasis on intensifying immunisation programmes to achieve higher vaccination rates and timeliness of delivery will help in efforts to achieve elimination of the disease in New Zealand.

  15. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Felix; Tregnaghi, Miguel; Gentile, Angela; Abarca, Katia; Casellas, Javier; Collard, Alix; Lefevre, Inge; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-10-15

    Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib). This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua). Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind) or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind) co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ≥97.3% and ≥93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00332566.

  16. Combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP-HBV and HIB vaccines for primary prevention of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-On, Edna S; Goldberg, Elad; Hellmann, Sarah; Leibovici, Leonard

    2012-04-18

    Advantages to combining childhood vaccines include reducing the number of visits, injections and patient discomfort, increasing compliance and optimising prevention. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that routine infant immunisation programmes include a vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B (HIB) in the combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. The effectiveness and safety of the combined vaccine should be carefully and systematically assessed to ensure its acceptability by the community. To compare the effectiveness of combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccines versus combined DTP-HBV and separate HIB vaccinations. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE (January 1966 to week 1, November 2011), EMBASE (January 1990 to November 2011) and www.clinicaltrials.gov (up to April 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing vaccination with any combined DTP-HBV-HIB vaccine, with or without three types of inactivated polio virus (IPV) or concomitant oral polio vaccine (OPV) in any dose, preparation or time schedule, compared with separate vaccines or placebo, administered to infants up to two years old. Two review authors independently inspected references identified by the searches and evaluated them against the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included trials. Data for the primary outcome (prevention of disease) were lacking. We performed a meta-analysis to pool the results of 20 studies with 5874 participants in an immunogenicity analysis and 5232 participants in the reactogenicity analysis. There were no data on clinical outcomes for the primary outcome (prevention of disease) and all studies used immunogenicity and reactogenicity (adverse events). The number of vaccine

  17. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collard Alix

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib. To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP. This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib. Methods This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua. Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. Results One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ≥97.3% and ≥93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Conclusions Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. Trial registration http

  18. Paralisis de la mirada conjugada lateral de origen pontino: discusión neuroanatómica del fasciculo longitudinal medio

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    E. J. Faccio

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente con una parálisis de la mirada conjugada hacia la izquierda que además presentó un sindrome cerebeloso de igual lado y una paresia para la mirada conjugada hacia arriba. Durante la evolu-ción el paciente se recupera de la parálisis de la mirada hacia arriba, de su sindrome cerebeloso, para quedar con la parálisis de la mirada conjugada lateral. Posteriormente realiza un cuadro caracterizado por una dificultad en la comprensión con lenguaje mal articulado. La necropsia reveló un reblande-cimiento quístico en la cintilla longitudinal izquierda, con igual tipo de lesión en pié de la protuberancia dei lado izquierdo que comprometia al lemnisco motor. También se observo un reblandecimiento más reciente en el girus transverso izquierdo que comprometia la sustância blanca subortical. El estúdio de la cintilla mediante Ias degeneraciones secundarias reveló que se trataba de una cintilla de recorrido recto, que no se decusaba por encima del sexto par, tal cual está descripto. También se observó un balonamiento de Ias células dei núcleo intersticial de Cajal, de igual lado. Estos hallazgos justifican la sintomatologia clínica y la falta de oftalmoplejía internuclear anterior hacia la derecha.

  19. Impacto y efectividad de la vacunación infantil con la vacuna neumocócica conjugada 13-valente en Navarra

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Eslava, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    La vacuna neumocócica conjugada 7 valente (VNC7) comenzó a estar disponibles en España en 2001, la 10-valente (VNC10) en 2009 y la 13-valente (VNC13) en 2010. En Navarra, sin estar incluidas en el calendario oficial de vacunaciones, se ha extendido su uso en los niños. Los objetivos de este estudio han sido evaluar el impacto de la vacunación infantil con la VNC13 sobre la epidemiología de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (ENI) en la población de Navarra de todas las edade...

  20. Meningococcal groups C and Y and haemophilus B tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT; MenHibrix(®)): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Caroline M

    2013-05-01

    The meningococcal groups C and Y and Haemophilus b (Hib) tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) contains Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C and Y capsular polysaccharide antigens, and Hib capsular polysaccharide [polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP)]. The HibMenCY-TT vaccine is available in the USA for use as active immunization to prevent invasive disease caused by N. meningitidis serogroups C (MenC) and Y (MenY), and Hib in children 6 weeks-18 months of age. HibMenCY-TT is the first meningococcal vaccine available for use in the USA that can be administered to infants as young as 6 weeks of age. In a randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trial, the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, administered to infants at 2, 4, 6 and 12-15 months of age, was immunogenic against MenC and MenY, and met the prespecified criteria for immunogenicity. Anti-PRP antibodies, which have been shown to correlate with protection against Hib invasive disease, were also induced in the infants who received the HibMenCY-TT vaccine, with induced levels of this antibody noninferior to those occurring in the control group of infants who received a Hib tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months and a single dose of Hib conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein at 12-15 months. In several randomized, controlled clinical trials, HibMenCY-TT was coadministered with vaccines that are routinely administered to infants and toddlers in the USA. These vaccines included: diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, hepatitis B (recombinant) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined; 7-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide conjugate vaccine; measles, mumps and rubella vaccine; and varicella vaccine. Coadministration of these vaccines did not interfere with the immunogenicity of the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. Similarly, immune responses to the coadministered vaccines were not affected by the HibMenCY-TT vaccine. The tolerability profile of the Hib

  1. Economic modeling and parametric studies for OSIRIS - a HIB-driven IFE power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Economic modeling and parametric studies for the Osiris HIB-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plant have been conducted to determine the most attractive operating point. Cost scaling relationships have been developed and integrated into a cost-performance model of the plant. The figure-of-merit for determining the most attractive design point is the constant-dollar cost of electricity. Results are presented as a function of the driver energy. The sensitivity of the results to variations in the assumed net electric output and target performance is also examined

  2. Activación del polisacárido capsular de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 23F para la obtención de vacunas conjugadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janoi Chang-Calderón

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, las vacunas conjugadas constituyen un gran hito en el desarrollo de fármacos que protegen contra las enfermedades infecciosas. Estas vacunas no solo disminuyen drásticamente la mortalidad y morbilidad de diferentes enfermedades causadas por bacterias en la población infantil; sino que también repercuten sobre la población no vacunada. Las vacunas conjugadas se basan en establecer una unión covalente entre un polisacárido y una proteína portadora para lo cual existen diferentes procedimientos químicos. Todos los procedimientos de conjugación requieren la presencia de grupos reactivos complementarios que muchas veces son generados en ambas macromoléculas. Este trabajo se enfoca en el estudio de la reacción de fragmentación y de la oxidación peryódica sobre el polisacárido capsular serotipo 23F de Streptococcus pneumoniae para su uso como antígeno vacunal. Se estableció la fragmentación del polisacárido mediante hidrólisis con ácido acético y trifluoroácetico. En el caso de la reacción de oxidación se encontró que la cantidad de moles de peryodato de sodio y la temperatura influyen de manera directamente proporcional sobre la generación de grupos carbonilos. Adicionalmente se demostró que el sustituyente glicerol-fosfatos presente en la estructura del serotipo 23F es relevante para conservar la antigenicidad. El procedimiento descrito permite obtener conjugados inmunogénicos a partir del polisacárido capsular de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 23F en el modelo de conejos.

  3. Fever without localizing signs in children: a review in the post-Hib and postpneumococcal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancey, R J; Jhaveri, R

    2009-10-01

    Fever without localizing signs in young infants and children has been a common problem for pediatric practitioners for decades. Prior to the introduction of vaccines against common childhood invasive pathogens, including Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, extensive diagnostic workup of febrile infants and children was warranted to avoid missing serious bacterial infections. At that time, occult bacteremia occurred at a rate of 5.7%. Evaluation of febrile children was based on high and low risk criteria established by Dagan et al. and applied further in suggested clinical practice guidelines in 1993. After the introduction of effective Hib and PCV7 vaccines, the rate of serious bacterial infections has dramatically fallen, with occult bacteremia rates now 0-0.74%. Changes in the administration of intrapartum antibiotics to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus to neonates has significantly reduced the rates of early onset GBS disease in infants. Although the risk of serious infections is extremely low, management and evaluation of febrile children has remained essentially unchanged. This review summarizes the historical context of the management of the febrile child, discusses the developments that have been cause for re-evaluation and provides recommendations for management of the febrile child in this current era.

  4. Hib Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of ... efficacy, and use of vaccines within the broad immunization community of patients, parents, healthcare organizations, and government health agencies.

  5. Meeting the challenge: prevention of pneumococcal disease with conjugate vaccines Al encuentro del reto: prevención de la enfermedad neumocócica con vacunas conjugadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Gabriela Echániz-Avilés

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading causes of both invasive and noninvasive diseases in the pediatric population and continues to represent a significant public health burden worldwide. The increasing incidence of antibioticresistant strains of the pathogen has complicated treatment and management of the various pneumococcal disease manifestations. Thus, the best management strategy may be the prevention of pneumococcal diseases through vaccination. Although several pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been clinically studied in infants and children, only a 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PNCRM7; Prevnar®/Prevenar® is currently approved for the prevention of invasive disease. Vaccination with PNCRM7 is safe and effective in infants and young children. Routine vaccination with the conjugate vaccine could improve outcomes by safeguarding against the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae, thus simplifying the management of pneumococcal disease. Additionally, the overall costs associated with the treatment of pneumococcal diseases could be substantially reduced, particularly in developing countries. The time has come for fully applying this new advancement against S. pneumoniae, to benefit the children of the world. The Spanish version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlStreptococcus pneumoniae es uno de los principales agentes causantes de enfermedades invasoras y no invasoras en la población pediátrica y sigue representando uno de los principales problemas de salud pública a nivel mundial. La incidencia creciente de cepas resistentes a diversos antimicrobianos ha complicado el tratamiento y manejo de varias de las manifestaciones de la enfermedad neumocócica. Con éstas consideraciones, la mejor estrategia de manejo es la prevención de éstas enfermedades a través de la vacunación. A pesar de que se han estudiado diversas vacunas neumocócicas conjugadas en niños, solo una

  6. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine on bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic Impacto de la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b sobre la meningitis bacteriana en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen H. Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de

  7. Immunogenicity and Reactogenicity of DTPa-IPV/Hib Vaccine Co-administered With Hepatitis B Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccination of Taiwanese Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Lan Shao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate vaccine (DTPa-IPV/Hib, Infanrix™-IPV + Hib was assessed when co-administered with hepatitis B (HBV vaccine. Seventy healthy infants received DTPa-IPV/Hib at 1.5, 3.5, 6 and 15–18 months, and HBV at birth, 1.5, 6 and 15–18 months of age. Serological responses were assessed. Diphtheria, tetanus, Hib and pertussis seroprotection/seropositivity rates were 100% after primary vaccination. Post-primary immune responses to poliovirus could not be evaluated for technical reasons. However, after the booster dose, seroprotection/seropositivity rates, including poliovirus, were 100%. Over 95% were seroprotected against HBV. Post-booster geometric mean antibody concentrations/titers (GMC/GMTs rose from 14-fold to 45-fold, indicating effective priming against all antigens, including polioviruses. DTPa-IPV/Hib was well tolerated alone or co-administered with HBV. No serious adverse events were considered related to vaccination. Primary and booster vaccination with combined DTPa-IPV/Hib and HBV was immunogenic and well tolerated. Combination vaccines enable vaccine providers to conveniently provide routine pediatric immunizations, with minimal discomfort.

  8. Vacinas meningocócicas conjugadas: eficácia e novas combinações Meningococcal conjugate vaccines: efficacy and new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Palazzi Sáfadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A doença meningocócica é, ainda hoje, um sério problema de saúde pública, estando associada a elevadas taxas de morbidade e letalidade no mundo e, em especial, no Brasil. Além de discutir as recentes mudanças na epidemiologia da doença meningocócica no mundo, analisamos o desenvolvimento e o impacto das novas vacinas conjugadas na prevenção da doença meningocócica, com ênfase nas diferentes estratégias de imunização utilizadas com essas vacinas. FONTE DOS DADOS: Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados MEDLINE no período de 1996 a 2006, com destaque para artigos de revisão, ensaios clínicos e epidemiológicos. Também foi realizada busca de informações nos portais do Centro de Controle de Doenças, Ministério da Saúde do Brasil e Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Estado de São Paulo. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Cinco sorogrupos (A, B, C, W135 e Y respondem por virtualmente todos os casos da doença no mundo, com marcantes diferenças regionais e temporais. As novas vacinas conjugadas contra o meningococo C apresentam inequívocas vantagens em relação às vacinas polissacarídicas. Induzem uma resposta de anticorpos mais eficiente e duradoura, propiciando memória imunológica e redução da incidência de portadores. Os resultados imediatos da introdução dessas vacinas nos programas de imunização foram animadores, com dramática redução da incidência de doença, inclusive em não-vacinados (imunidade de rebanho. Entretanto, recentemente constatou-se perda da eficácia após alguns anos da aplicação da vacina, especialmente entre os lactentes vacinados. CONCLUSÕES:A perda de efetividade das vacinas conjugadas contra o meningococo C, observada após alguns anos da imunização de lactentes jovens, justifica a mudança dos esquemas de vacinação, com a incorporação de uma dose de reforço entre 12 e 18 meses de idade para garantir uma proteção mais duradoura. O recente licenciamento da vacina

  9. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine

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    Idis Faingezicht

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed following recommendations of the World Health Organization for the introduction of hepatitis B (HB and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. The objectives of this study were to: 1 analyze the immunogenicity and the reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination in a group of children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth and 2 in the second year of life to assess the antibody persistence as well as the response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster. Methods. In the first part of the study (primary-vaccination stage, conducted in 1998-1999, we analyzed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in 207 Costa Rican children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth. Later, in the booster-vaccination stage of the study, in 1999-2000, in a subset of the children (69 toddlers, now 15-18 months old, antibody persistence was measured, and response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster was also assessed. Results. In both primary-vaccination groups, at least 97.5% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine did not result in more local reactions than did the DTPw-HB vaccine alone, and, in terms of general reactions, there was no clinically significant difference between the combination or separate injections, and with the pentavalent vaccine having the benefit of needing one less injection. Nine months after the third dose of the primary-vaccination course, antibody persistence was similar in both groups, with over 93% of children still having

  10. Adsorption chromatography to purify Spacer disaccharide of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of QuimiHib vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Belinda; Heynngnezz, Lazaro; Beldarrain, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the conditions of adsorption chromatography on Silica gel 60 for purification of Spacer disaccharide a component of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) of QuimiHib vaccine. For that, we made a scale down on an analytical scale that represented at 1.8% of industrial process, indicating reproducibility between two procedures in terms of packing efficiency, purity and recovery. Dynamic binding capacity of the resin Silicagel 60 by the DSE was roughly 125±0.2 mg /mL, 3.4 times the base process. The elution profile obtained, showed the possibility of collecting a unique fraction at range 195±2 and 260±2 minutes, if it is maintained a proper packing of the chromatography resin determined by asymmetry factor from 0.8 to 1.2, which ensures a recovery of 58.9±4.5% and high purity analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography. Adjusting the adsorption conditions increases the productivity of chromatographic operation up to 3.5 fold, indicating that it is feasible in economic terms

  11. Quadrivalent meningococcal (MenACWY-TT) conjugate vaccine or a fourth dose of H. influenzae-N. meningitidis C/Y conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) is immunogenic in toddlers who previously received three doses of HibMenCY-TT in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michael; Latiolais, Thomas; Sarpong, Kwabena; Simon, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry; Lei, Paul; Rinderknecht, Stephen; Blatter, Mark; Bianco, Veronique; Baine, Yaela; Friedland, Leonard R; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-11

    Immunogenicity and safety of a single dose of MenACWY-TT or a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT were evaluated in the second year of life in HibMenCY-TT-primed toddlers. Healthy infants were randomized (5:1) and primed at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with HibMenCY-TT and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-HBV-IPV) vaccine; or Hib-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV (control). Recipients of HibMenCY-TT+DTaP-HBV-IPV were re-randomized (2:2:1) to receive MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months; MenACWY-TT co-administered with DTaP at 15-18 months; or HibMenCY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months. Controls received DTaP only at 15-18 months due to Hib conjugate vaccine shortage. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) and safety were assessed one month after meningococcal vaccination. After vaccination with MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months or MenACWY-TT+DTaP at 15-18 months, all subjects previously primed for serogroups C/Y had hSBA ≥1:8 for these serogroups. At least 96.1% also had hSBA ≥1:8 for serogroups A/W. All subjects in the HibMenCY-TT group had hSBA ≥1:8 for serogroups C/Y. All pre-defined statistical criteria for meningococcal immunogenicity were satisfied. All vaccination regimens had acceptable safety profiles. Children primed with three doses of HibMenCY-TT who then received a single dose of MenACWY-TT or a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT had robust increases in hSBA titers for serogroups C/Y. These data provide support that MenACWY-TT, given with or without the fourth scheduled dose of DTaP could be administered as an alternative to a fourth dose of HibMenCY-TT in the second year of life. This study (110870/110871) is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00614614. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine Vacunación primaria y de refuerzo con la vacuna pentavalente DTPw-HB/Hib en niños costarricenses vacunados al nacer contra la hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idis Faingezicht

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed following recommendations of the World Health Organization for the introduction of hepatitis B (HB and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. The objectives of this study were to: 1 analyze the immunogenicity and the reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination in a group of children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth and 2 in the second year of life to assess the antibody persistence as well as the response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster. Methods. In the first part of the study (primary-vaccination stage, conducted in 1998-1999, we analyzed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in 207 Costa Rican children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth. Later, in the booster-vaccination stage of the study, in 1999-2000, in a subset of the children (69 toddlers, now 15-18 months old, antibody persistence was measured, and response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster was also assessed. Results. In both primary-vaccination groups, at least 97.5% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine did not result in more local reactions than did the DTPw-HB vaccine alone, and, in terms of general reactions, there was no clinically significant difference between the combination or separate injections, and with the pentavalent vaccine having the benefit of needing one less injection. Nine months after the third dose of the primary-vaccination course, antibody persistence was similar in both groups, with over 93% of children still having

  13. Compostagem aeróbia conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico e resíduos sólidos vegetais Conjugated aerobic composting of septic tank sludge and vegetable solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O lodo sanitário, principal subproduto do tratamento de esgotos, constitui um dos maiores problemas ambientais urbanos da atualidade. Em meio a este contexto, objetivou-se nesse estudo avaliar o processo da compostagem conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico (LS e resíduos sólidos vegetais (RV e determinar a importância da temperatura para o processo de sanitização do substrato tratado. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e três repetições, consistiu de nove reatores aeróbios com 100 litros de capacidade. Os resíduos foram utilizados nas seguintes proporções - T1: 100% RV; T2: 5% LS + 95% RV; T3: 10% LS + 90% RV. A compostagem aeróbia conjugada mostrou ser uma alternativa viável para destruição de ovos de helminto e estabilização dos resíduos, sendo fundamentais para tal, a temperatura, o pH e as relações ecológicas presentes nos reatores.The sanitary sludge, principal byproduct of sewage treatment, constitutes one of the major municipal environmental problems of the present time. The present study was aimed to evaluate the composting of septic tank sludge (SS and vegetable solid waste (VW and to determine the importance of the temperature for the process of sanitization of the treated substrate. The experiment, entirely randomized with three treatments and three repetitions, constituted of nine aerobic reactors with 100 L capacity. The proportions of the wastes utilized were T1: 100%VW; T2: 5%SS + 95%VW; T3: 10%SS + 90%VW. The conjugated composting showed to be a feasible alternative for destruction of helminth eggs and stabilization of the wastes. The temperature, pH and ecological relations present in the reactors were fundamental for this purpose.

  14. High pneumonia lifetime-ever incidence in Beijing children compared with locations in other countries, and implications for national PCV and Hib vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Fang; Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the proportion of Beijing children who have ever had pneumonia (%Pneumonia) to those in other locations, and to estimate by how much national vaccine coverage with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) could reduce Beijing %Pneumonia. Methods %Pneumonia was obtained for each age group from 1 to 8 years inclusive from 5,876 responses to a cross-sectional questionnaire. Literature searches were conducted for world-wide reports of %Pneumonia. Previous vaccine trials conducted worldwide were used to estimate the pneumococcal (S. pneumoniae) and Hib (H. influenzae) burdens and %Pneumonia as well as the potential for PCV and Hib vaccines to reduce Beijing children’s %Pneumonia. Findings The majority of pneumonia cases occurred by the age of three. The cumulative %Pneumonia for 3–8 year-old Beijing children, 26.9%, was only slightly higher than the 25.4% for the discrete 3 year-old age group, similar to trends for Tianjin (China) and Texas (USA). Beijing’s %Pneumonia is disproportionally high relative to its Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, and markedly higher than %Pneumonia in the US and other high GNI per capita countries. Chinese diagnostic guidelines recommend chest X-ray confirmation while most other countries discourage it in favor of clinical diagnosis. Literature review shows that chest X-ray confirmation returns far fewer pneumonia diagnoses than clinical diagnosis. Accordingly, Beijing’s %Pneumonia is likely higher than indicated by raw numbers. Vaccine trials suggest that national PCV and Hib vaccination could reduce Beijing’s %Pneumonia from 26.9% to 19.7% and 24.9% respectively. Conclusion National PCV and Hib vaccination programs would substantially reduce Beijing children’s pneumonia incidence. PMID:28166256

  15. PENDAPAT AL-MAZÂHIB AL-ARBA’AH TENTANG BENTUK SYIRKAH DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM PERSEROAN MODERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burhanuddin Susamto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of sharia principles in our life is a necessity. A corporation as a part of life is not out of the frame of sharia perspective. The desire to view  the corporation  from the sharia perspective is starting  from the fact that in fiqh muamalah there are some  relevant  contract,  especially  syirkah  contract. Al-mazâhib al-arba'ah through their  books of fiqh  have introduced the similarities and differences of opinion concerning shirkah forms which original law is  allowed according to the Qur'an, the Sunnah and ijma '. Therefore, through this article, the author will reveal again the opinion of the each  schools concerning syirkah  forms and how to implement it in the context of a modern corporation.

  16. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-03

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  17. [Evaluation of safety of haemophilus influenza type b(Hib) conjugate vaccine in postmarketing based on the immunization information management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ma, Fubao; Zhang, Jinlin; Yu, Jing; Kang, Guodong; Gao, Jun

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the occurrence feature of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) and to evaluate the safety of HibCV in postmarketing. 2008-2013 HibCV AEFI data were collected through national AEFI information management system, which were downloaded in March 18, 2014.The demographic information and inoculation quantity of HibCV were from Immunization information management system in Jiangsu province. The incidence rate and 95% CI value of AEFI, common vaccine reaction and rare vaccine reaction following immunization of HibCV were calculated. The differences in the incidence rate of common vaccine reaction and rare vaccine reaction among sex, months of age, and number of injections were compared by means of (χ² tests. A total of 6.16 million doses of vaccine were administered in Jiangsu province during 2008-2013, and 4 718 vaccinees reported having adverse event, for a rate of 76.60/100 000 (95% CI: 74.42/100 000-78.79/100 000). The incidence rate of common vaccine reaction and rare vaccine reaction was 71.10/100 000 (95% CI: 68.99/100 000-73.20/100 000) and 5.16/100 000 (95% CI: 4.60/100 000-5.73/100 000), respectively. The main symptoms of common vaccine reactions were fever, swelling, indurations and gastrointestinal reactions. The incidence rates of them were 40.54/100 000, 35.09/100 000, 12.94/100 000 and 0.36/100 000 in turn. The main symptoms of rare vaccine reactions were anaphylactic rashes and angioedema, the incidence rates of which were 4.77/100 000 and 0.15/100 000 respectively. 91.39% (4 002/4 379) of common vaccine reactions and 88.36% (281/318) of rare vaccine reactions happened within 1 d after vaccination. Anaphylactic shock (3 cases) and laryngeal edema (1 case) all happened within 1 d after vaccination. The incidence rate of common vaccine reactions among boys (79.72/100 000, 2 641/3 313 071) was higher than that of girls (61.07/100 000, 1 738/2 846 001) (χ² = 74.92, P < 0.001). The incidence rate of common

  18. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Brazil Cálculo de la relación costo-efectividad de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Vespa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the costs and benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination compared with no vaccination from the perspectives of the health care system and society. METHODS: Using data from established sources, we estimated the incidence and mortality due to invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM for a hypothetical birth cohort of children from birth to 5 years. RESULTS: A universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccination program was estimated capable of annually avoiding 1 047 cases of invasive disease, 58 226 cases of pneumonia, and 209 862 cases of AOM. When herd immunity effects were considered, the program prevented 1.3 million cases of pneumococcal disease and over 7 000 pneumococcal deaths. At a vaccination cost of R$ 51.12 (US$ 26.35 per dose, vaccination would cost annually R$ 4 289 (US$ 2,211 per disability-adjusted life years averted. This does not take into account herd immunity effects. CONCLUSIONS: At the current vaccine price, conjugate vaccination could be a cost-effective investment compared to other options to control childhood diseases. Further analysis is required to determine whether vaccination at the current price is affordable to Brazil.OBJETIVO: Comparar los costos y los beneficios de la aplicación de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en comparación con la no vacunación, desde las perspectivas del sistema de salud y la sociedad. MÉTODOS: A partir de fuentes reconocidas, se estimaron la incidencia y la mortalidad por enfermedad neumocócica invasora, neumonía y otitis media aguda (OMA para una cohorte hipotética de niños desde su nacimiento hasta los 5 años. RESULTADOS: Se estimó que un programa de vacunación universal con una vacuna conjugada antineumocócica sería capaz de evitar anualmente 1 047 casos de la enfermedad invasora, 58 226 casos de neumonía y 209 862 casos de OMA. Si se considera el efecto de la inmunidad de grupo, el programa evitaría 1,3 millones de casos

  19. Analysis of conjugated heat transfer, in transient state of the first stage of a gas turbine; Analisis de transferencia de calor conjugada, en estado transitorio, de la primera etapa de una turbina de gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Mazur C, Zdzislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Gallegos Munoz, Armando [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Electrica y Electronica (FIMEE), Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    This article presents an analysis of conjugated heat transfer in the first stage of movable blades during the starting of a gas turbine, covering a period of 1,012 seconds. The developed computer model is in 3D and uses as initial and border conditions typical starting curves for stack gases, the cooling air and the angular velocity of the blades. As a result of the numerical predictions, the temperature distributions in stack gases, the trowel of the blade and the cooling air are included, doing emphasis in the results obtained in the solid (body of the blade), since these are used for thermo-mechanical stress analysis and later estimation of the blade residual life. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta un analisis de transferencia de calor conjugada en la primera etapa de alabes moviles, durante el arranque de una turbina de gas, cubriendo un periodo de 1.012 segundos. El modelo computacional desarrollado es en tres dimensiones y utiliza como condiciones iniciales y de frontera curvas de arranque tipicas para los gases de combustion, el aire de enfriamiento y la velocidad angular de los alabes. Como resultado de las predicciones numericas, se incluyen las distribuciones de temperatura en los gases de combustion, la paleta del alabe y el aire de enfriamiento, haciendo enfasis en los resultados obtenidos en el solido (cuerpo del alabe), ya que estos se utilizan para analisis de esfuerzos termomecanicos y posterior estimacion de vida residual del alabe.

  20. Immunogenicity, Safety and Reactogenicity of a Booster Dose of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable H. influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered With DTPa-IPV-Hib in Dutch Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Menno R; Spijkerman, Judith; François, Nancy; Swinnen, Kristien; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2016-07-01

    Immune responses and safety profiles may be affected when vaccines are coadministered. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate (PHiD-CV; Synflorix GSK Vaccines) and DTPa-IPV-Hib (Pediacel Sanofi Pasteur MSD) when coadministered. We performed booster assessment in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. Of 780 enrolled healthy infants, 774 toddlers participated in the booster phase and received (1:1:1) (1) PHiD-CV + DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa, GSK Vaccines), (2) PHiD-CV + DTPa-IPV-Hib, or (3) 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM, Prevenar/Prevnar, Pfizer, Inc.) + DTPa-IPV-Hib at 2, 3, 4 and 11-13 months old. Blood samples were taken postprimary, prebooster, 1 and 12 months postbooster. Antipneumococcal antibody responses were comparable between both PHiD-CV groups, except for serotype 18C (conjugated to tetanus toxoid). Anti-18C antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher when coadministered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib. For each vaccine serotype, the percentages of children with antibody concentration ≥ 0.20 μg/mL were within the same ranges between PHiD-CV groups (93.8%-100%). The same was observed for the percentages of participants with opsonophagocytic activity titer ≥ 8 (90.9%-100%). When comparing both DTPa-IPV-Hib groups, postbooster antidiphtheria antibody GMCs were higher when coadministered with 7vCRM, while antitetanus and antipolyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody GMCs were higher with PHiD-CV coadministration. Regardless, antibody levels to these antigens were well above thresholds. Safety and reactogenicity profiles were comparable between groups. Coadministration of a booster dose of PHiD-CV and DTPa-IPV-Hib was immunogenic and well tolerated.

  1. L-rhamnose induces browning in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes and activates HIB1B brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Minji; Mukherjee, Sulagna; Kang, Nam Hyeon; Barkat, Jameel Lone; Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2018-04-11

    Induction of the brown adipocyte-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) is considered as a novel strategy to fight obesity due to the ability of brown adipocytes to increase energy expenditure. Here, we report that L-rhamnose induced browning by elevating expression levels of beige-specific marker genes, including Cd137, Cited1, Tbx1, Prdm16, Tmem26, and Ucp1, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, L-rhamnose markedly elevated expression levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis both in 3T3-L1 white and HIB1B brown adipocytes. L-rhamnose treatment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes also significantly elevated protein levels of p-HSL, p-AMPK, ACOX, and CPT1 as well as reduced levels of ACC, FAS, C/EBPα, and PPARγ, suggesting its possible role in enhancement of lipolysis and lipid catabolism as well as reduced adipogenesis and lipogenesis, respectively. The quick technique of efficient molecular docking provided insight into the strong binding of L-rhamnose to the fat-digesting glycine residue of β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR), indicating strong involvement of L-rhamnose in fat metabolism. Further examination of the molecular mechanism of L-rhamnose revealed that it induced browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via coordination of multiple signaling pathways through β 3 -AR, SIRT1, PKA, and p-38. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that L-rhamnose plays multiple modulatory roles in the induction of white fat browning, activation of brown adipocytes, as well as promotion of lipid metabolism, thereby demonstrating its therapeutic potential for treatment of obesity. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. A phase II, randomized study on an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine administered to infants in Northern Ghana.

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    Abraham Hodgson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combining meningococcal vaccination with routine immunization in infancy may reduce the burden of meningococcal meningitis, especially in the meningitis belt of Africa. We have evaluated the immunogenicity, persistence of immune response, immune memory and safety of an investigational DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC conjugate vaccine given to infants in Northern Ghana. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this phase II, double blind, randomized, controlled study, 280 infants were primed with DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC or DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. At 12 months of age, children in each group received a challenge dose of serogroup A+C polysaccharides. Antibody responses were assessed pre, and one month-post dose 3 of the priming schedule and pre and 1 month after administration of the challenge dose. One month post-dose 3, 87.8% and 88.2% of subjects in the study group had bactericidal meningococcal serogroup A (SBA-MenA and meningococcal serogroup C (SBA-MenC antibody titres > or = 1:8 respectively. Seroprotection/seropositivity rates to the 5 antigens administered in the routine EPI schedule were non-inferior in children in the study group compared to those in the control group. The percentages of subjects in the study group with persisting SBA-MenA titres > or = 1:8 or SBA-MenC titres > or = 1:8 at the age of 12 months prior to challenge were significantly higher than in control group (47.7% vs 25.7% and 56.4% vs 5.1% respectively. The administration of 10 microg of serogroup A polysaccharide increased the SBA-MenA GMT by 14.0-fold in the DTPW-HBV/HibMenAC-group compared to a 3.8 fold increase in the control-group. Corresponding fold-increases in SBA-MenC titres following challenge with 10 microg of group C polysaccharide were 18.8 and 1.9 respectively. Reactogenicity following primary vaccination or the administration of the challenge dose was similar in both groups, except for swelling (Grade 3 after primary vaccination which was more

  3. Vacunación de la población de 65 años en Castilla-La Mancha con la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada 13valente (VNC13

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    SOCAMPAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available La estrategia de vacunación antineumocócica en adultos a partir de los 65 años de edad ha ido modificándose, tras la aprobación de la vacuna 13valente conjugada (VNC13 para adultos y la recomendación de los Centros de Control y Prevención de enfermedad de EEUU (CDC en el año 2014 de incluir la vacuna VNC13 a la población a partir de 65 años de edad, a partir de los resultados del estudio CAPiTA. Diversos países, y en España varias Comunidades Auto- nómicas, ya han incluido la vacuna VNC13 en los calendarios vacunales de adultos a partir de los 65 años. En este documento, las sociedades: Sociedad de Médicos Generales y de Familia de Castilla-La Mancha, Sociedad Castellano Manchega de Patología Respiratoria, Sociedad Castellano Manchega de Médicos Preventivistas, Sociedad Castellano Manchega de Geriatría, Sociedad Castellano Manchega de Médicos Internistas (Sección Infecciosas, Socie- dad Castellano Manchega de Farmacia Familiar y Comunitaria presentamos a la Dirección General de Salud Pública de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha nuestra propuesta y justificación para la inclusión de la vacuna VNC13 en cohorte de 65 años de edad de Castilla-La Mancha

  4. LA VACUNACIÓN ANTI-NEUMOCÓCICA CON LA VACUNA CONJUGADA 13-VALENTE EN POBLACIÓN INMUNOCOMPETENTE DE 65 AÑOS: ANALISIS DEL IMPACTO PRESUPUESTARIO EN ESPAÑA APLICANDO UN MODELO DE TRANSMISIÓN DINÁMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Lorente Antoñanzas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Las infecciones causadas por el Streptococcus pneumoniae en el adulto tienen repercusiones importantes en la salud. El objetivo fue analizar el impacto económico y sanitario en 5 años de la vacunación de la cohorte española de 65 años inmunocompetente con la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada 13-valente.Métodos: Mediante un modelo de transmisión dinámica basado en ecuaciones diferenciales se analizó la carga de la enfermedad neumocócica (EN en sujetos de 65 años en 5 años, siendo vacunada anualmente el 36,5% de la cohorte. Se aplicó la eficacia de la vacuna del 52,5% observada en el estudio CAPITA en pacientes de 65 años inmunocompetentes, cobertura de serotipos vacunales del 63,4% (estudio CAPA, incidencia de infección neumocócica de 162,2/100.000 casos año (CMBD 2010-2013 y proporción de vacunados previamente al arranque del modelo del 0,99%. La perspectiva fue la del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS. Costes de casos de EN según CMBD y precio de venta de laboratorio de la vacuna conjugada.Resultados: En 5 años la vacunación con vacuna conjugada 13-valente espera evitar 10.360 casos de EN (7.411 hospitalizaciones por neumonías y 699 muertes (14.736 años de vida ganados -AVG-, en una cohorte de 65 a 69 años de edad. El coste de vacunación esperado de 36,5 millones de euros se compensaría completamente por la reducción de 41,5 millones de costes médicos evitados, con un ahorro neto acumulado de 3,8 millones de euros a precios constantes (4,9 a precios corrientes.Conclusión: La vacunación con vacuna conjugada 13-valente en adultos de 65 años inmunocompetentes resulta eficiente para el Sistema Nacional de Salud, reduciendo la carga de enfermedad y evitando un número importante de muertes.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in a hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine in comparison with the licensed Infanrix hexa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Rivera, Luis; Korhonen, Tiina; Ahonen, Anitta; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Hezareh, Marjan; Janssens, Winnie; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age. Infants were planned to receive a booster dose at 12–15 months of age with the same formulation received in the Primary study; however, following high incidence of fever associated with the investigational formulations in the Primary study, the Booster study protocol was amended and all infants yet to receive a booster dose (N = 385) received the licensed vaccine. In the Primary study, non-inferiority of 3-dose vaccination with investigational formulations compared with the licensed vaccine was not demonstrated due to anti-pertactin failing to meet the non-inferiority criterion. Post-primary vaccination, most infants had seroprotective levels of anti-diphtheria (100% of infants), anti-tetanus antigens (100%), against hepatitis B (≥ 97.5% across groups), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (≥ 88.0%) and poliovirus types 1–3 (≥ 90.5%). Seropositivity rates for each pertussis antigen were 100% in all groups. Higher incidence of fever (> 38°C) was reported in infants receiving the investigational formulations (Primary study: 75.0% [A] and 72.1% [B] vs 58.8% [control]; Booster study, before amendment: 49.4% and 46.6% vs 37.4%, respectively). The development of the investigational formulations was not further pursued. PMID:28340322

  6. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Booster Injection of DTap-IPV//Hib (Pentaxim) Administered Concomitantly With Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Toddlers 15-18 Months of Age in Mexico: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Flor Irene Rodriguez; Morales, José Juan Renteria; De Los Santos, Abiel Homero Mascareñas; Rivas, Enrique; Vigne, Claire; Noriega, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed in a number of dengue endemic countries for individuals ≥9 years of age. Before the integration of any vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules, a lack of immune interference and acceptable safety when coadministered with other recommended vaccines should be demonstrated. This randomized, multi-center phase III trial was conducted in Mexico. Healthy toddlers (n = 732) received a booster dose of a licensed pentavalent combination vaccine [diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV//Hib)] either concomitantly or sequentially, with the second dose of CYD-TDV administered as a 3-dose schedule. Antibody titers against diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and pertussis antigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies against poliovirus and dengue serotypes were measured using a plaque reduction neutralization test. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each of the DTaP-IPV//Hib antigens if the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval of the difference in seroconversion rates between the 2 groups (CYD-TDV and placebo) was ≥10%. Safety of both vaccines was assessed. Noninferiority in immune response was demonstrated for all DTaP-IPV//Hib antigens. After 3 doses of CYD-TDV, no difference was observed in the immune response for CYD-TDV between groups. There were no safety concerns during the study. Coadministration of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine with CYD-TDV has no observed impact on the immunogenicity or safety profile of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine. No difference was observed on the CYD-TDV profile when administered concomitantly or sequentially with the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine.

  7. [SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF A NATIONAL COMBINED VACCINE AGAINST PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND Hib-INFECTION, CONTAINING ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS COMPONENT, DURING IMMUNIZATION OF ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldblyum, I V; Nikolaeva, A M; Pavroz, K A; Danilina, T V; Sosnina, O Yu; Vyaznikova, T V; Ershov, A E; Trofimov, D M; Polushkina, A V

    2016-01-01

    Study safety, reactogenicity and immunologic effectiveness of a national combined vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis (acellular component), tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib-infection during immunization of volunteers aged 18-60 years. The study was carried out in accordance with ethical standards and requirements, regulated by Helsinki declaration and Good clinical practice (ICHGCP). In a simple non-randomized clinical trial 20 adult volunteers took part, the mean age of those was 46.9 years. Registered: post-vaccination reactions (both local and systemic) were mild and of moderate degree of severity, stopped independently after 2-3 days without administration of drug treatment. Postvaccinal complications were not noted. Parameters of general and biochemical analysis of blood, urine, IgE content in dynamics of immunization were within normal limits. A single administration of aAPDT--HepB+Hib to individuals aged 18-60 years resulted in development of antibodies against all the components of the preparation. Seroconversion factor fluctuated from 6.9 to 53.5: The results obtained allow to recommend the vaccine for evaluation of its safety, reactogenicity, immunologic and prophylaxis effectiveness in randomized clinical observation trials in children.

  8. Human Infant Memory B Cell and CD4+ T Cell Responses to HibMenCY-TT Glyco-Conjugate Vaccine.

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    Angela Fuery

    Full Text Available Carrier-specific T cell and polysaccharide-specific B cell memory responses are not well characterised in infants following glyco-conjugate vaccination. We aimed to determine if the number of Meningococcal (Men C- and Y- specific memory B cells and; number and quality of Tetanus Toxoid (TT carrier-specific memory CD4+ T cells are associated with polysaccharide-specific IgG post HibMenCY-TT vaccination. Healthy infants received HibMenCY-TT vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months with a booster at 12 months. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and polysaccharide-specific memory B cells enumerated using ELISpot. TT-specific memory CD4+ T cells were detected and phenotyped based on CD154 expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ expression following stimulation. Functional polysaccharide-specific IgG titres were measured using the serum bactericidal activity (SBA assay. Polysaccharide-specific Men C- but not Men Y- specific memory B cell frequencies pre-boost (12 months were significantly associated with post-boost (13 months SBA titres. Regression analysis showed no association between memory B cell frequencies post-priming (at 6 or 7 months and SBA at 12 months or 13 months. TT-specific CD4+ T cells were detected at frequencies between 0.001 and 0.112 as a percentage of CD3+ T cells, but their numbers were not associated with SBA titres. There were significant negative associations between SBA titres at M13 and cytokine expression at M7 and M12.Induction of persistent polysaccharide-specific memory B cells prior to boosting is an important determinant of secondary IgG responses in infants. However, polysaccharide-specific functional IgG responses appear to be independent of the number and quality of circulating carrier-specific CD4+ T cells after priming.

  9. Economic impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay Impacto económico de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna O. Constenla

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the economic impact of vaccination with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7 in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. METHODS: A decision analytic model was constructed to compare pneumococcal vaccination of children 0-5 years old with no vaccination in Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Costs and health outcomes were analyzed from the societal perspective. Vaccine, demographic, epidemiologic, and cost data were incorporated into this economic analysis. RESULTS: At the rate of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP vaccine coverage and a vaccine price of US$ 53 per dose, PCV7 was projected to prevent 23 474 deaths per year in children under 5 years old in the three countries studied, thus averting 884 841 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs yearly. To vaccinate the entire birth cohort of the three countries, total vaccine costs would be US$ 613.9 million. At US$ 53 per dose, the cost per DALY averted from a societal perspective would range from US$ 664 (Brazil to US$ 2 019 (Chile. At a cost of US$ 10 per dose, vaccine cost is lower than the overall cost of illness averted (US$ 125 050 497 versus US$ 153 965 333, making it cost effective and cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that the incorporation of PCV7 vaccine at US$ 53 per dose confers health benefits at extra costs. It is unclear whether vaccination at the current price is affordable to these countries.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar el impacto económico de la aplicación de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada heptavalente (PCV7 en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. MÉTODOS: Se elaboró un modelo analítico de decisiones para comparar la vacunación antineumocócica de los niños de 0-5 años de edad con la no vacunación, en Brasil, Chile y Uruguay. Los costos y los desenlaces para la salud se analizaron desde el punto de vista de la sociedad. Al análisis económico se incorporaron los costos y los datos demográficos, epidemiológicos y de la vacuna. RESULTADOS

  10. Impact of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program on HIB meningitis in Brazil Impacto do programa de vacinação contra meningites causadas por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil

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    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB in Brazil on the morbidity, mortality, and case fatality of HIB meningitis, using the Ministry of Health database and population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE. Impact was evaluated through a time series analysis (1983-2002, using regression forecasting (RF by dividing the time series into two periods: (a historical (1983-1998 and (b validation (1999-2002. Impact of the vaccination was positive, although more significant for incidence and mortality than for case fatality rates.A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (HIB no Brasil sobre a morbi-mortalidade e a letalidade das meningites por HIB, a partir de base de dados fornecida pelo Ministério da Saúde e as estimativas populacionais provenientes do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Para a avaliação do impacto utilizou-se análise de tendência temporal (1983-2002, aplicando-se a técnica RF (regression forecasting, dividindo-se a série em dois períodos: (a período histórico (1983-1998 e (b período de estimação (1999-2002. O impacto da vacinação foi positivo, embora tenha se revelado mais expressivo sobre a morbi-mortalidade que sobre a letalidade.

  11. Preventive and therapeutic application of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines among children, who are prone to frequent and prolonged recurrent otites media

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    T.I. Garashchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH WAS TO ASSESS THE CLINIC EFFECTIVENESS OF A COMBINED APPLICATION OF SUCH VACCINES AS: ACTBHIB AND PNEUMO 23 (SANOFI PASTEUR, FRANCE IN CHILDREN, WHO ARE PRONE TO FREQUENT AND PROLONGED RECURRENT OTITES MEDIA. DURING 2004 AND 2005, 153 CHILDREN AGED BETWEEN 2 AND 12 YEARS OLD WERE IMMUNIZED AND OBSERVED. THE CONTROL GROUP WAS MADE UP OF 30 CHILDREN, WHOSE PARENTS REFUSED TO PARTICIPATE IN VACCINATION. THE CHILDREN OF BOTH GROUPS WERE COMPARABLE. THE FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH SHOWED HIGH PREVENTIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COMBINED IMMUNIZATION, WHICH PROVIDED A 3BFOLD REDUCTION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND RECURRENT OTITES, A REDUCTION OF ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPY PRESCRIPTION BY MORE THAN 8 TIMES AND A REDUCTION OF H. INFLUENZAE AND PNEUMOCOCCUS CARRIAGE BY 9 TIMES. IN THE GROUP OF IMMUNIZED CHILDREN, THE RESEARCHERS OBSERVED A REDUCTION OF ADENOID VEGETATION AUXESIS, RECOVERY OF AUDITORY TUBE PASSABILITY IN 85% OF CASES ALONG WITH THE PRESSURE NORMALIZATION IN TYMPANIC CAVITY. THEREFORE, THESE FINDINGS ALLOW TO EXPAND INDICATIONS FOR THE COMBINED IMMUNIZATION BY VACCINES AGAINST HIBB AND PNEUMOCOCCAL INFECTION, AS WELL AS TO PURSUE IMMUNIZATION WITH PNEUMO 23 AND ACT-HIB VACCINES BY PNEUMO 23 AND ACTBHIB IN CHILDREN, WHO ARE PRONE TO FREQUENT AND PROLONGED RECURRENT OTITES MEDIA AND ADENOID VEGETATION AUXESIS.KEY WORDS: VACCINATION, CHILDREN, H. INFLUENZAE, S. PNEUMONIAE, OTITES MEDIA.

  12. Serotype distribution of pneumococci isolated from pediatric patients with acute otitis media and invasive infections, and potential coverage of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines Distribución de serotipos de neumococos aislados de pacientes pediátricos con otitis media aguda e infecciones invasivas y su cobertura potencial a través de vacunas conjugadas

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    Vanesa Reijtman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A 16-month prospective, descriptive study was conducted on pneumococcal serotype distribution isolated from children with acute otitis media (AÜM and invasive infections (INV. Eighty-nine children with pneumococcal INV and 324 with a first episode of AOM were included. Bacterial pathogens (N = 326 were isolated from the middle-ear fluid of 250 patients. A total of 30 pneumococcal serotypes were identified. Prevalent serotypes were 14, 19A, 9V, 3, 19F, 6A, 23F, and 18C in AOM and 14, 1, 19A, 5, 12F, 6B, and 18C in INV. Potential coverage with PCV10 vaccine would be 46.5 % and 60.7 % for pneumococci involved in AOM and INV, respectively; it would be 71.7 % and 73 % with PCV13. PCV10, conjugated with a Haemophilus protein, would have an immunologic coverage of 39.9 % for AOM vs. 18.5 % with PCV13. However, differences in the prevention of INV were crucial for the decision to include the 13-valent vaccine in the national calendar for children less than two years old in Argentina.Se realizó un estudio prospectivo descriptivo sobre la distribución de serotipos de neumococos aislados de niños con otitis media aguda (OMA y con infecciones invasivas (INV en un período de 16 meses. Se incluyeron 89 niños con INV neumocócicas y 324 con un primer episodio de OMA. Trescientos cuarenta y seis patógenos se aislaron de las secreciones de oído medio obtenidas de 250 pacientes. Se identificaron 30 serotipos y los más prevalentes fueron el 14, 19A, 9V, 3, 19F, 6A, 23F y 18C en OMA y el 14, 1, 19A, 5, 12F, 6B y 18C en INV. La cobertura potencial con la vacuna PCV10 sería de 46,5 % y 60,7 % para neumococos involucrados en OMA y en INV, respectivamente; con la PCV13, esta sería de 71,7 % y 73 %. La PCV10 conjugada con una proteína de Haemophilus tendría una cobertura inmunológica del 39,9 % para OMA, contra una cobertura del 18,5 % de la PCV13. Sin embargo, las diferencias en la prevención de INV fueron determinantes a la hora de considerar

  13. b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗接种后婴幼儿安全性和免疫原性研究%Safety and immunogenicity in 3-5 months-old infants after primary and boosting immunization with Hib PRP-TT conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶强; 谢贵林; 李亚南; 赵志强; 李荣成; 何莉; 谭晓梅; 李艳萍; 杜送田; 李凤祥

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价b型流感嗜血杆菌结合疫苗(Hib-TT)安全性和免疫原性.方法 分别采用Hib-TT试验疫苗和对照疫苗3针免疫接种3~5月龄婴幼儿,观察疫苗安全性,并采用定量ELISA法分别测定免疫前、免疫后和加强免疫后血清特异性IgG抗体浓度.结果 实验疫苗和对照疫苗两组间不良反应总发生率(实验疫苗组为23.85%,对照疫苗组为31.40%)差异无统计学意义(x2=0.5,P>0.05),发热性总不良反应率分别为22.3%和31.3%,中、强发热反应率分别为3.67%和4.48%,差异无统计学意义;实验疫苗受试者局部红、肿、硬结等不良反应率为1.22%.实验疫苗3剂免疫后受试者血清抗Hib PRP IgG抗体平均几何浓度(GMC)为6.6786 μg/ml,对照疫苗组血清抗体GMC为7.5346 μg/ml,两组间抗体GMC差异无统计学意义(x2=0.147,P=0.702);加强免疫1剂后,实验疫苗组受试者血清抗体GMC从加强免疫前的2.6396 μg/ml上升为6.2044μg/ml.结论 实验疫苗接种3~5月龄婴幼儿具有良好的安全性.用间隔1个月、3剂次接种的基础免疫程序能诱导该年龄组受试者产生长期保护水平的血清特异性抗体,加强免疫1剂后能诱导机体产生免疫记忆反应.%Objectives To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular-tetanus toxoid(Hib-TT) conjugate vaccine.Methods In an open-controlled,randomized trial,the eligible and consented infants of 3 to 5 months-old received 3 doses of Hib-TT or a licensed Hib-TT conjugate vaccine(Anerbao) as the control vaccine to evaluate safety; The serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody mean geometric concentration (GMC) in both groups after primary and boosting vaccination were measured by ELISA.Results No apparent difference in the frequency of total adverse reactions observed between two groups (study vaccine 23.85% vs.comparator 31.40%) (x2=0.5,P>0.05).The mild and severe fever reaction of both vaccines was 3.67% and 4

  14. Cromatografía de adsorción para purificar el disacárido espaciador del ingrediente farmacéutico activo de la vacuna QuimiHib®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Díaz,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudiaron las condiciones de la cromatografía de adsorción en Silicagel 60 para la purificación del disacárido espaciador (DSE, componente del ingrediente farmacéutico activo de la vacuna QuimiHib®. Para ello se realizó un desescalado a una escala analítica que representó el 1,8% del proceso industrial. Se logró reproducibilidad en términos de calidad de empaque, pureza y recobrado entre ambas escalas. Se determinó que la capacidad dinámica de carga de la resina Silicagel 60 por el DSE fuera de aproximadamente 125±0,2 mg/mL de resina empacada; 3,4 veces superior al proceso base. El perfil de elución que se obtuvo indicó la posibilidad de colectar una fracción única en el rango 195±2 y 260±2 min. Si se mantiene un correcto empaque de la resina cromatográfica, determinado por un factor de asimetría entre 0,8 y 1,2 se garantiza un recobrado de 58,9±4,5% y una pureza equivalente a la del patrón de referencia en el análisis por cromatografía de capa delgada. El ajuste de la condición de adsorción incrementa la productividad de la operación en 3,5 veces, indicando que la propuesta es económicamente factible.

  15. Avaliação do impacto do programa de vacinação contra o Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib) no Estado de São Paulo e município de São Paulo, após dez anos de introdução da vacina

    OpenAIRE

    Telma Regina Marques Pinto Carvalhanas

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Avaliar o impacto global, direto, indireto e a tendência da duração de proteção da vacinação contra o Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib), no estado de São Paulo (ESP) e no município de São Paulo (MSP), na população de 0 - 59 meses, comparando os períodos pré-vacinal (1996 - 1998) e pós-vacinal (2001 - 2009). Métodos: estudo com componente descritivo e de cunho analítico, retrospectivo. A população de estudo incluiu os menores de cinco anos residentes no ESP e no MSP. Adotou-se com...

  16. Vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b: proteção a longo prazo Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: long term protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as evidências sobre o impacto da vacina conjugada para Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib na epidemiologia da doença invasiva por Hib. FONTE DOS DADOS: Pesquisa nas bases de dados do MEDLINE, LILACS, publicações técnicas de organizações internacionais, diretrizes nacionais e internacionais, nos últimos 15 anos (1991-2005, utilizando os seguintes unitermos: Haemophilus influenzae type b, immunization, impact, effectiveness. Foram incluídas as publicações que apresentaram informação para atender o objetivo deste artigo. Artigos publicados em período anterior ao da pesquisa e citados em referências dos artigos incluídos foram analisados quanto à apresentação de informação de interesse. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A introdução da vacina conjugada para Hib produziu grande declínio na incidência de casos de doença invasiva por Hib nos diversos países em que seu uso foi incorporado à rotina de vacinação das crianças. No entanto, o ressurgimento de casos com doença invasiva por Hib tem mobilizado vários investigadores na busca das possíveis explicações para esses eventos, bem como a identificação das medidas a serem implementadas para evitar o reaparecimento da doença. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da vacina conjugada para Hib em escala populacional tem sido extremamente efetivo. No entanto, mudanças no esquema vacinal poderão ser necessárias para a manutenção do controle da doença invasiva por Hib, frente ao atual cenário epidemiológico das infecções pelo Hib.OBJECTIVE: To identify evidence of the impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive Hib disease. SOURCES OF DATA: This review was based on a search of MEDLINE, LILACS, technical reports, national and international guidelines (publications from 1991 to 2005. The keywords Haemophilus influenzae type b, immunization, impact and effectiveness, alone or in combination, were used to retrieve the

  17. Can a Compact Pre-Filled Auto-Disable Injection System (cPAD) Save Costs for DTP-HepB-Hib Vaccine as Compared with Single-Dose (SDV) and Multi-Dose Vials (MDV)? Evidence from Cambodia, Ghana, and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogier, Cyril; Hanlon, Patrick; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Maire, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    A compact pre-filled auto-disable injection (cPAD) presentation is being developed for the fully liquid pentavalent DTP-HepB-Hib vaccine. A cost analysis (CA) to compare this presentation with the presently used single-dose vial (SDV) and multi-dose vial (MDV) was conducted in Cambodia, Ghana, and Peru. The CA included the development of an excel-based costing model and considered the costs of vaccine, safe injection equipment, procurement, storage, transport and distribution, vaccine administration by health staff, medical waste management, start-up activities, as well as coverage, birth cohort, vaccine, and safe injection equipment wastage rates. The outcome was the change in cost per pentavalent fully immunized child (PFIC) for a switch to cPAD. Field visits to health facilities, and interviews with key informants from immunization services and regulatory authorities, were conducted to collect data and to test the costing model in country context. Cost data were also obtained from manufacturers, published price lists, and author estimates. A sensitivity analysis (SA) was conducted to explore possible variations in values of data collected. Based on vaccine price trends estimated for 2016, cPAD is less costly in Ghana [incremental cost per PFIC: $US-0.59 (-6.46 %)] than the current presentation (ten-dose MDV) and in Peru (SDV): $US-0.89 (-7.14 %). In Cambodia, cPAD is more costly than SDV: $US+0.33 (+3.90 %). The most significant cost item per PFIC is the vaccine (reflecting wastage rates) in all presentations. The dominance of the vaccine price per dose and, to a lesser extent, the wastage rates in the incremental cost per PFIC show potential to simplify future analyses. Other relevant considerations at country level for a change of presentation include the potential for improved safety with cPAD, planned introduction of other vaccines, environmental and safety issues, and financial sustainability.

  18. Fallos vacunales a vacunas conjugadas de Streptococcus pneumoniae y Haemophilus influenzae tipo b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Angulo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the main cause agents of otitis, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis, affecting mainly children under 5 years. Conjugate vaccines for encapsulated germs have dramatically decreased, the various diseases caused by these germs. Despite the decrease in morbidity and mortality, vaccine failures were observed. Children who experienced vaccine failures to Haemophilus influenzae type b had associated comorbidities more frequently than the general population (prematurity, HIV, Down syndrome, tumors, etc.. Nevertheless, most of these children have no medical history or immunological disorders. There is no consensus on whether all patients with vaccine failures should be assessed immunologically and how. There are recommendations to indicate a booster dose to patients with certain comorbidities and patients experiencing vaccine failure even in the absence of theses. Of the vaccine preparations available for Haemophilus influenzae type b association with acellular Bordetella pertussis proved to be less immunogenic and is currently being discouraged. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B and 19F are less immunogenics and explain most of the vaccine failures in some series.

  19. Una mirada conjugada en la gestión cultural estadounidense: tendencias actuales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Dinapoli Algarra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al descenso que se experimenta en Estados Unidos en la participación del público en los eventos culturales, las instituciones y organizaciones culturales ponen el énfasis en cómo desarrollar un nuevo público y reflexionan sobre el impacto que pueden alcanzar más allá de sus paredes físicas. Este impacto se dirige al desarrollo humano, a la revitalización urbana, al bienestar social y a la creación activa de la cultura. En línea con esta misión y visión encontramos actividades y programas que se llevan a cabo en espacios no tradicionales, que expanden la cooperación social desplazando el foco institucional hacia la creatividad, dirigiendo el objetivo hacia el diálogo crítico, construyendo participación cultural significativa, desafiando el paisaje interno de la organización y sus procesos para servir mejor a la comunidad y a su entorno.  Este artículo analiza esta tendencia por medio de casos específicos de instituciones de artes visuales y estudia conceptos comunes que entran en juego tales como la cooperación social y el valor público. Este texto incorpora un contexto histórico y cuestiona la percepción pública de estas tendencias y su relación con el sector sin ánimo de lucro y su particular modelo de financiación.

  20. Vanameelne mähib ennast riigilippu / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2008-01-01

    George Clooney mängufilm "Head õhtut ja õnn kaasa" ("Good Night, and Good Luck") teleajakirjanik Edward R. Murrow võitlusest senaator Joseph McCarthy vastu (Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005). Lühiandmed George Clooney kohta

  1. Impacto de la vacunación contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Félix O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el impacto de la vacunación de menores de 2 años en Cuba contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, principal agente causal de la meningitis bacteriana en ese país. Métodos. La disponibilidad de vacunas conjugadas eficaces contra Hib motivó la vacunación nacional en 1999 de niños menores de 2 años, que alcanzó una cobertura de 97%. El impacto se evaluó mediante el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Meningoencefalitis Bacterianas (SNVMEB. Resultados. La eficacia global de la vacunación se estimó en 99% y la incidencia general de la meningoencefalitis por Hib disminuyó de 1,3 a 0,6 por 100 000 habitantes (46,1%, observándose la mayor reducción en niños menores de 5 años (56,1%. En los menores de 1 año se redujo 70,5% y en el resto de los grupos de menores de 5 años disminuyó entre 25,9 y 49,6%. En el grupo diana para la vacunación, la incidencia se redujo 61,1%; entre los niños de este grupo que contrajeron la meningoencefalitis por Hib, solamente 8 (24,2% estaban vacunados, 7 de ellos con una sola dosis, aplicada 1 mes antes de enfermar. Conclusiones. Se ha demostrado que la vacunación a gran escala de los niños menores de 2 años contra Hib en Cuba a través del SNVMEB ha logrado disminuir notablemente la incidencia de meningoencefalitis por Hib.

  2. Estudio computacional de transferencia electrónica intramolecular en tríadas conjugadas ferroceno-puente-aceptor

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Rafaela

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza, desde el punto de vista teórico a través de cálculos mecanocuánticos, el comportamiento dador del ferroceno, de potencial utilidad en procesos de reconocimiento de cationes metálicos, así como la estabilización de deficiencias electrónicas en  a grupos ferrocenilo. Esto permite el estudio del fenómeno de transferencia electrónica intramolecular en diferentes tríadas ferroceno-puente-aceptor, así como el efecto de la naturaleza y longitud de espaciadores -c...

  3. ENFERMEDAD INVASORA POR HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE ANTES Y DESPUÉS DE LA CAMPAÑA DE VACUNACIÓN EN LA POBLACIÓN INFANTIL DE LA COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA (1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Goicoechea Sáez

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada anti Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib en niños ha provocado un llamativo descenso de la incidencia de la enfermedad por H. influenzae. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características más relevantes de la enfermedad invasora por H. influenzae en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución y estado de vacunación de la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 1996-2000. Método: Los datos se recogen de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años que hayan presentado síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Haemophilus influenzae y/o que cumple con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996 y 2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por edad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 36 casos de enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus influenzae. La tasa de incidencia en niños menores de 15 años pasó de 3,56/105 en 1996 a 1,07/105 en 1997 (coincidiendo con la campaña de vacunación y la posterior inclusión de la vacuna conjugada anti Hib en el Calendario de Vacunaciones Sistemáticas de la Comunidad Valenciana y 0,30/105 en 1998, situación que se sigue manteniendo en los años posteriores. El 53% de los casos se dan en menores de 18 meses. Tanto las secuelas como los fallecimientos se producen en la época anterior a la aplicación rutinaria de la vacuna conjugada. Ningún niño vacunado correctamente falleció. Se registraron 2 casos de H. influenzae tipo no b en niños vacunados. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la infección por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b disminuyó drásticamente desde el inicio de la vacunación sistemática de la población infantil.

  4. Enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus Influenzae antes y después de la campaña de vacunación en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana (1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goicoechea Sáez Mercedes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La introducción de la vacuna conjugada anti Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib en niños ha provocado un llamativo descenso de la incidencia de la enfermedad por H. influenzae. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar las características más relevantes de la enfermedad invasora por H. influenzae en cuanto a la epidemiología, clínica, evolución y estado de vacunación de la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 1996-2000. Método: Los datos se recogen de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años que hayan presentado síntomas y signos clínicos sugestivos de enfermedad invasora con aislamiento de Haemophilus influenzae y/o que cumple con los criterios de definición de caso establecidos, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana entre 1996 y 2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante tasas de incidencia. La clínica y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la frecuencia y distribución por edad. Resultados: Se registraron un total de 36 casos de enfermedad invasora por Haemophilus influenzae. La tasa de incidencia en niños menores de 15 años pasó de 3,56/10(5 en 1996 a 1,07/10(5 en 1997 (coincidiendo con la campaña de vacunación y la posterior inclusión de la vacuna conjugada anti Hib en el Calendario de Vacunaciones Sistemáticas de la Comunidad Valenciana y 0,30/10(5 en 1998, situación que se sigue manteniendo en los años posteriores. El 53% de los casos se dan en menores de 18 meses. Tanto las secuelas como los fallecimientos se producen en la época anterior a la aplicación rutinaria de la vacuna conjugada. Ningún niño vacunado correctamente falleció. Se registraron 2 casos de H. influenzae tipo no b en niños vacunados. Conclusiones: La incidencia de la infección por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b disminuyó drásticamente desde el inicio de la vacunación sistemática de la población infantil.

  5. Eesti algatatud maksurevolutsioon pühib üle maailma / Daniel J. Mitchell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mitchell, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    Heritage Fondi analüütik hindab Eesti osa teiste riikide maksupoliitika mõjutajana, samas leiab ta, et maksurevolutsioon on olnud nii edukas ja maksukonkurents nii suur, et selle käimalükkaja - Eesti - alandab oma maksumäära, et teistega sammu pidada

  6. Kosovo rühib diplomaatide toel iseseisvuse suunas / Martin Jaigma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jaigma, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi Serbia on kritiseerinud Kosovo võimaliku iseseisvumise kõneluste peavahendajat, ÜRO eriesindajat Martti Ahtisaarit provintsi huvide esindamises, alustasid Serbia ja Kosovo poliitikud 20. veebruaril läbirääkimisi Kosovo staatuse üle

  7. Tants pühib linnaruumilt ajalootolmu / Madli Teller ; intervjueerinud Evelin Lagle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teller, Madli

    2010-01-01

    2011. aasta Euroopa kultuuripealinna programmi raames eesti ja soome noorte tantsukunstnike koostööprojektist "Old Spaces Living Art" ("Eakade paikade elav kunst"), kus ühendatakse nüüdistants ja Tallinna ajalooline linnaruum

  8. ASEAN rühib mööda USAst ja Euroopast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Vientianis toimunud ASEAN-i ja Hiina tippkohtumisel kirjutati alla ASEAN-i ja Hiina koostööleppele, mille siht on kõikide nendevaheliste tollipiiride kaotamine aastaks 2010. ASEAN-i ja USA ning ASEAN-i ja Euroopa vahelise kaubanduse mahust

  9. Briti peaminister Tony Blair rühib ajaloolisele kolmandale võidule / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannias algas parlamendivalimiste kampaania. Arvamusküsitluste kohaselt on Tony Blairil võimalus võita esimese leiboristist peaministrina kolmandad järjestikused valimised. Lisad: Naised pööravad Blairist ära; Blairi käsikiri otsis kõmulehe lugejate toetust

  10. Holland rühib valitsuskriisist uue kaose poole / Jeroen Bult

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bult, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    Hollandi valitsuskriisist. Peaminister Balkenende koalitsioonivalitsuse üks osapooltest, D66 partei, loobus valitsuse toetamisest, kuna immigratsiooniminister Rita Verdonk nõudis kodakondsuse äravõtmist Somaalia päritolu endiselt seadusandjalt Ayaan Hirsi Alilt, kes olevat Hollandisse tulles esitanud immigratsiooniametnikele valeandmeid. Autor kritiseerib tagasi astunud valitsuse ja peaminister Balkenende tegevust ning prognoosib sündmusi uue valitsuse moodustamisel

  11. Eesti rühib visalt ülesmäge / Aavo Heinlo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinlo, Aavo

    2008-01-01

    Eesti majanduse pidev ja kiire kasv alates 2000. aastast on mõjutanud ka teadus- ja arendustegevuse valdkonda. Teadus- ja arendustegevuse kulutused, teaduse ja tehnoloogia inimressursid. Lisatud graafikud ja diagrammid

  12. Relación costo-efectividad de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en niños menores de dos años de edad en Colombia The cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for children under 2 years of age in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alvis Guzmán

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Las vacunas conjugadas contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib son la herramienta más importante para prevenir la mayoría de las enfermedades invasoras producidas por dicho patógeno, pero debido a su costo, aún no se han introducido mundialmente de manera masiva. En el presente estudio se determinó la relación costo-efectividad de una vacuna contra Hib para prevenir la neumonía y la meningitis bacterianas en niños menores de 2 años en Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron los costos directos e indirectos de la neumonía y la meningitis hospitalaria y siguiendo las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, la relación costo-efectividad de los programas de vacunación contra Hib. Se estimaron también las razones de costos por caso evitado de enfermedad invasora por Hib y el costo por año de vida salvado en dos situaciones hipotéticas: con vacunación contra Hib (cobertura vacunal: 90% y sin vacunación. RESULTADOS: El costo medio del tratamiento hospitalario de un caso de neumonía fue de 611,5 dólares estadounidenses (US$ (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 532,2 - 690,8, el costo medio del tratamiento hospitalario de un caso de meningitis fue de US$ 848,9 (IC95%: 716,8 - 981,0 y el costo por caso evitado de enfermedad invasora por Hib, de US$ 316,7 (IC95%: 294,2 - 339,2. La relación costo-efectividad en la hipótesis con vacunación fue de 2,38, frente a 3,81 en la hipótesis sin vacunación. CONCLUSIÓN: La aplicación de un programa adecuado de vacunación contra Hib en Colombia puede prevenir cerca de 25 000 casos de enfermedad invasora por año, lo que representa un ahorro de por lo menos US$ 15 millones anuales. Además, puede evitar cerca de 700 defunciones y salvar anualmente 44 054 años de vida.OBJECTIVE: Conjugate vaccines are the best public health tools available for preventing most invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, but the high cost of the vaccines has so

  13. Simultaneous vaccination with MMR and DTaP-IPV-Hib and rate of hospital admissions with any infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine S; Poulsen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    , retrospective, register based cohort study of 520,859 children born in Denmark 1997-2006, who were followed from 15months to 4years of age. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of hospital admissions were estimated by Cox regression and adjusted for background factors including exact age. RESULTS: By 2years of age...

  14. Etiology of bacterial meningitis among children aged 2-59 months in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, before and after routine use of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine Etiologia da meningite bacteriana em crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, antes e depois do uso rotineiro da vacina para Haemophilus influenzae tipo b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib. MÉTODO: Variáveis demográficas, clínicas e liquóricas (LCR foram coletadas da ficha de cada paciente com idade entre 2 e 59 meses, cujo exame de LCR foi realizado no Laboratório de LCR - Fundação José Silveira, entre janeiro de 1989 e dezembro de 2001. Cada exame de LCR foi realizado por completo conforme os métodos padronizados. O diagnóstico etiológico foi baseado ou em cultura e ou teste de aglutinação em látex. Quando o agente foi identificado apenas no GRAM, o diagnóstico foi descritivo. MBEI foi definida como glicose 100 mg / dl, celularidade global > 20 células / mm³ e percentual de neutrófilos > 80%. RESULTADOS: Dos 1519 pacientes, 894 (58,9% tiveram exames normais e MB foi diagnosticada em 95 (6,2%. Os agentes etiológicos foram: Hib (44,2%, meningococo (13,7%, bacilos Gram-negativos (11,6%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6,3%, pneumococo (4,2%, outros agentes (4,2%; MBEI foi diagnosticada em 15,8% dos casos de MB. Ao analisar a freqüência da MBEI e por Hib entre todos os exames realizados a cada ano, os picos foram registrados em 1989 (5,3% e 1990 (16,9%, respectivamente, diminuindo para 0,7% e 0% em 2001. CONCLUSÃO: É possível que a implementação do uso da vacina conjugada para Hib durante a década de 1990 tenha decrescido não apenas a ocorrência da meningite por Hib mas também a MBEI.

  15. Vigilancia de serotipos en infecciones invasivas por Haemophilus influenzae en la Argentina en la era de la vacuna conjugada contra el serotipo b durante el período 2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Efron

    Full Text Available La introducción de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en los programas de inmunización de muchos países produjo una reducción marcada en la incidencia de enfermedad invasiva causada por este serotipo y en su portación y un incremento de otros tipos capsulares y de aislamientos no capsulados. Se estudiaron 313 aislamientos de H. influenzae recuperados de sitio estéril, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos y adultos con enfermedad invasiva atendidos en 90 hospitales de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios para Meningitis e Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas Bacterianas durante el período 2005-2010. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron neumonía, 40,3 % (n = 126, meningitis, 30,0 % (n = 94 y bacteriemia, 26,5 % (n = 83. En los pacientes pediátricos (n = 279, la mayor frecuencia de aislamientos correspondió a menores de 2 años, 74,5 % (n = 208. Con respecto a la distribución de tipos, el 61,3 %, correspondió a H. influenzae no capsulados (n = 192; el 20,1 % al b (n = 63; 11,2 % al a (n = 35; 4,8 % al f y 2,6 % a otros. En meningitis predominaron H. influenzae capsulados mientras que en neumonía y bacteriemia resultaron dominantes los tipos no capsulados. Se determinó el biotipo en 306 aislamientos. Todos los aislamientos de tipo a correspondieron al biotipo II; el 66,7 % de los tipo b pertenecieron al biotipo I. Mediante las técnicas de aglutinación en lámina y PCR se estudiaron 220 aislamientos; la concordancia entre ambas fue de 0,982 (IC: 0,92-1,00. En el último año se encontró un aumento significativo del tipo b, lo cual indica la importancia de mantener la vigilancia clínica y laboratorial de la enfermedad invasiva por H. influenzae.

  16. Conjugate view gamma camera method for measuring activity in 131{sup I} treatments; Metodo de la imagen conjugada para la cuantificacion de la actividad en tratamientos de 131{sup I}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero Sanz, R.; Placios, A. M.; Perez, D. M.; Tortosa Oliver, R.; Michel, R.

    2012-07-01

    A quantification method is developed to determine 131{sup I} activity and its associated uncertainty using regions of interest from gamma camera images. Inside a neck phantom, a known activity source is introduced to simulate thyroid remainders in thyroid differentiated cancer. The three parameters that define the accuracy of the method are: net count rates in ROI, the air calibration factor of the gamma camera and the attenuation correction factor. In order to obtain net count rates, four methods for background subtraction are tested. The best procedure to follow is based in two energy windows acquisitions, which gives an activity result of 47 {+-} 5 {mu}Ci Bq, in good agreement with the real activity value for the source, 46 {+-} 5 {mu}Ci. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Vigilancia de serotipos en infecciones invasivas por Haemophilus influenzae en la Argentina en la era de la vacuna conjugada contra el serotipo b durante el período 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Efron, Adriana M.; Moscoloni, María A.; Reijtman, Vanesa R.; Regueira, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    La introducción de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b en los programas de inmunización de muchos países produjo una reducción marcada en la incidencia de enfermedad invasiva causada por este serotipo y en su portación y un incremento de otros tipos capsulares y de aislamientos no capsulados. Se estudiaron 313 aislamientos de H. influenzae recuperados de sitio estéril, provenientes de pacientes pediátricos y adultos con enfermedad invasiva atendidos en 90 hospitales de la Red Nacio...

  18. Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Andersson-Hall

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine the metabolic profile and identify risk factors of women transitioning from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. 237 women diagnosed with GDM underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, anthropometrics assessment, and completed lifestyle questionnaires six years after pregnancy. Blood was analysed for clinical variables (e.g., insulin, glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, leptin, and lipid levels and NMR metabolomics. Based on the OGTT, women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and T2DM. Results. Six years after GDM, 19% of subjects had T2DM and 19% IGT. After BMI adjustment, the IGT group had lower HDL, higher leptin, and higher free fatty acid (FFA levels, and the T2DM group higher triglyceride, FFA, and C-reactive protein levels than the NGT group. IGT and T2DM groups reported lower physical activity. NMR measurements revealed that levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and the valine metabolite 3-hydroxyisobyturate were higher in T2DM and IGT groups and correlated with measures of insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. Conclusion. In addition to well-known clinical risk factors, BCAAs and 3-hydroxyisobyturate are potential markers to be evaluated as predictors of metabolic risk after pregnancy complicated by GDM.

  19. SAFETY OF COMBINED INJECTION OF VACCINES AGAINST HIB-INFECTION (the data on pilot project fulfilled in Murmansk region and Yaroslavl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Kharit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an observation of 288 children under the age 3–20 months old (46 healthy infants and 142 patients with allergic diseases, residual lesions of CNS, frequently ailing ones and infants with other pathologies, vaccinated and re-vaccinated with Hiberix and Infanrix in one syringe were analyzed. High safety of such method of injection allowed decreasing of injection load during the vaccination against hemophilic infection type b in infants. Common moderate reaction was detected in only one child (0,5%. Topical reactions were registered in 5,0% of vaccinated patients.Key words: children, hemophilic infection, vaccination, post-vaccinal period, safety.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:36-41

  20. The current situation of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among children in Takatsuki, Japan: focus on Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki. © 2013 APJPH.

  1. Carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children in Pokhara, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharm Raj Bhatta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of carrier state of Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Neisseria meningitidis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae among school children. Methods: Specimen from posterior pharyngeal wall and tonsils were collected on calcium alginate coated swabs from 1 02 participants. Processing of specimen and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by standard procedures. Results: Potential pathogens isolated in our study were S. pneumoniae (14.7%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%, Corynebacterium diphtheriae (3.9%, Streptococcus pyogenes (3.9% and Haemophilus influenzae (1.9%. Important findings in antibiogram include high resistance of S. pneumoniae to penicillin (73% and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin (23%. Conclusions: Pharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae among school children was found high and there is need of introduction of pneumococcal vaccines among children. Despite expected universal vaccination, pharyngeal colonization by Corynebacterium diphtheriae is possible and there is possibility of transmission.

  2. Safety and immunogenicity of two Haemophilus influenzae type b ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection remains a major public health problem inthe developing world. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a new PRP-CRM197 conjugate Hib vaccine (Vaxem Hib, Chiron Vacdnes), compared with theHibTITER vaccine (WyethLederle Vaccines), following the ...

  3. Towards a sustainable, quality and affordable Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for every child in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is a safe and effective vaccine that can prevent meningitis and pneumonia caused by Hib disease. Hib vaccine is recommended for all children under 5 years. Despite the availability of safe and effective Hib vaccines since early 1987, Gambia was

  4. Wobblers and Rayleigh–Taylor instability mitigation in HIF target implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Kurosaki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Koseki, S.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y.Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.; Barnard, J.J.; Logan, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. The wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In wobbling the HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs' illumination nonuniformity and also the mitigation of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be from several 100 MHz to 1 GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency

  5. Vigilancia de los serotipos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Haemophilus influenzae en Colombia, 1994-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Ovalle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad invasora causada por Haemophilus influenzae, serotipo b, ha sido una de las mayores causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en la población infantil; afortunadamente, en algunos países con amplia cobertura de la vacuna conjugada esta situación ha cambiado. En 1994 se inició en el Grupo de Microbiología un programa de vigilancia de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y de los serotipos de aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae, remitidos por los hospitales y Laboratorios de Salud Pública del país como componente de los programas de vigilancia en red de infección respiratoria aguda y meningitis bacteriana aguda. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la evolución de los serotipos y los patrones de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos invasores de H. influenzae obtenidos de 1994 al 2002 y realizar un nuevo análisis sobre el impacto de la vacuna conjugada de H. influenzae, serotipo b, en Colombia. De 1994 a 2002 se han estudiado 683 aislamientos; 379 (55,5% de pacientes del género masculino; 370 (54,2% de menores de 1 año; 227 (33,2% de 1 a 5 años; 19 (2,8% de 6 a 14 años; 38 (5,6% de mayores de 14 años, y de 29 (4,2% no se tenía el dato de la edad; 493 (72,2% fueron recuperados de pacientes con meningitis, 181 (26,5% de neumonía y 9 (0,9% de otras enfermedades. El 85,1% de los aislamientos fueron H. influenzae, serotipo b, 12,9% no capsulares y 2,0% de otros serotipos (10 a, 1 d, 1 e y 2 f. Del total de aislamientos, 12% fueron productores de beta-lactamasa; 13,9%, resistentes a ampicilina; 12,7%, a trimetoprim sulfametoxazol (SXT; 5,4%, a cloranfenicol, y 1% a cefuroxima; todos fueron sensibles a ceftriaxona. Durante este período se observó un incremento en la resistencia de los aislamientos a SXT (5% al 13%, pero la diferencia no fue estadísticamente significativa (p=0,1. Con la vigilancia se pudo determinar una disminución significativa de los casos de meningitis en los menores de 1 año y en el

  6. Fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled, magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-penicillamine-anti-metadherin and in vitro evaluation on breast cancer cells; Avaliacao do isotiocianato de fluoresceina marcado, das nanoparticulas magneticas conjugadas da D-penicilamina antimetaderina e in vitro nas celulas do cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akca, Ozlet; Unak, Perihan; Medine, E. Ylker [Ege University (Turkey). Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Department of Nuclear Applications; Sakarya, Serhan [Adnan Menderes University (Turkey). ADUBILTEM Science and Technology Research and Development Center; Ozdemir, Caglar; Timur, Suna [Ege University (Turkey). Science Faculty. Department of Nuclear Applications

    2011-07-01

    Silane modified magnetic nanoparticles were prepared after capped with silica generated from the hydrolyzation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). Amino silane (SG-Si900) was added to this solution for surface modification of silica coated magnetic particles. Finally, D-penicillamine (D-PA)-antimetadherin (anti-MTDH) was covalently linked to the amine group using glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM results showed that particles are nearly monodisperse, and the average size of particles was 40 to 50 nm. An amino acid derivative D-PA was conjugated anti-MTDH, which results the increase of uptaking potential of a conjugated agent, labelled fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and then conjugated to the magnetic nanoparticles. In vitro evaluation of the conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH-FITC to magnetic nanoparticle was studied on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Fluorescence microscopy images of cells after incubation of the sample were obtained to monitor the interaction of the sample with the cancerous cells. Incorporation on cells of FITC labeled and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH was found higher than FITC labeled D-PA-anti-MTDH. The results show that magnetic properties and application of magnetic field increased incorporation rates. The obtained D-PA-anti-MTDH-magnetic nanoparticles-FITC complex has been used for in vitro imaging of breast cancer cells. FITC labeled and magnetic nanoparticles conjugated D-PA-anti-MTDH may be useful as a new class of scintigraphic agents. Results of this study are sufficiently encouraging to bring about further evaluation of this and related compounds for ultraviolet magnetic resonance (UV-MR) dual imaging. (author)

  7. Induced thermal ablation with a radiofrequency field in breast cancer cells using gold nanoparticles conjugated to the peptide cycle[RGDfK(C)]; Termoablacion inducida con un campo de radiofrecuencia en celulas de cancer de mama utilizando nanoparticulas de oro conjugadas al peptido ciclo[RGDfK(C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez H, L.

    2014-07-01

    The conjugation of peptides to gold nanoparticles (AuNP) produces biocompatible and stable multimeric systems with target-specific molecular recognition. Peptides based on the cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence have been reported as high-affinity agents for the α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(v) integrin s over expressed in breast cancer cells. AuNP have also been proposed as localized heat sources for cancer treatment using laser irradiation or radiofrequency (RF). The objective of this research was to evaluate the thermo ablative effect of the AuNP-c [RGDfK(C)] system on MCF7 breast cancer cell viability after exposure to a radiofrequency field and to compare it with that produced by the laser irradiation. The effect of the 13.56 MHz RF (using a power from 0 to 200 W at intervals of 50 W) over the temperature increase in AuNP-colloidal system of 5 and 20 nm at two different concentrations was evaluated. The absorption cross sections (C{sub abs}) of the AuNP-c [RGDfK(C)] nano system when it interacts with low frequency electromagnetic waves (13.56 MHz, λ = 22 m) and optical frequency waves (laser at λ = 532 nm) was analyzed based on the Mi e theory. The effect on the MCF7 cell viability was assessed using two thermal conversion sources (Laser and RF) on AuNP-c [RGDfK(C)] located inside the cytoplasm of the cells. MCF7 cells were treated with AuNP-c [RGDfK(C)] or water after exposure to the RF field (200 W, 100 V/cm) or laser irradiation (Irradiance 0.65 W/cm{sup 2}). In both cases (RF and laser) the presence of nanoparticles internalized inside the cells caused a significant increase in the temperature of the medium (RF: ΔT = 29.9 ± 1.7 grades C for AuNP compared toΔT = 13.0 ± 1.4 grades C for water; laser: ΔT = 13.5 ± 0.7 grades C for AuNP compared to 3.3 ± 0.5 grades C for water). Although RF induced a higher increase in the temperature of the medium with nanoparticles, the largest effect on the cell viability was produced by laser when nanoparticles were located inside the cells (8.7 ± 0.7 % for laser compared to 19.4 ± 0.9 % for RF). The differences obtained in C{sub abs} values (laser: 3.7x10{sup -16} m{sup 2}; RF: 7.9x10{sup -23} m{sup 2}) and the observed effect on MCF7 cell viability support two mechanisms proposed -optical frequency wave energy absorption by AuNP- when laser is used as a thermal conversion source, and -energy attenuation of the low frequency electromagnetic wave propagating through the AuNP-colloidal system- when RF field is applied. The AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)] nano system shows suitable properties to improve hyperthermia treatments under laser irradiation due to a larger heat release inside cells. (Author)

  8. Estimación de la Relación Costo-Efectividad de las Vacunas Neumocócicas Conjugadas Prevenar-13 y Synflorix®, Utilizadas en Los Programas de Vacunación de Población Infantil Mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jorge A; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Aguilar, Gerardo Martínez; Manjarrez, Roberto Carreño; Cervantes-Apolinar, María Y

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the cost effectiveness associated with the use of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines, Prevenar-13 and Synflorix®, in the Mexican pediatric population. The cost-effectiveness ratio of instrumenting vaccination programs based upon the use of Prevenar-13 and Synflorix® in the Mexican pediatric population was estimated by using a Markov's simulation model. The robustness of the conclusions reached on cost-effectiveness for both vaccines was assayed through an univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis that included all of the parameters considered by the model. Synflorix® was dominant over Prevenar-13 in the cost-utility analysis; the former generated more quality-adjusted life years at a lower cost and with a lower incremental cost-utility ratio. Based on the cost-effective analysis, Prevenar-13 generated more life years gained but at a higher cost. The use of Prevenar-13 originated a higher incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and, therefore, it was not cost-effective as compared with Synflorix®. Even though the simulations for Prevenar-13 and Synflorix® revealed both of them to be cost-effective when used to instrument pediatric vaccination campaigns in Mexico, Synflorix® had a better cost-utility/effectiveness profile. In addition, although Prevenar-13 and Synflorix® produced equivalent health outcomes, the overall analysis predicted that Synflorix® would save 360 million Mexican pesos, as compared with Prevenar-13. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Praksis som læringsmetode i ingeniørutdanningen – erfaringer fra ingeniørstudiet i undervannsteknologi - drift og vedlikehold ved Høgskolen i Bergen (HiB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Linde Lossius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Norsk ingeniørutdanning har blitt kritisert for å være for teoretisk. Næringslivets hovedorganisasjon (NHO m.fl. startet derfor prosjektet «Lærlingeordning i høyere utdannelse». Høgskolen i Bergen dro nytte av erfaringene derfra, og i 2007 – da bachelorstudiet i undervannsteknologi startet – var forutsetningen at studiet skulle ha stor praksisandel og mye kontakt med lokalt næringsliv. Studiet har blitt Norges mest etterspurte treårige ingeniørstudium. Frafallet har vært lavere enn ved andre ingeniørstudier. Studiet har inneholdt flere praksisformer, hvorav bacheloroppgave i bedrift, ingeniørpraksis og verkstedpraksis ble regnet som de mest utbytterike ut fra svar i spørreundersøkelsene. 72 % av studentene anså praksis som en viktig årsak til at de søkte. Faglig interesse og utsikt til gode jobber var dog viktigst. 71 % av studentene opplevde at praksis underveis ville gjøre dem til bedre ingeniører, mens 55 % mente det hadde innvirkning på at de fullførte studiet. Praksisbedriftene har tjent ved bedret rekruttering, de største opptil 0,7 ansatt per praksisplass. Praksisorganisering er krevende, og kvalitetssikring og oppfølging er viktig for å få et godt resultat. Bedriftsnettverk er gode støttespillere, men skolen må også avsette nok ressurser til arbeidet. Siden skader kan skje i industrien, må forsikringsordninger av studenter i praksis settes på den politiske agendaen slik at regelverket kan endres. Summary Norwegian engineering studies has been criticized of being too theoretical. Bergen University College used experiences from the project “Apprenticeship in higher education” when starting the engineering program in Subsea technology in 2007. Much practice and contact with local industry was requested. The program has become popular and dropout is lower than in comparable programs. Student surveys revealed the most rewarding practice to be a company-based Bachelor thesis, engineer internships and workshop internships. 72% indicated that such placements were a reason for applying; professional interest and prospect of jobs were thus more important. 71% said internships would make them better engineers while just 55% said it influenced them in completing their degree. Organizing internships is time consuming and quality assurance and close follow-up are essential for good results. Injuries may happen in industry; it is, therefore, essential to ensure that insurance for students is set on the political agenda.

  10. Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal Nontypeable H. influenzae Protein D conjugate vaccine coadministered with DTPa-IPV-Hib in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Bergh, Menno R.; Spijkerman, Judith; François, Nancy; Swinnen, Kristien; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Immune responses and safety profiles may be affected when vaccines are coadministered. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate (PHiD-CV; Synflorix GSK Vaccines) and

  11. Aplicación del análisis de riesgo en la preparación de soluciones para producción de Quimi-Hib®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka Ojeda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre las técnicas avanzadas de administración de riesgo se encuentran las herramientas de soporte estadístico, así como los histogramas y gráficos de frecuencia acumulada, los cuales sirven de base para la acumulación de datos. Se realizó un análisis de los mismos y se evaluó la influencia de diferentes parámetros sobre un proceso determinado para la toma de decisiones. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que existe riesgo de contaminación de las soluciones en una cabina de flujo laminar. Todos los tampones evaluados cumplieron satisfactoriamente con los límites establecidos para el contenido de endotoxinas y límite microbiano. Los valores de carga microbiana, determinados por diferentes métodos en el ambiente de trabajo, estuvieron dentro de los límites, acorde con la clasificación de las áreas. La higienización de los tanques de preparación demostró que los procedimientos empleados garantizaron una adecuada remoción de los contaminantes. Se concluyó que los riesgos y escenarios evaluados fueron aceptables para alcanzar la calidad del producto.

  12. Immunological characterization of conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine failure in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukels, M. A.; Spanjaard, L.; Sanders, L. A.; Rijkers, G. T.

    2001-01-01

    Infant vaccination with conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is highly effective in protecting against invasive Hib infections, but vaccine failures do occur. Twenty-one vaccine failures are reported since the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in The Netherlands. Of the 14

  13. Haemophilus influenzae Type a Meningitis in Immunocompetent Child, Oman, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawardekar, Kiran P

    2017-07-01

    Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was eliminated in Oman after the introduction of Hib vaccine in 2001. However, a case of H. influenzae type a meningitis was diagnosed in a child from Oman in 2015, which highlights the need to monitor the incidence of invasive non-Hib H. influenzae disease.

  14. [Severe Haemophilus influenzae b infection in healthy male adult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.C.; Gjorup, I.; David, Kim Peter

    2008-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) can be the cause of serious infections, and is mainly observed affecting children and immuno-compromised patients. We report a case of a healthy 49-year old male with a severe Hib infection complicated by septicaemia, meningitis and anuria. The risk of invasive Hib...

  15. Heavy-chain isotype patterns of human antibody-secreting cells induced by Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in relation to age and preimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Juul, Lars; Gyhrs, A

    1994-01-01

    The influence of preexisting immunity on the heavy-chain isotypes of circulating antibody-secreting cells (AbSC) induced by vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) or diphtheria toxoid (DT) and by vaccination with TT or D...... of natural HibCP antibodies (r = 0.59; P = 0.00002). A possible role of natural exposure for Hib or cross-reactive bacteria on the mucosal surfaces in the shaping of the isotype response to HibCP conjugate vaccines is discussed....

  16. Spiral wobbling beam illumination uniformity in HIF fuel target implosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawata S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A few % wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF throughout the heavy ion beam (HIB driver pulse by a newly introduced spiraling beam axis motion in the first two rotations. The wobbling HIB illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may produce a time-dependent implosion acceleration, which reduces the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T growth [Laser Part. Beams 11, 757 (1993, Nuclear Inst. Methods in Phys. Res. A 606, 152 (2009, Phys. Plasmas 19, 024503 (2012] and the implosion nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100 MHz ∼ 1 GHz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 254801 (2010]. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations present that the few % wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  17. Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhi, Shabir A; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Saarinen, Leena; Cutland, Clare; Mothupi, Rosalia; Käyhty, Helena; Klugman, Keith P

    2005-12-01

    The quantitative (anti-Hib capsular polysaccharide antibody concentrations; anti-HibPS) and qualitative (bactericidal activity and avidity) aspects in immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosyl ribitol phospshate-CRM(197) conjugate vaccine (HibCV; HibTiter) were evaluated in 66 HIV infected children not receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 127 HIV uninfected children. Surveillance was conducted for invasive Hib disease in a cohort of 39,865 (approximately 6.4% of whom were HIV infected) children from March 1998 to June 2004. HIV infected children had lower anti-HibPS geometric mean antibody concentrations 1 month post-immunisation than HIV uninfected children (Por=1.0 microg/ml (RR 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69). A lower proportion of HIV infected children than HIV uninfected children (RR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66-0.93) had measurable anti-Hib serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and the HibPS antibody concentration required for 50% killing of Hib bacteria was greater among HIV infected than HIV uninfected children (P=0.001). The estimated risk of HibCV failure was 35.1-fold greater (95% CI 14.6-84.6) amongst HIV infected than HIV uninfected children.

  18. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Mardinoglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D, we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associated with degree of IR after adjusting for BMI. Nevertheless, also after adjusting for obesity and plasma BCAA, 3-HIB levels were associated with future risk of incident T2D. We also examined the effect of 3-HIB on fatty acid uptake in human cells and found that both HUVEC and human cardiac endothelial cells respond to 3-HIB whereas human adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells do not respond to 3-HIB. In conclusion, we found that increased plasma level of 3-HIB is a marker of future risk of T2D and 3-HIB may be important for the regulation of metabolic flexibility in heart and muscles.

  19. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo de Menezes Martins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A randomized, double-blinded study evaluating the immunogenicity, safety and consistency of production of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine entirely produced in Brazil by Bio-Manguinhos and Instituto Butantan (DTP/Hib-BM was undertaken. The reference vaccine had the same DTP vaccine but the Hib component was produced using purified materials supplied by GlaxoSmithKline (DTP/Hib-GSK, which is registered and has supplied the Brazilian National Immunization Program for over more than five years. One thousand infants were recruited for the study and received vaccinations at two, four and six months of age. With respect to immunogenicity, the vaccination protocol was followed in 95.6% and 98.4% of infants in the DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK groups, respectively. For the Hib component of the study, there was 100% seroprotection (>0.15 µg/mL with all three lots of DTP/Hib-BM and DTP/Hib-GSK. The geometric mean titer (GMT was 9.3 µg/mL, 10.3 µg/mL and 10.3 µg/mL for lots 1, 2 and 3 of DTP/Hib-BM, respectively, and the GMT was 11.3 g/mL for DTP/Hib-GSK. For diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, seroprotection was 99.7%, 100% and 99.9%, respectively, for DTP/Hib-BM, three lots altogether and 99.2%, 100% and 100% for DTP/Hib-GSK. GMTs were similar across all lots and vaccines. Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine.

  20. Preparation and characterization of a hetero functional system of gold nanoparticles labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and conjugated to the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp for detection in vivo of angio genesis and evaluation of their toxicity in Hyalella aztec; Preparacion y caracterizacion de un sistema heterofuncional de nanoparticulas de oro marcadas con Tecnecio-99m y conjugadas a la secuencia Arg-Gly-Asp para la deteccion in vivo de angiogenesis y la evaluacion de su toxicidad en Hyalella azteca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales A, E.

    2012-07-01

    Integrin s play critical roles in many physiological processes including angio genesis and also contribute to pathological events such as tumor invasion and metastasis. The {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin is expressed in normal endothelial cells but it is over-expressed in the tumor neo vasculature. Peptides based on the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) sequence have been reported as molecules with high affinity and selectivity for the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin. Recent studies have demonstrated that conjugating peptides to gold nanoparticles (AuNP) produces biocompatible and stable multifunctional systems with target-specific molecular recognition due to multivalent effects produced by multiple simultaneous interactions between peptides and their receptors. The first aim of this research was to prepare a m ultimeric system of {sup 99m}Tc labeled gold particles conjugated to c[RGDfK(C)] and to evaluate its biological behavior as a potential radiopharmaceutical for molecular imaging of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} tumor expression. Hidrazinonicotinamide-G GC (HYNIC-G GC) and C[RGDfK(C)] peptides were synthesized and conjugated to AuNP (20 nm) by means of spontaneous reaction of the thiol groups of cysteine. The nano conjugate was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform-infrared, Ultraviolet-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. To obtain {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)], the {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC radio peptide was first prepared and added to the AuNP solution followed by c[RGDfK(C)]. Radiochemical purity (Rp) was determined by size-exclusion HPLC and I TLC-Sg analyses. In vitro binding studies were carried out in {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} receptor-positive C6 glioma cancer cells. Biodistribution studies were accomplished in athymic mice with C6-induced tumors with blocked and non blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques demonstrated that AuNP were functionalized with peptides. Rp was 96 {+-} 2% without post-labeling purification. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-RGD showed specific recognition for {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin s expressed in C6 cells, and 3 h after i.p. administration in mice, the tumor uptake was 8.18 {+-} 0.57% Id/g. Micro-SPECT/CT images showed evident tumor uptake. {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-RGD demonstrates properties suitable for use as a new target-specific agent for molecular imaging of tumor {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression. the second aim of this research was to determine the eco toxicological risk, measured by oxidative stress induction in Hyalella aztec, of the well-characterized multifunctional RGD-AuNP system (Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)]). In acute toxicological studies, a median lethal concentration of 1.83 cm{sup 2} per milliliter of medium was established for the Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)] conjugate. Tests assessing the effects of oxidative stress such as lipo peroxidation and protein carbonyl protein content suggest that this nano conjugate does not induces changes in oxidative markers because the activity of antioxidant defenses including catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase do not show an increase related to oxidative stress imbalance. Due to the chain length and steric effect of the peptides attached to gold nanoparticles by Au-S bonds, the Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-C[RGDfK(C)] complex does not react with intracellular glutathione or thiol-proteins and, therefore, does not induce increases in reactive oxygen species. Therefore, Tc-HYNIC-G GC-AuNP-c[RGDfK(C)] (20 nm) is a new chemically stable diagnostic pharmaceutical that does not induce eco toxicity measured by the oxidative stress induction in Hyalella aztec after complete radionuclide decay. This study suggests that Hyalella aztec is a suitable model animal for environmental toxicology studies of nanoparticles. (Author)

  1. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mardinoglu A; Gogg S; Lotta LA; Stancáková A; Nerstedt A; Boren J; Blüher M; Ferrannini E; Langenberg C; Wareham NJ; Laakso M; Smith U

    2018-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB) has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR) using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D), we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associat...

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of two doses of catch-up immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Indian children living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Bikas K; Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Saha, Malay K; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Moss, William J; Panda, Samiran; Das, Ranjan Saurav; Mallick, Mausom; Mandal, Sutapa

    2016-04-27

    Children living with HIV are at increased risk of disease from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Data are limited on the immunogenicity of a two-dose, catch-up schedule for Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) among HIV-infected children accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) late. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluate baseline immunity to Hib and the immunogenicity and safety of two doses of HibCV among HIV-infected Indian children; and (2) document the threshold antibody level required to prevent Hib colonization among HIV-infected children following immunization. We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-infected children 2-15 years of age and HIV-uninfected children 2-5 years of age. HIV-infected children received two doses of HibCV and uninfected children received one. Serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies were measured at baseline and two months after immunization in the HIV-infected children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected at baseline and follow-up. 125 HIV-infected and 44 uninfected children participated. 40% of HIV-infected children were receiving ART and 26% had a viral load >100,000 copies/mL. The geometric mean concentration of serum anti-Hib PRP antibody increased from 0.25 μg/mL at baseline to 2.65 μg/mL after two doses of HibCV, representing a 10.6-fold increase (pchildren mounted an immune response. Moderate or severe immune suppression, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, and lower baseline antibody levels were associated with lower post-vaccine serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibodies. A serum anti-Hib PRP IgG antibody level ≥ 3.3 μg/mL was protective against Hib NP colonization. There were no differences in adverse events between HIV-infected and uninfected children. Including a catch-up immunization schedule for older HIV infected children in countries introducing Hib vaccines is important. Older HIV-infected children with delayed access to ART and without suppressed viral loads mounted an adequate immune response

  3. Preclinical evaluation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine process intended for technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Verdijk, Pauline; Kreeftenberg, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in low- and middle-income countries has been limited by cost and availability of Hib conjugate vaccines for a long time. It was previously recognized by the Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc, originating from the former Vaccinology Unit of the National Institute of Public Health [RIVM] and the Netherlands Vaccine Institute [NVI]) that local production of a Hib conjugate vaccine would increase the affordability and sustainability of the vaccine and thereby help to speed up Hib introduction in these countries. A new affordable and a non-infringing production process for a Hib conjugate vaccine was developed, including relevant quality control tests, and the technology was transferred to a number of vaccine manufacturers in India, Indonesia, and China. As part of the Hib technology transfer project managed by Intravacc, a preclinical toxicity study was conducted in the Netherlands to test the safety and immunogenicity of this new Hib conjugate vaccine. The data generated by this study were used by the technology transfer partners to accelerate the clinical development of the new Hib conjugate vaccine. A repeated dose toxicity and local tolerance study in rats was performed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new Hib conjugate vaccine compared to a licensed vaccine. The results showed that the vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic in rats, no major differences in both safety and immunogenicity in rats were found between the vaccine produced according to the production process developed by Intravacc and the licensed one. Rats may be useful to verify the immunogenicity of Hib conjugate vaccines and for preclinical evaluation. In general, nonclinical evaluation of the new Hib conjugate vaccine, including this proof of concept (safety and immunogenicity study in rats), made it possible for technology transfer partners, having implemented the original process with no changes

  4. Economic evaluation of delivering Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in routine immunization services in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akumu, Angela Oloo; English, Mike; Scott, J Anthony G; Griffiths, Ulla K

    2007-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine was introduced into routine immunization services in Kenya in 2001. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccine delivery. A model was developed to follow the Kenyan 2004 birth cohort until death, with and without Hib vaccine. Incidence of invasive Hib disease was estimated at Kilifi District Hospital and in the surrounding demographic surveillance system in coastal Kenya. National Hib disease incidence was estimated by adjusting incidence observed by passive hospital surveillance using assumptions about access to care. Case fatality rates were also assumed dependent on access to care. A price of US$ 3.65 per dose of pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hep B-Hib vaccine was used. Multivariate Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to assess the impact on the cost-effectiveness ratios of uncertainty in parameter values. The introduction of Hib vaccine reduced the estimated incidence of Hib meningitis per 100,000 children aged disability adjusted life year (DALY) and per discounted death averted were US$ 38 (95% confidence interval, CI: 26-63) and US$ 1197 (95% CI: 814-2021) respectively. Most of the uncertainty in the results was due to uncertain access to care parameters. The break-even pentavalent vaccine price--where incremental Hib vaccination costs equal treatment costs averted from Hib disease--was US$ 1.82 per dose. Hib vaccine is a highly cost-effective intervention in Kenya. It would be cost-saving if the vaccine price was below half of its present level.

  5. The first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine reactivates memory B cells: evidence for extensive clonal selection, intraclonal affinity maturation, and multiple isotype switches to IgA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Ditzel, H J

    1999-01-01

    selected, and expanded population of cells existing before vaccination, i.e., memory B cells. The dominating heavy and light chains of the response were combined in a Fab that bound HibCP. It was shown that the shared heavy and light chain mutations increased the affinity for HibCP considerably, indicating...

  6. Risk of Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy After Vaccination With Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular Pertussis, Inactivated Poliovirus, and Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob Christensen; Hviid, Anders

    2012-01-01

    -acellular pertussis–inactivated poliovirus– Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. Objective To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. Design, Setting, and Participants A population-based cohort study of 378...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety and immunogenicity of TETRActHIB (a vaccine combining diphtheria and tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine. (DTP) with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (polyribosyl ribitol phosphate conjugated to tetanus protein) (PRP-T)) was assessed in 131 Cape Town infants immunised at 6, 10 and ...

  8. The costs and benefits of a vaccination programme for Haemophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Costs were calculated by summing the estimated direct medical care costs together with the indirect costs of Hib disease. The latter were calculated by valuing human life using alternative, and conservative human capital and willingness-to-pay measures. The difference between Hib disease costs (Le. the benefits which ...

  9. Disease: H00304 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nt's age, and infants between 4 months and 1 year of age are at highest risk for meningitis.... Invasive disease due to Hib may produce various clinical syndromes including meningitis, arthrit...9189] American Indians and Alaskan Eskimos are at increased risk specifically for meningitis caused by Hib.

  10. Burden of invasive bacterial disease among children younger than 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pneumococcus and meningococcus are responsible for high mortality and morbidity in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Hib containing vaccine was introduced in July 2008 in Togo; and baseline data are available on bacterial meningitis prior to PCV13 vaccine ...

  11. Differences in negativity bias probably underlie variation in attitudes toward change generally, not political ideology specifically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeke, Steven G; DeYoung, Colin G

    2014-06-01

    Many of the characteristics cited in Hibbing et al.'s account are ineffective predictors of economic conservatism. However, these same characteristics are often associated with differences not only in social conservatism but also in religiousness and authoritarianism. Hibbing et al. may have offered a useful explanation of traditionalism and attitudes toward change across domains rather than of general political attitudes.

  12. A comparison of ELISA methods for the determination of human serum antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gageldonk PGM; Mariani M; Berbers GAM; LVO-BI; Centro Ricerche; CHIRON S.p.A.; Siena; Italy/Laboratorio di Immunochimica e Sierologia Sperimentale/Departimento Immunologia

    1998-01-01

    Een vergelijking tussen de non-competitieve ELISA van Phipps et al., de klassieke radio-antigeen bindings assay (RABA) en de nieuw ontwikkelde Chiron competitieve ELISA voor de bepaling van anti-Hib polysaccharide (HibPs) antistof concentraties in humane sera wordt beschreven in het rapport. Voor

  13. Antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kim; Gyhrs, A; Lausen, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine (HibCP-TT) in preterm infants. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five healthy preterm infants with gestational ages (GA) from 27 to 36 weeks and birth weights from...

  14. Hipoglicemia neonatal: Un caso de galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cifuentes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la historia clínica de un recien nacido con un cuadro de hipoglicemia, que posteriormente desarrolla hiperbilirrubinemia conjugada, hepatomegalia, acidosis metabólica con anion gap aumentado y lactato normal e infeccion por E. coli

  15. Academia de Administración: código de conducta ética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Alexis Rodríguez Rodríguez (traductor

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento de estudiantes, profesionales y empresarios interesados en mejorar la productividad, conjugada con la responsabilidad social de las organizaciones mediante la aceptación de algunas normas éticas, publicamos éste código para que sirva de guía en la vida cotidiana...

  16. Incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Italian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozzi, Alberto E.; Salmaso, Stefania; Atti, Marta L. Ciofi degli; Panei, Pietro; Anemona, Alessandra; Scuderi, Gabriella; Wassilak, Steven G.F.

    1997-01-01

    To estimate the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease in Italian infants we performed a prospective study in a cohort of newborns enrolled for a randomized trial on safety and efficacy of three pertussis vaccines and followed for onset of serious disease or pertussis. The overall cumulative incidence observed in 15,601 children was 51.3/100,000 for all invasive Hib infections and 38.4/100,000 for Hib meningitis, over 27 months of observation. The incidence density of all invasive Hib diseases was 28.7/100,000 person-years, while meningitis occurred with an incidence of 21.5/100,000 person-years. Among the eight cases detected, six were meningitis, one sepsis, and one cellulitis. The child with sepsis died. The incidence and epidemiology of invasive Hib disease in Italy are comparable to those reported from other European countries. Cost-benefit analyses are needed for planning Italian vaccination policy

  17. Energy loss of heavy ion beams in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T; Hotta, T [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1997-12-31

    The energy loss of heavy-ion beams (HIB) is studied by means of Vlasov theory and Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations in a plasma. The interaction of HIB with a plasma is of central importance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). A number of studies on the HIB interaction with target plasma have been published. It is important for heavy-ion stopping that the effects of the non-linear interaction of HIB within the Vlasov theory are included. Reported are results of a numerical study of nonlinear effects to the stopping power for HIB in plasma. It is shown that the PIC simulations of collective effects of the stopping power are in a good agreement with the Vlasov theory. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 5 refs.

  18. Applying Central Composite Design and Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Growth and Biomass Production of Haemophilus influenzae Type b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Seyed Bahman; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Akbari, Neda; Ranjbar, Bijan; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-06-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, otitis media, pneumonia, cellulitis, bacteremia, and septic arthritis in infants and young children. The Hib capsule contains the major virulence factor, and is composed of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) that can induce immune system response. Vaccines consisting of Hib capsular polysaccharide (PRP) conjugated to a carrier protein are effective in the prevention of the infections. However, due to costly processes in PRP production, these vaccines are too expensive. To enhance biomass, in this research we focused on optimizing Hib growth with respect to physical factors such as pH, temperature, and agitation by using a response surface methodology (RSM). We employed a central composite design (CCD) and a response surface methodology to determine the optimum cultivation conditions for growth and biomass production of H. influenzae type b. The treatment factors investigated were initial pH, agitation, and temperature, using shaking flasks. After Hib cultivation and determination of dry biomass, analysis of experimental data was performed by the RSM-CCD. The model showed that temperature and pH had an interactive effect on Hib biomass production. The dry biomass produced in shaking flasks was about 5470 mg/L, which was under an initial pH of 8.5, at 250 rpm and 35° C. We found CCD and RSM very effective in optimizing Hib culture conditions, and Hib biomass production was greatly influenced by pH and incubation temperature. Therefore, optimization of the growth factors to maximize Hib production can lead to 1) an increase in bacterial biomass and PRP productions, 2) lower vaccine prices, 3) vaccination of more susceptible populations, and 4) lower risk of Hib infections.

  19. Meningites por Haemophilus influenzae b após a implantação da vacina específica Occurrence of Haemophylus influenzae b meningitis after the implementation of a mass vaccination program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete I. Kmetzsch

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência de meningite por Hib antes e após a introdução da vacinação de rotina contra esse agente no Rio Grande do Sul em 1999. MÉTODOS: Este estudo retrospectivo representa todos os dados sobre meningites por Hib investigados pela Coordenação do Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis Agudas (CCDTA - sistema de vigilância da Secretaria da Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul entre 1995 e 2001. Todos os dados foram analisados usando o teste de qui-quadrado, com p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of Hib meningitis before and after the implementation of a vaccination program in the state of Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil, in 1999. METHODS: This retrospective study summarizes all data concerning Hib meningitis recorded by the state of Rio Grande do Sul Department of Health/Acute Communicable Disease Surveillance Agency between 1995 and 2001. All data were analyzed using the chi-square test (statistical significance: p < 0.005. RESULTS: The decline in the number of cases of Hib meningitis was associated with the Hib vaccine coverage in children. From 1995 to 2001 the incidence of Hib meningitis decreased 89% (from 1.35 cases/100,000 people in 1995 to 0.15 cases/100,000 in 2001 (p < 0.01, especially in children younger than 1 year (p < 0.005. In the same period, Hib meningitis lethality decreased from 17.8 to 6.7 % (p < 0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of an Hib meningitis vaccination program has nearly eliminated Hib meningitis in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. These findings underscore the need to maintain the vaccination in children, with a thorough investigation of suspected cases and reporting of confirmed cases.

  20. Long-term persistence of immunity and B-cell memory following Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccination in early childhood and response to booster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, K P; John, T M; Jin, C; Kibwana, E; Yu, L-M; Curtis, N; Pollard, A J

    2014-04-01

    Protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a rapidly invading encapsulated bacteria, is dependent on maintenance of an adequate level of serum antibody through early childhood. In many countries, Hib vaccine booster doses have been implemented after infant immunization to sustain immunity. We investigated the long-term persistence of antibody and immunological memory in primary-school children following infant (with or without booster) Hib vaccination. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and the frequency of circulating Hib-specific memory B cells were measured before a booster of a Hib-serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine and again 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after the booster in 250 healthy children aged 6-12 years in an open-label phase 4 clinical study. Six to 12 years following infant priming with 3 doses of Hib conjugate vaccine, anti-PRP IgG geometric mean concentrations were 3.11 µg/mL and 0.71 µg/mL and proportions with anti-PRP IgG ≥1.0 µg/mL were 79% and 43% in children who had or had not, respectively, received a fourth Hib conjugate vaccine dose (mean age, 3.9 years). Higher baseline and post-Hib-MenC booster responses (anti-PRP IgG and memory B cells) were found in younger children and in those who had received a fourth Hib dose. Sustained Hib conjugate vaccine-induced immunity in children is dependent on time since infant priming and receipt of a booster. Understanding the relationship between humoral and cellular immunity following immunization with conjugate vaccines may direct vaccine design and boosting strategies to sustain individual and population immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early childhood. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN728588998.

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of a Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis prevention programme in The Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcangco, M R; Armour, C L; Salole, E G; Taylor, S J

    2001-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis is associated with high mortality and serious sequelae in children under 5 years of age. Vaccines which can prevent this infection are available. To evaluate the costs and benefits of a 3-dose immunisation schedule in Manila, Philippines. Government and societal perspectives. A cost-benefit analysis based on a birth cohort of 100,000 children. The state of health of the cohort with and without a Hib immunisation programme was modelled over a 5-year period. A survey of medical records of patients with Hib in Manila provided data on the extent and cost of sequelae following infection. A 3-dose Hib vaccination programme given at ages 2, 3 and 4 months. The model predicted that vaccinating children against Hib meningitis would prevent 553 cases per year in a birth cohort of 100,000, at a cost of 56,200 Philippine pesos (PHP) [$US1,605; 1998 exchange rate] per case (base case assumptions of 90% vaccine efficacy rate, 95 per 100,000 Hib incidence rate, 85% vaccination coverage). Results from the cost-benefit analyses indicated that the saving to the government would be around PHP39 million ($US1.11 million), and the saving to society would be PHP255 million ($US7.28 million). There would be a positive economic benefit for the Philippine government and for the Filipino society if a Hib vaccination programme was introduced in Manila.

  2. Outcome of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetghebuer, T; West, T E; Wermenbol, V; Cadbury, A L; Milligan, P; Lloyd-Evans, N; Adegbola, R A; Mulholland, E K; Greenwood, B M; Weber, M W

    2000-03-01

    In developing countries, endemic childhood meningitis is a severe disease caused most commonly by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Although many studies have shown that fatality rates associated with meningitis caused by these organisms are high in developing countries, little is known about the long-term outcome of survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of disabilities following pneumococcal and Hib meningitis in The Gambia. 257 children aged 0-12 years hospitalized between 1990 and 1995 with culture-proven S. pneumoniae (n = 134) or Hib (n = 123) meningitis were included retrospectively in the study. 48% of children with pneumococcal meningitis and 27% of children with Hib meningitis died whilst in hospital. Of the 160 survivors, 89 (55%) were followed up between September 1996 and October 1997. Of the children with pneumococcal meningitis that were traced, 58% had clinical sequelae; half of them had major disabilities preventing normal adaptation to social life. 38% of survivors of Hib meningitis had clinical sequelae, a quarter of whom had major disabilities. Major handicaps found were hearing loss, mental retardation, motor abnormalities and seizures. These data show that despite treatment with effective antibiotics, pneumococcal and Hib meningitis kill many Gambian children and leave many survivors with severe sequelae. Hib vaccination is now given routinely in The Gambia; an effective pneumococcal vaccine is needed.

  3. The impact of administration of conjugate vaccines containing cross reacting material on Haemophilus influenzae type b antibody responses in infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voysey, Merryn; Sadarangani, Manish; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth; Bolgiano, Barbara; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-07-25

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccine, induce immunological memory and longer lasting protection than plain polysaccharide vaccines. The most common proteins used as carriers are tetanus toxoid (TT) and cross reacting material-197 (CRM), a mutant form of diphtheria toxoid. CRM conjugate vaccines have been reported to suppress antibody responses to co-administered Hib-TT vaccine. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in which infants were randomised to receive meningococcal or pneumococcal conjugate vaccines along with Hib-TT. Trials of licensed vaccines with different carrier proteins were included for group C meningococcal (MenC), quadrivalent ACWY meningococcal (MenACWY), and pneumococcal vaccines. Twenty-three trials were included in the meta-analyses. Overall, administration of MenC-CRM in a 2 or 3 dose schedule resulted in a 45% reduction in Hib antibody concentrations (GMR 0.55, 95% CI 0.49-0.62). MenACWY-CRM boosted Hib antibody responses by 22% (GMR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41) whilst pneumococcal CRM conjugate vaccines had no impact on Hib antibody responses (GMR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68-1.22). The effect of CRM protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines on Hib antibody responses varies greatly between vaccines. Co-administration of a CRM conjugate vaccine can produce either positive or negative effects on Hib antibody responses. These inconsistencies suggest that CRM itself may not be the main driver of variability in Hib responses, and challenge current perspectives on this issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of residency and urbanicity on Haemophilus influenzae Type b and pneumococcal immunization in Shanghai Children: a Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram L Wagner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV are relatively expensive, newly introduced vaccines in China. This study evaluates the impact of residency and urbanicity on Hib vaccine and PCV coverage for children aged 2 to 7 years living in Shanghai, China, in August 2012. METHODS: In this exploratory cohort study, a sample of children aged 2 to 7 years, all of whom were eligible to have received the complete series of Hib vaccine and PCV, was obtained from the Shanghai Immunization Program Information System. Three measures of vaccination coverage for Hib vaccine and PCV were examined: dose 1 coverage, series completion, and timeliness of dose 1 vaccination. Multivariable binomial regression was used to estimate the difference in vaccination coverage between locals and the floating population. RESULTS: Dose 1 coverage was 50.9% for Hib vaccine and 11.4% for PCV for the 28,141 abstracted pediatric records. For both vaccines, dose 1 coverage was higher in locals than in the floating population. The disparity in coverage between locals and the floating population was greater in suburban areas than urban areas. Of all children who received dose 1, 79.7% completed the Hib vaccine series, and 91.3% completed the PCV series. Timely dose 1 coverage was 8.2% for Hib vaccine and 0.5% for PCV. CONCLUSION: Low vaccination coverage and extremely low levels of timely dose 1 vaccination indicate that current vaccination efforts are inadequate to reduce the burden of Hib and pneumococcal disease among Chinese children, especially infants. Government funding of the Hib vaccine and PCV through the Expanded Program on Immunization would increase uptake and could also ensure that improvement in the timeliness of administration and series completion is targeted for all demographic groups.

  5. Longitudinal monitoring adipose-derived stem cell survival by PET imaging hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate in rat myocardial infarction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Sang-Keun; Lee, Kyo Chul; An, Gwang Il [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pandya, Darpan [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Noh Won; Nahm, Sang-Soep; Eom, Ki Dong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Tae Sup [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Joo Hyun [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jeongsoo, E-mail: yooj@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong Jin, E-mail: yjlee@kirams.re.kr [Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • We developed a safe, simple and appropriate stem cell labeling method with {sup 124}I-HIB. • ADSC survival can be monitored with PET in MI model via direct labeling. • Tracking of ADSC labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB was possible for 3 days in MI model using PET. • ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. • Survival of ADSC in living bodies can be longitudinally tracked with PET imaging. - Abstract: This study aims to monitor how the change of cell survival of transplanted adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) responds to myocardial infarction (MI) via the hexadecyl-4-{sup 124}I-iodobenzoate ({sup 124}I-HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo. Stem cells have shown the potential to improve cardiac function after MI. However, monitoring of the fate of transplanted stem cells at target sites is still unclear. Rat ADSCs were labeled with {sup 124}I-HIB, and radiolabeled ADSCs were transplanted into the myocardium of normal and MI model. In the group of {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSC transplantation, in vivo imaging was performed using small-animal positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for 9 days. Twenty-one days post-transplantation, histopathological analysis and apoptosis assay were performed. ADSC viability and differentiation were not affected by {sup 124}I-HIB labeling. In vivo tracking of the {sup 124}I-HIB-labeled ADSCs was possible for 9 and 3 days in normal and MI model, respectively. Apoptosis of transplanted cells increased in the MI model compared than that in normal model. We developed a direct labeling agent, {sup 124}I-HIB, and first tried to longitudinally monitor transplanted stem cell to MI. This approach may provide new insights on the roles of stem cell monitoring in living bodies for stem cell therapy from pre-clinical studies to clinical trials.

  6. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of Infanrix™ when co-administered with meningococcal MenACWY-TT conjugate vaccine in toddlers primed with MenHibrix™ and Pediarix™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Michael; Latiolais, Thomas; Sarpong, Kwabena; Simon, Michael; Twiggs, Jerry; Lei, Paul; Rinderknecht, Stephen; Blatter, Mark; Bianco, Veronique; Baine, Yaela; Friedland, Leonard R; Baccarini, Carmen; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2015-02-11

    Co-administration of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) with the fourth dose of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) at age 15-18 months was investigated in 3-dose Haemophilus influenzae type b-meningococcal serogroups C/Y conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT)-primed toddlers. Infants were randomized (5:1) and primed at 2, 4 and 6 months of age with HibMenCY-TT and DTaP-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTaP-HBV-IPV) vaccine, or Hib-TT and DTaP-HBV-IPV (Control). HibMenCY-TT+ DTaP-HBV-IPV vaccinees were re-randomized (2:2:1) to receive MenACWY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months (MenACWY-TT group); MenACWY-TT co-administered with DTaP at 15-18 months (Coad group); or HibMenCY-TT at 12-15 months and DTaP at 15-18 months (HibMenCY-TT group). Controls received DTaP at 15-18 months. Only children in the HibMenCY-TT group received a fourth dose of Hib conjugate vaccine due to Hib conjugate vaccine shortage at the time of the study. DTaP immunogenicity and reactogenicity were assessed one month post-vaccination. Pre-defined statistical non-inferiority criteria between Coad and Control groups were met for diphtheria, tetanus and filamentous haemagglutinin but not pertussis toxoid and pertactin. Following vaccination ≥99% of children had anti-diphtheria/anti-tetanus concentrations ≥1.0 IU/ml. Pertussis GMCs were lower in all investigational groups versus Control. In post hoc analyses, pertussis antibody concentrations were above those in infants following 3-dose DTaP primary vaccination in whom efficacy against pertussis was demonstrated (Schmitt, von König, et al., 1996; Schmitt, Schuind, et al., 1996). The reactogenicity profile of the Coad group was similar to DTaP administered alone. Routine booster DTaP was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile when co-administered with MenACWY-TT vaccine in HibMenCY-TT-primed toddlers. These data support the

  7. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  8. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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  9. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  10. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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  11. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  12. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... Society Hib Vaccine PKU and Newborn Screening Congenital Hypothyroidism Annual NICHD Research Advances Snapshot of Early Development ... translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. ...

  13. Vaccine preventable meningitis in Malaysia: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Hannah C; Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia in Egyptian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes more than 3 million cases of serious disease, mainly meningitis and ... One hundred patients with community-acquired pneumonia were investigated for Hib by both real-time PCR and bacterial culture.

  15. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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  17. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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  18. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  20. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  1. Clinical characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Denmark in the post-vaccination era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.I.; Howitz, Michael Frantz; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    P>The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 1993 may have influenced the epidemiology of H. influenzae meningitis (i.e. increasing frequency of other non-vaccine types; presentation in other age groups). Based on nationwide...... infected with Hib, two cases (13%) were identified as true vaccine failures. Six patients (9%) died; one premature infant infected with serotype f and five adults (age 83-96 years) with non-typeable H. influenzae. Hearing loss was reported in 16% of the surviving children and in 10% of the surviving adults....... The presence of a lung focus was an independent prognostic factor for an unfavourable outcome (p 0.03). In conclusion, meningitis caused by Hib has been infrequent in Denmark after introduction of the Hib vaccine in the childhood vaccination programme, and no increase in meningitis cases due to non-b type H...

  2. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  3. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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    Full Text Available ... prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  4. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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  5. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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    Full Text Available ... prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  6. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... prevention publications schedules & records support statements vaccine initiative vaccine safety about bucking the herd dr. offit's testimony not vaccinating the abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-08-06

    Aug 6, 2000 ... practical and cost-effective means of achieving ever-expanding immunisation goals.1 ... means of incorporating Hib into childhood vaccination schedules with .... simplified administrative and delivery logistics. There is, owever ...

  8. Kronisk iskaemisk hjerteinsufficiens. Revaskularisering bedrer overlevelsen blandt patienter med hibernating myocardium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdgaard, Paw Chr; Nielsen, Søren Steen; Wiggers, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    imaging was performed with 99mTc-sestamibi and glucose metabolism was visualized with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) gamma camera PET. Medical records and death certificate were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: 50 patients were included. We found an increased survival among patients with HIB who......INTRODUCTION: Patients with ischemic heart failure and reversible dysfunctional myocardium (Hibernating myocardium, HIB) can benefit from revascularization. These patients can be selected with nuclear methods. The purpose of this study was to describe the results of the imaging procedures...... in patients tested for HIB and relate the results to the choice of treatment and cause of death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 2-year period 51 patients were referred to determine the amount of HIB. This can be determined with blood flow and metabolic imaging of the heart. Resting-myocardial perfusion...

  9. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain places, such as: The meningitis belt in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly during the dry season Mecca during the ... a serious Hib infection Your doctor or local health department will tell you if you or someone ...

  10. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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  11. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  12. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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  13. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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  14. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... Research Tools & Resources History Establishment Events in NICHD History 50th Anniversary Colloquium Accomplishments Contributions to Society Hib Vaccine PKU and Newborn Screening Congenital Hypothyroidism Annual NICHD ...

  15. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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    Full Text Available ... a Study Resources and Publications Rehabilitative and Assistive Technology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... NICHD History 50th Anniversary Colloquium Accomplishments Contributions to Society Hib Vaccine PKU and Newborn Screening Congenital Hypothyroidism ...

  16. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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  17. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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  19. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  20. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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  1. Non-epitope-specific suppression of the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines by preimmunization with vaccine components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Skettrup, M; Juul, L

    1993-01-01

    children and adults. Despite its potential importance, the possible influence of preexisting immunity to the components of such conjugates on the vaccination response in humans has been addressed by few studies. To study this issue, we randomized 82 healthy adult volunteers into six groups and vaccinated......Recently, conjugate vaccines containing Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to protein carriers were introduced for use in infants and certain adult risk groups. Similar conjugate vaccines against other capsulated bacteria are currently under development for both......CP-TT, P = 0.00002; HibCP-TT and then HibCP-DT, P = 0.06) as well as to HibCP itself. Possible mechanisms behind this non-epitope-specific suppression and its relevance for vaccine development are discussed....

  2. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example, lack of a functioning spleen, need vac- influenzae type b) cination with Hib. Talk to ... of developing severe complications because of your HIV infection. Meningococcal ACWY (Men- ACWY, MCV4) Yes! MenACWY vaccine ...

  3. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

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  4. Floricoccus tropicus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Floricoccus penangensis sp. nov. isolated from fresh flowers of durian tree and hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Li-Oon; Yap, Kien-Pong; Shamila-Syuhada, Ahamed Kamal; Thong, Kwai Lin; Ahmad, Rosma; Liong, Min Tze; Rusul, Gulam

    2017-12-01

    Three strains of Gram-staining-positive, coccus-shaped, lactic acid bacteria, designated as HibF3 T , HibF2 and HibF5 were isolated from fresh flowers of hibiscus, and a fourth, DF1 T , was isolated from fresh flowers of durian tree, in Penang, Malaysia. Taxonomic characterisation was performed by polyphasic analysis. Sequence similarities of the 16S rRNA gene and the housekeeping rpoA and pheS genes of these strains with their closely-related lactococcal and streptococcal relatives were 92-94, 78 and 81 %, respectively. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that strains DF1 T , HibF2, HibF5 and HibF3 T were clustered together but were clearly separated from species of the genera Streptococcus and Lactococcus, indicating that they represent members of a novel genus of the family Streptococcaceae. Calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between the genomes of DF1 T and HibF3 T yielded values of 92.50-92.93 %. ANI values below the cut-off value and distinctive chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the hypothesis that these strains represented two novel species. Major cellular fatty acids in DF1 T , HibF2 and HibF5 were C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, while C12 : 0 and C14 : 0 were also dominant, in addition to C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0, in HibF3 T . A novel genus is proposed with the name Floricoccus gen. nov. which consists of two species, Floricoccus tropicus sp. nov as the type species, and Floricoccus penangensis sp. nov. The respective type strains are DF1 T (=LMG 29833 T =JCM 31733 T ) and HibF3 T (=LMG 29831 T =DSM 31735 T ).

  5. ICF reactor economics: identifying the high leverage design features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Parametric studies were carried out for a heavy ion beam (HIB) fusion electric power plant to investigate the effects on the cost of electricity (COE) of variations in several design parameters. In particular, we examined the effects of maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We find that with a combination of improvements over our base case, HIB fusion can be economically competitive with other future power sources

  6. Process development of a New Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine and the use of mathematical modeling to identify process optimization possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Ahd; Kreeftenberg, Hans; V D Pol, Leo; Ghimire, Saroj; V D Wielen, Luuk A M; Ottens, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions being a cost-effective tool in preventing deaths among young children. The earliest vaccines were developed following empirical methods, creating vaccines by trial and error. New process development tools, for example mathematical modeling, as well as new regulatory initiatives requiring better understanding of both the product and the process are being applied to well-characterized biopharmaceuticals (for example recombinant proteins). The vaccine industry is still running behind in comparison to these industries. A production process for a new Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, including related quality control (QC) tests, was developed and transferred to a number of emerging vaccine manufacturers. This contributed to a sustainable global supply of affordable Hib conjugate vaccines, as illustrated by the market launch of the first Hib vaccine based on this technology in 2007 and concomitant price reduction of Hib vaccines. This paper describes the development approach followed for this Hib conjugate vaccine as well as the mathematical modeling tool applied recently in order to indicate options for further improvements of the initial Hib process. The strategy followed during the process development of this Hib conjugate vaccine was a targeted and integrated approach based on prior knowledge and experience with similar products using multi-disciplinary expertise. Mathematical modeling was used to develop a predictive model for the initial Hib process (the 'baseline' model) as well as an 'optimized' model, by proposing a number of process changes which could lead to further reduction in price. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:568-580, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Safety and Immunogenicity of Coadministering a Combined Meningococcal Serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine at 12 Months of Age ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2010-01-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all thr...

  8. Haemophilus influenzae Type b disease among Amish children in Pennsylvania: reasons for persistent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, A M; Lurie, P; Gidley, M; Schmink, S; Lingappa, J; Fischer, M; Rosenstein, N E

    2001-10-01

    To identify reservoirs of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) pharyngeal carriage and assess barriers to vaccination among 2 Amish communities in Pennsylvania. We investigated recent cases, performed community surveys for Hib vaccination coverage and pharyngeal carriage, and administered a questionnaire assessing vaccination knowledge and attitudes to 298 members of 2 Amish communities (A and B) in Pennsylvania and, as a comparison group, 136 non-Amish family members who participated in state immunization clinics. From December 1999 to February 2000, 8 cases of invasive Hib disease occurred among children who were 5 years of age or younger in Pennsylvania. Six of the case-patients were from Amish communities. None of the children had been vaccinated. Among children who were 5 years of age or younger, Hib vaccine coverage was low in the 2 Amish communities: A (9 [28%] of 32) and B (3 [7%] of 41) compared with the non-Amish group (19 [95%] of 20). Hib carriage prevalence was higher in both Amish communities than in the non-Amish group (A: 3%; B: 8%; non-Amish: 0%). More households in community B had 1 or more Hib carriers than in community A (8 [28%] of 29 vs 3 [9%] of 32). Among Amish parents who did not vaccinate their children, only 25% (13 of 51) identified either religious or philosophical objections as a factor; 51% (26 of 51) reported that vaccinating was not a priority compared with other activities of daily life. Seventy-three percent (36 of 49) would vaccinate their children if vaccination were offered locally. Undervaccinated communities in the United States still exist and allow circulation of Hib strains, resulting in disease among susceptible children. Identification of undervaccinated populations, such as the Amish, and targeted education and vaccination campaigns are essential to achieving elimination of Hib disease.

  9. The importance of adult life-span perspective in explaining variations in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedek, Grzegorz; Kossowska, Malgorzata; Rydzewska, Klara

    2014-06-01

    As a comment on Hibbing et al.'s paper, we discuss the evolution of political and social views from more liberal to more conservative over the span of adulthood. We show that Hibbing et al.'s theoretical model creates a false prediction from this developmental perspective, as increased conservatism in the adult life-span trajectory is accompanied by the avoidance of negative bias.

  10. Illumination non-uniformity of spirally wobbling beam in heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Noguchi, K.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. The illumination non-uniformity allowed is less than a few percent in inertial fusion target implosion. Heavy ion beam (HIB) accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. In this paper the HIBs wobbling illumination scheme was optimized. (paper)

  11. Economic Evaluation and Budget Impact Analysis of Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae Type b Infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Kotirum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0 and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1 compared with no vaccination. Budget impact analysis was also performed under Thai government perspective. The outcomes were reported as Hib-infected cases averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2014 Thai baht (THB ($ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. In base-case scenario, the model estimates that 3,960 infected cases, 59 disability cases, and 97 deaths can be prevented by national Hib vaccination program. The ICER for 3 + 0 schedule was THB 1,099 ($34 per QALY gained under societal perspective. The model was sensitive to pneumonia incidence among aged under 5 years old and direct non-medical care cost per episode of Hib pneumonia. Hib vaccination is very cost-effective in the Thai context. The budget impact analysis showed that Thai government needed to invest an additional budget of 110 ($3.4 million to implement Hib vaccination program. Policy makers should consider our findings for adopting this vaccine into national immunization program.

  12. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens Wentzel; Bruun, Britta

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan...

  13. To tilfaelde af invasive infektioner med Haemophilus influenzae type f

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jette Dettmann; Lind, Jens; Bruun, Brita

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-19...

  14. [Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.D.; Lind, J.W.; Bruun, B.

    2009-01-01

    Two cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type f infection are presented: a three-week-old boy with meningitis and a 62-year-old woman with arthritis and bacteremia. Since 1993 vaccination against H. influenzae type b (Hib) has been offered to Danish children. The result has been a remarkable...... decrease in invasive Hib disease. However, physicians need to be aware of the existence of non-type b invasive H. influenzae disease Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1/19...

  15. Not so simple: the multidimensional nature and diverse origins of political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Stanley; Huddy, Leonie

    2014-06-01

    At odds with Hibbing et al., we argue that political ideology is best explained by at least two dimensions linked to economic and social ideology. In addition, Hibbing et al's claim that conservatism is grounded in a heightened sensitivity to negative outcomes, something closely tied to the personality trait of neuroticism, does not fit with the established personality correlates of political ideology. Conscientiousness and a lack of openness to experience are linked to conservatism but there is no established connection to neuroticism.

  16. Bilirrubina covalente : estudio en las enfermedades hepatobiliares

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Cabello Jiménez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Una cuarta bilirrubina ha sido identificada, llamada bilirrubinacovalente, delta o biliproteina, la cual esta constituida por bilirrubina conjugada unida por enlace probablemente covalente a la albumina. para estudiar su importancia cl??nica hemos determinado la bilirrubina covalente en 499 muestras de 226 individuos mediante cromatografia con resina intercambiadora de aniones, m??todo ideado por seligson. en sujetos normales, en pacientes con hiperbilirrubinemia indirecta excluidos aquellos ...

  17. [Multilocus sequence-typing for characterization of Moscow strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A E; Mironov, K O; Iatsyshina, S B; Koroleva, I S; Platonova, O V; Gushchin, A E; Shipulin, G A

    2003-01-01

    Haemophilius influenzae, type b (Hib) bacteria, were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using 5 loci (adk, fucK, mdh, pgi, recA). 42 Moscow Hib strains (including 38 isolates form cerebrospinal fluid of children, who had purulent meningitis in 1999-2001, and 4 strains isolated from healthy carriers of Hib), as well as 2 strains from Yekaterinburg were studied. In MLST a strain is characterized, by alleles and their combinations (an allele profile) referred to also as sequence-type (ST). 9 Sts were identified within the Russian Hib bacteria: ST-1 was found in 25 strains (57%), ST-12 was found in 8 strains (18%), ST-11 was found in 4 strains (9%) and ST-15 was found in 2 strains (4.5%); all other STs strains (13, 14, 16, 17, 51) were found in isolated cases (2.3%). A comparison of allelic profiles and of nucleotide sequences showed that 93% of Russian isolates, i.e. strain with ST-1, 11, 12, 13, 15 and 17, belong to one and the same clonal complex. 2 isolates from Norway and Sweden from among 7 foreign Hib strains studied up to now can be described as belonging to the same clonal complex; 5 Hib strains were different from the Russian ones.

  18. Comparative economic evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in Belarus and Uzbekistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Griffiths

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hib vaccine has gradually been introduced into more and more countries during the past two decades, partly due to GAVI Alliance support to low-income countries. However, since Hib disease burden is difficult to establish in settings with limited diagnostic capacities and since the vaccine continues to be relatively expensive, some Governments remain doubtful about its value leading to concerns about financial sustainability. Similarly, several middle-income countries have not introduced the vaccine. The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccination in a country relying on self-financing (Belarus and a country eligible for GAVI Alliance support (Uzbekistan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A decision analytic model was used to estimate morbidity and mortality from Hib meningitis, Hib pneumonia and other types of Hib disease with and without the vaccine. Treatment costs were attached to each disease event. Data on disease incidence, case fatality ratios and costs were primarily determined from national sources. For the Belarus 2009 birth cohort, Hib vaccine is estimated to prevent 467 invasive disease cases, 4 cases of meningitis sequelae, and 3 deaths, while in Uzbekistan 3,069 invasive cases, 34 sequelae cases and 341 deaths are prevented. Estimated costs per discounted DALY averted are US$ 9,323 in Belarus and US$ 267 in Uzbekistan. CONCLUSION: The primary reason why the cost-effectiveness values are more favourable in Uzbekistan than in Belarus is that relatively more deaths are averted in Uzbekistan due to higher baseline mortality burden. Two other explanations are that the vaccine price is lower in Uzbekistan and that Uzbekistan uses a three dose schedule compared to four doses in Belarus. However, when seen in the context of the relative ability to pay for public health, the vaccine can be considered cost-effective in both countries.

  19. Combined Haemophilus Influenzae type B-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C vaccine is immunogenic and well tolerated in preterm infants when coadministered with other routinely recommended vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeñaca, Félix; Arístegui, Javier; Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Moreno-Perez, David; Ruiz-Contreras, Jésus; Merino, Jose Manuel; Muro Brussi, Marta; Sánchez-Tamayo, Tomás; Castro Fernandez, Javier; Cabanillas, Lucia; Peddiraju, Kavitha; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2011-11-01

    Preterm infants are at greater risk of morbidity from vaccine-preventable diseases. Therefore, their responses to vaccination are of particular interest. In this open, controlled, Spanish multicenter study, we assessed immunogenicity and safety following primary vaccination of 163 preterm infants (n = 56, 36 weeks' gestation), with Haemophilus Influenzae type B (Hib)-MenC-TT, DTaP(diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine)-HepB-IPV, and PCV7 at 2 to 4-6 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 16 to 18 months of age. Serum bactericidal activity (rabbit complement) against MenC, and antibodies to Hib and hepatitis b (anti-HBs) were determined. Local/general symptoms were assessed after each vaccination via diary cards. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study. There were no statistically significant differences between preterm and full-term infants in either Hib or MenC seroprotection rates or geometric mean concentrations at 1 month postdose 3, before or 1 month postbooster. Postdose 3, >99% of participants had seroprotective anti-HBs antibody concentrations. Anti-HBs geometric mean concentrations was significantly lower in the group compared with other groups and this difference persisted until 16 to 18 months of age. Hib-MenC-TT vaccine was well tolerated at all ages. There was one death caused by meningococcal serogroup-B sepsis (full term). No serious adverse events were assessed by the investigator as being vaccine related. Hib-MenC-TT vaccine had a similar immunogenicity and safety profile in preterm and full-term infants. These results demonstrate that preterm infants can be safely vaccinated with Hib-MenC-TT at the recommended chronologic age without impacting the responses to the Hib and MenC antigens.

  20. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine when coadministered with Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and haemophilus influenzae type B vaccines in children 15 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofa, Andrew F; Klein, Nicola P; Paul, Ian M; Michaels, Marian G; Goessler, Mary; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Blatter, Mark

    2011-09-01

    This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age. This was an open-labeled, multicenter study with healthy subjects enrolled and randomized (1:1:1) into 3 treatment groups. A total of 394 subjects received the first study vaccinations at 15 months of age. Group HAV (N = 135) received 2 doses of HAV vaccine 6 to 9 months apart. Group HAV+DTaP+Hib (N = 127) received HAV vaccine coadministered with DTaP and Hib vaccines and the second dose of HAV vaccine, 6 to 9 months later. Group DTaP+Hib→HAV (N = 132) received the DTaP and Hib vaccines at 15 months of age, followed by HAV vaccine 30 days later and the second dose of HAV vaccine 7 to 10 months after the DTaP+Hib vaccines. Immune responses were evaluated before the first study vaccination and 30 days after each vaccine dose. Solicited, unsolicited, and serious adverse events were collected. After 2 doses of the HAV vaccine, all subjects in the 3 groups were seropositive. The geometric mean concentration of anti-HAV antibodies ranged between 1625.1 and 1904.4 mIU/mL. Coadministration of the 3 vaccines did not impact immunogenicity of the HAV, DTaP, or Hib vaccines. Vaccines were well tolerated in all groups. A 2-dose schedule of HAV vaccine was well tolerated and immunogenic when administered to children starting at 15 months of age. Immune responses to the DTaP or Hib vaccines were similar whether they were administered alone or were coadministered with the HAV vaccine.

  1. Hybrid image and blood sampling input function for quantification of small animal dynamic PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Welch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and validate a hybrid image and blood sampling (HIBS) method to derive the input function for quantification of microPET mice data. The HIBS algorithm derives the peak of the input function from the image, which is corrected for recovery, while the tail is derived from 5 to 6 optimally placed blood sampling points. A Bezier interpolation algorithm is used to link the rightmost image peak data point to the leftmost blood sampling point. To assess the performance of HIBS, 4 mice underwent 60-min microPET imaging sessions following a 0.40-0.50-mCi bolus administration of 18 FDG. In total, 21 blood samples (blood-sampled plasma time-activity curve, bsPTAC) were obtained throughout the imaging session to compare against the proposed HIBS method. MicroPET images were reconstructed using filtered back projection with a zoom of 2.75 on the heart. Volumetric regions of interest (ROIs) were composed by drawing circular ROIs 3 pixels in diameter on 3-4 transverse planes of the left ventricle. Performance was characterized by kinetic simulations in terms of bias in parameter estimates when bsPTAC and HIBS are used as input functions. The peak of the bsPTAC curve was distorted in comparison to the HIBS-derived curve due to temporal limitations and delay in blood sampling, which affected the rates of bidirectional exchange between plasma and tissue. The results highlight limitations in using bsPTAC. The HIBS method, however, yields consistent results, and thus, is a substitute for bsPTAC

  2. Early indication for a reduced burden of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children following the introduction of routine vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in Nha Trang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasche, Stefan; Takahashi, Kensuke; Vu, Dinh Thiem; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Thi Hien-Anh; Le, HuuTho; Hashizume, Masahiro; Dang, Duc Anh; Edmond, Karen; Ariyoshi, Koya; Mulholland, E Kim; Edmunds, W John; Yoshida, Lay-Myint

    2014-12-05

    Despite the global success of Hib vaccination in reducing disease and mortality, uncertainty about the disease burden and the potential impact of Hib vaccination in Southeast Asia has delayed the introduction of vaccination in some countries in the region. Hib vaccination was introduced throughout Vietnam in July 2010 without catch-up. In an observational, population based surveillance study we estimated the impact of routine Hib vaccination on all cause radiologically confirmed childhood pneumonia in Nha Trang, Vietnam. In 2007 active hospital based surveillance was established in Khanh Hoa General Hospital, the only hospital in Nha Trang, Khanh Hoa province. Nasopharyngeal samples and chest radiographs are taken routinely from all children diagnosed with acute respiratory illness on admission. For admissions between 02/2007 and 03/2012 chest radiographs were interpreted for the presence of WHO primary endpoint pneumonia and nasopharyngeal swabs were analysed by PCR for the presence of Influenza A or B, RSV and rhinovirus. We employed Poisson regression to estimate the impact of Hib vaccination on radiologically confirmed pneumonia (RCP) while statistically accounting for potential differences in viral circulation in the post vaccination era which could have biased the estimate. Of 3151 cases admitted during the study period, 166 had RCP and major viruses were detected in 1601. The adjusted annual incidence of RCP in children younger than 5 years declined by 39% (12-58%) after introduction of Hib vaccination. This decline was most pronounced in children less than 2 years old, adjusted IRR: 0.52 (0.33-0.81), and no significant impact was observed in the 2-4 years old who were not eligible for vaccination, adjusted IRR: 0.96 (0.52-1.72). We present early evidence that the burden of Hib associated RCP in Nha Trang before vaccination was substantial and that shortly after introduction to the routine childhood immunisation scheme vaccination has substantially reduced

  3. Reduced expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain proteins from hibernating hearts relative to ischemic preconditioned hearts in the second window of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Jesús A; Butterick, Tammy A; Long, Eric K; Ziemba, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Lorraine B; Duffy, Cayla M; Sluiter, Willem; Duncker, Dirk J; Zhang, Jianyi; Chen, Yingjie; Ward, Herbert B; Kelly, Rosemary F; McFalls, Edward O

    2013-07-01

    Although protection against necrosis has been observed in both hibernating (HIB) and ischemic preconditioned hearts in the second window of protection (SWOP), a comparison of the mitochondrial proteome between the two entities has not been previously performed. Anesthetized swine underwent instrumentation with a fixed constrictor around the LAD artery and were followed for 12 weeks (HIB; N=7). A second group of anesthetized swine underwent ischemic preconditioning by inflating a balloon within the LAD artery 10 times for 2 min, each separated by 2 min reperfusion and were sacrificed 24h later (SWOP; N=7). Myocardial blood flow and high-energy nucleotides were obtained in the LAD region and normalized to remote regions. Post-sacrifice, protein content as measured with iTRAQ was compared in isolated mitochondria from the LAD area of a Sham heart. Basal regional blood flow in the LAD region when normalized to the remote region was 0.86±0.04 in HIB and 1.02±0.02 in SWOP tissue (Pregional blood flows in HIB hearts, ATP content in the LAD region, when normalized to the remote region was similar in HIB versus SWOP (1.06±0.06 and 1.02±0.05 respectively; NS) as was the transmural phosphocreatine (PCr) to ATP ratio (2.1±0.2 and 2.2±0.2 respectively; NS). Using iTRAQ, 64 common proteins were identified in HIB and SWOP hearts. Compared with SWOP, the relative abundance of mitochondrial proteins involved with electron transport chain (ETC) were reduced in HIB including NADH dehydrogenase, Cytochrome c reductase and oxidase, ATP synthase, and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase. Within chronically HIB heart tissue with reduced blood flow, the relative abundance of mitochondrial ETC proteins is decreased when compared with SWOP tissue. These data support the concept that HIB heart tissue subjected to chronically reduced blood flow is associated with a down-regulation in the expression of key mitochondrial proteins involved in electron transport. Published by Elsevier

  4. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Robert B D; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwP-Hib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Meningitis and pneumonia in Guatemalan children: the importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis y neumonía en niños guatemaltecos: importancia de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b y de Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J. Asturias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive infections in hospitalized Guatemalan children. This is an important issue since Hib vaccine has not been incorporated into the routine immunization program in Guatemala and information from hospital records in 1995 indicated a low incidence of Hib and S. pneumoniae as causes of meningitis and invasive infections. METHODS: Children who were hospitalized in Guatemala City with clinical signs compatible with bacterial infections were evaluated for evidence of Hib or S. pneumoniae infection. Normally sterile body fluids were cultured, and antigen detection was performed on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and pleural fluid. RESULTS: Of 1 203 children 1-59 months of age hospitalized over a 28-month period, 725 of them (60.3% had a primary diagnosis of pneumonia, 357 (29.7% of meningitis, 60 (5.0% of cellulitis, and 61 (5.1% of sepsis and other conditions. Hib was identified in 20.0% of children with meningitis and S. pneumoniae in 12.9%. The average annual incidence of Hib meningitis was 13.8 cases per 100 000 children under 5 years of age, and 32.4% of meningitides caused by Hib and 58.7% of S. pneumoniae meningitides occurred prior to 6 months of age. Case fatality rates were 14.1%, 37.0%, and 18.0%, respectively, for children with Hib, S. pneumoniae, and culture-negative and antigen-negative meningitis. Prior antibiotic therapy was common and was associated with significant reductions in CSF-culture-positive results for children with other evidence of Hib or S. pneumoniae meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in case detection, culture methods, and latex agglutination for antigen detection in CSF resulted in identification of Hib and S. pneumoniae as important causes of severe disease in Guatemalan children. Using a cutoff of > 10 white blood cells per cubic millimeter in CSF would improve the sensitivity for detection of bacterial

  6. [Invasive infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b after the institution of the conjugated vaccine on the expanded programm on immunization in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruces R, Pablo; Donoso F, Alejandro; Camacho A, Jorge; Llorente H, Marcela

    2006-03-01

    After almost a decade since the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in Chile (in a 2-4-6 month schedule), Hib invasive infections have dramatically decreased, albeit they remain to occasionally produce disease in pediatric patients. We report our experience with children whom developed Hib invasive disease in children since 2000 to 2004. Medical records of children with Hib were reviewed in order to describe the epidemiology, main clinical and laboratory findings, management and complications. Twenty three patients (17 male), between 1 and 71 months (median 30 months) were identified: pneumonia (7), meningitis (4), pleuropneumonia (2), empyema (2), sepsis (2), cellulitis (2), meningitis and pleuropneumonia (1), purpura fulminans (1), miositis (1) and epiglottitis (1). No deaths were observed and four patients presented severe sequelae at hospital discharge. Twenty patients were considered vaccine failures. Hib remains as a sporadic cause of severe disease in Chile and thus for physicians should still keep it in mind. Case analysis and active surveillance are necessary to monitor the current immunization regimen.

  7. Patterns of binding of aluminum-containing adjuvants to Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Robert B.D.; Burkin, Karena; Amir, Saba Erum; Crane, Dennis T.; Bolgiano, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The basis of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC) glycoconjugates binding to aluminum-containing adjuvants was studied. By measuring the amount of polysaccharide and protein in the non-adsorbed supernatant, the adjuvant, aluminum phosphate, AlPO4, was found to be less efficient than aluminum hydroxide, Al(OH)3 at binding to the conjugates, at concentrations relevant to licensed vaccine formulations and when equimolar. At neutral pH, binding of TT conjugates to AlPO4 was facilitated through the carrier protein, with only weak binding of AlPO4 to CRM197 being observed. There was slightly higher binding of either adjuvant to tetanus toxoid conjugates, than to CRM197 conjugates. This was verified in AlPO4 formulations containing DTwP–Hib, where the adsorption of TT-conjugated Hib was higher than CRM197-conjugated Hib. At neutral pH, the anionic Hib and MenC polysaccharides did not appreciably bind to AlPO4, but did bind to Al(OH)3, due to electrostatic interactions. Phosphate ions reduced the binding of the conjugates to the adjuvants. These patterns of adjuvant adsorption can form the basis for future formulation studies with individual and combination vaccines containing saccharide-protein conjugates. PMID:26194164

  8. Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes with ibuprofen hydrazide: Characterization, theoretical calculations, antibacterial and antitumor assays and studies of interaction with CT-DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Carlos M.; Bergamini, Fernando R. G.; Lustri, Wilton R.; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T. G.; de Oliveira, Ellen C. S.; Ribeiro, Marcos A.; Formiga, André L. B.; Corbi, Pedro P.

    2018-02-01

    Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes with a hydrazide derivative of ibuprofen (named HIB) were synthesized and characterized by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Elemental and thermogravimetric analyses, as well as ESI-QTOF-MS studies for both complexes, confirmed a 1:2:2 metal/HIB/Cl- molar ratio. The crystal structure of the palladium(II) complex was solved by single crystal X-ray diffractometric analysis, which permitted identifying the coordination formula [PdCl2(HIB)2]. Crystallographic studies also indicate coordination of HIB to the metal by the NH2 group. Nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopies reinforced the coordination observed in the crystal structure and suggested that the platinum(II) complex presents similar coordination modes and structure when compared with the Pd(II) complex. The complexes had their structures optimized with the aid of DFT methods. In vitro antiproliferative assays showed that the [PdCl2(HIB)2] complex is active over ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-03, while biophysical studies indicated its capacity to interact with CT-DNA. The complexes were inactive over Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial strains.

  9. Pentavalent vaccine and adverse events following immunization-untangling the misinterpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Akash

    2014-12-01

    In April 2008, the National Technical Group on Immunization (NTAGI) Sub-committee on H. influenza type b (Hib) vaccine recommended that Hib containing pentavalent vaccine should be introduced in the country. Subsequently liquid pentavalent vaccine (LPV) was launched in the Kerala and Tamil Nadu on a pilot basis in December 2011. The introduction of LPV in these two states was followed by reported deaths in infants who had received LPV. An exhaustive summary of media reports and previous literature has since been made available at various fora which have been supplemented with estimations of the damage the LPV may cause. It has thus been concluded that the LPV is bound to cause more number of infant deaths than it will save from Hib meningitis and pneumonia. The current paper aims to clear some of the misinterpretations and miscalculations so that lives of 72,000 infants can be saved.

  10. [Acute laryngitis and epiglottitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Olivia; Nicollas, Richard; Roman, Stéphane; Triglia, Jean-Michel

    2007-10-31

    The anatomical characteristic of the pediatric larynx allows physicians to better understand the incidence of symptomatic and severe presentations of acute laryngitis, which are frequent pediatric emergencies. Subglottis laryngitis and epiglottitis must be distinguished from each other. These two diseases are absolutely different: the first one is essentially viral and usually moderate, even though acute respiratory distress can occur. The other (epiglottitis) is bacterial, essentially caused by Haemophilus influenza B (Hi-B), and can be life threatening. The anti Hi-B vaccine leads to a decrease of frequency but does not make them disappear. Moreover, even if a child has a history of the Hi-B vaccine, diagnosis of epiglottitis can not to be ruled out. Lastly, in case of acute laryngeal dyspnea in a child, one must think about a foreign body.

  11. Pricing strategies for combination pediatric vaccines based on the lowest overall cost formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, Banafsheh; Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes pricing strategies for US pediatric combination vaccines by comparing the lowest overall cost formularies (i.e., formularies that have the lowest overall cost). Three pharmaceutical companies compete pairwise over the sale of monovalent and combination vaccines. Particular emphasis is placed on examining the price of Sanofi Pasteur's DTaP-IPV/HIb under different conditions. The main contribution of the paper is to provide the lowest overall cost formularies for different prices of DTaP-IPV/HIb and other Sanofi Pasteur vaccines. The resulting analysis shows that DTaP-IPV/HIb could have been more competitively priced compared with the combination vaccine DTaP-HepB-IPV, for federal contract prices in 2009, 2010 and 2011. This study also proposes the lowest overall cost formularies when shortages of monovalent vaccines occur.

  12. Current status and perspective of heavy ion beam therapy for patients with pelvic recurrence after primarily resected rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Yanagi, Tsuyoshi; Hara, Ryusuke; Yasuda, Shigeo; Kato, Hirotoshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2008-01-01

    This review describes the clinical features of recurrent rectal cancer (RC) and therapeutic properties of heavy ion beam (HIB, here, carbon ion beam) and outcome of its clinical trials with use of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The authors at first explain the statistics in Japan, clinical procession and therapy involving surgery, of primary and recurrent colorectal cancers. Then mentioned are characteristics of HIB for its class used for medical purpose, physical and biological properties. By February 2008, HIBs generated by HIMAC have been used to 3,819 patients with malignant diseases difficult for treatment with ordinary means hitherto like tumors of head and neck, brain, lung, esophagus, liver cells, prostate, uterine and bone/soft tissues. For patients with localized recurrent RC after surgery, as HIB therapy is promising for its high LET, phase I/II trial of HIB started in 2001 where 38 cases were enrolled, which defined a optimal dose of 73.6 GyE in 2004 with 3-year local control and survival of 81.8% and 75.0%, respectively, with scarce adverse effects. The phase II trial with the dose is now under progress as a pioneer medicare where, at present, 5-year local control of 93% and survival 57% are shown with scarce adverse event in 61 cases, which is thought to be better than any other radiotherapy outcome. Efforts are still being made for aiming wider application of HIB for recurrent RC like development of the spacer between the lesion and normal digestive tract to avoid the radiation exposure of the latter. (R.T.)

  13. Antibody responses to tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C Y; Molrine, D C; Antin, J H; Wheeler, C; Guinan, E C; Weinstein, H J; Phillips, N R; McGarigle, C; Harvey, S; Schnipper, C; Ambrosino, D M

    1997-07-01

    Accelerated granulocyte and platelet recovery following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are well documented. We hypothesize that functional immunity may also be enhanced in PBSCT and performed a phase II trial of immunizations in patients with lymphoma undergoing autologous transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells or bone marrow. Seventeen BMT and 10 PBSCT recipients were immunized at 3, 6, 12, and 24-months post-transplantation with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB)-conjugate and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines. IgG anti-HIB and anti-TT antibody concentrations were measured and compared between the two groups. Geometric mean IgG anti-HIB antibody concentrations were significantly higher for PBSCT recipients compared to BMT recipients at 24 months post-transplantation (11.3 micrograms/ml vs 0.93 microgram/ml, P = 0.051) and following the 24 month immunization (66.2 micrograms/ml vs 1.30 micrograms/ml, P = 0.006). Similar results were noted for IgG anti-TT antibody with significantly higher geometric mean antibody concentrations in the PBSCT group at 24 months post-transplantation (182 micrograms/ml vs 21.6 micrograms/ml, P = 0.039). Protective levels of total anti-HIB antibody were achieved earlier in PBSCT recipients compared with those of BMT recipients. PBSCT recipients had higher antigen-specific antibody concentrations following HIB and TT immunizations. These results suggest enhanced recovery of humoral immunity in PBSCT recipients and earlier protection against HIB with immunization.

  14. Haemophilus influenzae tipo b: situação epidemiológica no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, 1993 a 1997 Haemophilus influenzae type b: epidemiological situation in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1993-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre as doenças invasivas causadas pelo Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, destacam-se, pela freqüência e gravidade, as pneumonias e as meningites. No período de 1993 a 1997, foram notificados, em Minas Gerais, 720 casos de meningites por Hib, sendo a causa mais freqüente de meningite bacteriana em menores de um ano e a segunda causa no total de meningites. Entretanto, estimou-se uma ocorrência total de 1.160 casos considerando as meningites bacterianas não especificadas. O total de casos estimados de doença invasiva por Hib parece justificar a recente inclusão da vacina no esquema básico de imunizações. O alto custo da vacina reforça a necessidade de melhorar a vigilância epidemiológica da meningite, que constitui uma das fragilidades das ações de controle desta doença.Among Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib invasive diseases, pneumonia and meningitis are the most relevant in public health due to their frequency and severity. From 1993 to 1997, there were 720 cases of Hib meningitis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, representing the most frequent cause of bacterial meningitis in infants (< 1 year and the second most frequent among all causes of meningitis. The total estimated cases of invasive Hib diseases thus appear to justify the recent inclusion of the vaccine in the basic immunization protocol. The vaccine's high cost reinforces the need for more precise monitoring of the etiological diagnosis of meningitis cases, representing one of the weaknesses in the prevailing epidemiological surveillance system.

  15. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  16. Safety and immunogenocity of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 6 months to 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian-li; Tao, Hong; Li, Jing-xin; Dai, Wei-ming; Song, Bin; Sun, Jin-fang; Liu, Pei; Tang, Jie; Liu, Wen-yu; Wang, Shi-yuan; Zhu, Feng-cai

    2015-01-01

    A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenAC vaccine) has been developed to protect children against diseases caused by Hib, MenA, and MenC. This study investigated the safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine administered in 2-dose series to children aged 6-23 months and in a single dose to children aged 2-5 y. A randomized, positive-controlled, non-inferiority clinical trial was conducted for 1200 healthy participants in each age group. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to the Hib-MenAC group or the control group at a ratio of 1:1. Adverse reactions were recorded within 28 d after each dose. Blood samples were obtained to assess immunogenicity on day 0 and at 28 d after a complete vaccination course. For the investigational vaccine, the incidence of total adverse reactions in vaccinees aged 6-23 months was 46.8% and that in vaccinees aged 2-5 y was 29.8%. Most adverse reactions were mild or moderate. One non-fatal serious adverse event occurred in the Hib-MenAC group, but was unrelated to vaccination. The seroconversion rate to the 3 components reached 94.0%, and the proportion of vaccinees with rSBA titers ≥ 1:8 and PRP ≥ 0.15 g/mL reached 97.0% in both age groups. The safety and immunogenicity of the Hib-MenAC vaccine were non-inferior when compared to the licensed vaccines. It was concluded that the novel vaccine would be expected to protect children against all of the targeted diseases.

  17. Epidemiology and outcomes of bacterial meningitis in Mexican children: 10-year experience (1993-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Lammoglia, Lorena; Hernández, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2008-07-01

    Acute bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity, neurologic sequelae, and mortality in children in Latin America. We retrospectively reviewed the hospital-based medical records of children diagnosed with acute bacterial meningitis, aged 1 month to 18 years, at a large inner city referral Hospital in Mexico City, for a 10-year period (1993-2003). To characterize the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of acute bacterial meningitis, we subdivided our study into two time periods: the period prior to the routine use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine (1993-1998) and the period after the vaccine became available (1999-2003). A total of 218 cases of acute bacterial meningitis were identified during the study period. The most frequently affected age group was that of children aged between 1 and 6 months. Hib was the most commonly isolated pathogen, found in 50% of cases. However, its incidence declined significantly after the introduction of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and conjugated Hib (DTP-HB/Hib) pentavalent vaccine into the universal vaccination schedule for children in 1998. Streptococcus pneumoniae followed as the second most commonly isolated bacterial pathogen. Neisseria meningitidis was isolated in only a few cases, confirming the historically low incidence of this pathogen in Mexico. Identified risk factors for death were found to include the presence of septic shock and intracranial hypertension, but were not attributable to any particular bacterial pathogen. In our hospital, acute bacterial meningitis remains a severe disease with important sequelae and mortality. The incidence of Hib meningitis cases has declined since the introduction of the Hib vaccine. However, S. pneumoniae persists as an important cause of bacterial meningitis, highlighting the need for the implementation of vaccination policies against this pathogen.

  18. Quantitation of antibody-secreting cells in the blood after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Heilmann, C; Andersen, V

    1990-01-01

    The human B-lymphocyte response to protein-conjugated polysaccharide antigens has not previously been studied at the cellular level. In order to do so, we developed and evaluated haemolytic plaque-forming cell assays detecting Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide-specific a......The human B-lymphocyte response to protein-conjugated polysaccharide antigens has not previously been studied at the cellular level. In order to do so, we developed and evaluated haemolytic plaque-forming cell assays detecting Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide...

  19. Rapid analysis of rearranged kappa light chain genes of circulating polysaccharide-specific B lymphocytes by means of immunomagnetic beads and the polymerase chain reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Barington, T; Madsen, HO

    1993-01-01

    reaction (PCR) using in addition a degenerate kappa light chain signal peptide region primer. The PCR product was cloned into the M13mp18 phage. The cloning efficiency was 100-600 clones/ml of blood. Of the 86 clones sequenced, 90% represented rearranged kappa light chain genes from different antibody...... of the B lymphocytes activated in vivo. Here, we present a method for rapid analysis of the rearranged kappa light chain genes used by human circulating antigen-specific B lymphocytes. After vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugated with protein, the Hib...

  20. Immunoglobulin G Avidities in Infants in Mexico after Primary Immunization with Three Doses of Polyribosylribitol Phosphate-Tetanus Toxoid Haemophilus influenzae Type b Vaccine▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-León, Patricia; Díaz-García, F. Javier; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Segura, Jorge; Carranza, Martha I.; Arredondo-Garcia, José Luis; Santos, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations and avidities specific to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were measured in 208 children living in Guadalajara and Mexico City. Protective concentrations were found in 98.9% and 100.0% of participants, respectively. Geometric mean concentrations differed between both populations and/or among age groups. Mean avidities differed only among the 7- to 12-month-old children. Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib primary vaccination seems to induce protection in Mexican children. PMID:18417667

  1. Immunoglobulin G avidities in infants in Mexico after primary immunization with three doses of polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus toxoid Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de-León, Patricia; Díaz-García, F Javier; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Segura, Jorge; Carranza, Martha I; Arredondo-Garcia, José Luis; Santos, José Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Serum immunoglobulin G concentrations and avidities specific to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were measured in 208 children living in Guadalajara and Mexico City. Protective concentrations were found in 98.9% and 100.0% of participants, respectively. Geometric mean concentrations differed between both populations and/or among age groups. Mean avidities differed only among the 7- to 12-month-old children. Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Hib primary vaccination seems to induce protection in Mexican children.

  2. Thermo-mechanical characterization of a monochlorophenyl, hepta isobutyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane/polystyrene composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, Ignazio; Bottino, Francesco A.; Cicala, Gianluca; Cozzo, Giulia; Latteri, Alberta; Recca, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of a monochlorophenyl, hepta isobutyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane/Polystyrene (ph,hib-POSS/PS) composite were studied and compared with those of pristine polymer. ph,hib-POSS/PS system was prepared by solubilization and precipitation of Polystyrene (PS) in the presence of POSS. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed to check the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was carried out to measure viscoelastic properties of solid samples. Degradations were carried out into a thermobalance and the obtained thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves were discussed and interpreted

  3. Clonal relationship of recent invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype f isolates from Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, B; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Westh, H

    2004-01-01

    Surveillance performed after the introduction of general Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) vaccination in Denmark identified 13 cases of invasive bacteraemic H. influenzae serotype f (Hif) disease in adults over a period of 7 years. Bacteraemic respiratory tract infections accounted for 61...... sequences. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing revealed that recent Danish and American isolates belonged to a single Hif clone, which may be undergoing expansion. The need for accurate serotyping of H. influenzae to enable reliable monitoring for Hib replacement by other capsular types is emphasized....

  4. Enfermedad neumocócica en el adulto: niveles de riesgo y recomendaciones de vacunación

    OpenAIRE

    Vila-Córcoles, Angel; Ochoa-Gondar, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Actualmente 2 vacunas antineumocócicas están disponibles para uso en adultos: la «clásica» vacuna neumocócica polisacárida tricosavalente (VNP23) y la «nueva» vacuna neumocócica conjugada tridecavalente (VNC13). La principal ventaja de la VNC13 sería su potencial mejor inmunogenicidad, siendo sus principales inconvenientes el elevado coste y la baja cobertura de serotipos en comparación con la VNP23. Las evidencias actualmente disponibles apoyan las siguientes recomendaciones básicas: a) en l...

  5. Sistemas de información para el centro médico “María de los Angeles” de Juliaca

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Coaquira, Rossbelú

    2015-01-01

    Nuestra investigación abarca el sistema de información, del centro Médico María de los Ángeles para asegurar la administración de las actividades que este presenta, con la finalidad de adaptarse a los cambios de un contexto cuya característica principal es, precisamente, la innovación conjugada con la tecnología. Para cumplir este rol, el sistema de información constituye la pieza fundamental de un sistema de regulación y control aplicado al sistema-objeto, es decir, al centro médico. Este ro...

  6. El ácido linoleico conjugado disminuye la hipercolesterolemia pero aumenta el riesgo de litiasis biliar Conjugated linoleic acid lowers hypercholesterolemia but increases the risk for biliary lithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    V. Navarro; M.ª T. Macarulla; M.ª Chávarri; A. Fernández-Quintela; V. M. Rodríguez; M.ª Puy Portillo

    2005-01-01

    El término ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC) designa una serie de isómeros del ácido linoleico, presentes en la carne y productos lácteos de rumiantes, que presentan sus dos dobles enlaces en posición conjugada. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de un isómero del ALC, el trans-10, cis-12, sobre la colesterolemia y el riesgo de litiasis biliar en un modelo animal de hipercolesterolemia inducida por dieta. Para ello se utilizaron dos grupos de hámsters alimentados con una ...

  7. HABITAÇÃO E ENTORNO NA TRAJETÓRIA DO BAIRRO DE CUSTODÓPOLIS

    OpenAIRE

    AZEREDO, V.G.

    2015-01-01

    Custodópolis é um bairro da cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes/RJ estigmatizado por localizar-se do outro lado do Rio Paraíba do Sul. Ocupado por uma população vulnerável ante a pobreza em suas dimensões econômicas, de capital social, capital humano, de proteção e de habitat (BUSSO, 2002, p.12). Estas dimensões conjugadas marcam o bairro de sua origem aos dias atuais. O objetivo é resgatar esse percurso, pela via habitacional e de entorno, nas condições de vulnerabilidade e risco soc...

  8. Inmunizaciones en la adolescencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. V. Jacob Cohen

    2011-01-01

    Se agregan vacunas especiales en caso de viaje a zonas endémicas, como es el caso de rabia, encefalitis japonesa o fiebre amarilla; tema que no se incluye en este artículo, propio de la medicina del viajero, o tampoco el de aquellos con mayor susceptibilidad a infecciones específicas como las vacunas anti neumocócica 23 valente, anti meningocócica no conjugada o anti Hemophilus influenza b (Ej., Asplénicos, Hipogamaglobulinemia, S. nefrótico etc..

  9. Meningite por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b em cidades do estado do Paraná, Brasil Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia S. Takemura

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: no segundo semestre de 1996, os municípios de Londrina e Curitiba (Paraná iniciaram a vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib, aproximadamente trinta meses antes de sua introdução no Programa Nacional de Imunização. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da meningite por Hib, entre crianças, em Londrina, Curitiba e nos demais municípios do estado do Paraná, antes e após a introdução da vacina nessas duas cidades. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo observacional retrospectivo de todos os casos de meningite por Hib, entre menores de 5 anos, diagnosticados pelo sistema de vigilância epidemiológica de Londrina e pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná, de 1992 a 1999. Taxas de incidência da meningite por Hib foram calculadas por 100.000 menores de cinco anos. RESULTADOS: comparando com o período anterior à vacinação, houve redução importante do coeficiente de incidência da meningite por Hib em Londrina, passando de 23,91, em 1996, para 2,79 por 100.000 menores de cinco anos, em 1999. Redução semelhante foi observada em Curitiba, enquanto nos demais municípios do Paraná, que não dispunham da vacina até meados de 1999, o coeficiente se manteve praticamente inalterado. CONCLUSÃO: a vacinação contra Hib foi efetiva na redução da incidência da meningite entre menores de cinco anos em Londrina e Curitiba. Para a manutenção dessa baixa incidência devem ser garantidas adequada cobertura vacinal e boa qualidade do serviço de vigilância epidemiológica.OBJECTIVE: during the second half of 1996, the municipalities of Londrina and Curitiba (State of Paraná, Brazil included Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine into their routine vaccination regimen, approximately 30 months before its introduction into the National Immunization Program. The present study aimed at verifying the incidence of meningitis caused by Hib among children in Londrina, Curitiba, and in the remaining

  10. Structural requirements of the major protective antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs, L; Juul, L; Svejgaard, A

    1999-01-01

    expressed as antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) in Escherichia coli, define amino acids involved in antigen binding and idiotype expression, and propose a three-dimensional structure for the variable domains. We found that canonical Fabs, unlike a noncanonical Fab, bound effectively to HibCP in the absence...

  11. Low incidence of children with acute epiglottis after introduction of vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mette Nagstrup; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Krug, Andrea H

    2014-01-01

    for HIB. The average length of hospitalization was 6.1 days. The average stay in the intensive care unit was 1.2 days for patients who were not intubated and 4.0 days for patients who were intubated or tracheotomised. Six patients (16.2%) were intubated. One patient (2.7%) was directly tracheotomised...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charrondiere, M. Vol 92, No 1 (2002) - Articles Safety and immunogenicity of TetractHib (a vaccine combining DTP vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine) administered to infants at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and immunogenicity of TetractHib (a vaccine combining DTP vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine) administered to infants at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Abstract PDF · Vol 87, No 12 (1997) - Articles Primary immunodeficiency disease at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital

  14. Clinical presentation of infants hospitalised with pertussis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [7] In SA, whole-cell pertussis vaccine (administered as a trivalent vaccine to include tetanus and diphtheria) was replaced by acellular pertussis vaccine in 2009. The pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine and haemophilus influenza type b (DTaP-. IPV/Hib) was also introduced ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and immunogenicity of TetractHib (a vaccine combining DTP vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine) administered to infants at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Abstract PDF · Vol 91, No 9 (2001) - Articles Proposed vitamin A supplementation programme for South Africa - design, coverage and cost

  16. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, Kim

    1994-01-01

    hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies...

  17. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    ). Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions. The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) administered at ages 3, 5, and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months...

  18. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study...

  19. How encompassing is the effect of negativity bias on political conservatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the political effects of negativity bias are narrower than Hibbing et al. suggest. Negativity bias reliably predicts social, but not economic, conservatism, and its political effects often vary across levels of political engagement. Thus the role of negativity bias in broad ideological conflict depends on the strategic packaging of economic and social attitudes by political elites.

  20. Direct-indirect mixed implosion mode in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S.; Miyazawa, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Someya, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to realize an effective implosion, beam illumination non-uniformity on a fuel target must be suppressed less than a few percent. In this study, a direct-indirect mixture implosion mode is proposed and discussed in heavy ion beam (HIB) inertial confinement fusion (HIF) in order to release sufficient fusion energy in a robust manner. On the other hand, the HIB illumination non-uniformity depends strongly on a target displacement dz from the center of a fusion reactor chamber. In a direct-driven implosion mode, dz of ∼20 μm was tolerable, and in an indirect-implosion mode, dz of ∼100 μm was allowable. In the direct-indirect mixture mode target, a low-density foam layer is inserted, and the radiation energy is confined in the foam layer. In the foam layer, the radiation transport is expected to smooth the HIB illumination non-uniformity in the lateral direction. Two-dimensional implosion simulations are performed, and show that the HIB illumination non-uniformity is well smoothed in the direct-indirect mixture target. Our simulation results present that a large pellet displacement of approximately a few hundred microns is allowed in order to obtain a sufficient fusion energy output in HIF

  1. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of an acellular pertussis, diphtheria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess the immunogenicity and safety data for a pentavalent combination vaccine containing acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) polysaccharide-conjugate antigens. Methods. A DTaP-IPV//PRP~T vaccine (Pentaxim™) was given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age to 212 ...

  3. Strategic Implications of the Native Hawaiian Sovereignty Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    and domestic histories of both Mexico and the United States, and has a defining impact on the gains and losses of territorial land between the two...Type B (HIB), Hepatitis B and Varicella (Chickenpox).18 In 2009, Hawaii received over 7.4 million in stimulus funding from the Federal Government

  4. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  5. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  6. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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  7. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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  8. Threat bias, not negativity bias, underpins differences in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    Although disparities in political ideology are rooted partly in dispositional differences, Hibbing et al.'s analysis paints with an overly broad brush. Research on the personality correlates of liberal-conservative differences points not to global differences in negativity bias, but to differences in threat bias, probably emanating from differences in fearfulness. This distinction bears implications for etiological research and persuasion efforts.

  9. Political ideology is contextually variable and flexible rather than fixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel C

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing et al. argue that the liberal-conservative continuum is (a) universal and (b) grounded in psychological differences in sensitivity to negative stimuli. Our commentary argues that both claims overlook the importance of context. We review evidence that the liberal-conservative continuum is far from universal and that ideological differences are contextually flexible rather than fixed.

  10. Heldeke, oled nii kaunis, et sadama hakkab : [luuletused] / Richard Brautigan ; tlk. Ingvar Luhaäär

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brautigan, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Sisu: Heldeke, oled nii kaunis, et sadama hakkab ; Veel keegi pole teinud seda nii säraliselt ; Kaunis luuletus ; Küüslauguga liha hõõruv Marcia ; Äri ; Mahedad hellused millesse ta mähib mu haavad ; Tunnen end vastikult ; "Kaasa lennates..."

  11. Performance of the Brighton collaboration case definition for hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode (HHE) on reported collapse reactions following infant vaccinations in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer-de Bondt, Patricia E; Dzaferagić, Aida; David, Silke; Maas, Nicoline A T van der

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed collapse (sudden onset of pallor, limpness and hyporesponsiveness) following the first infant (DPTP+Hib) vaccination reported to the enhanced passive surveillance system of the Netherlands in 1994-2003. All 1303 reports identified by the current RIVM (National Institute for Public Health

  12. African Heath Sciences Vol 7 No 4.p65

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOMCS2

    no evidence of significant associative interactions between Hib-CRM197 and MenC-CRM197 in saline-based buffers, pH 7.2. African ... aggregation of vaccine saccharide or protein components. 17, 18 ... chromatography and for analysis of the generated data. .... protein would be expected to elute after the main MenC-.

  13. Beyond the negative: political attitudes and ideologies strategically manage opportunities, too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing et al. use evolutionarily derived logic to suggest that political attitudes are related to responses to negative features of the environment. We suggest that the authors focus too narrowly on the negative and contend, instead, that a more comprehensive evolutionary approach focusing on people's responses to threats and opportunities will better account for variation in political attitudes.

  14. IMMUNOGENICITY AND SAFETY OF QUINVAXEM® (DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, WHOLE-CELL PERTUSSIS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B VACCINE) GIVEN TO VIETNAMESE INFANTS AT 2 TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huu, Tran Ngoc; Phuong, Nguyen Thi Minh; Toan, Nguyen Trong; Thang, Ho Vinh

    2015-07-01

    Vietnam plans to replace the routine childhood diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus combination (DPT) vaccine with a pentavalent vaccine. The present study was performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the combined diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B (HepB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTwP-HepB-Hib) Quinvaxem® vaccine in children. A total of 131 infants received the Quinvaxem® vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months. Antibody levels were measured at baseline, at one month after the third injection and one year after the first injection. Seroprotection rates were high for each vaccine antigen at one month after the third dose: 93.1% for diphtheria, 98.5% for tetanus, 99.2% for pertussis (seroconversion rate), 93.1% for HepB, and 100% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The rate of children with protective antibodies persisting at one year after the first dose was 88.4% for diphtheria, 49.6% for pertussis, 82.2% for tetanus, 76.7% for HepB and 97.7% for Hib (anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/ml). The Quinvaxem® vaccine was well tolerated and has a low rate of adverse events. Quinvaxem® given at 2, 3 and 4 months of age was immunogenic and safe for primary immunization among infants in Vietnam.

  15. Quantitative [18F]fluorodopa/PET and histology of fetal mesencephalic dopaminergic grafts to the striatum of MPTP-poisoned minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Annette Møller; Danielsen, Erik Hvid; Sørensen, Jens Christian

    2002-01-01

    -expressing HiB5 cells, a rat-derived neural cell line, tended to impair the survival of the grafts with the lowest values for graft volumes, TH-positive cell numbers, behavioral scores, and relative DOPA decarboxylase activity. From the results we conclude that pig ventral mesencephalic allografts can restore...

  16. Nonuniformity mitigation of beam illumination in heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, S; Noguchi, K; Suzuki, T; Kurosaki, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Zhang, W; Xie, J; Zhang, H; Dai, D

    2014-01-01

    In inertial fusion, a target DT fuel should be compressed to typically 1000 times the solid density. The target implosion nonuniformity is introduced by a driver beam’s illumination nonuniformity, for example. The target implosion should be robust against the implosion nonuniformities. In this paper, the requirement for implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion non-uniformity should be less than a few percent. The implosion dynamics is also briefly reviewed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). Heavy ions deposit their energy inside the target energy absorber, and the energy deposition layer is rather thick, depending on the ion particle energy. Then nonuniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination in HIF are discussed. A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF, wobbling heavy ion beam illumination was also introduced to realize a uniform implosion. The wobbling HIB axis oscillation is precisely controlled. In the wobbling HIBs’ illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space on an HIF target. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs’ illumination nonuniformity by its smoothing effect on the HIB illumination nonuniformity and also by a growth mitigation effect on the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. (invited comment)

  17. An Evaluation of the Antibullying Program at a Public Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This project study addressed the problem of harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) at a public suburban high school in the Northeast United States. The study school implemented the Anti-bullying Program in September 2011, yet no evaluation had been conducted on whether the program was meeting its goals. Two conceptual frameworks that drove…

  18. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  19. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  20. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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  1. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  2. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

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    Full Text Available ... and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono pertussis Silence the Sounds of Pertussis Acalla los Sonidos de la Tos Ferina AAP ... a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's ...

  3. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

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  4. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

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  5. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

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    Full Text Available ... and meningitis Stiletto and Extremus posters videos mono pertussis Silence the Sounds of Pertussis Acalla los Sonidos de la Tos Ferina AAP ... a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's ...

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and immunogenicity of TetractHib (a vaccine combining DTP vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine) administered to infants at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Abstract PDF · Vol 106, No 9 (2016) - Articles Invasive carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection at a paediatric hospital: A case ...

  7. original article the aetiology of enteric fever in abuja, north central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    influenza Type b (Hib). Very high rates of typhoid incidence were found in several DOMI (Diseases of the. Most Impoverished) sites, providing further evidence that typhoid continues to be a serious problem (1). It is endemic worldwide but most cases occur in areas of. Africa, Asia, and Latin America where sanitation is poor.

  8. South African Medical Journal - Vol 92, No 1 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safety and immunogenicity of TetractHib (a vaccine combining DTP vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine) administered to infants at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. G Hussey, H Malan, J Hughes, B ...

  9. Explaining ideology: two factors are better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Philip; Shields, Kenneth

    2014-06-01

    Hibbing et al. contend that individual differences in political ideology can be substantially accounted for in terms of differences in a single psychological factor, namely, strength of negativity bias. We argue that, given the multidimensional structure of ideology, a better explanation of ideological variation will take into account both individual differences in negativity bias and differences in empathic concern.

  10. Uso combinado da laserterapia de baixa potência e da inibição da ciclooxigenase-2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional em pele de camundongos: um estudo pré-clínico Combined use of low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibition on skin incisional wound reepithelialization in mice: a preclinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Helena Santuzzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A laserterapia de baixa potência e os inibidores seletivos da ciclooxigenase-2 (ICOX2 vem sendo muito utilizados para modular a resposta inflamatória, entretanto, os seus efeitos na reepitelização de feridas não são bem compreendidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos isolados e combinados da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 na reepitelização de ferida incisional na pele de camundongos. MÉTODO: Foi induzida uma ferida de 1 cm no dorso de cada camundongo, que foram divididos em quatro grupos (N=20: Controle, Laserterapia, Tratados com celecoxib e Terapia conjugada. Os animais dos grupos celecoxib e Terapia conjugada foram tratados com celecoxib por 10 dias antes da incisão cutânea. As feridas experimentais foram irradiadas com laserterapia de baixa potência He-Ne (632nm, dose: 4J/cm2 em varredura, por 12 segundos durante três dias consecutivos nos grupos Laserterapia e Terapia conjugada. Os animais foram sacrificados no 3º dia de pós-operatório. Amostras das feridas foram coletadas e coradas (Tricromio de Masson para análise histomorfométrica. RESULTADOS: Tanto o grupo Laserterapia, quanto o grupo celecoxib, mostrou aumento da reepitelização cutânea em relação ao grupo Controle, entretanto, o grupo Terapia conjugada não apresentou diferenças. Quanto à queratinização o grupo Laserterapia e Terapia conjugada apresentaram redução dos queratinócitos, comparados com o grupo Controle. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que o uso da laserterapia de baixa potência e da ICOX2 isoladamente aumentam as células epiteliais, mas somente a laserterapia de baixa potência reduziu os queratinócitos cutâneos. O tratamento conjugado restabelece a reepitelização inata e dimunui a queratinização, embora ocorra uma acelerada contração da ferida com melhora na organização da ferida na pele de camundongos.BACKGROUND: Low level laser therapy and cyclooxygenase-2 (ICOX2 selective inhibitors have been widely used

  11. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age <1 and <5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of Hib meningitis in children under the age of 5 in Campinas during 1997-98 was similar to that reported in the US, Western Europe, and Israel prior to widespread Hib vaccine use in those regions. This study provides a baseline for later studies to evaluate changes in the etiology and incidence of bacterial meningitis in children after introduction of routine Hib vaccination in Brazil.

  12. Hearing impairment after childhood bacterial meningitis dependent on etiology in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Mariia; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Peltola, Heikki; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Childhood bacterial meningitis (BM) damages hearing, but the potential of different agents to cause impairment in developing countries is poorly understood. We compared the extent of hearing impairment in BM caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidis among children aged 2 months to 13 years in Luanda, Angola. Hearing of 685 ears of 351 (78%) survivors among 723 enrolled patients was tested by brainstem-evoked response audiometry on day 7 of hospitalization. The causative agent was sought by cerebrospinal fluid culture, PCR or the latex-agglutination test. Altogether, 45 (12%) of the survivors were deaf (threshold >80 dB), and 20 (6%) had a threshold of 80 dB. The incidence of any kind of hearing loss, with ≥60 dB, was 34% with Hib, 30% with S. pneumoniae, 19% with N. meningitidis and 33% with other bacteria. Examining all ears combined and using the ≥60 dB threshold, the agents showed dissimilar harm (P=0.005), Hib being the most frequent and N. meningitidis the most infrequent cause. Compared to other agents, S. pneumoniae more often caused deafness (P=0.025) and hearing impairment at ≥60 dB (P=0.017) in infants, whereas this level of hearing loss in older survivors was most commonly caused by Hib (P=0.031). BM among children in Angola is often followed by hearing impairment, but the risk depends on the agent. S. pneumoniae is a major problem among infants, whereas Hib is mainly a risk beyond 12 months. N. meningitidis impairs hearing less frequently. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends in the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia from 2000 to 2013: what is the impact of an increase in invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sai Cheong, J; Smith, H; Heney, C; Robson, J; Schlebusch, S; Fu, J; Nourse, C

    2015-10-01

    Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.

  14. Impact of the introduction of new vaccines and vaccine wastage rate on the cost-effectiveness of routine EPI: lessons from a descriptive study in a Cameroonian health district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI offers services to the population free of charge but these activities are costly with the greatest part being the cost of vaccines. In spite of the growing international solidarity towards funding for immunization, the growing objectives continue to outweigh the available resources. It is therefore crucial for any immunization system to seek greater efficiency so as to optimize the use of available means in a bid to ensure sustainability. It is in this light that we carried out this study which aims to assess the productive efficiency of routine EPI for children aged 0 - 11 months with respect to the fixed and outreach vaccine delivery strategies in Ngong health district. The study is descriptive and cross-sectional. Data were collected retrospectively for all 16 health centers of the district that offered EPI services during the period February - May 2009. The results show that: • Only 62% of planned outreach immunization sessions were effectively carried out mainly due to limited funds for transportation and staff availability. Consequently vaccine coverage was low (BCG: 70.1%, DPT-HB-Hib 3: 55.5% and less resources (43% were used for this strategy which served 52% of the target population - a major blow to equity. • The average cost per Fully Immunized Child (FIC was 9,571 FCFA (19.22 USD for the fixed strategy; 12,751 FCFA (25.61 USD for the outreach and 10,718 FCFA (21.53 USD with both strategies combined. These figures are high than those observed in many other African health districts. However, DPT-HB-Hib and yellow fever vaccines contributed to the increase as vaccines occupied 57% of the total cost. With DPT in lieu of DPT-HB-Hib the cost/FIC would be 6,046 FCFA (12.14 USD. Dropout rates too were high (28.1% for the fixed, 29.7% for outreach. • The cost of vaccines wasted in excess of the national norm at the level of health centers was 595,532 FCFA (1,196.15 USD, an amount that

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of a combined hepatitis B virus-Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine comprising a synthetic antigen in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Betancourt, Arístides; González-Delgado, Carlos Alberto; Cinza-Estévez, Z; Martínez-Cabrera, Jesus; Véliz-Ríos, Gloria; Alemán-Zaldívar, Regis; Alonso-Martínez, M I; Lago-Baños, M; Puble-Alvarez, N; Delahanty-Fernandez, A; Juvier-Madrazo, A I; Ortega-León, D; Olivera-Ruano, L; Correa-Fernández, A; Abreu-Reyes, D; Soto-Mestre, E; Pérez-Pérez, M V; Figueroa-Baile, N; Pérez, L Hernandez; Rodríguez-Silva, A; Martínez-Díaz, E; Guillén-Nieto, G E; Muzio-González, Verena L

    2008-01-01

    The combined HB-Hib vaccine candidate Hebervac HB-Hib (CIGB, La Habana), comprising recombinant HBsAg and tetanus toxoid conjugate synthetic PRP antigens has shown to be highly immunogenic in animal models. A phase I open, controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out to assess the safety and immunogenicity profile of this bivalent vaccine in 25 healthy adults who were positive for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs). The trial was performed according to Good Clinical Practices and Guidelines. Volunteers were randomly allocated to receive the combined vaccine or simultaneous administration of HB vaccine Heberbiovac-HB and Hib vaccine QuimiHib (CIGB, La Habana). All individuals were intramuscularly immunized with a unique dose of 10 microg HBsAg plus 10 microg conjugated synthetic PRP. Adverse events were actively recorded after vaccine administration. Total anti-HBs and IgG anti-PRP antibody titers were evaluated using commercial ELISA kits at baseline and 30 days post-vaccination. The combined vaccine candidate was safe and well tolerated. The most common adverse reactions were local pain, febricula, fever and local erythema. These reactions were all mild in intensity and resolved without medical treatment. Adverse events were mostly reported during the first 6-72 hours post-vaccination. There were no serious adverse events during the study. No severe or unexpected events were either recorded during the trial. The combined vaccine elicited an anti-HBs and anti-PRP booster response in 100% of subjects at day 30 of the immunization schedule. Anti-HBs and anti-PRP antibody levels had at least a two-fold increase compared to baseline sera. Even more, anti-HBs antibody titer showed a four-fold increase in 100% of volunteers in the study group. The results indicate that the combined HB-Hib vaccine produces increased antibody levels in healthy adults who have previously been exposed to these two antigens. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of safety and

  16. Prevention of inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome in progeny chickens by vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus and chicken anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, H; González, C; Cerda, L; Morales, M A; Dooner, P; Salamero, M

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that an effective protection of progeny chickens against inclusion body hepatitis/hydropericardium syndrome (IBH/HP) can be achieved by dual vaccination of breeders with fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotype 4 and chicken anemia virus (CAV) was tested. Thus, 17-wk-old brown leghorn pullet groups were vaccinated by different schemes including single FAV (inactivated), single CAV (attenuated), FAV and CAV dually, or were not vaccinated (controls). Subsequent progenies of these breeders were challenged with the virulent strains FAV-341 and CAV-10343 following three strategies: 1) FAV-341 intramuscularly (i.m.) at day 10 of age (only FAV-vaccinated and control progenies); 2) FAV + CAV i.m. simultaneously at day 10 of age (all progenies); 3) CAV i.m. at day 1 and FAV orally at day 10 of age (all progenies). The induction of IBH/HP in these progenies was evaluated throughout a 10-day period. Both breeder groups vaccinated against FAV and those vaccinated against CAV increased virus neutralizing specific antibodies. Challenge strategy 1 showed 26.6% mortality in control progeny chickens and 13.3% in the progeny of FAV-vaccinated breeders. Presence of lesions in the liver of these groups showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), suggesting a discreet protective effect of the vaccine. Challenge strategy 2 showed 29.4% mortality in controls and 94% of chickens showed hepatic inclusion bodies (HIB). Single CAV vaccination of breeders did not demonstrate a beneficial effect, with both mortality and liver lesions resembling the nonvaccinated controls. FAV vaccination of breeders significantly reduced both mortality (7.4%) and liver lesions (26% HIB) (P vaccination of breeders with FAV and CAV proved to be necessary to achieve maximum protection of the progeny (no mortality and 7% HIB). Challenge strategy 3 produced no mortality but consistent liver damage in controls (96% HIB). In this case, both CAV and FAV + CAV-vaccinated breeders showed best protection results

  17. Effect of antenatal parasitic infections on anti-vaccine IgG levels in children: a prospective birth cohort study in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to malaria and/or helminths affects the pattern of infant immune responses to standard vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae (Hib, diphtheria (DT, hepatitis B (Hep B and tetanus toxoid (TT.450 Kenyan women were tested for malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis (LF, and intestinal helminths during pregnancy. After three standard vaccinations at 6, 10 and 14 weeks, their newborns were followed biannually to age 36 months and tested for absolute levels of IgG against Hib, DT, Hep B, and TT at each time point. Newborns' cord blood (CB lymphocyte responses to malaria blood-stage antigens, soluble Schistosoma haematobium worm antigen (SWAP, and filaria antigen (BMA were also assessed. Three immunophenotype categories were compared: i tolerant (those having Plasmodium-, Schistosoma-, or Wuchereria-infected mothers but lacking respective Th1/Th2-type recall responses at birth to malaria antigens, SWAP, or BMA; ii sensitized (those with infected/uninfected mothers and detectable Th1/Th2-type CB recall response to respective parasite antigen; or iii unexposed (no evidence of maternal infection or CB recall response. Overall, 78.9% of mothers were infected with LF (44.7%, schistosomiasis (32.4%, malaria (27.6% or hookworm (33.8%. Antenatal maternal malaria, LF, and hookworm were independently associated with significantly lower Hib-specific IgG. Presence of multiple maternal infections was associated with lower infant IgG levels against Hib and DT antigens post-vaccination. Post-vaccination IgG levels were also significantly associated with immunophenotype: malaria-tolerized infants had reduced response to DT, whereas filaria-tolerized infants showed reduced response to Hib.There is an impaired ability to develop IgG antibody responses to key protective antigens of Hib and diphtheria in infants of mothers infected with

  18. Predictors of administration and attitudes about pneumococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b and rotavirus vaccines among pediatricians in India: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Thacker, Naveen; Choudhury, Panna; Weiss, Paul S; Pazol, Karen; Bahl, Sunil; Jafari, Hamid S; Arora, Manisha; Orenstein, Walter A; Hughes, James M; Omer, Saad B

    2012-05-21

    According to the World Health Organization in 2008, pneumonia accounted for 20% of deaths and diarrheal diseases accounted for 13% of deaths among children under 5 in India. Vaccines are available for Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine), and rotavirus. Barriers to including these vaccines in routine immunization schedule in India include potential negative impacts on fragile existing immunization programs and cost. Pediatricians who are members of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) are important stakeholders for vaccine delivery and maintaining public confidence in vaccines. A random sample of 785 pediatricians belonging to IAP was selected for the survey conducted from June 2009 to June 2010. Descriptive analyses using sampling weights were performed to evaluate the distributions of variables assessing vaccine-related attitudes and behaviors among pediatricians. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with routine vaccine use. The majority of pediatricians reported administering PCV (85.6%), Hib (95.9%), and rotavirus (80.2%) vaccine selectively or routinely. Pediatricians who had high perceived disease susceptibility were 2.42 times more likely to report routine administration of Hib vaccine (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.24, 4.74). Pediatricians who had high perceived Hib vaccine efficacy were 4.74 times more likely to administer Hib vaccine routinely (OR 4.74, 95% CI 2.09, 10.74). Perceptions of disease susceptibility and severity or of vaccine safety and efficacy were not associated with routine administration of PCV or rotavirus vaccine. Understanding predictors of routine use of a new vaccine could help focus interventions to improve the routine use of other vaccines. The importance of perceived susceptibility to and severity of diseases caused by S. pneumoniae, Hib, and rotavirus and perceived efficacy and safety of the vaccines by pediatricians presents an opportunity to

  19. Prescripción de vacunas no incluidas en el calendario vacunal en la Comunitat Valenciana durante el período 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz Palacio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos, En el marco de las políticas de uso racional del medicamento, y al objeto de conseguir una gestión eficiente de los programas de vacunaciones, el objetivo de este trabajo es conocer el número de envases de las vacunas prescritas no incluidas en los programas de vacunación en la Comunitat Valenciana y en sus departamentos de salud, así como el gasto que produjeron en 2009, y analizar la evolución desde 2004, centrando el análisis en la vacuna heptavalente conjugada frente al Streptococcus pneumoniae en menores de dos años. Método, Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de las vacunas prescritas mediante receta en la Comunitat Valenciana durante el año 2009 y su evolución desde 2004. Variables, número de envases, tipo de beneficiario (activo/pensionista, departamento y gasto generado. Fuentes, Gestor de Prestación Farmacéutica (GAIA y Sistema Información Poblacional (SIP. Resultados: En 2009 la prescripción mediante receta de vacunas no incluidas en los programas de vacunación generó un gasto de 683.445,71 ] correspondiente a 17.353 envases, lo que supuso el 87! del total del gasto en vacunas recetadas. La vacuna frente al S. pneumoniae generó el 72! del gasto total de las vacunas no incluidas en el calendario. La evolución 2004-2009 muestra un aumento del gasto de 735.334 ] (24,66! en 2005 a partir del cual se produjo un descenso acusado y paulatino que alcanzó los 1.562.650,67 ] (-228.64!. El gasto por departamentos para la vacuna del neumococo conjugada heptavalente por mil niños/as menores de dos años osciló entre 17.377 y 324 ]. Conclusiones: La tendencia descendente del gasto en recetas prescritas se mantuvo durante 2009, fundamentalmente de vacunas conjugadas frente a neumococo. No obstante, se observó gran variabilidad interdepartamental en las tasas de prescripción que debe ser corregida.

  20. Análise das cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae causadores de pneumonia invasiva: sorotipos e sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina R. M. Yoshioka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar os sorotipos de pneumococo mais frequentemente isolados de crianças internadas com pneumonia invasiva, comparar os sorotipos com os incluídos em vacinas conjugadas e analisar sua sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos mais utilizados na faixa etária pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo das pneumonias pneumocócicas identificadas em crianças internadas no hospital universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, no período de janeiro de 2003 a outubro de 2008. Os critérios de inclusão foram: faixa etária de 29 dias até 15 anos incompletos com diagnóstico clínico e radiológico de pneumonia e com cultura de sangue e/ou líquido pleural com crescimento de Streptococcus pneumoniae. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídas no estudo 107 crianças. Os sorotipos mais frequentes foram: 14 (36,5%, 1 (16,7%, 5 (14,6%, 6B (6,3% e 3 (4,2%. A proporção de sorotipos contidos na vacina conjugada heptavalente seria de 53,1%, na vacina 10-valente de 86,5% e na 13-valente seria de 96,9%. De acordo com os padrões do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2008, 100 cepas (93,5% de pneumococos foram sensíveis à penicilina (concentração inibitória mínima, CIM 8 µg/mL. Verificamos alta taxa de sensibilidade para as cepas testadas para vancomicina, rifampicina, ceftriaxone, clindamicina, cloranfenicol e eritromicina. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados confirmam um expressivo impacto potencial das vacinas conjugadas, principalmente pela 10-valente e 13-valente, sobre os casos de pneumonias invasivas. Os resultados de sensibilidade à penicilina evidenciam que a opção terapêutica de escolha para o tratamento das pneumonias invasivas continua sendo a penicilina.

  1. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacqueline M.; Mesaros, Narcisa; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2011-01-01

    Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles. PMID:21991444

  2. Conjugate Meningococcal Vaccines Development: GSK Biologicals Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningococcal diseases are serious threats to global health, and new vaccines specifically tailored to meet the age-related needs of various geographical areas are required. This paper focuses on the meningococcal conjugate vaccines developed by GSK Biologicals. Two combined conjugate vaccines were developed to help protect infants and young children in countries where the incidence of meningococcal serogroup C or serogroup C and Y disease is important: Hib-MenC-TT vaccine, which offers protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C diseases, is approved in several countries; and Hib-MenCY-TT vaccine, which adds N. meningitidis serogroup Y antigen, is currently in the final stages of development. Additionally, a tetravalent conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT designed to help protect against four meningococcal serogroups is presently being evaluated for global use in all age groups. All of these vaccines were shown to be highly immunogenic and to have clinically acceptable safety profiles.

  3. Relation between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay for detection of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae type b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, K.; Weis Bentzon, M.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of antibodies to the capsular polysaccharide (PRP) of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is important because vaccines inducing such antibodies are now available. We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of these antibodies based on direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP. The assay fulfilled the requirements for parallel line assays; it was sensitive, specific, and reproducible with a coefficient of variation between days of 19%. Results from the ELISA were compared with results from radioimmunoassay and a correlation coefficient of 0.93 was found. Results obtained by the two methods were proportional and the relation was indepenedent of the antibody level. The relation between them was also unaffected by the contribution of different antibody isotypes, indicating that these were measured to the same extent by both methods. ELISA employing direct coating of the plates with tyraminated PRP represents a useful alternative for detection of antibodies when studying immunogenicity of Hib vaccines. (au)

  4. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10-4 torr (3×1012 cm-3) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors.

  5. Repetition rates in heavy ion beam driven fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The limits on the cavity gas density required for beam propagation and condensation times for material vaporized by target explosions can determine the maximum repetition rate of Heavy Ion Beam (HIB) driven fusion reactors. If the ions are ballistically focused onto the target, the cavity gas must have a density below roughly 10 -4 torr (3 x 10 12 cm -3 ) at the time of propagation; other propagation schemes may allow densities as high as 1 torr or more. In some reactor designs, several kilograms of material may be vaporized off of the target chamber walls by the target generated x-rays, raising the average density in the cavity to 100 tor or more. A one-dimensional combined radiation hydrodynamics and vaporization and condensation computer code has been used to simulate the behavior of the vaporized material in the target chambers of HIB fusion reactors

  6. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  7. Progress towards meningitis prevention in the conjugate vaccines era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Borges Laval

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conjugate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib, and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect and of their carriage status (indirect effect. We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.

  8. A review of the role of Haemophilus influenzae in community-acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary PE Slack

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era when Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate vaccine is widely used, the incidence of Hib as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP has dramatically declined. Non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi strains and, occasionally, other encapsulated serotypes of H. influenzae are now the cause of the majority of invasive H. influenzae infections, including bacteraemic CAP. NTHi have long been recognised as an important cause of lower respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia, in adults, especially those with underlying diseases. The role of NTHi as a cause of non-bacteraemic CAP in children is less clear. In this review the evidence for the role of NTHi and capsulated strains of H. influenzae will be examined.

  9. Characterization of the antibody response to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, K; Barington, T; Pressler, T

    1995-01-01

    single total IgG subclass, but total IgG measured as the sum of all four subclasses was significantly lower in the children with RLRI than in the controls (P = 0.036). Before vaccination, the children with RLRI had significantly less IgG antipolysaccharide Hib antibody than the controls (P = 0......M response to Hib conjugate vaccine in these children, since this isotype predominates in the primary immune response, i.e., in the absence of immunologic memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)......Children with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (RLRI) may respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens. To examine how such children respond to a polysaccharide coupled to a protein carrier, we immunized 15 children with RLRI aged 8-69 months and 15 carefully age-matched healthy controls...

  10. Clinical characteristics of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Denmark in the post-vaccination era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.I.; Howitz, M.; Andersen, Christian Østergaard

    2010-01-01

    P>The introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 1993 may have influenced the epidemiology of H. influenzae meningitis (i.e. increasing frequency of other non-vaccine types; presentation in other age groups). Based on nationwide...... registration, clinical information and laboratory findings were collected from all 65 confirmed cases of H. influenzae meningitis during the period 1994-2005. Twenty-nine patients (45%) were 24 years old [median 62 years (range 25...... infected with Hib, two cases (13%) were identified as true vaccine failures. Six patients (9%) died; one premature infant infected with serotype f and five adults (age 83-96 years) with non-typeable H. influenzae. Hearing loss was reported in 16% of the surviving children and in 10% of the surviving adults...

  11. ANÁLISE ESTRATÉGICA DO CROWDFUNDING E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O MERCADO DE CAPITAIS BRASILEIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Andrade Gabrich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O grande desafio para as startups – empresa cujo modelo de negócio é pautado na incerteza e que buscam desenvolver produtos/serviços inovadores – é a obtenção de financiamento para o exercício de sua atividade negocial. O crowdfunding tem sido a ferramenta mais utilizada para essa finalidade. Não obstante a eficiência que esse instrumento possa propiciar, a falta de regulamentação, conjugada com a ausência de segurança jurídica daí decorrentes, tem impedido o acesso das startups ao Mercado de Capitais brasileiro. Objetiva este estudo, a partir da Análise Estratégica do Direito, demonstrar a possibilidade de conjugar esses dois instrumentos.

  12. NUMERICAL STUDY OF APPLE COOLING IN TANDEM ARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIO ARÊDES MARTINS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El enfriamiento conjugado de manzanas dispuestas en tándem en bandejas fue estudiado en este trabajo usando una simulación numérica en CFD. Las ecuaciones gobernantes fueron discretizadas y resueltas usando el método de volúmenes fi nitos sobre mallas no estructuradas triangulares, y fue propuesto un esquema de acoplamiento de transferencia de calor entre la parte sólida y fl uida. El modelo computacional fue validado usando el número de Nusselt local y Nusselt promedio que son reportados en la literatura. La variación del numero de Nusselt y de la distribución de temperatura en las manzanas, fueron encontrados debido al comportamiento conjugado del problema. La aproximación conjugada demostró ser una gran herramienta para optimizar correlaciones convectivas de transferencia de calor reportadas en la literatura.

  13. Detección del receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico en lesiones orales premalignas por relaxometría

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Geli, Yamirka; De la Cruz, Enrique Reynaldo; Dutok Sánchez, Carlos M.; Álvarez Guerra, Eloy D

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: detectar la sobreexpresión del receptor de factor de crecimiento epidérmico en células epiteliales de lesiones premalignas de la mucosa bucal, marcadas magnéticamente por relaxometría. Métodos: las células exfoliadas de mucosa oral de individuos sanos y enfermos se marcaron con el sistema: IgG anti-EGF-R biotinilada/IgG anti-biotina conjugada con partículas superparamagnéticas y se midieron los tiempos de relajación T1 y T2. Resultados: disminuyeron los tiempos de relajación (T1 y T...

  14. La Casa Neven Dumont - Forsbach (Alemania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider-Wessling, Erich

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available This house is occupied by the family of a publisher who displays an intensive commercial and social activity. It is noteworthy because of the excellent internal distribution and its contrasting interplay of volumes, in its external aspect. It has a metal structure, brick walls, timber and large glazed panels, all of which have been blended with skill and functional purpose. The building integrates nicely with the leafy surrounding scenary.Esta vivienda, ocupada por la familia de un editor de gran actividad comercial y social, destaca por su perfecta distribución interior y por la dinámica de su forma y volumetría exteriores. Los materiales empleados —estructura metálica, fábrica de ladrillo, madera y grandes zonas acristaladas— han sido conjugadas con habilidad y sinceridad, mimetizando sabiamente con el frondoso paisaje circundante.

  15. Duplicação [TA] na região promotora do gene UGT1A1 : revisão sistemática e meta - análise

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Susana Cristina Fidalgo

    2012-01-01

    O Síndroma de Gilbert (SG) é uma entidade clínica comum caracterizada por uma forma benigna de hiperbilirrubinemia não conjugada, na ausência de disfunção hepática e de hemólise. O seu diagnóstico, inicialmente de carácter presuntivo, passou a dispor de caracterização molecular quando, em 1995, foram descritas as primeiras mutações no gene UridinoDifosfato-glucuronosil transferase-1 (UGT1A1). Em particular, uma duplicação de 2 nucleotídeos [TA] na região promotora do gene, que tem vindo a rev...

  16. VACCINE IMMUNIZATION FOR PREVENTION OF PNEUMOCOCCAL, HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE AND FLU AMONG SICKLY CHILDREN, WHO OFTEN SUFFER FROM PERSISTENT HETEROSPECIFIC INFECTIOUS PATHOLOGY OF THE BRONCHOPULMONARY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Ilienko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among serious diseases of the lower respiratory tract a special place is taken by pneumonias and chronic infectious respiratory diseases caused by pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB. The research purpose is to determine the effectiveness of vaccine combined application to treat sickly children, who often suffer from persistent infectious pathology of the respiratory tract, for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease. 110 children aged between 3 and 12 have been vaccinated. The first part of research implied children vaccination by means of Actahib and Pneumo 23 vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France, the second one consisted in immunization of children with the same pathology by means of Pneumo 23, Actahib and Vaxigrip vaccines (Sanofi Pasteur, France. The researches established that within a year after HIB and Pneumo 23 vaccination the frequency of upper and lower respiratory tract acerbations reduced by 2,3 times on average; likewise, the number of system antimicrobial dosage reduced by 7,4 times along with the total duration of dosage; the carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 3,7 times, H. influenzae — by 3,9 times. In the course of application of three vaccines, the frequency of persistent heat erospecific infectious bronchopulmonary pathology acerbations reduced by 3,3 times. The carrier state of S. pneumoniae reduced by 2,5 times, H. influenzae — by 4,1 times. Thus, vaccine immunization to treat for flu, pneumococcal and HIB disease in various combinations may be recoma mended for wider application to reduce the frequency and severity of heat erospecific infectious respiratory diseases among sickly children, who often suffer from various illnesses.Key words: children with recurrent diseases, vaccination, prevention, flu, H. Influenzae, S. pneumoniae.

  17. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe

  18. The Soviet Decision to Invade Czechoslovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    inuary 1976 DDC - ’■’ rv > Canoron Station O T "> 1 ." Mexancria The caveat appearing on the title pi c.r. ol: Center for hib- avanced^earch...Soviets viewed the political developments in Czechoslovakia in 1968 with alarm bordering on paranoia, conditioned by the "dagger" phobia and by...published its Action Program entitled "The Czechoslovak Road to Socialism ," a program described by a Western authority as "a remarkable

  19. A randomized study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a heptavalent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, haemophilus influenzae b, and meningococcal serogroup C combination vaccine administered to infants at 2, 4 and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thollot, Franck; Scheifele, David; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Leyssen, Maarten; Ulianov, Liliana; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2014-12-01

    The immunogenicity and safety of the investigational diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) heptavalent combination vaccine were compared with those of licensed control vaccines. In this open, phase II, randomized study (NCT01090453), 480 infants from Germany, France and Canada received the heptavalent vaccine (Hepta group) or hexavalent and monovalent MenC control vaccines (HexaMenC group) co-administered with a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4 and 12 months of age. Immunogenicity was measured 1 month after the second primary dose, and before and 1 month after the booster dose. Safety and reactogenicity were also evaluated. Non-inferiority of immune responses to MenC and Hib induced by 2-dose primary vaccination with the heptavalent vaccine versus control vaccines was demonstrated. In exploratory analyses, postprimary and postbooster functional antibody geometric mean titers against MenC tended to be lower (1119.5 vs. 3200.5; 2653.8 vs. 6028.4) and antibody geometric mean concentrations against Hib higher (1.594 vs. 0.671 μg/mL; 17.678 vs. 13.737 μg/mL) in the Hepta versus the HexaMenC group. The heptavalent and control vaccines were immunogenic to all other antigens, although immune responses to poliovirus were lower than expected in both groups. No differences in safety and reactogenicity profiles were detected between groups. The heptavalent vaccine induced non-inferior MenC and Hib responses compared with control vaccines. Both vaccination regimens, when administered at 2, 4 and 12 months of age, had comparable safety profiles and were immunogenic to all antigens, with lower-than-expected responses to poliomyelitis.

  20. Safety and immunogenicity of coadministering a combined meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Findlow, Helen; Ashton, Lindsey; England, Anna; Stanford, Elaine; Matheson, Mary; Southern, Joanna; Sheasby, Elizabeth; Goldblatt, David; Borrow, Ray

    2011-03-01

    The coadministration of the combined meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MCC)/Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine at 12 months of age was investigated to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this regimen compared with separate administration of the conjugate vaccines. Children were randomized to receive MCC/Hib vaccine alone followed 1 month later by PCV7 with MMR vaccine or to receive all three vaccines concomitantly. Immunogenicity endpoints were MCC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers of ≥8, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody concentrations of ≥0.15 μg/ml, PCV serotype-specific IgG concentrations of ≥0.35 μg/ml, measles and mumps IgG concentrations of >120 arbitrary units (AU)/ml, and rubella IgG concentrations of ≥11 AU/ml. For safety assessment, the proportions of children with erythema, swelling, or tenderness at site of injection or fever or other systemic symptoms for 7 days after immunization were compared between regimens. No adverse consequences for either safety or immunogenicity were demonstrated when MCC/Hib vaccine was given concomitantly with PCV and MMR vaccine at 12 months of age or separately at 12 and 13 months of age. Any small differences in immunogenicity were largely in the direction of a higher response when all three vaccines were given concomitantly. For systemic symptoms, there was no evidence of an additive effect; rather, any differences between schedules showed benefit from the concomitant administration of all three vaccines, such as lower overall proportions with postvaccination fevers. The United Kingdom infant immunization schedule now recommends that these three vaccines may be offered at one visit at between 12 and 13 months of age.

  1. Analysis and Verification of a Key Agreement Protocol over Cloud Computing Using Scyther Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Hazem A Elbaz

    2015-01-01

    The mostly cloud computing authentication mechanisms use public key infrastructure (PKI). Hierarchical Identity Based Cryptography (HIBC) has several advantages that sound well align with the demands of cloud computing. The main objectives of cloud computing authentication protocols are security and efficiency. In this paper, we clarify Hierarchical Identity Based Authentication Key Agreement (HIB-AKA) protocol, providing lightweight key management approach for cloud computing users. Then, we...

  2. KT-2 poloidal-field(PF) system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jang Min; Hong, Bong Keun; Hwang, Chul Kyu; Song, Woo Sub; Kim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Kwang Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    KT-2 poloidal-field (PF) system design is described. The PF coil system is designed for both up-down symmetric double-null (DN) and up-down asymmetric single-null (SN) configurations. Three sets of `design-basis` scenarios, which describe the ohmic heating (OH), the 5MW and the high bootstrap (HIBS) baseline modes, are represented. In these cases, the power and energy required from external power supplies are calculated. 8 tabs., 54 figs., 14 refs. (Author).

  3. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Stack, Meghan L; Richmond, Marcie R; Bear, Allyson P; Hajjeh, Rana A; Bishai, David M

    2010-03-16

    Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance). Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76), or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.75). For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04). Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors.

  4. Generation of a synthetic mammalian promoter library by modification of sequences spacing transcription factor binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Jens; Kusk, P.; Johansen, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    The development of a set of synthetic mammalian promoters with different specific activities is described. The library is based on a synthetic promoter, JeT, constructed as a 200 bp chimeric promoter built from fragments of the viral SV40 early promoter and the human beta-actin and ubiquitin C......, was obtained. The measured activity of each promoter in the library was highly specific and reproducible when tested in HiB5 and ARPE-19 cell culture....

  5. Induction of the GABA cell phenotype: an in vitro model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Subburaju

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the hippocampus have suggested that a network of genes is associated with the regulation of the GAD₆₇ (GAD1 expression and may play a role in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. To obtain a more detailed understanding of how GAD₆₇ regulation may result in GABAergic dysfunction, we have developed an in vitro model in which GABA cells are differentiated from the hippocampal precursor cell line, HiB5. Growth factors, such as PDGF, and BDNF, regulate the GABA phenotype by inducing the expression of GAD₆₇ and stimulating the growth of cellular processes, many with growth cones that form appositions with the cell bodies and processes of other GAD₆₇-positive cells. These changes are associated with increased expression of acetylated tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and the post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95. The addition of BDNF, together with PDGF, increases the levels of mRNA and protein for GAD₆₇, as well as the high affinity GABA uptake protein, GAT1. These changes are associated with increased concentrations of GABA in the cytoplasm of "differentiated" HiB5 neurons. In the presence of Ca²⁺ and K⁺, newly synthesized GABA is released extracellularly. When the HiB5 cells appear to be fully differentiated, they also express GAD₆₅, parvalbumin and calbindin, and GluR subtypes as well as HDAC1, DAXX, PAX5, Runx2, associated with GAD₆₇ regulation. Overall, these results suggest that the HiB5 cells can differentiate into functionally mature GABA neurons in the presence of gene products that are associated with GAD₆₇ regulation in the adult hippocampus.

  6. Vaccine Adverse Events Reported during the First Ten Years (1998–2008 after Introduction in the State of Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica P. L. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite good safety records, vaccines given to young children can cause adverse events. We investigated the reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI of vaccines given to children of less than seven years of age during the first ten years (1998 to 2008 in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. We worked with the events related to BCG (Bacillus Calmett-Guérin, HB (hepatitis B, DTwP/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis+Hemophillus influenza b, DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, MMR (mumps, measles, rubella, and YF (yellow fever vaccines because they were part of the recommended scheme. The number of doses of vaccines given was 3,231,567 with an average of AEFI of 57.2/year during the studied period. DTwP/Hib was responsible for 298 (57.8%, DTP 114 (22.9%, HB 31 (6%, MMR 28 (5.4%, BCG 24 (4.7%, and YF 20 (3.9% of the reported AEFI. The combination of the AEFI for DTwP/Hib vaccines showed the highest number of systemic (61.4% and local events (33.8%. Young children (≤1-year old were more susceptible to AEFI occurring in the 6 hours (54.2% following vaccine uptake. This study suggests significant differences in reactogenicity of vaccines and that despite limitations of the AEFI Brazilian registry system we cannot ignore underreporting and should use the system to expand our understanding of adverse events and effects.

  7. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra Grove

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children with inactiv......Background.  Live vaccines may have nonspecific beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. This study examines whether children who had the live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) as the most recent vaccine had a different rate of admissions for infectious diseases than children...... with inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods.  A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses...... of DTaP-IPV-Hib, were observed from 24 months (first OPV dose) to 36 months of age. Results.  Oral polio vaccine was associated with a lower rate of admissions with any type of non-polio infection compared with DTaP-IPV-Hib as most recent vaccine (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.85; 95% confidence...

  8. Long-term trends in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type B disease among indigenous Australian children following use of PRP-OMP and PRP-T vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert Ian; Bremner, Kyla Margaret; Wang, Han; Beard, Frank Hudson; McIntyre, Peter Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Among indigenous populations with high incidence and early onset of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, PRP-OMP vaccines are used in the United States and PRP-T vaccines in Canada. In Australia, PRP-OMP vaccines were exclusively used in indigenous children from 1993 until they were replaced by PRP-T between late 2005 and 2009. Analytic descriptive study of 20 years of enhanced surveillance data (1993-2013) for invasive Hib disease in Australian children PRP-OMP period (1993-1996) to 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 9.2) and 4.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.3) in the later PRP-OMP (1996-2009) and PRP-T periods (2009-2013), respectively. The indigenous:nonindigenous incidence rate ratio increased to 43 (95% CI: 16, 145) and 58 (95% CI: 7, 2660) in the later PRP-OMP and PRP-T periods, respectively, more than 10-fold higher than in lesser-incidence Australian regions. We found no change in Hib incidence among indigenous Australian children living in high-incidence regions in the first 4 years following a change to PRP-T-containing combination vaccines. This may be of relevance to North American indigenous populations characterized by suboptimal living conditions and young age of onset for whom PRP-OMP continues to be recommended, such as Alaska Natives.

  9. Association of secondhand smoke exposure with pediatric invasive bacterial disease and bacterial carriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of epidemiologic studies have observed an association between secondhand smoke (SHS exposure and pediatric invasive bacterial disease (IBD but the evidence has not been systematically reviewed. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of SHS exposure and two outcomes, IBD and pharyngeal carriage of bacteria, for Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib, and Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae.Two independent reviewers searched Medline, EMBASE, and selected other databases, and screened articles for inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified 30 case-control studies on SHS and IBD, and 12 cross-sectional studies on SHS and bacterial carriage. Weighted summary odd ratios (ORs were calculated for each outcome and for studies with specific design and quality characteristics. Tests for heterogeneity and publication bias were performed. Compared with those unexposed to SHS, summary OR for SHS exposure was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52-2.69 for invasive meningococcal disease, 1.21 (95% CI 0.69-2.14 for invasive pneumococcal disease, and 1.22 (95% CI 0.93-1.62 for invasive Hib disease. For pharyngeal carriage, summary OR was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.36 for N. meningitidis, 1.66 (95% CI 1.33-2.07 for S. pneumoniae, and 0.96 (95% CI 0.48-1.95 for Hib. The association between SHS exposure and invasive meningococcal and Hib diseases was consistent regardless of outcome definitions, age groups, study designs, and publication year. The effect estimates were larger in studies among children younger than 6 years of age for all three IBDs, and in studies with the more rigorous laboratory-confirmed diagnosis for invasive meningococcal disease (summary OR 3.24; 95% CI 1.72-6.13.When considered together with evidence from direct smoking and biological mechanisms, our systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that SHS exposure may be associated with invasive meningococcal disease. The

  10. Paediatric acute epiglottitis: not a disappearing entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, John; Giridharan, Wijayasingham; Clarke, Raymond W; Shears, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Paediatric epiglottitis is a serious, potentially life-threatening condition. Since the widespread introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in the UK in October 1992, there has been a dramatic reduction in its incidence. Vaccine failure is rare. The purpose of this study is to examine the failure rate of H. influenzae type b vaccine as measured by the number of cases of Haemophilus epiglottitis in fully vaccinated children presenting to a tertiary paediatric centre. A secondary aim is to provide a retrospective review of all cases of epiglottitis over a 13-year period. A retrospective case-note review identifying all cases of epiglottitis presenting to Alder Hey Hospital was undertaken covering the time period December 1987-January 2001. Details of patient age, sex, source of referral, clinical presentation, management and complications along with microbiological and serological findings were obtained. There were 21 males and 19 females. The mean age was 36 months (range 6-125 months). A provisional diagnosis was made on the basis of the clinical features, confirmed by direct laryngoscopy in all but two cases and further supported in 28 cases by a positive blood culture. Of the 40 children presenting with epiglottitis, eight (20%) presented after the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine. H. influenzae antibody titres were measured both in the acute and convalescent phases of illness by the central Haemophilus Reference Unit in Oxford. We present the clinical features, management and complications of 40 cases of acute epiglottitis. H. influenzae was isolated from blood cultures in 28 cases (70%). In 12 of these cases, H. influenzae type b was identified, seven prior to 1993 and five thereafter. Four of these five cases presenting after introduction of the Hib vaccine were known to have been fully vaccinated. One child had a history of prematurity and serum immunoglobulin estimation was abnormally low in another child. Acute Hib

  11. Assessment of immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster immunisation with a CRM197 -conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine in healthy Chinese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, L; Yuguo, C; Zhiguo, W; Jinfeng, L; Huawei, M; Xiuhua, L; Yonggui, Z; Yanhua, X; Kong, Y; Hongtao, L; Yuliang, Z

    2013-10-01

    Invasive meningitis and pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of childhood mortality in countries where Hib vaccination is not routine. We evaluated the non-inferiority of a licensed Hib vaccine, PRP-CRM(197) compared with a second licensed Hib vaccine, PRP-T, following the recommended Chinese immunisation schedule for infants between 6 months and 1 year of age. In the first study phase, 6-12 month-old infants received two primary doses of either PRP-CRM(197) (n = 335) or PRP-T (n = 335) vaccine administered 1 month apart. In the second study phase 8 months later, the same children received a single booster dose of vaccine identical to that use for priming (PRP-CRM(197), n = 327; PRP-T, n = 333). Serum levels of anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Non-inferiority of primary and booster doses was assessed in terms of percentages of subjects with anti-PRP antibody levels associated with providing short-term (≥ 0.15 μg/ml) and long-term (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) protection; the non-inferiority margin was set at -5%. PRP-CRM(197) was demonstrated to be non-inferior to PRP-T. Anti-PRP antibodies levels ≥ 0.15 μg/ml and ≥ 1.0 μg/ml were achieved by 97% of infants in the PRP-CRM(197) group and 98% of infants in the PRP-T group 1 month after primary immunisation, and by all subjects (100%) in both vaccine groups 1 month after booster administration. Safety profiles for both vaccines were similar; no serious adverse events, deaths or adverse events leading to withdrawal occurred during the study. PRP-CRM(197) was well-tolerated and immunologically non-inferior to a licensed comparator Hib vaccine in Chinese infants (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01044316 & NCT01226953). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pneumonia Prevention during a Humanitarian Emergency: Cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Conjugate Vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Hajjeh, Rana; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-08-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of death among children less than five years old during humanitarian emergencies. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the leading causes of bacterial pneumonia. Vaccines for both of these pathogens are available to prevent pneumonia. Problem This study describes an economic analysis from a publicly funded health care system perspective performed on a birth cohort in Somalia, a country that has experienced a protracted humanitarian emergency. An impact and cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing: no vaccine, Hib vaccine only, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 10 (PCV10) only, and both together administered through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). The main summary measure was the incremental cost per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted for uncertainty in parameter values. Each SIA would avert a substantial number of cases and deaths. Compared with no vaccine, the DALYs averted by two SIAs for two doses of Hib vaccine was US $202.93 (lower and upper limits: $121.80-$623.52), two doses of PCV10 was US $161.51 ($107.24-$227.21), and two doses of both vaccines was US $152.42 ($101.20-$214.42). Variables that influenced the cost-effectiveness for each strategy most substantially were vaccine effectiveness, case fatality rates (CFRs), and disease burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a cost-effective intervention as costing one to three times the per capita gross domestic product (GDP; in 2011, for Somalia=US $112). Based on the presented model, Hib vaccine alone, PCV10 alone, or Hib vaccine and PCV10 given together in SIAs are cost-effective interventions in Somalia. The WHO/Strategic Advisory Group of Experts decision-making factors for vaccine deployment appear to have all been met: the disease burden is large, the vaccine-related risk is low, prevention in this setting is more feasible than treatment, the vaccine

  13. Oropharyngeal colonization by Haemophilus influenzae in healthy children from Taubaté (São Paulo, prior to the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination program in Brazil Colonização da orofaringe de crianças saudáveis de Taubaté (São Paulo por Haemophilus influenzae, antes da introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae do tipo b no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae is one of the most important bacterial agents of otitis and sinusitis. H. influenzae type b (Hib is one of the main causes of meningitis, pneumonia, and septicemia in nonvaccinated children under 6 years of age. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of H. influenzae and Hib oropharyngeal colonization prior to the onset of the Hib vaccination program in Brazil in previously healthy children and to assess the susceptibility profile of this microorganism to a selected group of antimicrobials that are used to treat acute respiratory infections. METHOD: Cultures of Haemophilus influenzae were made from oropharynx swabs from 987 children under 6 years of age who were enrolled in 29 day-care centers in Taubaté (a city of São Paulo state, Brazil between July and December 1998. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. influenzae carriers was 17.4%, and only 5.5% of the strains were beta-lactamase producers. The prevalence of Hib carriers was high, 7.3% on average (range, 0.0 - 33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of colonization by penicillin-resistant strains indicates that it is not necessary to substitute ampicilin or amoxicilin to effectively treat otitis and sinusitis caused by H. influenzae in Taubaté.Haemophilus influenzae é um dos mais importantes agentes bacterianos de otites e sinusites. Em crianças menores de seis anos de idade não vacinadas contra o H. influenzae do tipo b (Hib, essa bactéria é uma das principais causadoras de meningite, pneumonia e sepse. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência da colonização da orofaringe de crianças previamente saudáveis por H. influenzae e Hib e avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade desses microorganismos a um grupo seleto de antimicrobianos, que habitualmente são utilizados para tratar as infecções respiratórias agudas. MÉTODO: Foram colhidos swabs da orofaringe de 987 crianças menores de seis anos de idade que freqüentavam 29 creches da

  14. Aspectos epidemiológicos da infecção por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b Epidemiologic aspects of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Loguercio Bouskela

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi revisar o papel do Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib como um dos patógenos mais importantes implicados em doenças infecciosas invasivas, especialmente nos 2 primeiros anos de vida. Nos países em desenvolvimento, o H. Influenzae chega a causar 30% dos casos de pneumonia com cultura positiva e de 20 a 60% dos casos de meningite bacteriana. No presente estudo, dados epidemiológicos do Brasil foram comparados com dados internacionais obtidos em bancos de dados (Medline, 1966 a 1995; LILACS, 1982 a 1995; Thesis databank, 1980 a 1995; e Dissertation abstracts, 1988 a 1994. Analisámos o coeficiente de incidência do Hib no Brasil por estado e por faixa etária, com estratificação inclusive para o 1° ano de vida. A meningite foi utilizada como marcador do coeficiente de incidência devido às dificuldades para obter material adequado para a identificação do microrganismo nos outros quadros, como pneumonia, osteomielite, epiglotite ou endocardite. Nossa análise revelou que os dados nacionais mascaram a incidência e a letalidade regionais do H. influenzae: por exemplo, em 1991, a incidência no Brasil foi de 18,4 em 100 000 crianças menores de 1 ano; no mesmo período, a incidência no Distrito Federal foi de 175 em 100 000 crianças entre 4 e 6 meses. Além disso, a letalidade na região Norte foi de 35% em 1987, contra 22% para o Brasil como um todo. Nosso estudo abre a discussão sobre aspectos epidemiológicos relevantes das infecções por Hib e sobre o custo-benefício da profilaxia e vacinação nas faixas etárias de maior risco.This paper reviews the role of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib as one of the most important pathogens causing invasive infectious diseases, especially in the first 2 years of life. In developing countries H. influenzae is responsible for 30% of all pneumonia cases with positive cultures and for 20% to 60% of all bacterial meningitis cases. In this study we compared

  15. Randomized controlled trial of fish oil and montelukast and their combination on airway inflammation and hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tecklenburg-Lund

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Both fish oil and montelukast have been shown to reduce the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of fish oil and montelukast, alone and in combination, on airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction induced by eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH in asthmatics.In this model of EIB, twenty asthmatic subjects with documented hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB entered a randomized double-blind trial. All subjects entered on their usual diet (pre-treatment, n = 20 and then were randomly assigned to receive either one active 10 mg montelukast tablet and 10 placebo fish oil capsules (n = 10 or one placebo montelukast tablet and 10 active fish oil capsules totaling 3.2 g EPA and 2.0 g DHA (n = 10 taken daily for 3-wk. Thereafter, all subjects (combination treatment; n = 20 underwent another 3-wk treatment period consisting of a 10 mg active montelukast tablet or 10 active fish oil capsules taken daily.While HIB was significantly inhibited (p0.017 between treatment groups; percent fall in forced expiratory volume in 1-sec was -18.4 ± 2.1%, -9.3±2.8%, -11.6 ± 2.8% and -10.8 ± 1.7% on usual diet (pre-treatment, fish oil, montelukast and combination treatment respectively. All three treatments were associated with a significant reduction (p0.017 in these biomarkers between treatments.While fish oil and montelukast are both effective in attenuating airway inflammation and HIB, combining fish oil with montelukast did not confer a greater protective effect than either intervention alone. Fish oil supplementation should be considered as an alternative treatment for EIB.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00676468.

  16. Modeling the Potential for Vaccination to Diminish the Burden of Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella Disease in Young Children in Mali, West Africa.

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    Kristin Bornstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%. Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years. While NTS is believed to be acquired orally via contaminated food/water, epidemiologic studies have failed to identify the reservoir of infection or vehicles of transmission. This has precluded targeting food chain interventions to diminish disease transmission but conversely has fostered the development of vaccines to prevent invasive NTS (iNTS disease. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the potential impact of NTS vaccination programs in Bamako.A Markov chain transmission model was developed utilizing age-specific Bamako demographic data and hospital surveillance data for iNTS disease in children aged <5 years and assuming vaccine coverage and efficacy similar to the existing, successfully implemented, Hib vaccine. Annual iNTS hospitalizations and deaths in children <5 years, with and without a Salmonella Enteritidis/Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, were the model's outcomes of interest. Per the model, high coverage/high efficacy iNTS vaccination programs would drastically diminish iNTS disease except among infants age <8 weeks.The public health impact of NTS vaccination shifts as disease burden, vaccine coverage, and serovar distribution vary. Our model shows that implementing an iNTS vaccine through an analogous strategy to the Hib vaccination program in Bamako would markedly reduce cases and deaths due to iNTS among the pediatric population. The model can be adjusted for

  17. Budget impact analysis of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine in the childhood immunization schedule of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Fatemeh; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Gheiratian, MohammadMahdi; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2017-01-14

    Health decision makers need to know the impact of the development of a new intervention on the public health and health care costs so that they can plan for economic and financial objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the budget impact of adding Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine (Hib-HBV-DTP) to the national childhood immunization schedule of Iran. An excel-based model was developed to determine the costs of including the Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization program (NIP), comparing the present schedule with the previous one (including separate DTP and hepatitis B vaccines). The total annual costs included the cost of vaccination (the vaccine and syringe) and the cost of Hib treatment. The health outcome was the estimated annual cases of the diseases. The net budget impact was the difference in the total annual cost between the two schedules. Uncertainty about the vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, cost of the vaccine, and cost of the diseases were handled through scenario analysis. The total cost of vaccination during 5 years was $18,060,463 in the previous program and $67,774,786 in the present program. Inclusion of the Pentavalent vaccine would increase the vaccination cost about $49 million, but would save approximately $6 million in the healthcare costs due to reduction of disease cases and treatment costs. The introduction of the Pentavalent vaccine resulted in a net increase in the healthcare budget expenditure across all scenarios from $43.4 million to $50.7 million. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of the Pentavalent vaccine in the NIP of Iran had a significant impact on the health care budget and increased the financial burden on the government. Budget impact of including Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization schedule of Iranᅟ.

  18. Nonculturability Might Underestimate the Occurrence of Campylobacter in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Issmat I; Helmy, Yosra A; Kathayat, Dipak; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Kumar, Anand; Deblais, Loic; Huang, Huang-Chi; Sahin, Orhan; Zhang, Qijing; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the contribution of litter to the occurrence of Campylobacter on three broiler farms, which were known to have low (LO) and high (HI-A and HI-B) Campylobacter prevalence. For this purpose, we collected litter samples (n = 288) during and after two rearing cycles from each farm. We evaluated the occurrence of Campylobacter (using selective enrichment and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction [q-PCR] analysis) in the litter samples as well as the litter's pH and moisture content. Ceca from each flock (n = 144) were harvested at slaughter age and used to quantify Campylobacter colony-forming units (CFUs). Campylobacter was only retrieved from 7 litter samples that were collected from HI-A and HI-B during the growing period, but no Campylobacter was isolated from LO farms. The q-PCR analysis detected Campylobacter in pooled litter samples from all three farms. However, in litter collected during the same rotation, Campylobacter levels were significantly higher (p litter samples in comparison to those in LO. Cecal samples from HI-A and HI-B yielded relatively high numbers of Campylobacter CFUs, which were undetectable in LO samples. Litter's pH and moisture did not affect the overall occurrence of Campylobacter in litter and ceca on any of the farms. Our data suggest that Campylobacter was generally more abundant in litter that was collected from farms with highly colonized flocks. Therefore, better approaches for assessing the occurrence of Campylobacter in litter might be warranted in order to reduce the dissemination of these pathogens on and off poultry farms.

  19. Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides supplementation does not increase the vaccine antibody response in preterm infants in a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolice P van den Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, a decreased immunological response and lower serological effectiveness are observed after immunizations due to ineffectiveness of both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of 80% neutral oligosaccharides [small-chain galacto-oligosaccharides/long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS] in combination with 20% pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS on antibody concentrations after DTaP-IPV-Hib immunization in preterm infants. DESIGN: In this randomized clinical trial, preterm infants with gestational age <32 weeks and/or birth weight <1500 g received enteral supplementation with scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS or placebo (maltodextrin between days 3 and 30 of life. Blood samples were collected at 5 and 12 months of age. RESULTS: In total, 113 infants were included. Baseline and nutritional characteristics were not different in both groups. Geometric mean titers were not different after prebiotic supplementation at 5 months, Ptx (37/44 EU/ml, FHA (78/96 EU/ml, Prn (78/80 EU/ml, Diphtheria (0.40/0.57 IU/ml, Tetanus (0.74/0.99 IU/ml and Hib (0.35/0.63 µg/ml, and at 12 months Ptx (55/66 EU/ml, FHA (122/119 EU/ml, Prn (116/106 Eu/ml, Diphtheria (0.88/1.11 IU/ml, Tetanus (1.64/1.79 IU/ml and Hib (2.91/2.55 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral supplementation of neutral (scGOS/lcFOS and acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS does not improve the immunization response in preterm infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN16211826 ISRCTN16211826.

  20. Five molecules we would take to a remote island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Thomas U; Marx, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Which five molecules would you take to a remote island? If you imagine yourself as a castaway on an island you might pick water, glucose, penicillin, and ethanol in combination with aspirin. However, as a scientist, you may ask yourself which molecules impressed you most by their chemical or biological property, their impact on science, or the ingenuity and/or serendipity behind their discovery. Here, we present our personal short list comprising FK506, colchicine, imatinib, Quimi-Hib, and cidofovir. Obviously, our selection is highly subjective and, therefore, we apologize up front to our colleagues for not mentioning their favorite compounds.

  1. AcEST: DK946050 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iscus mechowi... 59 2e-07 tr|A6XJN0|A6XJN0_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L32 OS=Hibiscus ...ibosomal protein L32 OS=Cuscuta reflexa ... 57 6e-07 tr|A6XJM9|A6XJM9_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L32 OS=Hibiscus...e-07 tr|B0YPS0|B0YPS0_ANEMR Ribosomal protein L32 OS=Aneura mirabilis... 59 2e-07 tr|A6XJN1|A6XJN1_9ROSI Ribosomal protein L32 OS=Hib

  2. Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en la población infantil cubana: 1998-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Orlando Dickinson Meneses

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas (MEB en Cuba entre 1998 y el año 2000, según los datos de la Vigilancia Nacional de las MEB (VNMEB disponibles. Se reportaron un total de 530 casos en menores de 15 años en todo el país durante el período. El grupo de edad más afectado resultó el de menos de 5 años. Los agentes más frecuentemente identificados fueron Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn y Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. La incidencia de Hib disminuyó 4 veces por el efecto de la vacunación masiva, especialmente en los menores de 5 años, a partir del año 2000 Spn es el principal agente causante de MEB y el más letal en Cuba. La letalidad general se incrementó de 10,6 a 20,4 %, y fue el grupo de los de menos de 1 año uno de los más afectados. Futuros estudios permitirán profundizar en la epidemiología de estas infecciones y monitorear los cambios que ocurran como consecuencia de intervenciones.Somme epidemiological aspects of bacterial meningoencephalities that occurred in Cuba from 1998-2000 are described according to available data from the National Surveillance Service. A total of 530 cases involving children under 15 years old were reported throughout the country in this period of time. The most affected age group was under 5 years. The most frequent identified agents were Haemophilus influenzae type B(Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn and Neisseria meningitidis (Nm. The incidence of Hib decreased by 4 times thanks to massive vaccination program, particularly in under 5 years-old children, from the year 2000 on. Spn is the main causative agent of bacterial meningoencephalities and the most lethal one in Cuba. General lethality rate increased from 10.6 to 20.4% and the under one-year old age group was the most affected. Further studies will allow deepening into the epidemiology of these infections and monitoring the changes that might occur as a

  3. Evaluación rápida del impacto de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae serotipo b en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Agudelo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available En 1998, el Ministerio de Salud de Colombia inició la vacunación contra Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib en menores de 1 año. En 1999 se evaluó el impacto de esta intervención en la incidencia de la meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA utilizando los datos del sistema de vigilancia por laboratorio que coordina desde 1994 el Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. En el análisis se comparó el número anual de casos de meningitis por Hib en niños menores de 1 año que se diagnosticaron en el sistema de vigilancia, antes de introducirse la vacuna, con el número de casos registrados durante el primer año después de iniciada la vacunación. El número de casos esperado, según el promedio anual de los diagnosticados entre junio de 1994 y mayo de 1998, se comparó con el número de casos observado después de la vacunación entre junio de 1998 y mayo de 1999. Para controlar la calidad del sistema de vigilancia, se realizó un estudio similar de los casos de meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae. En los análisis se incluyeron solamente los datos de los departamentos que habían participado con mayor regularidad en la vigilancia. Entre 1994 y 1998 se confirmaron, respectivamente, 45, 37, 61, 64 y 31 casos de MBA por Hib, mientras que en el período posvacunal se esperaban 52 casos y se observaron 31 (P < 0,001. Durante los mismos períodos anuales se confirmaron también 32, 26, 43, 48 y 42 casos de MBA por S. pneumoniae en menores de 5 años, cifras que no representaron una disminución significativa del número de casos esperados. Sin embargo, la reducción observada en los casos de meningitis por Hib fue de 40%, porción no atribuible a cambios en el sistema de vigilancia. Concluimos, por lo tanto, que esta disminución se debió en su mayor parte a los efectos de la vacunación.

  4. Evaluación rápida del impacto de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae serotipo b en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agudelo Clara Inés

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1998, el Ministerio de Salud de Colombia inició la vacunación contra Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib en menores de 1 año. En 1999 se evaluó el impacto de esta intervención en la incidencia de la meningitis bacteriana aguda (MBA utilizando los datos del sistema de vigilancia por laboratorio que coordina desde 1994 el Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. En el análisis se comparó el número anual de casos de meningitis por Hib en niños menores de 1 año que se diagnosticaron en el sistema de vigilancia, antes de introducirse la vacuna, con el número de casos registrados durante el primer año después de iniciada la vacunación. El número de casos esperado, según el promedio anual de los diagnosticados entre junio de 1994 y mayo de 1998, se comparó con el número de casos observado después de la vacunación entre junio de 1998 y mayo de 1999. Para controlar la calidad del sistema de vigilancia, se realizó un estudio similar de los casos de meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae. En los análisis se incluyeron solamente los datos de los departamentos que habían participado con mayor regularidad en la vigilancia. Entre 1994 y 1998 se confirmaron, respectivamente, 45, 37, 61, 64 y 31 casos de MBA por Hib, mientras que en el período posvacunal se esperaban 52 casos y se observaron 31 (P < 0,001. Durante los mismos períodos anuales se confirmaron también 32, 26, 43, 48 y 42 casos de MBA por S. pneumoniae en menores de 5 años, cifras que no representaron una disminución significativa del número de casos esperados. Sin embargo, la reducción observada en los casos de meningitis por Hib fue de 40%, porción no atribuible a cambios en el sistema de vigilancia. Concluimos, por lo tanto, que esta disminución se debió en su mayor parte a los efectos de la vacunación.

  5. GDNF and neublastin protect against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, C; Kristensen, B W; Blaabjerg, M

    2000-01-01

    -producing HiB5 cells, were added to slice cultures I h before exposure to 10 microM NMDA for 48h. Neuronal cell death was monitored, before and during the NMDA exposure, by densitometric measurements of propidium iodide (PI) uptake and loss of Nissl staining. Both the addition of rhGDNF and NBN......The potential neuroprotective effects of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neublastin (NBN) against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity were examined in hippocampal brain slice cultures. Recombinant human GDNF (25-100 ng/ ml) or NBN, in medium conditioned by growth of transfected, NBN...

  6. Environmental Assessment Newport Research Facility Irish Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    Classification Symbol Burdett silt loam, 3 to 8 percent BuB Not Hydric Prime Farmland if Drained slopes Honeoye and Lansing silt loams, Hre Not...Part USDA - llap unit symbol BuB ~ CsB HrE HsD HIB HtC LnC LnD McB MIS ~ MoB I MoD NaB NaC NaD I 1R0 •ShF llap unit Mille Rating

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko

    2016-08-31

    Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (pvaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the primary series induced protective levels of Hib antibodies with no safety or tolerability concerns. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  8. Distinct α subunit variations of the hypothalamic GABAA receptor triplets (αβγ are linked to hibernating state in hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alò Raffaella

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structural arrangement of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR is known to be crucial for the maintenance of cerebral-dependent homeostatic mechanisms during the promotion of highly adaptive neurophysiological events of the permissive hibernating rodent, i.e the Syrian golden hamster. In this study, in vitro quantitative autoradiography and in situ hybridization were assessed in major hypothalamic nuclei. Reverse Transcription Reaction-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR tests were performed for specific GABAAR receptor subunit gene primers synthases of non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters. Attempts were made to identify the type of αβγ subunit combinations operating during the switching ON/OFF of neuronal activities in some hypothalamic nuclei of hibernators. Results Both autoradiography and molecular analysis supplied distinct expression patterns of all α subunits considered as shown by a strong (p 1 ratio (over total α subunits considered in the present study in the medial preoptic area (MPOA and arcuate nucleus (Arc of NHIBs with respect to HIBs. At the same time α2 subunit levels proved to be typical of periventricular nucleus (Pe and Arc of HIB, while strong α4 expression levels were detected during awakening state in the key circadian hypothalamic station, i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus (Sch; 60%. Regarding the other two subunits (β and γ, elevated β3 and γ3 mRNAs levels mostly characterized MPOA of HIBs, while prevalently elevated expression concentrations of the same subunits were also typical of Sch, even though this time during the awakening state. In the case of Arc, notably elevated levels were obtained for β3 and γ2 during hibernating conditions. Conclusion We conclude that different αβγ subunits are operating as major elements either at the onset of torpor or during induction of the arousal state in the Syrian golden hamster. The identification of a brain regional

  9. The genetic and environmental foundations of political, psychological, social, and economic behaviors: a panel study of twins and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K; Smith, Kevin; Alford, John R; Martin, Nicholas G; Hibbing, John R

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce the Genetic and Environmental Foundations of Political and Economic Behaviors: A Panel Study of Twins and Families (PIs Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, and Smith). This study was designed to explore the genetic and environmental influences on social, economic, and political behaviors and attitudes. It involves identifying the psychological mechanisms that operate on these traits, the heritability of complex economic and political traits under varying conditions, and specific genetic correlates of attitudes and behaviors. In addition to describing the study, we conduct novel analyses on the data, estimating the heritability of two traits so far unexplored in the extant literature: Machiavellianism and Baron-Cohen's Empathizing Quotient.

  10. Meningitis neumocócica en niños menores de 15 años: Dieciséis años de vigilancia epidemiológica en Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Grenón

    Full Text Available Se presentan en este trabajo los resultados de 16 años de vigilancia epidemiológica de meningitis neumocócica llevada a cabo en el Hospital Provincial de Pediatría de Misiones (Argentina, antes de la introducción de la vacuna conjugada al calendario nacional. En el período que va de enero de 1994 a diciembre de 2009 se diagnosticaron 167 casos de meningitis por Streptococcus pneumoniae en niños (1 mes-15 años. La tasa de ataque cada 100 000 niños varió entre 19,2 (1997 y 4,3 (2009, con una media de 10,6 y una tendencia en disminución (y = ""0,689x + 16,52. Esto fue a expensas del grupo de niños entre 1 y 11 meses (94/167, 56 %, en el que disminuyó de 146,6 a 34,8 casos cada 100 000 niños. El 30,7 % de los aislamientos (46/150 fueron resistentes a penicilina y el 16,7 % (25/150 no sensibles a cefotaxima. La resistencia a β-lactámicos se incrementó a partir de 1997 y comenzó a disminuir en 2005. Se detectaron 19 serotipos, predominó el 14 (32 %; 40/125. El 84,8 % de los aislamientos quedaron circunscriptos a nueve serotipos: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V y 4. La cobertura teórica en los niños 2 años fue de 84,1 % (74/88 y 83,8 % (31/37 con la vacuna 10-valente, y de 89,8 % (79/88 y 83,8 % (31/37 con la vacuna 13-valente, respectivamente. La resistencia a penicilina estuvo circunscripta a 8 serotipos (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 1 y 19A, y la no sensibilidad a cefotaxima a 3 serotipos (14, 9V y 1, el más importante fue en ambos casos el serotipo 14. Este estudio permitirá evaluar el impacto de la implementación de las vacunas conjugadas en nuestra zona.

  11. Atualização em vacinas, imunizações e inovação tecnológica Vaccines, immunization and technological innovation: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Homma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A erradicação da varíola foi a maior conquista da saúde pública mundial. E o binômio vacinas e imunizações continua a demonstrar alto desempenho na prevenção e no controle de outras doenças imunopreveníveis. As novas iniciativas globais em vacinação, como a GAVI, vêm possibilitando a introdução de novas vacinas e salvando vidas de milhares de crianças nos países mais pobres do mundo. O Programa Nacional de Imunizações (PNI do Brasil também vem sendo fortalecido com a incorporação de novas vacinas no seu calendário de imunizações, como a vacina contra rotavírus, pneumococos conjugada, meningite meningocócica do sorogrupo C conjugada, além do H1N1 para as populações de maior risco. Com o descobrimento de novas vacinas de alto valor agregado, os grandes laboratórios multinacionais despertaram para este segmento farmacêutico e buscam a liderança da área, investindo maciçamente em inovação tecnológica, além de realizar fusões, aquisições e parcerias tecnológicas. O Brasil também vem se fortalecendo, tendo criado marcos reguladores e financiando projetos de inovação tecnológica e modernização da infraestrutura de produção.The smallpox worldwide eradication was the major world public health achievement. The binomial vaccines and immunization continues to demonstrate very high performance in the prevention and control of other diseases preventable by vaccination. The new global initiatives on vaccination, such as GAVI, have made possible the introduction of new and important vaccines preventing million of children deaths in the poorest countries in the world. The National Immunization Program of Brazil is also being strengthened, with the introduction of several new vaccines into the basic calendar as rotavirus, pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugated and H1N1 in national campaign, covering the population at risk. With the discovery of high valued vaccines, the big pharmaceutical companies became

  12. Enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goicoechea-Sáez M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La enfermedad neumocócica es una causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad entre la población infantil. La reciente autorización de la vacuna conjugada heptavalente ha incrementado el interés científico que suscita esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer las características epidemiológicas y clínicas, así como la evolución de esta enfermedad invasiva en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana. Método: Los datos se han obtenido de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años, con aislamiento del neumococo, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana durante el período 1996-2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante la comparación de tasas, los signos clínicos y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la evaluación de la frecuencia y su distribución por edades. Resultados: Se registró un total de 127 casos, lo que representa un promedio de tasa anual de 3,89/105 habitantes en los menores de 15 años y de 20,14 en los menores de 2 años. Presentaron antecedentes de problemas de salud un 29,1% de los pacientes. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes fueron sepsis/bacteriemia (38%, neumonía (31% y meningitis (24%. Al alta, presentaban secuelas 10 niños, de los que el 75% eran menores de 2 años. Fallecieron 8 niños (letalidad del 6,3%. Conclusiones: En nuestro medio, durante el período estudiado, la infección neumocócica se presenta sobre todo en los niños menores de 2 años, así como en los mayores de esta edad con antecedentes de problemas de salud. En estos últimos se ha encontrado una mayor mortalidad. Sería conveniente introducir la enfermedad neumocócica en el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, lo que nos permitiría disponer de estimaciones más precisas de su evolución epidemiológica y valorar si la vacuna conjugada es la solución a los problemas que plantea esta bacteria en la actualidad.

  13. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  14. Meningitis caused by Neisseria Meningitidis, Hemophilus Influenzae Type B and Streptococcus Pneumoniae during 2005–2012 in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Gürler, Nezahat; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Keser, Melike; Aycan, Ahmet Emre; Gurbuz, Venhar; Salman, Nuran; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Ozkan, Sengul; Sensoy, Gulnar; Belet, Nursen; Alhan, Emre; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa; Celebi, Solmaz; Uzun, Hakan; Faik Oner, Ahmet; Kurugol, Zafer; Ali Tas, Mehmet; Aygun, Denizmen; Oncel, Eda Karadag; Celik, Melda; Yasa, Olcay; Akin, Fatih; Coşkun, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Successful vaccination policies for protection from bacterial meningitis are dependent on determination of the etiology of bacterial meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained prospectively from children from 1 month to ≤ 18 years of age hospitalized with suspected meningitis, in order to determine the etiology of meningitis in Turkey. DNA evidence of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), and Hemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 1452 CSF samples were evaluated and bacterial etiology was determined in 645 (44.4%) cases between 2005 and 2012; N. meningitidis was detected in 333 (51.6%), S. pneumoniae in 195 (30.2%), and Hib in 117 (18.1%) of the PCR positive samples. Of the 333 N. meningitidis positive samples 127 (38.1%) were identified as serogroup W-135, 87 (26.1%) serogroup B, 28 (8.4%) serogroup A and 3 (0.9%) serogroup Y; 88 (26.4%) were non-groupable. As vaccines against the most frequent bacterial isolates in this study are available and licensed, these results highlight the need for broad based protection against meningococcal disease in Turkey. PMID:25483487

  15. p62 modulates Akt activity via association with PKCζ in neuronal survival and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Insil; Kim, Hak Jae; Kwon, Yunhee Kim

    2005-01-01

    p62 is a ubiquitously expressed phosphoprotein that interacts with a number of signaling molecules and a major component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been implicated in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. In this study, we have addressed the potential role of p62 during neuronal differentiation and survival using HiB5, a rat neuronal progenitor cell. We generated a recombinant adenovirus encoding T7-epitope tagged p62 to reliably transfer p62 cDNA into the neuronal cells. The results show that an overexpression of p62 led not only to neuronal differentiation, but also to decreased cell death induced by serum withdrawal in HiB5 cells. In this process p62-dependent Akt phosphorylation occurred via the release of Akt from PKCζ by association of p62 and PKCζ, which is known as a negative regulator of Akt activation. These findings indicate that p62 facilitates cell survival through novel signaling cascades that result in Akt activation. Furthermore, we found that p62 expression was induced during neuronal differentiation. Taken together, the data suggest p62 is a regulator of neuronal cell survival and differentiation

  16. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined vaccines in the national prevention immunization schedules for the children in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine

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    A.A. Baranov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Еhe announcement of the east European expert group for vaccine prevention presents position of the leading specialists of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan on key issues of the national pre vention immunization schedule. the authors examine in detail the aspects of vaccination against hepatitis type b, including optimal term of injection of the first vaccine dose, vaccination tactics for the premature and low weight newborns, safety of recombinant vaccines against hepatitis type в. based on the analysis of the morbidity of h. influenzae type b invasive forms along with the methods recommended by who (HIB RAT, experts recommend introduction of the vaccine against this infection into the prevention immunization schedule. The experts believe the basis for the combined vaccines in pediatrics to be the vaccines with cellfree pertussis component. This class of vaccines allows introducing the additional booster dose of pertussis vaccines for immunization of the preschool children into the immunization schedule, which is dictated by the present epidemic situation with due account for this infection. The experts note the importance of application of the combined vaccines in pediatrics, whose wide implementation into healthcare system practices is in the interests of the parents, medical officers and society.Key words: hepatitis type в, h. influenzae type b, HIB RAT, pertussis, diphteria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, poliovaccines, combined vaccines, prevention immunization schedule, children.

  18. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this article the authors consider a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) fusion power plant that consists of a driver, a target factory, and one or more power units. A power unit is defined as all the buildings and equipment needed to generate electric power, provided the target and beams are delivered to the reaction chamber. Because the maximum achievable pulse rate in a single chamber is limited, more than one reaction chamber may be required to achieve the desired output of a single power unit. They distinguish between multiple power units and multiple reaction chambers so that they can examine separately the effects of increasing the number of reaction chambers at a constant net power and of increasing the power level by driving more power units with a single driver. The authors conducted studies to investigate the effects on the cost of electricity (COE) of variations in several design parameters. In particular, they examined the effects of maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. They found that with a combination of improvements over their base case, HIB fusion can be economically competitive with present and future power sources

  19. Profil Keamanan setelah Pemberian Dosis Primer Vaksin Pentabio® pada Bayi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julitasari Sundoro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaksin Hib mulai digunakan pada Pogram Imunisasi Nasional sejak tahun 2013 secara bertahap dan di seluruh Indonesia mulai tahun 2014 dalam bentuk vaksin kombinasi DTP/HB/Hib (Pentabio®, yang memberikan  kekebalan terhadap difteria, pertusis, tetanus, hepatitis B, dan Haemophilus influenzae tipe b. Studi ini menilai reaksi sitemik, reaksi lokal, dan reaksi yang serius pascaimunisasi dengan Pentabio®. Sebanyak 4.000 bayi penerima vaksin Pentabio®bergabung dalam studi ini. Reaksi yang timbul dicatat pada kartu harian oleh petugas yang sudah dilatih. Vaksin Pentabio®yang diamati pada PMS ini menggunakan vaksin rutin dari Program Imunisasi Nasional dalam waktu pengamatan 28 hari di empat propinsi, yaitu Nusa Tenggara Barat, Bali, Yogyakarta, dan Jawa Barat pada periode Mei–Desember 2014. Sebanyak 3.978 data dapat dianalisis karena 22 di antaranya tidak memberikan informasi yang valid. Reaksi sistemik yang paling banyak timbul adalah demam 0,85% pada 30 menit pertama, dan meningkat menjadi 14,03% pada satu hari pascaimunisasi, kemudian sembuh pada hari berikutnya. Reaksi lokal yang paling sering timbul adalah nyeri pada tempat suntikan pada 67,6% subjek pada 30 menit setelah imunisasi, dan meningkat menjadi 87,23% pada 1 hari pascaimunisasi namun sembuh pada hari berikutnya. Mayoritas nyeri yang timbul adalah kategori ringan. Tidak ditemukan kejadian ikutan pascaimunisasi serius selama pengamatan. Simpulan, reaksi lokal dan sistemik pascaimunisasi dengan Pentabio® dapat ditoleransi pada bayi.

  20. Comunicação, economia política e sociedade mundial de controle: complexidade e poder na contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Martinuzzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos discutir como a análise da economia política, conjugada à análise dos sistemas de comunicação, pode ajudar a entender a complexidade da formação de uma sociedade mundial de controle, condição indispensável para a sobrevivência acadêmica frente ao tecido complexo do real com o qual tem de lidar para criar efeitos positivos no campo da ação social. As técnicas metodológicas utilizadas são análises bibliográficas de autores específicos do campo da economia política da comunicação e da sociologia. Nossos resultados desvelam a intricada complexidade que compõe a sociedade mundial de controle em termos de sistemas econômico, político e comunicacional.

  1. Trajetória escolar: Investimento familiar e determinação de classe

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    D'Ávila José Luis Piôto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo destaca elementos que indicam a possibilidade de ruptura da lógica da reprodução na trajetória escolar de alunos, cujas famílias pertencem a estratos médio-baixos e baixos da sociedade, residentes em bairros da periferia da Grande Vitória (ES. As evidências colhidas em entrevistas com familiares de tais alunos conjugadas a resultados de pesquisa de campo realizada na Escola Técnica Federal local, permitem enunciar que suas estratégias de investimento educacional se constróem aos poucos, pelo cultivo familiar dos pendores individuais inicialmente e, a seguir, segundo as possibilidades surgidas em um novo espaço de relações, que transcende as expectativas construídas no estrito círculo da família. Sugere-se, para a compreensão de tais processos, que, alternativamente ao conceito de habitus, proposto por Bourdieu, se considere o reconhecimento de uma articulação entre transação biográfica e transação relacional, segundo a fórmula utilizada por Dubar.

  2. Estabilización de taludes en el río Portoviejo, Ecuador

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    Roberto Watson-Quesada

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El río Portoviejo se encuentra en la ciudad homónima de la provincia Manabí, Ecuador. Los cambios ocurridos en el cauce del río y la construcción de obras de urbanización sobre una de sus márgenes han originado un talud inestable, proclive a la ocurrencia de deslizamientos y desprendimientos que ocasionan daños a las construcciones. Algunas técnicas de estabilización (muros de hormigón, muros de gaviones, entre otras han sido aplicadas sin éxito al ser finalmente destruidas por la propia acción del agua. Para resolver el problema se ensayó una variante del método de inyección, conjugada con el método de inca de pilotes, en la cual se diseñaron y construyeron a lo largo del talud, pantallas consistentes en perforaciones inyectadas con lechada de cemento y reforzadas con barras de acero. Esta solución de estabilización mejoró la cohesión de las rocas y el suelo del talud y por consiguiente la resistencia ante la erosión fluvial, sin alterar la geometría del cauce y preservando el entorno natural. La variante utilizada constituye una alternativa eficaz para la estabilización de taludes afectados por la erosión fluvial.

  3. Estandarización de ensayos inmunoenzimáticos (ELISA para la cuantificación de anticuerpos IgG inducidos por una vacuna de vesículas de membrana externa de los serogrupos A y W135 de Neisseria meningitidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleida Mandiarote

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad meningocócica es una afección invasiva, de amplia incidencia mundial, cuyo agente causal es la bacteria gramnegativa Neisseria meningitidis . Existen vacunas polisacarídicas sin conjugar o conjugadas, contra cuatro de los cinco serogrupos responsables del 95% de los casos en el mundo. Para el serogrupo B, cuyo polisacárido es pobremente inmunogénico, se han evaluado varios candidatos vacunales producidos a base de vesículas de membrana externa. La determinación de la actividad bactericida y la cuantificación de IgG por ELISA han sido los métodos más utilizados en la medición de la respuesta inmune generada por vacunas contra la meningitis meningocócica. El segundo de estos métodos es utilizado en el Instituto Finlay como ensayo de inmunogenicidad para la liberación de lotes de VA-MENGOC-BC®. Como parte de una colaboración con investigadores noruegos, se trabaja en la obtención de un candidato vacunal contra los serogrupos A y W135 , basado en vesículas de membrana externa. En el presente trabajo se describe la estandarización de un ELISA para ser utilizado en la evaluación de la respuesta inmune del candidato vacunal bivalente.

  4. Flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete blood with latex particles and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Egido

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a rapid method for the flow cytometric quantitation of phagocytosis in heparinized complete peripherial blood (HCPB, using commercially available phycoerythrin-conjugated latex particles of 1µm diameter. The method is faster and shows greater reproducibility than Bjerknes' (1984 standard technique using propidium iodide-stained Candida albicans, conventionally applied to the leukocytic layer of peripherial blood but here modified for HCPB. We also report a modification of Bjerknes' Intracellular Killing Test to allow its application to HCPB.Se da cuenta de un método rápido para la cuantización del flujo citométrico de la fagocitosis en sangre periférica completamente heparinizada (HCPB, mediante la utilización de partículas de látex phycoerythrin-conjugadas de 1µm de diámetro disponibles comercialmente. El método es más rápido y presenta mayor reproducibilidad que la técnica estandar de Bjerknes' (1984 utilizando propidium iodide-teñida Candida albicans, aplicada convencionalmente a la capa leucocitica de sangre periférica pero modificada por HCPB. Tambien damos cuenta de una modificación de Bjerknes' Intracellular Killing Test para permitir su aplicación a HCPB.

  5. Producción del primer lote de conjugado antirrábico de origen caprino en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopez I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue la producción y evaluación del primer lote de conjugado antirrábico de origen caprino producido en el Perú. La globulina antirrábica conjugada con fluoresceína fue preparada en el Laboratorio de Referencia de Rabia y la vacuna utilizada para la inmunización de los animales fue producida en el Laboratorio de Rabia del Centro Nacional de Producción de Biológicos del Instituto Nacional de Salud (Lima, Perú. Para la inmunización se utilizó una vacuna hecha a base de cultivo de células VERO con los adyuvantes de Freundt completo e incompleto. La vacunación se hizo semanalmente por cuatro semanas con descarga de virus vivo a la quinta y dos revacunaciones más posteriormente. El conjugado producido en el laboratorio obtuvo una intensidad (4+ en tinción especifica, (3+ en calidad de inclusiones y (1+ de fluorescencia no especifica. Sin embargo, el conjugado comercial obtuvo una intensidad más baja (3+ en tinción específica, mayor cantidad de inclusiones (4+ y menos tinción inespecífica (0+.

  6. Comedia y Barroco. Narrativas del cuerpo en los círculos teatrales libertinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Nelson Musich

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro análisis se centrará en las narrativas del cuerpo que se dejan entrever en dos producciones teatrales cómicas: en Le pédant joué (1654 de Cyrano de Bergerac y en Le malade imaginaire (1673 de Molière. Habiendo seleccionado el género cómico-satírico por su carácter irreverente que solapa bajo la risa la crítica (y en ella otra retórica sobre los cuerpos y escogiendo esta dupla de dramaturgos debido a su, reiteradamente marcada, pertenencia al grupo de los libertinos o librepensadores. La presente investigación parte de pensar que las condiciones políticas en las que se escribieron las piezas teatrales (fines inmediatos de la Fronda y plena consolidación del modelo absolutista con Luis XIV conjugadas con la peculiar construcción de la mirada de estos dramaturgos libertinos, como capaces de hablar desde una presunta lejanía y en algunos casos neutralidad, nos posibilitan encontrar otras contemplaciones y concepciones sobre los cuerpos en su proceso de producción social. Concepciones que en medio de una época marcada a fuego por la pertenencia estamentaria (estamentos en pleno proceso de redelimitación se organizan en narrativas y críticas sociopolíticas, inaugurando una proto-sociología.

  7. MODELADO DE DINÁMICA DE FLUIDOS Y TRANSFERENCIA DE CALOR Y MASA EN PROCESOS AGROALIMENTARIOS POR MÉTODO DE VOLÚMENES FINITOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON O. MORAGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la transferencia de momento, calor y masa transitorio bi-dimensional en procesos agroalimentarios. Estos procesos son: la pre-cosecha y la deshidratación por aire caliente de frutas. La metodología incluye modelación matemática y simulación computacional para describir la convección y difusión de calor y masa conjugada que resulta de la interacción entre el alimento y el aire. El modelo matemático emplea las ecuaciones diferenciales parciales no lineales acopladas de continuidad, momento lineal, energía y materia. Se considera que las propiedades físicas de las frutas calculadas mediante correlaciones empíricas, varían con la temperatura y la concentración de humedad. El método de volúmenes finitos junto el algoritmo SIMPLE se utiliza para obtener los resultados de la variación en el tiempo de las distribuciones de velocidades (v, temperaturas (T y concentraciones de humedad (C para los procesos en estudio. Las propiedades termofísicas variables de los alimentos se obtuvieron a partir de modelos empíricos. Los resultados obtenidos incluyen distribuciones de las variables dependientes (v, T, C en el tiempo, los cuales se comparan con resultados experimentales y numéricos de la literatura especializada.

  8. EL USO DE LAS FORMAS NO PERSONALES DEL VERBO: DESCRIPCIÓN DEL CASO EN EL LENGUAJE JUDICIAL GUATEMALTECO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Franke

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Se planteó la hipótesis de que el uso de las formas no personales del verbo era más frecuente, en comparación con las formas conjugadas, en el lenguaje judicial guatemalteco. El análisis se basó en un corpus de 63 páginas (1781 verbos. Después del estudio, se rechazó la hipótesis, puesto que las formas personales se emplearon con mayor frecuencia frente a las no personales (62% frente al 38%. Además, se descubrió que la forma no personal más utilizada fue la del participio (22.8% y que el uso de verbos simples duplicaba el uso del participio (46%. Los pronombres enclíticos en infinitivos, gerundios y perífrasis verbales aparecieron en un 13.3% y los usos incorrectos de las formas no personales variaron entre el 1% y el 37%, lo cual reveló que el gerundio es la forma no personal con más usos inadecuados en el lenguaje judicial guatemalteco.

  9. Georges Bataille, Michel Leiris e a experiência do sagrado no entreguerras

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    Júlia Vilaça Goyatá

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo elucidar os usos e sentidos da noção de sagrado nas formulações teóricas e nas trajetórias intelectuais de Georges Bataille (1897-1962 e Michel Leiris (1901-1990 na Paris dos anos 1930. Em meio às diversas experiências estético-políticas da época, que questionavam as possíveis formas da ação política tendo em vista sua ligação com a arte, destaca-se a proposta do Collège de Sociologie (1937-1939, associação animada pelos autores junto a Roger Caillois (1913-1978. O grupo toma o sagrado em dupla articulação: ao mesmo tempo que conceito descritivo, ele passa a ser entendido também como um operador político. Tal ideia é o ponto de partida para as reflexões conjugadas e ao mesmo tempo originais de Bataille e Leiris.

  10. Representações da mulher em cartas bíblicas analisadas sob a perspectiva sistêmico-funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Rossi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar como a linguagem é usada para representar a mulher em duas cartas bíblicas do Novo Testamento sob o enfoque da Gramática Sistêmico-Funcional, de Halliday e Matthiessen (2004. Para isso, utilizamo-nos de categorias que realizam as três metafunções da linguagem. Na metafunção ideacional, ocupamo-nos do sistema de transitividade; da metafunção interpessoal, focalizamos o sistema de MODO e a polaridade; na metafunção textual, detemo-nos na estrutura temática. A análise conjunta dessas categorias evidenciou que a escolha pelo Tema Ideacional conjugada à função de fala proposta direcionada à mulher e às funções léxico-gramaticais de Ator, Experienciador e Portador desempenhadas por esse participante representam a mulher principalmente como submissa ao homem, ao marido e à sociedade.

  11. CARREIRAS EM TRANSFORMAÇÃO E SEUS PARADOXAIS REFLEXOS NOS INDIVÍDUOS: PESQUISA DE METÁFORAS E ÂNCORAS DE CARREIRA, ASSOCIADA À REPRESENTAÇÃO DE COMPETÊNCIAS PROFISSIONAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Miranda Kilimnik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a evolução da carreira e seus diversos significados e apresenta um estudo realizado com profissionais de Administração de empresas, suas autopercepções e aspirações (âncoras de carreira e as exigências em termos de competências profissionais. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade, conjugadas com a aplicação do Inventário de Âncoras de Carreira de Edgar Schein, como etapa inicial e explorátoria de um estudo mais amplo. As trajetórias estudadas, e as metáforas e âncoras encontradas, revelaram-se exemplares de tendências atuais, como a busca pela ampliação das competências e a carreira em ziguezague, com características de autodirecionamento da carreira proteana, defrontando-se com diversas alternativas e evidenciando um postura pró-ativa. Essa metodologia permitiu o aprofundamento de questões internas dos sujeitos pesquisados, em relação ao trabalho e à carreira, possibiltando a manifestação de seus sentimentos, angústias e aspirações, assim como o repensar de suas escolhas e trajetórias profissionais, de forma livre e criativa.

  12. Shear strength of match cast dry joints of precast concrete segmental bridges: proposal for Eurocode 2

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    Aparicio, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a study on the performance of concretesegmental bridges with shear keys, focusing on theshear behaviour of castellated dry joints under ultimatelimit state conditions. The widely varying formulationused to evaluate joint shear strength were compiled,along with the experimental results published in the literatureon the subject. The various approaches were evaluatedby comparing their predictions of ultimate jointstrength to published empirical findings. The formulagiving the best prediction was adapted to the safety factorprovisions set out in Eurocode 2.Este trabajo presenta un estudio sobre el comportamientode puentes de dovelas de hormigon con llaves de cortante,centrado en el comportamiento a cortante de lasjuntas secas conjugadas en Estado Limite Ultimo. Se harealizado una exhaustiva recopilacion de la dispar formulacionexistente para evaluar la resistencia a cortante delas juntas. Se ha realizado, asimismo, una investigacionbibliografica de los resultados experimentales disponiblessobre este particular en la literatura. Los resultados recogidosen la bibliografia han sido comparados con la variadaformulacion existente para predecir la resistencia ultimade las juntas. La formula que mejor predice laresistencia ha sido identificada. Esta ha sido adaptada alformato de seguridad presente en el Eurocodigo 2.

  13. Dimensiones del activismo policial. Un análisis de prácticas sostenidas ante la masacre policial ocurrida en La Plata en 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Galar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo analizamos prácticas sostenidas en el espacio público por activistas vinculados a la Policía de la provincia de Buenos Aires (PPBA particularmente en instancias asociadas a la masacre policial, como se conoce al caso en el cual tres agentes fueron asesinados en instalaciones de la Fuerza en 2007. Abordamos la emergencia de públicos en relación con estas demandas colectivas, así como las formas de intervención de los actores con miras a dotarse de la legitimidad que les permita influir sobre las situaciones problemáticas que definen. Como fuentes utilizaremos un nutrido corpus de prensa local, entrevistas con activistas y contenidos de redes sociales. Como punto de llegada planteamos ciertas apropiaciones, usos sociales y disputas simbólicas vinculadas a la demanda generada alrededor de la masacre. Damos cuenta de una apropiación de las definiciones usualmente asociadas a la inseguridad, de la centralidad otorgada a la figura del policía “caído” y de la búsqueda por reinscribir humanidad en los seres fallecidos. Estas dimensiones aparecen conjugadas en definiciones sobre las condiciones laborales de los agentes, sobre el carácter sacrificial de la profesión y su destacado (y ocultado rol social.

  14. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spady Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort or at the same post-natal age (for controls was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1% and 36 control infants (29.0% had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51 as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%. Eighteen immunized infants (14.5% and 51 control infants (41.1% had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39. The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized

  15. Frequency of apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations following first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B immunization in hospitalized preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jackie; Robinson, Joan L; Spady, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Background Adverse cardiorespiratory events including apnea, bradycardia, and desaturations have been described following administration of the first diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio-Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTP-IPV-Hib) immunization to preterm infants. The effect of the recent substitution of acellular pertussis vaccine for whole cell pertussis vaccine on the frequency of these events requires further study. Methods Infants with gestational age of ≤ 32 weeks who received their first DTP-IPV-Hib immunization prior to discharge from two Edmonton Neonatal Intensive Care Units January 1, 1996 to November 30, 2000 were eligible for the study. Each immunized infant was matched by gestational age to one control infant. The number of episodes of apnea, bradycardia, and/or desaturations (ABD) and the treatment required for these episodes in the 72 hours prior to and 72 hours post-immunization (for the immunized cohort) or at the same post-natal age (for controls) was recorded. Results Thirty-four infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with whole cell pertussis vaccine, 90 infants who received DTP-IPV-Hib with acellular pertussis vaccine, and 124 control infants were entered in the study. Fifty-six immunized infants (45.1%) and 36 control infants (29.0%) had a resurgence of or increased ABD in the 72 hours post-immunization in the immunized infants and at the same post-natal age in the controls with an adjusted odds ratio for immunized infants of 2.41 (95% CI 1.29,4.51) as compared to control infants. The incidence of an increase in adverse cardiorespiratory events post-immunization was the same in infants receiving whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (44.1% versus 45.6%). Eighteen immunized infants (14.5%) and 51 control infants (41.1%) had a reduction in ABD in the 72 hours post- immunization or at the equivalent postnatal age in controls for an odds ratio of 0.175 (95%CI 0.08, 0.39). The need for therapy of ABD in the immunized infants was not

  16. Hydrothermal oxidation in the Biwabik Iron Formation, MN, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Steven; Rague, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Precambrian iron formations throughout the world, notably in Australia, Brazil, and South Africa, show evidence of hypogene (≥ 110 °C, mostly > 250 °C) oxidation, alteration, and silica dissolution as a result of tectonic or magmatic activity. Although hydrothermal oxidation has been proposed for the prototype Lake Superior-type iron formation, the Biwabik Iron Formation in Minnesota (USA), it has not been documented there. By examining oxidized and unoxidized Biwabik Iron Formation in three mines, including material from high-angle faults that are associated with oxidation, we document an early hypogene oxidation event ( 175 °C) involving medium-salinity aqueous fluids (8.4 ± 4.9 wt% NaCl equiv) that infiltrated iron formation along high-angle faults. At the Hibbing Taconite Mine, hydrothermal fluids oxidized iron carbonates and silicates near faults, producing goethite ± quartz. In contrast with much of the oxidized iron ores on the Mesabi Range, silica was not removed but rather recrystallized during this event, perhaps lying in a rock-dominated system at low cumulative fluid flux. During the hydrothermal oxidation event in the Hibbing Taconite deposit, quartz-filled microfractures and irregular inclusions commonly formed in coarse variably oxidized magnetite, currently the ore mineral: these inclusions degrade the ore by introducing excess silica in magnetic concentrate. Hydrothermal oxidation at Hibbing Taconite Mine is overprinted by later, relatively minor supergene oxidation both along faults and near the surface, which locally dissolved quartz. At the Fayal Reserve Mine, widespread silicate and carbonate gangue dissolution and iron oxidation was followed by precipitation of pyrite, Mn-siderite, apatite, and other minerals in void spaces, which prevented post-oxidation compaction and significant volume loss in the sampled rocks. Although definitive temperature data for this assemblage are needed, the weight of evidence indicates that this

  17. Factors associated with routine immunization coverage of children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoummalaysith, Bounfeng; Yamamoto, Eiko; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Louangpradith, Viengsakhone; Keohavong, Bounxou; Saw, Yu Mon; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2018-05-03

    Routine vaccination is administered free of charge to all children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and the national goal is to achieve at least 95% coverage with all vaccines included in the national immunization program by 2025. In this study, factors related to the immunization system and characteristics of provinces and districts in Lao PDR were examined to evaluate the association with routine immunization coverage. Coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Hepatitis B (DTP-HepB), DTP-HepB-Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), polio (OPV), and measles (MCV1) vaccines from 2002 to 2014 collected through regular reporting system, were used to identify the immunization coverage trends in Lao PDR. Correlation analysis was performed using immunization coverage, characteristics of provinces or districts (population, population density, and proportion of poor villages and high-risk villages), and factors related to immunization service (including the proportions of the following: villages served by health facility levels, vaccine session types, and presence of well-functioning cold chain equipment). To determine factors associated with low coverage, provinces were categorized based on 80% of DTP-HepB-Hib3 coverage (<80% = low group; ≥80% = high group). Coverages of BCG, DTP-HepB3, OPV3 and MCV1 increased gradually from 2007 to 2014 (82.2-88.3% in 2014). However, BCG coverage showed the least improvement from 2002 to 2014. The coverage of each vaccine correlated with the coverage of the other vaccines and DTP-HepB-Hib dropout rate in provinces as well as districts. The provinces with low immunization coverage were correlated with higher proportions of poor villages. Routine immunization coverage has been improving in the last 13 years, but the national goal is not yet reached in Lao PDR. The results of this study suggest that BCG coverage and poor villages should be targeted to improve

  18. Live attenuated tetravalent (G1-G4) bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (BRV-TV): Randomized, controlled phase III study in Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Tarun; Palkar, Sonali; Misra, Puneet; Gupta, Madhu; Venugopal, Potula; Sood, Ashwani Kumar; Dhati, Ravi Mandyam; Shetty, Avinash; Dhaded, Sangappa Malappa; Agarkhedkar, Sharad; Choudhury, Amlan; Kumar, Ramesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Babji, Sudhir; Adhikary, Lopa; Dupuy, Martin; Chadha, Sangeet Mohan; Desai, Forum; Kukian, Darshna; Patnaik, Badri Narayan; Dhingra, Mandeep Singh

    2017-06-16

    Rotavirus remains the leading cause of diarrhoea among children rotavirus vaccine (BRV-TV) over the licensed human-bovine pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RV5. Phase III single-blind study (parents blinded) in healthy infants randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of BRV-TV or RV5 at 6-8, 10-12, and 14-16weeks of age. All concomitantly received a licensed diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTwP-HepB-Hib) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). Immunogenic non-inferiority was evaluated in terms of the inter-group difference in anti-rotavirus serum IgA seroresponse (primary endpoint), and seroprotection/seroresponse rates to DTwP-HepB-Hib and OPV vaccines. Seroresponse was defined as a ≥4-fold increase in titers from baseline to D28 post-dose 3. Non-inferiority was declared if the difference between groups (based on the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval [CI]) was above -10%. Each subject was evaluated for solicited adverse events 7days and unsolicited & serious adverse events 28days following each dose of vaccination. Of 1195 infants screened, 1182 were randomized (590 to BRV-TV; 592 to RV5). Non-inferiority for rotavirus serum IgA seroresponse was not established: BRV-TV, 47.1% (95%CI: 42.8; 51.5) versus RV5, 61.2% (95%CI: 56.8; 65.5); difference between groups, -14.08% (95%CI: -20.4; -7.98). Serum IgA geometric mean concentrations at D28 post-dose 3 were 28.4 and 50.1U/ml in BRV-TV and RV5 groups, respectively. For all DTwP-HepB-Hib and OPV antigens, seroprotection/seroresponse was elicited in both groups and the -10% non-inferiority criterion between groups was met. There were 16 serious adverse events, 10 in BRV-TV group and 6 in RV5 group; none were classified as vaccine related. Both groups had similar vaccine safety profiles. BRV-TV was immunogenic but did not meet immunogenic non-inferiority criteria to RV5 when administered concomitantly with routine pediatric antigens in infants. Copyright © 2017

  19. 'It's just the normal thing to do': exploring parental decision-making about the 'five-in-one' vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickner, Sarah; Leman, Patrick J; Woodcock, Alison

    2007-10-16

    This qualitative study explored parental decision-making about the DTaP/IPV/Hib 'five-in-one' vaccine. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 parents of babies aged between 4 and 13 weeks old, recruited from four practices in southern England. A modified Grounded Theory approach identified that although parents had some concerns, most complied with the recommended programme rather than making an informed decision. Other themes related to perceived importance of immunisation; beliefs about how immunisation works; trust; perceptions of vulnerability; feelings of guilt and responsibility; and practicalities. It is important to explore how parents' attitudes change over the preschool years and to develop ways of addressing uncertainties about immunisation, including the safety of combining antigens and the need for boosters.

  20. Investigation into the factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence inverse bulging effect during sheet hydro-mechanical deep drawing are especially researched in this paper. According to the different inverse bulging process, two modes can be singled: the initial inverse bulging (IIB and the local inverse bulging (LIB. IIB includes two parameters: inverse bulging height ratio (HIb/t and inverse bulging pressure ratio (PIb/t. LIB is influenced by IIB and has a direct relationship with liquid chamber pressure in the forming process. The optimal inverse bulging parameters of hemispherical bottom cylindrical part and flat bottom cylindrical part are obtained by numerical simulation. Process parameters including the clearance between the punch and the blank holder and the blank holder entrance radius that have a large influence on inverse bulging effect are optimized, so as to make inverse bulging effect behave better in hydroforming process. Finally, the accuracy of the numerical simulation results was verified by experiments.

  1. [What is parents' and medical health care specialists knowledge about vaccinations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarczoń, Izabela; Domaradzka, Ewa; Czajka, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to become familiar with parents' and Medical Health Care specialists knowledge and attitude towards vaccinations. The influence of information, provided to patients from various sources, on general opinion about immunization and its coverage within the last year were evaluated. Analysis of questionnaires about vaccinations performed among 151 parents and 180 Medical Health Care specialists. Medical Health Care specialists knowledge was considerably higher in comparison to questioned parents. Surprisingly enough, only approximately 90% of Medical Health Care workers knew about prophylaxis of Hib infections. A doctor is the main and the most reliable source of information for parents. Significant impact on parents' attitude to vaccinations is made not only by campaigns promoting vaccinations, but also by widespread opinions about their harmfulness. The doctor is the major source of reliable information about vaccinations for parents. Therefore, there is the need of continuous improvement of Medical Health Care specialists knowledge, but also the ability of successfully communicating it to parents.

  2. Reimmunization after bone marrow transplantation: Current recommendations and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Clarisse M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous and allogeneic BMT recipients lose immune memory of exposition to infectious agents and vaccines accumulated throughout lifetime and therefore need to be revaccinated. Diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine (children < 7 years old, Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib conjugate, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide, inactivated influenza vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine and live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are the currently recommended vaccines to be included in a vaccination program after BMT. For most of them, the best time of vaccination, the number of vaccine doses and/or the duration of immunity after vaccination have not been established. Vaccination protocols vary greatly among BMT centers suggesting that the lack of sufficient data has not permitted the establishment of solid recommendations. The use of other vaccines and the perspectives for different vaccination protocols are discussed in this review.

  3. Risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Christensen, Jakob; Hviid, Anders; Li, Jiong; Vedsted, Peter; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2012-02-22

    Vaccination with whole-cell pertussis vaccine carries an increased risk of febrile seizures, but whether this risk applies to the acellular pertussis vaccine is not known. In Denmark, acellular pertussis vaccine has been included in the combined diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine since September 2002. To estimate the risk of febrile seizures and epilepsy after DTaP-IPV-Hib vaccination given at 3, 5, and 12 months. A population-based cohort study of 378,834 children who were born in Denmark between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2008, and followed up through December 31, 2009; and a self-controlled case series (SCCS) study based on children with febrile seizures during follow-up of the cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination and HR of epilepsy after first vaccination in the cohort study. Relative incidence of febrile seizures within 0 to 7 days (0, 1-3, and 4-7 days) after each vaccination in the SCCS study. A total of 7811 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures before 18 months, of whom 17 were diagnosed within 0 to 7 days after the first (incidence rate, 0.8 per 100,000 person-days), 32 children after the second (1.3 per 100,000 person-days), and 201 children after the third (8.5 per 100,000 person-days) vaccinations. Overall, children did not have higher risks of febrile seizures during the 0 to 7 days after the 3 vaccinations vs a reference cohort of children who were not within 0 to 7 days of vaccination. However, a higher risk of febrile seizures was found on the day of the first (HR, 6.02; 95% CI, 2.86-12.65) and on the day of the second (HR, 3.94; 95% CI, 2.18-7.10), but not on the day of the third vaccination (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.73-1.57) vs the reference cohort. On the day of vaccination, 9 children were diagnosed with febrile seizures after the first (5.5 per 100,000 person-days), 12

  4. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syriopoulou Vassiliki P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial meningitis remains a source of substantial morbidity and mortality in childhood. During the last decades gradual changes have been observed in the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis, related to the introduction of new polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. The study presents an overview of the epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis in a tertiary children 's hospital during a 32-year period, using information from a disease registry. Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases. Methods In the early 1970s a Meningitis Registry (MR was created for patients admitted with meningitis in Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital in Athens. The MR includes demographic, clinical and laboratory data as well as treatment, complications and outcome of the patients. In 2000 a database was created and the collected data were entered, analyzed and presented in three chronological periods: A (1974–1984, B (1985–1994 and C (1995–2005. Results Of the 2,477 cases of bacterial meningitis registered in total, 1,146 cases (46.3% were classified as "probable" and 1,331 (53.7% as "confirmed" bacterial meningitis. The estimated mean annual Incidence Rate (IR was 16.9/100,000 for bacterial meningitis, 8.9/100,000 for Neisseria meningitidis, 1.3/100,000 for Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2.5/100,000 for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib before vaccination and 0.4/100,000 for Hib after vaccination. Neisseria meningitis constituted the leading cause of childhood bacterial meningitis for all periods and in all age groups. Hib was the second most common cause of bacterial meningitis before the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine, in periods A and B. The incidence of bacterial meningitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae was stable. The long-term epidemiological pattern of Neisseria meningitidis appears in cycles of approximately 10 years, confirmed by a significant

  5. In vivo cell tracking imaging of hexadecyl-4-[{sup 123,} {sup 124}I]iodobenzoate labeled adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Hwan; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Kyo Chul [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring of transplanted stem cells for cardiac repair is important part in regenerative medicine. Direct cell labeling techniques using [{sup 18}F]FDG, [{sup 64}Cu]PTSM and [{sup 99m}Tc]-HMPAO have been developed for in vivo imaging. Especially, {sup 18}F-labeled derivates have been widely used for direct labeling agent. But the {sup 18}F has short half life (T{sub 1/2}={approx}2 h), thus this imaging agent has limitation of in vivo imaging. We used {sup 123}I or {sup 124}I which has relative long half life, to track the transplanted stem cells for a long-term imaging. This study is aimed to track the transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in rat heart using hexadecyl-4-[{sup 123,} {sup 124}I]iodobenzoate ([{sup 123,} {sup 124}I]HIB) mediated direct labeling method in vivo

  6. A policy framework for accelerating adoption of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjeh, Rana; Wecker, John; Cherian, Thomas; O'Brien, Katherine L; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Privor-Dumm, Lois; Kvist, Hans; Nanni, Angeline; Bear, Allyson P; Santosham, Mathuram

    2010-01-01

    Rapid uptake of new vaccines can improve health and wealth and contribute to meeting Millennium Development Goals. In the past, however, the introduction and use of new vaccines has been characterized by delayed uptake in the countries where the need is greatest. Based on experience with accelerating the adoption of Hib, pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, we propose here a framework for new vaccine adoption that may be useful for future efforts. The framework organizes the major steps in the process into a continuum from evidence to policy, implementation and finally access. It highlights the important roles of different actors at various times in the process and may allow new vaccine initiatives to save time and improve their efficiency by anticipating key steps and actions. PMID:21150269

  7. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth and antibody responses to childhood vaccines. A randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Smits, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    ) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants. METHODS: Within 7days after birth, children were randomised 1:1 to BCG vaccination...... children (178 BCG; 122 controls), almost all children (>96%) had antibody responses above the protective levels. Overall BCG vaccination at birth did not affect the antibody level. When stratifying by 'age at randomisation' we found a possible inducing effect of BCG on antibodies against B. pertussis......-protective levels in almost all children. No overall effect of neonatal BCG vaccination was observed....

  8. 5-HTP efficacy and contraindications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinz M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Marty Hinz,1 Alvin Stein,2 Thomas Uncini31Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc, Cape Coral, 2Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 3University Medical Center Mesabi Hibbing, MN, USAAbstract: L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP is the immediate precursor of serotonin. It is readily synthesized into serotonin without biochemical feedback. This nutrient has a large and strong following who advocate exaggerated and inaccurate claims relating to its effectiveness in the treatment of depression and a number of other serotonin-related diseases. These assertions are not supported by the science. Under close examination, 5-HTP may be contraindicated for depression in some of the very patients for whom promoters of 5-HTP advocate its use.Keywords: 5-HTP, 5-hydroxytryptophan, L-5-HTP, L-5-hydroxytryptophan

  9. Recurrent Posttraumatic Meningitis due to Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunze, W; Müller, L; Kilian, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of relapsing Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a boy at the age of nearly 3 years and 4.2 years who had been successfully vaccinated against H. influenzae serotype b (Hib). The pathogen was a nonencapsulated (nontypable) H. influenzae strain of biotypes III and VI, respectively....... A rhinobasal impalement injury with development of a posttraumatic encephalocele is considered to be the predisposing condition. Review of the literature reveals that in patients systemically infected by nonencapsulated H. influenzae strains predisposing factors such as cerebrospinal fluid-shunts, implants...... and traumas are often found. To obtain further information on potential new disease patterns H. influenzae isolates from cerebrospinal fluid should be examined for capsule production and, if relevant, further characterized by capsular typing....

  10. Serotipos de neumococo en niños portadores antes de la vacunación antineumocócica en el Perú Pneumococcal serotypes in carrier children prior to the introduction of anti-pneumococcal vaccines in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Mercado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y distribución de serotipos de S. pneumoniae en portadores nasofaríngeos sanos menores de dos años previa al uso universal de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. Entre los años 2007 y 2009 se tomaron muestras de hisopado nasofaríngeo a 2123 niños sanos entre 2 y 24 meses de edad en los consultorios de crecimiento y desarrollo o vacunación de hospitales y centros de salud de siete ciudades del Perú: costa (Lima, Piura; sierra (Cusco, Abancay, Arequipa y Huancayo y selva (Iquitos. Las cepas de neumococo fueron aisladas e identificadas en el laboratorio central del proyecto en Lima y serotipificadas por reacción de Quellung en el Laboratorio de Referencia de Neumococo del Centro de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades. Resultados. Se encontró 27,0% (573/2123 de portadores nasofaríngeos sanos de neumococo. En las 526 cepas analizadas se encontraron 42 serotipos; los más frecuentes fueron: 19F (18,1%, 6B (14,3%; 23F (8,9% y 14 (6,5%. Conclusiones. La distribución de serotipos vacunales en las cepas analizadas fue de 50,0% para los serotipos presentes en la vacuna conjugada heptavalente; 50,2% para los serotipos presentes en la vacuna decavalente y 57,2% para la vacuna 13-valente.Objectives. To determine the carriage rate and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of healthy children younger than 2 years prior to the universal use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Peru. Materials and methods. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected nasopharyngeal swab samples from 2,123 healthy children aged 2 to 24 months in the vaccination and healthy children consultation offices of pediatric hospitals and health centers in 7 cities in Peru: on the coast (Lima, Piura, highlands (Cusco, Abancay, Arequipa and Huancayo and amazon basin (Iquitos. The pneumococcal strains were isolated and identified at the central laboratory of the project in Lima

  11. The burden of pneumococcal disease among Latin American and Caribbean children: review of the evidence La carga de enfermedad neumocócica en niños de América Latina y el Caribe: revisión de la información científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Valenzuela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive review of data on pneumococcal disease incidence in Latin America and the Caribbean and project the annual number of pneumococcal disease episodes and deaths among children OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión amplia de los datos sobre la incidencia de la enfermedad neumocócica en América Latina y el Caribe y proyectar el número anual de episodios de la enfermedad y de defunciones entre niños menores de 5 años de edad en la región. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo una revisión sistemática (1990-2006 sobre la carga de la enfermedad neumocócica en niños < 5 años en la región. Las incidencias anuales y las tasas de letalidad se compendiaron mediante las medianas y los rangos intercuartiles de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (en su conjunto y por separado para meningitis, neumonía, bacteremia y sepsis neumocócicas, la neumonía (todos los casos confirmados mediante radiología y la otitis media aguda, por grupos de edad: < 1 año, < 2 años y < 5 años. Se modeló la incidencia acumulada de la enfermedad específica para la edad mediante el análisis estándar de Kaplan-Meier y se proyectaron los datos para obtener estimados regionales de la carga de la enfermedad. Para estimar el número de casos y muertes evitados se ajustaron los estimados de la carga según la cobertura de los serotipos bacterianos, la cobertura de la vacunación y la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: De las 5 998 referencias identificadas se seleccionaron 26 artículos de 10 países. La carga anual estimada de neumonía, meningitis y otitis media aguda causadas por neumococos en niños < 5 años varió entre 980 000 y 1 500 000, 2 600 y 6 800, y 980 000 y 1 500 000, respectivamente. Se estimó que en la región podrían morir anualmente entre 12 000 y 28 000 niños debido a la enfermedad neumocócica. La vacuna antineumocócica conjugada podría salvar una vida por cada 1 100 niños vacunados y evitar un caso de enfermedad por cada

  12. Identidad de la vacuna contra Streptococcus pneumoniae “Quimi-Vio” mediante la técnica Dot Blot empleando los anticuerpos monoclonales contra los polisacáridos capsulares 1,5, 6B, 14 y 19F de la bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González Aznar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (neumococo constituye una de las principales causas de enfermedades infecciosas bacterianas, particularmente en niños menores de 2 años de edad. Basadas en el polisacárido capsular (PsC, su principal factor de virulencia, existen dos tipos de vacunas aprobadas para uso en humanos: las vacunas polisacarídicas planas y las vacunas polisacarídicas conjugadas. Quimi-Vio, la vacuna antineumocócica cubana, pertenece al segundo grupo y está compuesta por los PsC de los siete serotipos de mayor incidencia y circulación en Cuba (1, 5, 6B, 14, 18C, 19F y 23F. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar el ensayo de identidad de la vacuna cubana Quimi-Vio empleando los AcM contra los PsC 1, 5, 6B, 14, y 19F de Sp obtenidos recientemente en el Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, teniendo en cuenta que los Ensayos de identidad de las vacunas son requisito indispensable para la liberación final de los lotes. La técnica empleada para la realización del ensayo de identidad de Quimi-Vio fue el Dot Blot, donde empleando membrana de Nitrocelulosa se realizó la captura de tres lotes de vacuna Quimi-Vio y como control positivo de la técnica los respectivos PsC de los serotipos 1, 5, 6B, 14, y 19F sin conjugar y una vacuna comercial Prevenar-13. Para la identidad de los PsC de neumococo se emplearon los respectivos AcM a una concentración de 10µg/mL y como segundo anticuerpo anti IgG de ratón conjugado a peroxidasa teniendo en cuenta que los AcMs empleados son murinos. Cada AcM fue capaz de identificar de forma altamente especifica al PsC homologo (mismo serotipo, tanto en su forma no conjugada y monovalente como en el contexto de las vacunas Quimi-Vio y Prevenar 13V, donde además de estar conjugado al TT se encuentra mezclado con otros PsC de forma multivalente. La técnica Dot Blot empleando los AcMs contra los PsC serotipos 1, 5,6B, 14 y 19F permite identificar de forma específica cada PsC en la formulación multivalente, por lo

  13. A review of calculation methods for fast and intermediate reactors; Expose des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires; Obzor metodov rascheta reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh; Estudio panoramico de los metodos de calculo de los reactores rapidos e intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, G I [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    de ecuaciones fundamentales y conjugadas de la teoria de los multigrupos. Expone luego diversas aplicaciones de la teoria de la perturbacion a los problemas del calculo fisico del reactor. Examina los metodos numericos de resolucion de las ecuaciones fundamentales y conjugadas que expresan el funcionamiento del reactor sobre la base del metodo de los armonicos esfericos. Explica asimismo como se utiliza el metodo de las caracteristicas en la solucion de problemas relativos a la masa critica del reactor. Describe los metodos de calculo de los reactores con moderadores que contienen hidrogeno y, por fin, expone las bases de un modelo efectivo fundado en la teoria de un solo grupo, aplicable al reactor. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdaetsya razvitie metodov rascheta yadernykh reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh. Rassmatrivayuts ya razlichnye postanovki zadach fizicheskogo rascheta. Obsuzhdaetsya uchet rezonansnykh ehffektov. Vvodyatsya v rassmotrenie mnogogruppovy e sistemy 'osnovnykh i sopryazhennykh uravnenij. Daetsya razlichnoe primenenie teorii vozmushchenij k zadacham fizicheskogo rascheta reaktora. Rassmatrivayuts ya chislennye metody resheniya osnovnykh i sopryazhennykh uravnenij reaktora v priblizhenii metoda sfericheskikh garmonik. Daetsya primenenie metoda kharakteristik k resheniyu zadach na kriticheskuyu massu reaktora. Izlagayutsya metody rascheta reaktorov s vodorodsoderzhashchim i zamedlitelyami . Izlagayutsya osnovy ehffektivnoj odnogruppovoj modeli reaktora. (author)

  14. Anestesia em paciente com síndrome de Gilbert: relato de caso Anestesia en paciente con síndrome de Gilbert: relato de caso Anesthesia in a patient with Gilbert's syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Timbó Barbosa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A síndrome de Gilbert é uma doença crônica benigna, a qual leva à icterícia recorrente com grande aumento da bilirrubina não conjugada, que pode levar à toxicidade após o uso de medicações utilizadas na prática diária. O objetivo deste relato é descrever a conduta anestésica em uma paciente com síndrome de Gilbert, submetida à cirurgia videolaparoscópica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, com 22 anos, portadora da síndrome de Gilbert, submetida à cirurgia videolaparoscópica sob anestesia geral com propofol, alfentanil, succinilcolina, atracúrio e isoflurano. Não houve sinais de toxicidade durante a anestesia. A paciente apresentou recuperação pós-operatória sem intercorrências e recebeu alta hospitalar após três dias. CONCLUSÕES: O paciente portador da síndrome de Gilbert pode ser submetido à anestesia geral de forma segura sem o aparecimento de toxicidade desde que sejam evitados os fatores que possam levar à diminuição da atividade da glicuroniltransferase.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La síndrome de Gilbert es una enfermedad crónica benigna la cual lleva a la ictericia recurrente con grande aumento de la bilirrubina no conjugada, que puede llevar a la toxicidad después del uso de medicamentos utilizadas en la práctica diaria. El objetivo de este relato es describir la conducta anestésica en una paciente con síndrome de Gilbert, sometida a cirugía videolaparoscópica. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo femenino, con 22 años, portadora de la síndrome de Gilbert fue sometida a cirugía videolaparoscópica bajo anestesia general con propofol, alfentanil, succinilcolina, atracúrio e isoflurano. No hubo señales de toxicidad durante la anestesia. La paciente presentó recuperación pós-operatoria sin intercurrencias y recibió alta hospitalar después de tres días. CONCLUSIONES: El paciente portador del síndrome de Gilbert puede ser sometido a la anestesia general de

  15. Harvest of woody crops with a bio-baler in eight different environments in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Current, D. [Minnesota Univ., MN (United States); Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Hebert, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Robert, F.S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Sols et environnement; Gillitzdr, P.

    2010-07-01

    The biobaler was originally developed for short-rotation willow plantations, but can currently harvest a wide range of woody crops with a basal diameter up to 150 mm. The biobaler is an alternate approach to harvest woody crops as round bales, generally 1.2 m wide by 1.5 m diameter. In addition to harvesting trees, it can improve management of wild brush, forest understory vegetation and encroaching small trees on abandoned land. It allows easy handling, storage and transportation to sites where the biomass can be used for energy use or other applications. This paper reported on a study that was conducted in the fall of 2009 in which a third generation biobaler was used on 8 different sites across Minnesota, notably Waseca, Madelia, Faribault, Afton, Ogilvie, Hinckley, Aurora and Hibbing. A total of 160 bales were harvested from these sites. The average bale mass was 466 kg and average bale density was 296 kg/m{sup 3}. The moisture content averaged 44.9 per cent and the bale dry matter density averaged 163 kg DM/m{sup 3}. The harvested biomass per unit area ranged from 2.49 t/ha on lightly covered land to 55.24 t/ha on densely covered land. The harvested or recovered biomass was 72.3 per cent of the original cottonwood in Madelia; 75.8 per cent of the original oak and maple shrubs in Afton; and 73.5 per cent of the poplar regeneration in Hibbing. The actual harvest rate averaged 17.40 bales/h.

  16. Simulation of multiple scattering background in heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS) for the detection of trace quantities of heavy-atom impurities on Si surfaces, it is necessary to quantify the multiple scattering contribution to the spectral background. In the present work, the Monte Carlo computer simulation program TRIM has been used to study the backscattering spectrum and the multiple scattering background features for heavy ions C, Ne, Si, Ar and Kr impinging on four types of targets: (1) a single ultra-thin (free standing) Au film of 10 A thickness, (2) a 10 A Au film on a 50 A Si surface, (3) a 10 A Au film on an Si substrate (10 000 A), and (4) a thick target (10 000 A) of pure Si. The ratio of the signal from the Au thin layer to the background due to multiple scattering has been derived by fitting the simulation results. From the simulation results, it is found that the Au film contributes to the background which the Si plays a role in developing due to the ion's multiple scattering in the substrate. Such a background is generated neither by only the Au thin layer nor by the pure Si substrate independently. The corresponding mechanism of multiple scattering in the target can be explained as one large-angle scattering in the Au layer and subsequently several small angle scatterings in the substrate. This study allows an appropriate choice of incident beam species and energy range when the HIBS is utilized to analyse low level impurities in Si wafers

  17. Characterization of Vaccination Policies for Attendance and Employment at Day/Summer Camps in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, William A; Violanti, Kelsey C; Fusco, Nicholas M

    2018-01-01

    New York state requires day/summer camps to keep immunization records for all enrolled campers and strongly recommends requiring vaccination for all campers and staff. The objective of this study was to characterize immunization requirements/recommendations for children/adolescents enrolled in and staff employed at day/summer camps in New York state. An electronic hyperlink to a 9-question survey instrument was distributed via e-mail to 178 day/summer camps located in New York state cities with a population size greater than 100 000 people. A follow-up telephone survey was offered to nonresponders. The survey instrument included questions pertaining to vaccination documentation policies for campers/staff and the specific vaccines that the camp required/recommended. Fisher's exact and Chi-square tests were used to analyze categorical data. Sixty-five day/summer camps responded to the survey (36.5% response rate): 48 (73.8%) and 23 (41.8%) camps indicated having a policy/procedure for documenting vaccinations for campers and staff, respectively. Camps that had a policy/procedure for campers were more likely to have a policy/procedure for staff ( P = .0007). Age-appropriate vaccinations that were required/recommended for campers by at least 80% of camps included: measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP), hepatitis B, inactivated/oral poliovirus (IPV/OPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and varicella. Age-appropriate vaccinations that were required/recommended for staff by at least 80% of camps included: DTaP, hepatitis B, IPV/OPV, MMR, meningococcus, varicella, Hib, and tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap). Vaccination policies at day/summer camps in New York state appear to be suboptimal. Educational outreach may encourage camps to strengthen their immunization policies, which may reduce the transmission of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  18. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  19. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of >or=8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM(197)). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC, 98 to 100% of infants achieved protective levels. Both PRP IgG and tetanus responses were significantly enhanced when Pediacel was coadministered with NeisVac-C. This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies.

  20. Outer membrane protein complex of Meningococcus enhances the antipolysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal polysaccharide-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R

    2011-05-01

    Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antibody (Ab) after a single dose, in contrast to other conjugate vaccines, which require multiple doses. We have previously shown that OMPC robustly engages Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and enhances the early anti-Hib PS Ab titer associated with an increase in TLR2-mediated induction of cytokines. We now show that the addition of OMPC to the 7-valent pneumococcal PS-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine during immunization significantly increases the anti-PS IgG and IgM responses to most serotypes of pneumococcus contained in the vaccine. The addition of OMPC also increased the likelihood of anti-PS IgG3 production against serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 18C, 19F, and 23F. Splenocytes from mice who had received OMPC with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine produced significantly more interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) than splenocytes from mice who received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) plus the conjugate vaccine. We conclude that OMPC enhances the anti-PS Ab response to pneumococcal PS-CRM₁₉₇ conjugate vaccine, an effect associated with a distinct change in cytokine profile. It may be possible to reduce the number of conjugate vaccine doses required to achieve protective Ab levels by priming with adjuvants that are TLR2 ligands.

  1. Variabilidad de las meningoencefalitis bacterianas en el Hospital Pediátrico "Pepe Portilla" Variability of the bacterial meningoencephalitis at "Pepe Portilla" Paediatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maydelin Fernández González

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y prospectivo longitudinal de las Meningoencefalitis Bacterianas diagnosticadas en el Hospital Pediátrico "Pepe Portilla" en el año 2006 y 2007, con el objetivo de determinar los gérmenes que han aislado en dicha patología, comparándose con años anteriores desde 1992, analizando el impacto de la vacunación contra Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. Los estudios de líquido cefalorraquídeo se realizaron como indican las normativas para estos casos. Se encontró que en el 2006 solo hubo un caso de meningitis a Neisseria meningitidis y en el 2007 dos casos de meningitis por Streptocuccus pneumoneae, y además que la incidencia de Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae disminuyó después de la aplicación de las vacunas VAMENGO BC y Hib de manera ostensible como lo hizo en el país en general, demostrándose la efectividad de dicha vacuna en nuestro medio.A retrospective-prospective and longitudinal study about Bacterial Meningoencephalitis diagnosed at "Pepe Portilla" Paediatric Hopital was carried out during 2006-2007 aimed at determining the isolated germs of this pathology comparing them with previous years (since 1992 and analyzing the impact of vaccination against Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenzae. The studies about cerebrospinal fluid were conducted as indicated by the rules towards these cases. Results showed that in 2006 only one case of meningitis a Neisseria meningitidis occurred and two cases of meningitis by Streptocuccus pneumoneae in 2007; besides the incidence of Neisseria meningitidis y Haemophilus influenza diminished after the vaccination with VAMENGON BC and Hib observed in all the country, showing the effectiveness of the vaccine in our environment.

  2. The Seroepidemiology of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b in Children Under 6 Years Old in Khorramabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ansari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib is now recognized as an agent of bacterial meningitis in Asia. Polyribosil Ribitol Phosphate (PRP capsule are in all of the strains and IgG antibodies can be target. Due to limited studies on H. influenzae type b in the country and the lack of sufficient information on the status of carriers, achieve a comprehensive model of the spread of the bacteria in the carrier's most vulnerable children is the aim of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, 194 (49% female and 51% male serum samples were collected from children under 6 years old referred to medical centers in Korram Abad. The serological study of H. influenzae type b was carried using anti-H. influenzae PRP IgG antibodies kit by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Of 194 children under 6 years-old screened for H. influenzae-specific IgG antibodies with ELISA, 6 (3 percent were IgG seropositive. Prevalence of bacteria in children under 2 years was 67% that demonstrated no significant association between seropositivity in subjects and place of residence of children with the prevalence of bacteria. Conclusion: The prevalence of H. influenzae type b seropositivity in our study was 3% of the total sample. In current study, a higher percentage of males than females were seropositive and frequency of predominant bacteria in patients younger than 2 years. The age factor is a variable that positively affects serum. Regarding to non-Hib vaccination in children, the presence of the bacteria in children can be important.

  3. Maternal supplementation with LGG reduces vaccine-specific immune responses in infants at high-risk of developing allergic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V Licciardi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are defined as live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Among their pleiotropic effects, inhibition of pathogen colonisation at the mucosal surface as well as modulation of immune responses are widely recognised as the principal biological activities of probiotic bacteria. In recent times, the immune effects of probiotics have led to their application as vaccine adjuvants, offering a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of current vaccines. Such an approach is particularly relevant in regions where infectious disease burden is greatest and where access to complete vaccination programs is limited. In this study, we report the effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG on immune responses to tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7 vaccines in infants. This study was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial assessing the impact of maternal LGG supplementation in preventing the development of atopic eczema in infants at high-risk for developing allergic disease. Maternal LGG supplementation was associated with reduced antibody responses against tetanus, Hib and pneumococcal serotypes contained in PCV7 (N=31 compared to placebo-treatment (N=30 but not total IgG levels. Maternal LGG supplementation was also associated with a trend to increased number of tetanus toxoid-specific Treg in the peripheral blood compared to placebo-treated infants. These findings suggest that maternal LGG supplementation may not be beneficial in terms of improving vaccine-specific immunity in infants. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings. As probiotic immune effects can be species/strain specific, our findings do not exclude the potential use of other probiotic bacteria to modulate infant immune responses to vaccines.

  4. The evaluation of a standardized call/recall system for childhood immunizations in Wandsworth, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Christina; Zvoc, Miro; Balakrishnan, Ravikumar

    2013-06-01

    To improve uptake of childhood immunizations in Wandsworth we developed a standardized call/recall system based on parents being sent three reminders and defaulters being referred to a Health Visitor. Thirty-two out of 44 primary care practices in the area implemented the intervention in September 2011. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation, delivery and impact on immunization uptake of the new call/recall system. To assess implementation and delivery, a mixed method approach was used including qualitative (structured interviews) and quantitative (data collected at three months post-implementation) assessment. To assess the impact, we used Student's t test to compare the difference in immunization uptake rates between intervention and non-intervention practices before and after implementation. The call/recall system was viewed positively by both parents and staff. Most children due or overdue immunizations were successfully captured by the 1st invitation reminder. After three invitations, between 87.3 % (MMR1) and 92.2 % (pre-school booster) of children identified as due or overdue immunizations successfully responded. Prior to implementation there was no difference in uptake rates between intervention and non-intervention practices. Post-implementation uptake rates for DTaP/IPV/Hib, MMR1, MMR2 and the pre-school booster were significantly greater in the intervention practices. Similar findings were seen for PCV and Hib/MenC boosters, although the differences were not statistically significant at the 5 % level. Following the successful implementation of a standardized call/recall system in Wandsworth, other regions or primary care practices may wish to consider introducing a similar system to help improve their immunization coverage levels.

  5. EPR and DRIFT spectroscopic characterization of humic fractions during composting of sawdust and paper mill sludge Caracterização espectroscópica (RPE e DRIFT das frações húmicas durante a compostagem de lodo de fábrica de papel e serragem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Branco de Freitas Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The spectroscopic characteristics (DRIFT, UV-visible and EPR of humic fractions were studied during composting of sawdust and paper mill sludge. Infrared spectroscopy reveals a compost rich in hydroxyl and alkyl groups and carboxylates and carbohydrates. The alkyl fraction is abundant in the humic acids and humin. The decreasing of the E4/E6 ratio during composting indicates an enhancement of the organic chains number, with conjugated double bonds. This decreasing would correspond to a reduction of the lignin content and/or formation of porphyrins. The EPR shows that humin presents the highest concentration of free radical and the lowest intensities of the Fe3+.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.01

    The spectroscopic characteristics (DRIFT, UV-visible and EPR of As características espectroscópicas (DRIFT, UV-visível e RPE das frações húmicas foram estudadas durante a compostagem de serragem e lodo de fábrica de papel. A espectroscopia de infravermelho (DRIFT revelou um composto rico em hidroxilas, carboxilatos, alquilas e carboidratos. A fração alifática está concentrada nos ácidos húmicos e na humina. A diminuição da razão E4/E6 durante a compostagem indica um aumento de cadeias orgânicas com ligações duplas conjugadas. Esta redução corresponderia a uma diminuição do teor de lignina e/ou a formação de porfirinas. O RPE mostrou que a humina apresenta a concentração mais alta de radicais livres e a menor concentração de Fe3+ livre.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.01

  6. Liderazgo y cambio cultural en la organización para la sustentabilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Chávez Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos elementos sustanciales, liderazgo y cambio organizacional, se abordan en este trabajo con la intención de resaltar su importancia y su relación que, bien conjugada en estrategias adecuadas, apuntarían a la evolución de las organizaciones y al cumplimiento de los objetivos de contribuir a un auténtico desarrollo sustentable basado especialmente en el cuidado del medio ambiente. Se destaca el papel que juegan las empresas como factores de progreso en las sociedades y con un accionar que debería tener como una de sus referencias a la correspondiente responsabilidad social, alejándose de un cumplimiento a medias o, peor aún, de simulaciones. El liderazgo es importante porque faculta al dirigente con la misión de lograr la conciencia social entre los miembros de la organización, lo cual incidiría en un cambio interno significativo y democrático, pero a la vez socialmente legítimo, lo cual se determina también como un cambio en la cultura de la organización. Para analizar lo anterior, se presenta un desglose teórico y comentado sobre elementos esenciales: liderazgo, organización, cultura organizacional, estrategias, desarrollo económico y progreso. En este trabajo se hace una revisión de teorías y de la visión de organismos internacionales para arribar a una propuesta estratégica para la sustentabilidad, sin dejar de considerar que el tema permanece inacabado ante las actuales condiciones de degradación ambiental, desigualdad social, incertidumbre y ambigüedad.

  7. Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasivas: serotipos y resistencia antimicrobiana Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections: serotypes and antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Antonia Cueto Montoya

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las meningoencefalitis bacterianas constituyen una enfermedad invasiva importante, quizás no tanto por su frecuencia, como por la gravedad de su cuadro. Los cambios en la epidemiología de los síndromes neurológicos infecciosos en Cuba a partir de la vacunación contra meningococo BC y Haemophilus influenzae b han hecho que el Streptococcus pneumoniae constituya el agente causal más frecuente. Debido al incremento de la resistencia de este microorganismo a los antibióticos habituales, se realizaron modificaciones al régimen terapéutico convencional, fundamentalmente en las meningitis pediátricas. Es necesario lograr el aislamiento en cultivo de este agente para conocer los serotipos más frecuentes en el país, y lograr una vacuna neumocócica conjugada, así como para la vigilancia de las cepas frente a los antimicrobianos.The bacterial meningoencephalitis is an important invasive disease, not only because of its frequency, but also because of the severity of its picture. The changes in the epidemiology of the neurological infectious syndromes in Cuba starting from the vaccination against meningococcus BC and Haemophilus infuenzae b have made that Streptococcus pneumoniae be the most frequent causal agent. Due to the increase of the resistance of this microorganism to habitual antibiotics, modifications were made in the conventional therapeutic regimen, mainly in the pediatric meningitis. It is necessary to achieve the isolation in culture of this agent to know the most common serotypes in the country, to attain a conjugated pneumococcal vaccine, and to keep the surveillance of the strains against the antimicrobials.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA ENFERMEDAD MENINGOCÓCICA EN CATALUÑA ANTES Y DESPUÉS DE LA VACUNACIÓN FRENTE AL SEROGRUPO C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La enfermedad meningocócica continúa siendo un grave problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. En Cataluña, tras implementar el programa de vacunación, ha habido un descenso importante de los casos producidos por meningococo C. Métodos: Se analizaron los casos notificados de enfermedad meningocócica entre 1997 y 2008 para determinar la evolución después de la introducción de la vacuna conjugada en Cataluña. Resultados: La tasa de incidencia de casos por serogrupo C en menores de 6 años se redujo de 7,6 por 100000 personas/ año en el período prevacunal (1997-2000 hasta 0,6 en el período postvacunal (2001-2007. En los casos por serogrupo B, la reducción fue mucho menor, de 15.4 a 11.1. En los menores de 20 años, la tasa de letalidad solo aumento en los casos por serogrupo B (3% en el período prevacunal y 7.4% en el postvacunal.Entre 2000 y 2008, el subtipo P1.15 ha sido el más frecuentemente identificado entre los casos por serogrupo B (31%, asociado principalmente al serotipo 4 (80%, y el subtipo P1.5 (36% asociado mayoritariamente al serotipo 2a (86%, en los casos por serogrupo C. Durante 2008, 5 casos de B:2a:P1.5, sin aparente relación entre sí fueron identificados en una misma zona geográfica, con una letalidad de 80%. Conclusiones: Es necesario mantener una constante y exhaustiva vigilancia para conocer las cepas circulantes en cada momento y detectar precozmente posibles cambios y recombinaciones entre ellas.

  9. Correlación entre la tipificación capsular de aislamientos colombianos de Haemophilus influenzae por el método de aglutinación en lámina y la técnica de PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylin Hidalgo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En 1998 se inició en Colombia la inmunización de niños menores de un año de edad con la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae, serotipo b. En el 2000, el programa de vigilancia del Grupo de Microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud informó una disminución de 40% de los casos de meningitis por este microorganismo, la cual se atribuyó a la vacunación. En este programa de vigilancia se utiliza de rutina la técnica estandarizada de aglutinación en lámina para la tipificación capsular de H. influenzae. El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la concordancia entre la prueba de aglutinación en lámina y la técnica de PCR. Se estudiaron con ambas técnicas 146 aislamientos clínicos invasores de H. influenzae, obtenidos de niños menores de 5 años, recolectados a partir de 1999 hasta 2002, identificados y serotipificados por el laboratorio de referencia como parte de la vigilancia de la meningitis bacteriana aguda y la infección respiratoria aguda. Nuestros resultados mostraron una correlación de 93% en la tipificación capsular de H. influenzae, serotipo b, y de 92% con respecto al resto de serotipos. La técnica de aglutinación en lámina realizada con un estricto control de calidad continúa siendo una herramienta sensible y específica para la serotipificación de H. influenzae.

  10. 3D analysis of Navier-Stokes in steady state of the behavior of the flow in the Inter stage 1 of a gas turbine Frame 7; Analisis de navier-stokes tridimensional en estado estable del comportamiento del flujo en la inter etapa 1 de una turbina de gas frame 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henandez Rosete, Alejandro; Mazur C, Zdzislaw [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    The results of the simulation by CFD (Computacional Fluid Dynamics) realized to the first stage of a gas turbine GE Frame 7 are presented. The analysis includes the 3D modeling of the flow channel in the nozzle and the movable blade to know the velocities distributions, temperatures and pressures of the main hot gas flow that are developed in the Inter stage. The results are influenced by the imposed border conditions in the properties of the main flow, the rotation of the movable blade, as well as the simulation of cooling air injection in the nozzle. The present study focuses in the validation of the model of the meshes of the ensemble nozzle-blade, for later realize an analysis of conjugated heat transfer in a model with ceramic lining type heat barrier (THB) in the movable blade. The analysis is realized in a CFD commercial code oriented to turbo-machinery using the equations of unstable flows 3D of Navier Stokes. [Spanish] Se presentan los resultados de la simulacion por CFD (Computacional Fluid Dynamics) realizada a la primera etapa de una turbina de gas GE Frame 7. El analisis incluye la modelacion tridimensional del canal de flujo en la tobera y el alabe movil para conocer las distribuciones de las velocidades, temperaturas y presiones del flujo principal de gases calientes que se desarrollan en la inter etapa. Los resultados son influenciados por las condiciones de frontera impuestos en las propiedades del flujo principal, la rotacion del alabe movil, asi como la simulacion de inyeccion de aire de enfriamiento en la tobera. El presente estudio se enfoca en la validacion del modelo de la malla del conjunto tobera-alabe, para posteriormente realizar un analisis de transferencia de calor conjugada en un modelo con recubrimiento ceramico tipo barrera termica (TBC) en el alabe movil. El analisis es realizado en un codigo de CFD comercial orientado a turbomaquinaria utilizando las ecuaciones de flujos inestables 3D de Navier Stokes.

  11. Indicadores metabólicos en razas lecheras especializadas en condiciones tropicales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo Campos G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha seleccionado un alto número de razas bovinas para producción de leche, sin embargo, las de origen Bos taurus no han logrado adaptarse a las condiciones tropicales. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el comportamiento metabólico de siete razas (Ayrshire, Girolando, Holstein Friesian, Jersey, Lucerna, Pardo Suizo y Simenthal a través de 15 metabolitos. Se emplearon 28 animales por raza, distribuidos en cuatro grupos fisiológicos: novillas, inicio y final de lactancia y vacas secas (final de gestación. Los valores medios de los indicadores metabólicos fueron: BOH 0.5 mmol/l; glucosa 2.8 mmol/l; colesterol 2.5 mmol/l; potasio 4.1 mmol/l; calcio 2.0 mmol/l; fósforo inorgánico 1.7 mmol/l; magnesio 1.1 mmol/l; proteínas totales 66.2 mg/dl; albúmina 25.8 mg/dl; globulinas 40.2 mg/dl; creatinina 109 µmol/l; BUN 3.8 mmol/l; ALT 32.2 UI/l; AST 56.6 UI/l; GGT 12.3 UI/l; bilirrubina total 0.2 µmol/l; bilirrubina conjugada 0.08 µmol/l. Los valores medios de la condición corporal y el hematocrito fueron 3.25% y 27.0% respectivamente. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre grupos raciales y entre grupos de producción. Los animales de menor peso metabólico (Jersey presentaron mejor homeostasis que los de pesos mayores (Simenthal, Holstein.

  12. Alimentação e nutrição como campo científico autônomo no Brasil: conceitos, domínios e projetos políticos

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    Shirley Donizete Prado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo problematiza conceitos, domínios e alguns interesses presentes na constituição da Alimentação e Nutrição como campo científico no Brasil. Partindo da teoria dos campos sociais, transversal ao pensamento de Bourdieu e conjugada a reflexões de Stengers acerca de campos científicos, busca-se estabelecer distinções entre os domínios que tratam dos alimentos, e aqueles voltados aos nutrientes e à comida. Reconhecendo dis-tinções entre tais domínios, postula-se que comer, nutrir e alimentar são fenômenos humanos inter-relacionados; assim, a pluralidade epistemológica é exigência primeira para sua compreensão, haja vista as interfaces entre as dimensões biológica e social. Portanto, reconhecer a necessidade da aproximação entre campos científicos é fundamental, ainda que tal aproximação só se estabeleça em processos que envolvem interesses em disputa. Nesse sentido, a despeito dos desafios, defende-se que a articulação entre Alimentação e Nutrição corresponde a projeto político promissor e necessário do ponto de vista da interdisciplinaridade que a natureza desse binômio exige, para sua compreensão como campo de produção de conhecimentos e saberes relativos aos processos socioculturais e biológicos que percorrem várias esferas da vida humana.

  13. Paisajes de sobrevida

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    Gabriel Giorgi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunas de las investigaciones contemporáneas más significativas en la literatura y en el arte de Brasil y del Cono Sur giran en torno a la cuestión de la memoria, el umbral entre lo vivo y lo muerto y las formas en las que temporalidades en conflicto y anacronismos articulan una crítica del presente. La memoria, evidentemente, se ha vuelto un terreno saturado políticamente en las democracias de América del Sir, donde las “políticas de la memoria”, conjugadas entre el testimonio y las pedagogías colectivas- definen en gran parte la articulación entre cultura y política. En este contexto, las instalaciones y la escritura de Nuno Ramos, trabajando en el terreno inestable entre lo vivo y lo muerto, lo orgánico y lo inorgánico, lo fosilizado y lo espectral, representan una intervención decisiva. En el trabajo de Ramos, la memoria nunca es enteramente humana; es inseparable de cuerpos y materias no humanas. Este ensayo se focaliza en los “paisajes de sobrevida” en los que la configuración de esta perspectiva crítica del trabajo de Ramos interroga y reformula las maneras en las que la memoria y lo política se entrecruzan allí donde la noción misma de vida –el bios ­que articula lo biopolítico- está en juego.

  14. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  15. Caracterización de aislamientos invasivos de S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae y N. meningitidis en América Latina y el Caribe: SIREVA II, 2000-2005 Characterization of invasive isolates of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis in Latin America and the Caribbean: SIREVA II, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Gabastou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar las características fenotípicas y la susceptibilidad a antibióticos de las cepas circulantes de Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae y Neisseria meningitidis en América Latina y el Caribe entre 2000 y 2005. Se evaluó la cobertura potencial de las vacunas conjugadas. MÉTODOS: Se estudió por métodos convencionales la distribución de los serotipos o serogrupos de 17 303 cepas de S. pneumoniae, 2 782 cepas de H. influenzae y 6 955 cepas de N. meningitidis aisladas de casos de neumonía, meningitis, sepsis, bacteriemias y otros procesos invasivos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad a los antibióticos de las cepas estudiadas. Los aislamientos procedían de 453 centros centinelas de 19 países de América Latina y 4 del Caribe, como parte del proyecto SIREVA II. RESULTADOS: El serotipo 14 de S. pneumoniae fue el más frecuentemente aislado (21,1%, especialmente en niños menores de 6 años (29,1%. Las coberturas potenciales de las vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas hepta, nona, deca y tridecavalentes fueron de 59,0%, 73,4%, 76,5% y 85,9%, respectivamente. De los aislamientos, 63,3% eran sensibles a la penicilina. El serotipo b de H. influenzae estuvo presente en 72,2% de los aislamientos en niños menores de 2 años, mientras 8,6% correspondieron a los serotipos a, c, d, e y f; 19,2% resultaron no serotipables. La proporción de cepas de H. influenzae productoras de betalactamasa en aislamientos en niños menores de 2 años fue de 16,3%. Los serogrupos de N. meningitidis más frecuentes fueron el B (69,0% y el C (25,7%; 65,8% y 99,2% de las cepas fueron sensibles a la penicilina y a la rifampicina, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados resaltan la importancia de la vigilancia epidemiológica integral de S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae y N. meningitidis en América Latina y el Caribe. La gran heterogeneidad en la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en los países estudiados podría reducir la

  16. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among children in Brazil, 1997-1998 Epidemiologia de meningites bacterianas entre crianças no Brasil, 1997 a 1998

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    Débora PL Weiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To document the incidence and the descriptive epidemiology of bacterial meningitis among individuals under age 20 in a geographically defined region in Brazil during the two-year period immediately preceding the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into the national immunization program of Brazil. METHODS: Population-based epidemiological study of all cases of bacterial meningitis reported among residents of Campinas, Brazil, under age 20 (n=316,570 during the period of 1997-98, using comprehensive surveillance records compiled by the Campinas Health Department from cases reported among hospital inpatients, outpatients, emergency room visits, death certificates, and autopsy reports. RESULTS: The incidence of bacterial meningitis (n=274 was 334.9, 115 and 43.5 cases/10(5 person-years (pys for residents of Campinas under age 1, 5 and 20, respectively. All cases were hospitalized, with an average length of stay of 12 days. Documented prior antibiotic use was 4.0%. The case-fatality rate of bacterial meningitis in individuals under age 20 was 9% (24/274 with 75% of deaths occurring in children under the age of five. The incidence of Hib meningitis (n=26 was 62.8 and 17 cases/10(5 pys in children age OBJETIVO: Documentar a incidência e a epidemiologia descritiva de meningites bacterianas entre pessoas com idade inferior a 20 anos em uma região geográfica definida do Brasil. O período foi de dois anos, imediatamente anterior à introdução da vacina contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, no Programa Nacional de Imunização do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico populacional dos casos de meningites bacterianas notificados entre residentes em Campinas, SP, Brasil, com idade inferior a 20 anos (n=316.570, entre 1997 e 1998. Baseia-se em dados de notificação da vigilância epidemiológica da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Campinas, relatados entre casos provenientes de pacientes hospitalizados

  17. Situação epidemiológica das meningites por haemophilus influenzae b na Direção Regional de Piracicaba - São Paulo Situación epidemiológica de las meningitis por Haemophilus influenzae b en la Dirección Regional de Piracicaba - São Paulo - Brasil Epidemiological profile of Haemophilus influenzae b meningitis in Regional Health Board of Piracicaba - São Paulo - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Elisa Cruz Perecin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar a população acometida por meningites por Hib em relação às variáveis demográficas e relativas ao processo saúde-doença, no período de 1992 a 2001, na DIR de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados a partir de fichas de notificação compulsória, sendo sistematizados através do Programa SINAN. Observou-se que ocorreu um pico de incidência da doença em 1994, e um pico de óbitos em 1999, anteriores à introdução da vacina. Os mais acometidos foram crianças menores de 5 anos, do sexo masculino, confirmando dados de literatura. A maioria dos pacientes foi atendida em unidades hospitalares públicas de Piracicaba e Limeira, referências para as comunidades desses municípios, concretizando um dos princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: a regionalização. A introdução da vacina promoveu redução dos casos em cerca de 73%, o que corrobora a sua importância e impele à necessidade de estimular a adesão à vacinação.El presente estudio objetivó caracterizar la población afectada por meningitis causada por Hib en relación a las variables demográficas y relativas al proceso salud-enfermedad, en el período de 1992 a 2001 en la DIR de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados a partir de fichas de notificación obligatorias, las cuales fueron sistematizadas a través del programa SINAN. Se observó que ocurrió un pico de incidencia de la enfermedad en 1994 y un pico de fallecimientos en 1999, con antelación a la introducción de la vacuna. Los más afectados fueron niños menores de 5 años, de sexo masculino, confirmando datos de la bibliografía. La mayoría de los pacientes fue atendida en unidades hospitalarias públicas de Piracicaba y Limeira, referenciales para las comunidades de tales municipios, concretando uno de los principios del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS: su regionalización. La introducción de la vacuna promovió la reducción de casos en

  18. First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L.

    2009-01-01

    Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti 3+ and Ti 4+ can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f O2 conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent with formation in a gas of solar composition (log f O2 = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl 12 O 19 ), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti 3+ /Ti 4+ ratios have not been previously measured. Analysis of these samples allows comparison of Ti valence of (1

  19. Feasibility of Target Material Recycling as Waste Management Alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Varuttamaseni, A.

    2004-01-01

    The issue of waste management has been studied simultaneously along with the development of the ARIES heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Options for waste management include disposal in repositories, recycling, or clearance from regulatory control, following a reasonable cooling period. This paper concerns the feasibility of recycling the heavy-ion-beam targets, in particular the hohlraum wall materials that include, for example, Au/Gd, Au, W, Pb, Hg, Ta, Pb/Ta/Cs, Hg/W/Cs, Pb/Hf, Hf, solid Kr, and solid Xe. The choice between target material disposal and recycling depends on the amount of waste generated relative to the nuclear island, the strategy to solve the recycling problem, and the impact of the additional cost and complexity of the recycling process on the overall machine. A detailed flow diagram for the elements of the recycling process was developed to analyze two extreme activation cases: (a) one-shot use and then disposal in a repository and (b) recycling continuously during plant life without removal of transmutation products. Metrics for comparing the two scenarios included waste level, dose to recycling equipment, additional cost, and design complexity. Comparing the two approaches indicated a preference for the one-shot scenario as it generates 1 m 3 /yr of extremely low-level waste (Class A) and offers attractive design and economics features. Recycling reduces the target waste stream by a factor of 10 or more but introduces additional issues. It may produce high-level waste, requires remote handling, adds radioactive storage facilities, and increases the cost and complexity of the plant. The inventory analysis indicated that the heavy-ion-beam (HIB) target materials represent a very small waste stream compared to that of the nuclear island (<1% of the total waste). This means recycling is not a 'must' requirement for IFE-HIB power plants unless the target materials have cost and/or resource problems (e.g., Au and Gd). In this

  20. Evaluation of the induction of immune memory following infant immunisation with serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis conjugate vaccines--exploratory analyses within a randomised controlled trial.

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    Ameneh Khatami

    Full Text Available We measured meningococcal serogroup C (MenC-specific memory B-cell responses in infants by Enzyme-Linked Immunospot (ELISpot following different MenC conjugate vaccine schedules to investigate the impact of priming on immune memory.Infants aged 2 months were randomised to receive 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 at 3 or 3 and 4 months, 1 dose of MenC-TT at 3 months, or no primary MenC doses. All children received a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib-MenC booster at 12 months. Blood was drawn at 5, 12, 12 months +6 days and 13 months of age.Results were available for 110, 103, 76 and 44 children from each group respectively. Following primary immunisations, and prior to the 12-month booster, there were no significant differences between 1- or 2-dose primed children in the number of MenC memory B-cells detected. One month following the booster, children primed with 1 dose MenC-TT had more memory B-cells than children primed with either 1-dose (p = 0.001 or 2-dose (p<0.0001 MenC-CRM197. There were no differences in MenC memory B-cells detected in children who received 1 or 2 doses of MenC-CRM197 in infancy and un-primed children.MenC-specific memory B-cell production may be more dependent on the type of primary vaccine used than the number of doses administered. Although the mechanistic differences between MenC-CRM197 and MenC-TT priming are unclear, it is possible that structural differences, including the carrier proteins, may underlie differential interactions with B- and T-cell populations, and thus different effects on various memory B-cell subsets. A MenC-TT/Hib-MenC-TT combination for priming/boosting may offer an advantage in inducing more persistent antibody.EU Clinical Trials Register 2009-016579-31 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01129518.

  1. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (Pvaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aislamientos invasivos de Haemophilus influenzae en menores de 5 años: distribución de los serotipos y de la sensibilidad antimicrobiana, SIREVA II, Colombia 2002-2013

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    Mabel Karina Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar del 2002 al 2013 los datos de la vigilancia de los serotipos y sensibilidad antimicrobiana de los aislamientos invasivos de Haemophilus influenzae ( H. influenzae en niños menores de 60 meses. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron los datos demográficos, fuente y enfermedad asociada de los aislamientos invasivos de H. influenzae recibidos entre 2002 y 2013. Todos los aislamientos habían sido confirmados bacteriológicamente, tenían el dato del serotipo, el cual fue determinado por el método de aglutinación en lámina y PCR y los patrones de sensibilidad antimicrobiana por concentración inhibitoria mínima a ampicilina, SXT, cloranfenicol, cefuroxima y ceftriaxona. El análisis se realizó por periodos de 3 años. Resultados: Por enfermedad invasiva el 50,5% eran de pacientes con meningitis, 23,5% de neumonías, 19,5% de sepsis y bacteriemia, 2,0% de otros y 4,5% sin dato. Por procedencia se recibieron de Bogotá y Antioquia 55 aislamientos de cada uno, de Risaralda 24, de Valle 15, de Santander 11 y 40 de 14 departamentos. El serotipo predominante fue el Hib (40,5%, seguido de HiNT (38,0%, Hia (17,5%, Hid (2,0%, Hif (1,5% y Hie (0,5%. Del total de los aislamientos, 12,0% eran resistentes a ampicilina; 16,5% a SXT; 1,0% a cloranfenicol y 0,5% a ceftriaxona. Todos los aislamientos fueron sensibles a cefuroxima y a rifampicina. Conclusiones: La vigilancia por el laboratorio es una vigilancia pasiva voluntaria pero, no obstante el número reducido de aislamientos, permite determinar que Hib continúa circulando en esta población y que hay otros serotipos de H. influenzae que causan enfermedad invasiva. Por tanto es necesario mantener y fortalecer la vigilancia de este patógeno.

  3. Prevención de las infecciones respiratorias agudas: Presente y futuro

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    Roberto Razón Behar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones respiratorias agudas (IRA, son las causas más frecuentes de morbilidad en el mundo y de elevada mortalidad particularmente en los países en desarrollo. Los virus son los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes. Los virus influenza a y b, y el virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR son los más importantes por la severidad de la enfermedad y por la alta transmisibilidad. Las bacterias, principalmente el Streptococcus pneumoniae (neumococo, y el Haemophilus influenzae tipo B (Hib, son las causas más frecuentes de neumonías adquiridas en la comunidad. Las estrategias generales en la prevención y en el tratamiento se basan en: evaluar sistemáticamente los conocimientos existentes acerca de las IRA, divulgarlos y aplicarlos, desarrollar una guía nacional para las indicaciones de los antibióticos, aplicar las vacunas existentes: DPT, triple viral (SRP, anti-Hi, incrementar la inmunización contra el neumococo y los virus influenza, particularmente en grupos de riesgo y desarrollar y evaluar nuevas vacunas contra el VSR, Haemophilus influenzae no serotipificables, Bordetella pertussis y otros agentes infecciosos que afectan el aparato respiratorio. Se realiza una revisión de nuevos agentes y drogas antivirales, así como del desarrollo presente y futuro de las inmunizaciones contra los principales virus y bacterias, que causan infecciones respiratorias agudas.Acute respiratory infections (ARI are the most frequent cause of morbidity and of the high mortality in the world, particularly in the developing countries. The viruses are the most common etiological agents.The influenza a and b viruses and the syncytial respiratory virus (SRV are the most important due to the severity of the disease and to their high transmissibility. The bacteria, mainly Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib, are the most frequent cause of pneumonias acquired in the community. The general strategies in the prevention and

  4. Polyamine patterns in haploid and diploid tobacco tissues and in vitro cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Bicudo Carone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine PAs levels in pith tissues and callus cultures from haploid and diploid tobacco plants, explanted from the apical and basal regions of the stem. These explants were cultured in an RM-64 medium supplied with IAA and kinetin, under light or in the dark, during successive subcultures. PAs levels followed a basipetal decrease in diploid and an increase in haploid, pith tissues. A similar pattern of total PAs (free + conjugated was observed for the callus of diploid and haploid plants maintained in the light, and for the haploid callus in the dark, whereas the diploid callus in the dark showed a constant increase in total PAs levels until the end of culture. The PA increase in the diploid callus in the dark was related to free Put levels increase. The ploidy status of the plants could express different PA gradients together with the plant pith and in vitro callus cultures.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os níveis de PAs em tecidos de medula e cultura de calos de plantas haplóides e diplóides de tabaco, obtidas da região apical e basal do caule. Estes explantes foram cultivados em meio RM-64 suplementado com AIA e cinetina, na luz e no escuro, durante vários subcultivos. Nos tecidos medulares, os níveis de PAs apresentam um decréscimo basípeto em diplóides e um aumento em haplóides.Um padrão similar nos níveis de PAs totais (livres+ conjugadas foi observado em calos haplóides e diplóides mantidos na luz, e haplóides no escuro, enquanto os diplóides cultivados no escuro mostraram um aumento constante até o final do cultivo. O aumento no conteúdo de PAs nos calos diplóides no escuro, foi devido ao aumento do conteúdo de Put livre. Foi observado que a ploidia da planta pode expressar diferentes gradientes de PA ao longo do tecido medular e nas culturas de calos in vitro.

  5. Enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en niños de la Región de Murcia

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    Espín M.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La disponibilidad de una vacuna neumocócica conjugada plantea la necesidad de conocer la incidencia y características de la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en niños de la Región de Murcia, con la finalidad de obtener información que pueda ser de utilidad para establecer adecuadamente las indicaciones de vacunación. Métodos: Se ha realizado una búsqueda retrospectiva de casos de enfermedad invasiva por Streptococcus pneumoniae en menores de 15 años de edad atendidos en hospitales de la Región de Murcia durante el período 1991-2000. Las fuentes de datos utilizadas han sido las bases de datos de los Servicios de Microbiología, el Conjunto Mínimo de Datos Básicos, registro de altas pediátricas y Registro EDO. Resultados: La tasa de incidencia para el período 1996-2000 fue, para los menores de 1 año, de 18,25 por 10(5 personas-año en el caso de enfermedad invasiva (10,6 para meningitis; para los menores de 2 años, de 13,6 para enfermedad invasiva (6 para meningitis; para menores de 5 años, de 8,9 (1,35 para meningitis, y para los menores de 15 años, de 3,7 (1,3 para meningitis. El 28% de los casos presentaba factores de riesgo. Las complicaciones alcanzaron el 35,2% y las secuelas el 5%. La letalidad fue del 11,8%. Los serogrupos prevalentes fueron el 19, el 6, el 18, el 5, el 14 y el 23. Conclusiones: El alto porcentaje de casos con factores de riesgo de enfermedad neumocócica invasiva aconseja la implantación de programas de vacunación dirigidos a todos los niños con factores de riesgo. La incidencia de enfermedad neumocócica invasiva encontrada en la Región de Murcia difiere de la de otras zonas geográficas; sin embargo, la incidencia de meningitis es similar a la de otros estudios. La gravedad de la enfermedad justifica la realización de estudios coste-efectividad para valorar la posible incorporación de la vacuna en el calendario vacunal.

  6. Caracterização de podzólicos amarelos irrigados e não irrigados do submédio São Francisco

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    J. A. Dantas

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigações micromacromorfológicas, físicas, químicas e mineralógicas foram realizadas em solos Podzólicos Amarelos na região do submédio São Francisco, município de Petrolina, estado de Pernambuco. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar e identificar possíveis diferenciações nos solos, em função de seus posicionamentos no terreno, pela ação conjugada dos relevos de superfície e subsuperfície, subordinadas ou não a cinco anos de manejo com irrigação em cultura de manga. Foram utilizados dados de quatro perfis de solos, sendo dois em área irrigada e dois em outra contígua que apenas tinha sido recentemente desmatada. Observou-se que os solos não foram significantemente alterados em suas características morfológicas e mineralógicas pelo manejo com irrigação. Algumas características morfológicas, como presença de fragipãs e mosqueamentos, parecem estar relacionadas com a movimentação e acumulação de água subordinadas à conjugação dos relevos de superfície e subsuperfície. Modificações nas características químicas foram observadas, principalmente relativas à alta salinidade e sodicidade, especialmente nos horizontes mais profundos dos perfis da subárea não irrigada. Tais modificações também parecem relacionadas com a dinâmica da água subordinada ao relevo. Uma vez que alguns efeitos nocivos da irrigação foram observados na área contígua, que não estava sendo utilizada, ressalta-se a necessidade de sempre extrapolar a avaliação do impacto ambiental da irrigação além dos limites das áreas dos projetos. Também foi observado que a cimentação e a impermeabilidade nos horizontes mais profundos são, provavelmente, devidas à presença de micropãs formados por argilas iluviais.

  7. Elitismo cultural e "democratização da cultura" no Império Romano Tardio

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    Jean-Michel Carrié

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção literária e artística dos últimos séculos da Antiguidade apresenta todos os sinais de elitismo cultural. Por trás desta aparência, e contrastando com a impossibilidade radical de democratização política do regime imperial, podemos, no entanto, reconhecer os sinais de um processo que o historiador italiano Santo Mazzarino denominou de "democratização da cultura". Outros historiadores denomiranarm-no de "vulgarização". A historiografia catastrofista do "declínio" do mundo antigo e da queda do Império romano atribuiu uma grande responsabilidade ao que apresentava como um nivelamento por baixo da sociedade antiga e de sua cultura sob a ação conjugada de dois fatores: a cristianização, promotora de um populismo cultural, e a barbarização, destruidora das mais altas realizações da tradição clássica. Todavia, a "democratização" pode também ser analisada em termos de "democratização positiva", ascendente (de baixo para cima. O debate continua vivo entre os historiadores atuais para definir se essas tendências à democratização da cultura representaram um fenômeno negativo ou positivo. É necessário, no entanto, afastar todo julgamento de valor a priori, necessariamente subjetivo, se quisermos estudar o fenômeno em seus diversos aspectos. Os resultados desse tipo de pesquisa são diversos, segundo os domínios em que se manifesta uma democratização: a produção literária e artística, a produção material, o pensamento jurídico, as crenças religiosas, as evoluções linguísticas, a afirmação das culturas nacionais.

  8. Chemical and physiological aspects of isomers of conjugated fatty acids Aspectos químicos e fisiológicos de isômeros conjugados de ácidos graxos

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    Eliane Bonifácio Teixeira de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated fatty acid (CFA is the general term to describe the positional and geometric isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. The CFAs of linoleic acid (CLAs are found naturally in foods derived from ruminant animals, meat, or dairy products. The CFAs of α-linolenic acid (CLNAs are found exclusively in various types of seed oils of plants. There are many investigations to assess the effects to health from CFAs consumption, which have been associated with physiological processes that are involved with non transmissible chronic diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and obesity. Conclusive studies about the CFAs effects in the body are still scarce and further research about their participation in physiological processes are necessary. This review aimed to discuss the influence of conjugated fatty acids on physiological processes in animal organism.Ácido graxo conjugado (AGC é o termo geral usado para descrever os isômeros posicionais e geométricos dos ácidos graxos poliinsaturados com duplas ligações conjugadas. Os AGCs do ácido linoléico (ALCs são encontrados naturalmente em alimentos derivados de animais ruminantes, carnes e produtos lácteos. Os AGCs do ácido α-linolênico (ALNCs são encontrados exclusivamente em óleos de sementes de vários tipos de plantas. Desenvolvem-se muitas investigações com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do consumo de AGCs para a saúde, já que estes têm sido associados a processos fisiológicos relacionados com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis como câncer, aterosclerose, inflamação e obesidade. Estudos conclusivos sobre os efeitos dos AGCs no organismo humano ainda são raros e mais pesquisas sobre sua atuação em processos fisiológicos são necessárias. O objetivo desta revisão é discutir a influência dos ácidos graxos conjugados sobre os processos fisiológicos.

  9. INFLUÊNCIA DOS FATORES GEOLÓGICOS, GEOMORFOLÓGICOS E ANTRÓPICOS DA PRODUÇÃO DE FLUXO DE BASE EM PEQUENAS BACIAS HIDROGRÁFICAS NA APA CACHOEIRA DAS ANDORINHAS, OURO PRETO (MG

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    Josefa Clara Monteiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se estabelecer a influência da geologia, geomorfologia e uso e ocupação do solo no potencial hídrico de pequenas bacias hidrográficas situadas na Área de Proteção Ambiental Estadual da Cachoeira das Andorinhas (APA/CA. Foram selecionados três pares de bacias, cada par com condições geológicas e geomorfológicas semelhantes, mas com graus distintos de interferência antrópica. Utilizando-se dados de chuva e vazão, obtidos durante um ano hidrológico, estabeleceram-se os regimes pluviométricos e fluviométricos e determinaram-se alguns parâmetros hidrológicos, como o fluxo de base pela técnica smoothed mínima e o coeficiente de recessão (α pela técnica matching strip. A análise conjugada destes parâmetros, de índices morfométricos e de dados físico-químicos das águas indicam que as bacias em áreas de relevo mais suave tendem a apresentar menores coeficientes de recessão e maiores volumes de fluxo de base. Portanto, nestas áreas o potencial hídrico é maior, já que a vazão das drenagens se mantém por mais tempo na estação seca. O relevo mais suave, com solo mais espesso e maior tempo de trânsito das águas subterrâneas, também justificam as águas mais redutoras e com maiores condutividades elétricas. Os dados também sugerem que as bacias da área com maiores proporções de florestas tendem a apresentar menores fluxos de base por conta das maiores taxas de evapotranspiração. Os métodos aplicados se mostraram adequados para caracterizar o regime hídrico de pequenas bacias hidrográficas e podem ser importantes para a gestão de recursos hídricos.

  10. O fazer educação alimentar e nutricional: algumas contribuições para reflexão Practical food and nutrition education: some points for reflection

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    Ligia Amparo da Silva Santos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre as práticas de educação alimentar e nutricional vigentes no contexto atual. São discutidas no âmbito das políticas públicas de alimentação e nutrição partindo de uma análise sobre as ações governamentais empreendidas e de suas ações no âmbito local, particularmente na nutrição clínica ambulatorial e/ou na atenção a grupos específicos, buscando identificar as tendências teóricas e metodológicas que norteiam as práticas educativas. Considera-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional tem sido alvo de debates na busca de concebê-la como uma ação governamental. Entretanto, em que pese seus avanços, se reconhece a existência de um hiato entre as formulações das políticas e as ações desenvolvidas no âmbito local. Permanece também um hiato entre discursos e as práticas em seu torno das ações educativas. Conclui-se que a educação alimentar e nutricional é menos um instrumento do que um dispositivo de ações conjugadas que devem envolver diferentes setores e disciplinas, entretanto, demanda investimentos na formação profissional e na produção de conhecimento no campo.This article reflects on the practices of existing food and nutrition education in the current context. Practices in public policy in food and nutrition are discussed starting from an analysis of government actions undertaken and their actions at the local level, particularly in outpatient clinical nutrition and/or attention to specific groups, seeking to identify theoretical and methodological trends guiding educational practices. It is considered that the food and nutrition education has been the subject of debate in seeking to construe it as government action. However, despite their achievements, one perceives the existence of a gap between the formulation of policies and actions developed at the local level. There is also a gap between rhetoric and practice in terms of educational activities. The

  11. Impacto del neumococo y de los virus influenza en niños y adultos : su prevención con vacunas

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    María Hortal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante siglos las enfermedades infecciosas han diezmado a poblaciones enteras, por lo que se ha procurado descubrir su causa y así lograr su prevención. Actualmente, la vacunación es una de las intervenciones en salud más costo-efectivas para reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedades infecciosas. La historia así lo confirma con la erradicación de la viruela, y el control de la poliomielitis y del sarampión a nivel mundial. En Uruguay, el inicio de la vacunación obligatoria contra la viruela se remonta a 1911, en tanto que la vacunación contra la poliomielitis y el sarampión, se implementaron en 1957 y 1966 respectivamente. Dentro de las enfermedades inmunoprevenibles, las infecciones respiratorias agudas son notoriamente las más frecuentes. Su impacto urgió la necesidad de contar con medidas de control. La neumonía, aunque se observa en todas las edades, predomina en los extremos de la vida. En la infancia, en menores de cinco años, es una de las causas más frecuentes de hospitalización y en las poblaciones más desfavorecidas provoca elevada mortalidad. En los adultos con comorbilidades ocurre en todas las edades, pero es más frecuente en los mayores de 65 años, en los que patologías asociadas aumentan el riesgo vital, que es mayor cuanto mayor es la persona. Una vez controladas las neumonías por la vacuna conjugada de Haemophilus influenzae tipo b, el agente bacteriano de mayor frecuencia es Streptococcus pneumoniae y, entre los virus respiratorios, los brotes anuales y las pandemias por virus influenza contribuyen al aumento de hospitalizaciones y decesos por neumonía. Cuando ambos agentes se asocian en un paciente, sus efectos se potencian mutuamente y sus resultados pueden ser fatales. En consecuencia, la prevención de esas infecciones con las vacunas disponibles, neumocóccica y de influenza, es una prioridad de Salud Pública para asegurar la supervivencia infantil y disminuir costos sociales y económicos.

  12. Evolución de las coberturas de vacunación antineumocócica en la población infantil de Tarragona, 2002-2011

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    Ángel Vila Córcoles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: En Cataluña, como en la mayoría de Comunidades Autónomas de nuestro país, la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada (VNC no es financiada públicamente, excepto para niños inmunocomprometidos y/o con condiciones de riesgo. Este estudio investigó la cobertura de VNC en los niños atendidos a finales de 2011 en la región de Tarragona y analizó la evolución de las coberturas, según año de nacimiento, desde la comercialización de la vacuna hasta la actualidad (2002-2011. Métodos: Estudio transversal multicéntrico que incluyó a todos los niños entre 6 meses y 10 años que acudieron durante los días 1 y 2 de diciembre de 2011 a las consultas de pediatría y/o enfermería pediátrica de 9 centros de Atención Primaria en la comarca del Tarragonés (n=521 niños. La situación vacunal se determinó mediante revisión del historial clínico. Las coberturas vacunales fueron comparadas mediante test de chi cuadrad. Resultados: Del total de 521 niños estudiados el 45,1% (intervalo de confianza [IC] 95%: 40,8-49,5 habían recibido la VNC. La cobertura fue del 18,5% (IC 95%: 9,3-31,4 para los niños nacidos en 2002-2003; del 38,6% (IC 95%: 27,2-51,0 en 2004-2005; del 62,5% (IC 95%: 51,0-73,0 en 2006-2007, del 50,8% (IC 95%: 41,7-59,8 entre 2008-2009, y 44,6% (IC 95%: 36,8-51,3 en 2010-2011 (p<0,001. Conclusiones: La cobertura vacunal alcanzada de VNC es intermedia/baja. Tras un rápido incremento inicial de vacunaciones, las coberturas han retrocedido en el último cuatrienio, coincidiendo con la actual crisis económica.

  13. Plano de Fortalecimento da Gestão do Turismo (PFGT: uma avaliação ex ante no município de Nísia Floresta (RN

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    Richard Medeiros de Araújo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, o Plano de Desenvolvimento do Turismo (Prodetur vem procurando fortalecer institucionalmente os destinos turísticos, a fim de garantir a ampliação e a continuidade das melhorias estruturais já realizadas quando da primeira fase do programa governamental, e ao mesmo tempo dotar os municípios de uma gestão pública mais eficiente, em que deverá também considerar o turismo como o eixo central na formulação e gerenciamento das políticas públicas municipais com foco no desenvolvimento local. Para tanto, o Prodetur lançou, no Rio Grande do Norte, o Plano de Fortalecimento da Gestão do Turismo, do Patrimônio Natural e Cultural em 2009. A pesquisa objetiva avaliar, de forma ex ante, a viabilidade da implementação do referido plano governamental no município de Nísia Floresta (RN. Adotaram-se as seis dimensões do modelo teórico de Draibe (2001 conjugadas com o modelo de Neves (1996 para conduzir a pesquisa. Metodologicamente, optou-se por uma abordagem qualitativa, na qual foram buscadas análises de documentos como o diagnóstico estratégico, o plano de ação proposto e realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas com alguns secretários municipais. Usou-se a análise de conteúdo como técnica de tratamento dos conteúdos das entrevistas e foram feitas observações não participantes. Assim foi possível desenhar a pesquisa avaliativa, caracterizando o momento administrativo e político atual e como esse desenho poderia interferir na implementação do plano avaliado. Conclui-se que o município não apresenta condições institucionais suficientes para a implementação do Plano Governamental financiado com recursos federais.

  14. Tipificación capsular mediante PCR de aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae no tipificables por aglutinación PCR-based capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae isolates non-typeable by agglutination

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    G. Weltman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae es reconocido como un agente patógeno responsable de infecciones localizadas y sistémicas. Se han descrito 6 tipos de polisacáridos capsulares antigénicamente distintos (a, b, c, d, e, y f que se pueden identificar por aglutinación en lámina con antisueros específicos. También existen cepas no capsuladas (NC fenotípicamente no tipificables (NT. La introducción de la vacuna conjugada produjo una marcada disminución de las enfermedades invasivas causadas por H. influenzae tipo b. En este contexto, la tipificación capsular mediante PCR es el método más apropiado para distinguir las cepas no capsuladas de las mutantes b deficientes en cápsula (b- y detectar la presencia de cepas pertenecientes a otros serotipos que no puedan ser tipificables por aglutinación. Se determinó el genotipo capsular a 38 aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae no tipificables por aglutinación, derivados al servicio de Bacteriología Clínica del INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán" en el período 2002-2004. El 78,9% de los aislamientos provenían de hemocultivos y la mayor parte de ellos estaban asociados a foco respiratorio. El 100% de los aislamientos fueron identificados como H. influenzae no capsulados mediante la técnica de PCR.Haemophilus influenzae is recognized as a pathogenic agent responsible of localized and systemic infections. Six antigenically different capsular polysaccharide types have been described (a, b, c, d, e, and f which can be identified by slide agglutination with specific antisera. Besides there are non capsulated strains that cannot be typed by slide agglutination. The introduction of the conjugated vaccine produced an important reduction of invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b. Capsular typing by PCR is the most appropriated method for distinguishing non capsulated strains from capsule deficient type b mutants (b- and for detecting strains of other serotypes that cannot be detected by slide

  15. Semeadura de milho em solo sob preparo reduzido

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    W. Boller

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a viabilidade da implantação da cultura do milho em solo sob preparo reduzido, em dezembro de 1988, instalou-se um experimento em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico, no município de Passo Fundo (RS. Na testemunha, o preparo do solo foi realizado por meio de uma escarificação mais uma gradagem com grade leve. Nos demais cinco tratamentos, o solo foi preparado por meio de uma operação conjugada (escarificador equipado com rolo destorroador. Na testemunha e em um dos tratamentos sob preparo conjugado, não foram realizadas adaptações na semeadora-adubadora. Nos demais tratamentos, foram adaptados discos de corte ondulados, ou secções de rolos destorroadores, na frente das linhas da semeadora. A percentagem de cobertura do solo, dois dias após a semeadura, foi significativamente menor (Tukey ao nível de 5% na testemunha, enquanto nos demais tratamentos, caracterizados como conservacionistas, não se perceberam diferenças. O diâmetro médio geométrico (DMG dos agregados do solo não apresentou diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, porém os agregados coletados nas linhas apresentaram DMG significativamente menores do que aqueles encontrados nas entrelinhas. A velocidade de absorção de água pelas sementes, o comprimento médio ponderado das radículas, o índice de velocidade de emergência e o estande inicial de plantas de milho não variaram significativamente em função dos tratamentos. Os resultados evidenciam que o preparo conjugado do solo por meio de um escarificador equipado com um cilindro destorroador permitiu implantar a cultura do milho, sem a necessidade de operações de preparo secundário (gradagens e sem requerer adaptações na semeadora-adubadora.

  16. Pertussis outbreak in Papua New Guinea: the challenges of response in a remote geo-topographical setting

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    William Lagani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A large outbreak of pertussis was detected during March 2011 in Goilala, a remote district of the Central Province in Papua New Guinea, characterized by rugged topography with no road access from the provincial headquarters. This outbreak investigation highlights the difficulties in reporting and responding to outbreaks in these settings.Method: The suspected pertussis cases, reported by health workers from the Ononge health centre area, were investigated and confirmed for the presence of Bordetella pertussis DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Results: There were 205 suspected pertussis cases, with a case-fatality rate (CFR of 3%. All cases were unvaccinated. The Central Province conducted a response vaccination programme providing 65% of children less than five years of age with diphtheria–pertussis-tetanus-HepB-Hib vaccine at a cost of US$ 12.62 per child.Discussion: The incurred cost of vaccination in response to this outbreak was much higher than the US$ 3.80 per child for routine outreach patrol. To prevent further outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in these areas, local health centres must ensure routine vaccination is strengthened through the “Reaching Every District” initiative of the National Department of Health.

  17. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  18. Effects of polio eradication activities on routine immunization: lessons from the 2013 outbreak response in Somali region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Belete; Tekle, Ephrem; Wondwossen, Liya; Bogale, Mengistu; Fiona, Braka; Nsubuga, Peter; Tomas, Karengera; Kassahun, Aron; Kathleen, Gallagher; Teka, Aschalew

    2017-01-01

    Ethiopia experienced several WPV importations with a total of 10 WPV1 cases confirmed during the 2013 outbreak alone before it is closed in 2015. We evaluated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), including lessons learned for their effect on the routine immunization program during the 2013 polio outbreak in Somali regional state. We used descriptive study to review documents and analyse routine health information system reports from the polio outbreak affected Somali regional state. All data and technical reports of the 15 rounds of polio SIAs from June 2013 through June 2015 and routine immunization coverages for DPT-Hib-HepB 3 and measles were observed. More than 93% of the SIAs were having administrative coverage above 95%. The trend of routine immunization for the two antigens, over the five years (2011 through 2015) did not show a consistent pattern against the number of SIAs. Documentations showed qualitative positive impacts of the SIAs strengthening the routine immunization during all courses of the campaigns. The quantitative impact of polio SIAs on routine immunization remained not so impressive in this study. Clear planning, data consistencies and completeness issues need to be cleared for the impact assessment in quantitative terms, in polio legacy planning as well as for the introduction of injectable polio vaccine through the routine immunization.

  19. Aging Converts Innate B1a Cells into Potent CD8+ T Cell Inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Chang, Catalina; Bodogai, Monica; Moritoh, Kanako; Chen, Xin; Wersto, Robert; Sen, Ranjan; Young, Howard A; Croft, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Biragyn, Arya

    2016-04-15

    B cell dysregulation in aging is thought to mostly occur in conventional B2 cells without affecting innate B1 cells. Elderly humans and mice also accumulate 4-1BBL(+)MHC class-I(Hi)CD86(Hi)B cells of unknown origin. In this article, we report that these cells, termed 4BL cells, are activated murine and possibly human B1a cells. The activation is mediated by aging human monocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. They induce expression and activation of 4-1BBL and IFN-γR1 on B1a cells to subsequently upregulate membrane TNF-α and CD86. As a result, activated B1a/4BL cells induce expression of granzyme B in CD8(+)T cells by targeting TNFR2 via membrane TNF-α and providing costimulation with CD86. Thus, for the first time, to our knowledge, these results indicate that aging affects the function of B1a cells. Upon aging, these cells lose their tumor-supporting activity and become inducers of potentially antitumor and autoimmune CD8(+)T cells. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. A DTAP–IPV//PRP~T VACCINE: A REVIEW OF 16 YEARS’ CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

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    Stanley A. Plotkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their low reactogenicity, confirmed efficacy and availability in combination vaccines, acellular pertussis (aP-inactivated poliovirus (IPV combined vaccines are now included in various national immunization programs worldwide. We provide an overview of 16 years of clinical experience with a diphtheria (D, tetanus (T, aP, IPV and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP~T combined vaccine (DTaP–IPV//PRP~T — Pentaxim, Sanofi Pasteur, France. Good immunogenicity has been demonstrated after primary vaccination with Pentaxim, regardless of the population ethnicity and primary vaccination schedule. A booster vaccination in the second year of life also resulted in a high immune response for each antigen. Furthermore, 10 years of national surveillance in Sweden has demonstrated the effectiveness of Pentaxim in controlling pertussis. As is the case for other aP-containing combined vaccines, Pentaxim is well tolerated, with the safety profile being better than for whole-cell pertussiscontaining combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccinations.

  1. The Transmission of Secret Knowledge: Three Arabic Dialogues on Alchemy

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    Regula Forster

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabo-Islamic alchemy enjoyed considerable popularity until well into the 19th and 20th centuries. It can be considered both as a predecessor of modern chemistry and as a natural philosophy whose purpose is to explain the world. Yet one of the unresolved questions concerning alchemy is how one was supposed to learn it, since it was an art that was meant to be kept secret and only revealed to a few select individuals. While the practicalities of the learning experience remain obscure, it is noteworthy that Arabic alchemical literature often makes use of the literary form of the dialogue, a genre strongly associated with teaching and learning. This paper focuses on three Arabic dialogues on alchemy; namely, Masāʼil Khālid li-Maryānus al-rāhib (“Khālid’s questions to the monk Maryānus”, Kitāb Mihrārīs al-ḥakīm (“The book of the wise Mihrārīs” and Risālat al-ḥakīm Qaydarūs (“The epistle of the wise Qaydarūs”, and discusses how the transfer of secret knowledge is represented. I will focus on the literary frames of these texts, their mise-enscéne, the master-disciple relation as represented within them, and the question of interaction between unequal partners.

  2. Etiologic agents of central nervous system infections among febrile hospitalized patients in the country of Georgia.

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    Tamar Akhvlediani

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis. METHODS: Children and adults patients clinically diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis were enrolled at four reference health centers. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was collected for bacterial culture, and in-house and multiplex RT-PCR testing was conducted for herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2, mumps virus, enterovirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB and Neisseria meningitidis. RESULTS: Out of 140 enrolled patients, the mean age was 23.9 years, and 58% were children. Bacterial or viral etiologies were determined in 51% of patients. Five Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures were isolated from CSF. Based on in-house PCR analysis, 25 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae, 6 for N. meningitidis, and 1 for H. influenzae. Viral multiplex PCR identified infections with enterovirus (n = 26, VZV (n = 4, and HSV-1 (n = 2. No patient was positive for mumps or HSV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings indicate that S. pneumoniae and enteroviruses are the main etiologies in this patient cohort. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve health outcomes of CNS infection cases in Georgia.

  3. Use of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in children aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; McNamara, Lucy; Briere, Elizabeth C; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2014-06-20

    During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, and Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is recommended for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months at increased risk. This report summarizes information on MenACWY-CRM administration in infants and provides recommendations for vaccine use in infants aged 2 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Because the burden of meningococcal disease in infants is low in the United States and the majority of cases that do occur are caused by serogroup B, which is not included in any vaccine licensed in the United States, only those infants who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease are recommended to receive a meningococcal vaccine.

  4. Tendência das meningites por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b no Brasil, em menores de 5 anos, no período de 1983 a 2002 Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Brazil in children under five years of age from 1983 through 2002

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    Sybelle de Souza Castro Miranzi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, tipo série histórica (1983-2002, onde foram calculados os coeficientes de incidência, mortalidade e letalidade de meningites por Haemophilus influenzae , tipo b, no Brasil, e avaliou-se a tendência da morbi-mortalidade em menores de 5 anos. Para a análise de tendência dos coeficientes construíram-se modelos de regressão polinomial para as faixas etárias de The study was based on an ecological design using a historical time series (1983-2002, related to Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Brazil. Incidence, mortality and case-fatality rates, as well as trends in incidence and morbidity-mortality were estimated in children less than 5 years of age. Polynomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends, adopting a significance level of 0.05. 43.9% of confirmed cases occurred in infants less than 1 year old and 38.7% in children 1-4 years old. The observed rates were also highest in these two age strata. The incidence and mortality rates showed an increasing trend, until approximately 1999, when a quick decline was observed. The study results reinforce the effectiveness of the Vaccination Program against HIB in Brazil, which benefited age ranges that did not receive the vaccine (Herd Immunity.

  5. Safety Analysis for Pentavaccine Used in Premature Infants: Family Vaccination Centre’s Experiment

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    D. А. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined vaccines containing non-cellular pertussis component and having low reactogenicity, increase vaccination coverage against controllable infections. However, the safety of vaccination in children dealing with health issues, as well as those having a history of premature infancy, requires additional research. The article presents reactogenicity analysis for the DTP-IPV/HIB pentavaccine during primary vaccination and revaccination of premature infants (n = 85, as well as vaccination of mature newborns (n = 1433 inoculated in accordance with the national Vaccination Calendar behind the schedule. The occurrence of post-vaccinal reactions in the premature infant group was the same as in the mature infant group and amounted to 41.2% and 45.0%; the occurrence of common reactions was 18.8% and 22.4%; local effects measured 25.8% and 27.9% respectively. Post-vaccinal reactions were either weak or moderate, not requiring treatment, and they would completely disappear by the end of the third post-vaccinal day. Simultaneous injection of pentavaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with a history of premature infancy, showed no influence during the post-vaccinal period. The reactogenicity of pentavaccine increased along with the vaccination ratio during the primary series of vaccinations. 

  6. Validación del método de Ellman para la determinación de la concentración de grupos sulfhidrilosa muestras de la producción de la vacuna sintética contra el Haemophilus influenzae tipo b

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    Mayra Wood-Duque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available e validó el método de Ellman para la determinación de grupos sulfhidrilos de la producción del Ingrediente Farmacéutico Activo de la vacuna contra el Haemophilusinfluenzaetipo b (Hib. Se evaluaron los parámetros: linealidad, rango de trabajo, especificidad, exactitud y precisión. El método fue lineal en el rango de 0,25-4 mM/L. Se demostró que la técnica fue específica con una exactitud entre 95 y 105%. La repetibilidad y la precisión intermedia mostraron coeficientes de variación inferiores al 5% y 10% respectivamente, por debajo de los criterios de aceptación requeridos para estos parámetros. Se estableció el reactivo hidrocloruro de L-cisteína monohidratado como control positivo del método. Este ensayo por su precisión, especificidad y exactitud se convierte en una eficaz herramienta para el control del proceso de obtención de esta vacuna.

  7. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk factors for adverse events after vaccinations performed during the initial hospitalization of infants born prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilińska, Maria; Warakomska, Małgorzata; Głuszczak-Idziakowska, Ewa; Jackowska, Teresa

    There are significant delays in implementing vaccination among preterm infants. Description of the frequency and kinds of adverse events following immunization in preterms. Establishment of the group of preterms who will distinctively be susceptible to adverse events. Demographical, clinical data and the occurrence of adverse events after DTaP, HIB and pneumococcal vaccination among preterms during their initial hospitalization were prospectively collected with the use of an electronic data form between 1st June 2011 and 31st May 2015. The analysis was conducted on 138 patients. The groups were divided according to maturity (I: ≤ GA 28w n=73 and GA 29-36 w n=65). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the occurrence of adverse events. Out of the total group, following vaccination apnoea developed in 6 newborns (4%) and activity dysfunctions were observed in 13 newborns (10%). The occurrence of apnoea after vaccination positively correlated with the time of non-invasive ventilation and the occurrence of late infection. There were no statistically significant demographical or clinical risk factors for the development of activity dysfunctions following vaccination. Term vaccination in clinically stable preterm infants is a safe medical procedure. However, long-term non-invasive respiratory support and late infections are risk factors for apnea following vaccinations. In these patients vaccinations should be considered during hospitalization.

  9. Amino acid-responsive Crohn's disease: a case study

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    Alvin Stein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alvin Stein1, Marty Hinz2, Thomas Uncini31Stein Orthopedic Associates, Plantation, FL, USA; 2Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics Inc., Cape Coral, FL, USA; 3Laboratory, Fairview Regional Medical Center-Mesabi, Hibbing, MN, USAPurpose: This paper reviews the clinical course of a case of severe Crohn's disease and discusses the scientific ramifications of a novel treatment approach.Patients and methods: A case study of a 37-year-old male with a 22-year history of Crohn's disease whose clinical course had experienced no sustained remissions. The patient was treated with a protocol that utilized serotonin and dopamine amino acid precursors administered under the guidance of organic cation transporter assay interpretation.Results: Within 5 days of achieving the necessary balance of serotonin and dopamine, the patient experienced remission of symptoms. This remission has been sustained without the use of any Crohn's disease medications.Conclusion: In Crohn's disease, it is known that there is an increase of both synthesis and tissue levels of serotonin in specific locations. It is asserted that this is prima facie evidence of a significant imbalance in the serotonin–dopamine system, leading to serotonin toxicity. The hypothesis formulated is that improperly balanced serotonin and dopamine transport, synthesis, and metabolism is a primary defect contributing to the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease.Keywords: serotonin, dopamine, organic cation transporters, OCT

  10. Estratégias de campo em ensaios clínicos com novas vacinas produzidas no Brasil Estrategias de campo en ensayos clínicos con nuevas vacunas producidas en Brasil Clinical trials field strategies with novel vaccines produced in Brazil

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    Emília de Faria Carniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar as estratégias de campo utilizadas em dois ensaios clínicos com vacinas desenvolvidas pelo Instituto Butantan, em 2004 e 2006. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo relato de experiência, em que se descreve o planejamento e a operacionalização dos ensaios clínicos, que avaliaram a imunogenicidade e a segurança da vacina BCG combinada com a vacina da hepatite B (VrHB-IB e da tetravalente bacteriana modificada pela extração do lipopolissacarídeo (LPS do componente pertussis (DTPm/Hib. RESULTADOS: As principais estratégias de campo utilizadas foram: a Parceria entre os pesquisadores e os gestores da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde e b Realização dos procedimentos da pesquisa nos domicílios ou nos Centros de Saúde frequentados pelos participantes. No primeiro estudo, foram vacinados 552 recém-nascidos na maternidade com a BCG/VrHB-IB (combinadas ou separadas e nos domicílios, com as duas doses subsequentes de VrHB-IB. O segundo estudo incluiu 241 lactentes em Centros de Saúde da rede municipal, vacinados com tetravalente bacteriana (com componente pertussis total ou modificado. Em ambos os estudos, amostras de sangue foram colhidas nas residências. Não houve relatos de eventos adversos. A adesão foi de 90,2% para o primeiro estudo e 93,8%, para o segundo. As vacinas foram administradas nas datas preconizadas pelo Programa Nacional de Imunizações e as coletas de sangue, de acordo com o cronograma dos estudos. CONCLUSÕES: As estratégias utilizadas facilitaram o recrutamento das crianças e garantiram cumprir o protocolo da pesquisa com alta adesão, sem interferir no vínculo da família com o Serviço de Saúde, no calendário vacinal ou no seguimento pediátrico dos participantes.OBJETIVO: Relatar las estrategias de campo utilizadas en dos ensayos clínicos con vacunas desarrolladas por el Instituto Butantan, en 2004 y 2006. MÉTODOS: Estudio de tipo relato de experiencia, en que se describe la planificación y la

  11. Loss of antibodies and response to (re-)vaccination in children after treatment for acute lymphocytic leukemia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, C M; Sanders, E A M; Rovers, M M; Wolfs, T F W; Bierings, M B

    2006-10-01

    Intensified chemotherapy regimens resulting in improved survival of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) lead to concerns about therapy-induced immune damage reflected by the loss of protection of previous immunizations and the efficacy of (re-)vaccination. The severity of secondary immunodeficiency, however, is not clear and knowledge is based on a limited number of studies. We performed a systematic review on literature concerning vaccination data of children with ALL published since 1980. Eight studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Regarding antibody titers after treatment, the number of children who had preserved the defined protection level for antibodies differed widely, ranging from 17 to 98% for diphtheria, 27 to 82% for Bordetella pertussis, 20 to 98% for tetanus, 62 to 100% for poliomyelitis, 35 to 100% for Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB), 29 to 92% for mumps, 29 to 60% for measles and 72 to 92% for rubella. Most patients however responded to revaccination, demonstrating immunological recovery. Although the designs and results of the included studies varied widely, it can be concluded that cytostatic therapy for ALL in children results in a temporarily reduction of specific antibody levels. Memory is preserved but revaccination may be warranted. This is the first systematic review and the best possible current approximation of chemotherapy-induced immune damage in children after ALL treatment.

  12. Private-sector vaccine purchase costs and insurer payments: a disincentive for using combination vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Freed, Gary L

    2011-04-01

    Combination vaccines have been endorsed as a means to decrease the number of injections needed to complete the childhood immunization schedule, yet anecdotal reports suggest that private providers lose money on combination vaccines. The objective of this study was to determine whether practices purchasing combination vaccines had significantly different vaccine costs and reimbursement compared to practices that were not purchasing combination vaccines. Using cross-sectional purchase and insurer payment data collected from a targeted sample of private practices in five US states, we calculated the average total vaccine cost and reimbursement across the childhood immunization schedule. The average vaccine purchase cost across the childhood schedule was significantly higher for practices using a combined vaccine with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine, and Hepatitis B vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HepB) than for practices using either separate vaccine products or a combined vaccine with Haemophilus influenzae, type b vaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine (Hib-HepB). The average insurer payment for vaccine administration across the childhood schedule was significantly lower for practices using DTaP-IPV-HepB combination vaccine than for practices using separate vaccine products. This study appears to validate anecdotal reports that vaccine purchase costs and insurer payment for combination vaccines can have a negative financial impact for practices that purchase childhood vaccines.

  13. MIPS: a database for genomes and protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, H W; Frishman, D; Güldener, U; Mannhaupt, G; Mayer, K; Mokrejs, M; Morgenstern, B; Münsterkötter, M; Rudd, S; Weil, B

    2002-01-01

    The Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS-GSF, Neuherberg, Germany) continues to provide genome-related information in a systematic way. MIPS supports both national and European sequencing and functional analysis projects, develops and maintains automatically generated and manually annotated genome-specific databases, develops systematic classification schemes for the functional annotation of protein sequences, and provides tools for the comprehensive analysis of protein sequences. This report updates the information on the yeast genome (CYGD), the Neurospora crassa genome (MNCDB), the databases for the comprehensive set of genomes (PEDANT genomes), the database of annotated human EST clusters (HIB), the database of complete cDNAs from the DHGP (German Human Genome Project), as well as the project specific databases for the GABI (Genome Analysis in Plants) and HNB (Helmholtz-Netzwerk Bioinformatik) networks. The Arabidospsis thaliana database (MATDB), the database of mitochondrial proteins (MITOP) and our contribution to the PIR International Protein Sequence Database have been described elsewhere [Schoof et al. (2002) Nucleic Acids Res., 30, 91-93; Scharfe et al. (2000) Nucleic Acids Res., 28, 155-158; Barker et al. (2001) Nucleic Acids Res., 29, 29-32]. All databases described, the protein analysis tools provided and the detailed descriptions of our projects can be accessed through the MIPS World Wide Web server (http://mips.gsf.de).

  14. Unusual Formation of Precursors for Crystallization of Ultra-High Performance Polypropylene and Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Fibers by Utilization of Ecologically Friendly Horizontal Isothermal Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Huseyin

    The concept of production of new families of high performance polymers and engineering fibers has been reported many times in the technical literature. Such fibers have various end uses in industrial applications and exhibit the enhanced potential in the challenging areas such as ballistic, automotive, aerospace, bullet-proof vests, energy, and electronics. Since the first commercial synthesis of high polymers by Carothers and Hill, filament manufacturers have looked for ways to increase strength and fibers dimensional stability, thermal degradation resistance, etc., even at extreme conditions. Therefore, studies on the fine structure development and its relation with production conditions during the wet, dry, and melt spinning processes have received much attention by researchers to describe in detail the fundamental aspects of the fiber formation. The production of ultra-high performance fibers at relatively high throughputs by a simple method using fiber-forming polymers via developing an ecologically friendly isothermal bath (ECOB) is the first aim of this study. In this case, polypropylene (PP) was chosen as a semicrystalline thermoplastic polymer which is extensively used in industry and our daily lives. A unique, highly oriented precursor (fa = 0.60), and yet noncrystallized, undrawn fibers were obtained with superior mechanical properties. Fibrillated break, high crystalline and amorphous orientation factors of 0.95 and 0.87, respectively, demonstrate an unusual structural development after only 1.34 draw ratio for the treated fibers. The second melting peak increased 9 °C for the treated fibers, which implies a higher level of molecular ordering and thermodynamically more stable phase. After hot drawing and 1.49 draw ratio, the fibers tenacity was close to 12 g/d, the initial modulus was higher than 150 g/d, and the ultimate elongation was at a break of about 20 %. In the next phase of the research, the effects of horizontal isothermal bath (hIB)11 on the

  15. National and state vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    The National Immunization Survey (NIS) monitors vaccination coverage among children aged 19-35 months using a random-digit-dialed sample of telephone numbers of households to evaluate childhood immunization programs in the United States. This report describes the 2010 NIS coverage estimates for children born during January 2007-July 2009. Nationally, vaccination coverage increased in 2010 compared with 2009 for ≥ 1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), from 90.0% to 91.5%; ≥ 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), from 80.4% to 83.3%; the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), from 60.8% to 64.1%; ≥ 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HepA), from 46.6% to 49.7%; rotavirus vaccine, from 43.9% to 59.2%; and the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, from 54.8% to 66.8%. Coverage for poliovirus vaccine (93.3%), MMR (91.5%), ≥ 3 doses HepB (91.8%), and varicella vaccine (90.4%) continued to be at or above the national health objective targets of 90% for these vaccines.* The percentage of children who had not received any vaccinations remained low (poverty status still exist. Maintaining high vaccination coverage levels is important to reduce the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases and prevent a resurgence of these diseases in the United States, particularly in undervaccinated populations.

  16. Oncogenic transformation of rat lung epithelioid cells by SV40 DNA and restriction enzyme fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, L.; Lasne, C.; Nardeux, P.; Chouroulinkov, I.; Monier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rat epithelioid lung cells were transformed with various preparations of SV40 DNA using the Ca 2+ -precipitation technique. The amount of SV40 genetic information integrated into transformed clones was evaluated by DNA-DNA renaturation kinetics. The growth properties on plastic and in soft-agar were examined, as well as the ability to induce tumors in syngeneic newborn animals or in adult nude mice. One particular transformed line, which had received the HpaII/BamHIA (59 per cent) fragment, was found to contain about 3 integrated copies of this fragment per cell and no significant amount of the HpaII/BamHIB (41 per cent fragment). This line which grew to high saturatio densities and efficiently formed clones in low serum on plastic, produced tumors in both syngeneic rats and nude mice. Thus the HpaII/BamHIA fragment, which mainly includes early viral information, was sufficient to impart these properties to rat epithelioid lung cells. (author)

  17. Use of rapid needs assessment as a tool to identify vaccination delays in Guatemala and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ardenne, Katie K; Darrow, Juliana; Furniss, Anna; Chavez, Catia; Hernandez, Herminio; Berman, Stephen; Asturias, Edwin J

    2016-03-29

    To explore the use of rapid needs assessment (RNA) surveys to determine the prevalence and factors contributing to delays in vaccination of children in two low middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from two RNA surveys performed as part of program improvement evaluations in Guatemala and Peru were used for this analysis. The primary endpoint was the timeliness of immunization with delay defined as administration of vaccines beyond 28 days from recommended age for DTwP-HepB-Hib (Penta) and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as past age-restrictions for rotavirus vaccine. Independent risk factors analyzed included child's gender, birth year, number of children in household, maternal age, maternal education, and food insecurity. Vaccine information was available from 811 children from 838 households surveyed. High rate of immunization delays was observed, with 75.6% of children in Guatemala and 57.8% of children in Peru being delayed for the third dose of Penta primary series. Factors associated with delayed vaccination in Guatemala included advanced maternal age and increased number of children in household. In Peru, significant associations were birth year before 2009, lower maternal education level, and increased number of children in household. RNA is a fast and effective method to identify timely vaccine coverage and derive a hypothesis of factors possibly associated with vaccination delay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

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    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  19. Special immunobiologicals’ schedule applied to infants at a reference service in Ceará

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    Joselany Áfio Caetano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the vaccine schedule for preterm infants in a program of special immunobiologicals. Methods: A documental study conducted at a Reference Center of Special Immunobiologicals (CREATE situated in a general hospital of tertiary care in pediatrics. The sample consisted of 112 newborns with gestational age below 37 weeks and weighing less than 2500g, suitable for vaccination, assisted in 2006-2007. Data collection was done from registration forms, reference records and registers of control of special immunobiologicals’ administration, in year 2008. Results: The results showed that 22 (20% newborns were weighing between 1000 and 1499g. Regarding gestational age, 39 (35% were born between 30 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Most proceeded from public institutions, 37 (69%. The vaccination schedule of most children, 68 (61%, was incomplete. The main clinical indications for special immunobiologicals were prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. It was observed that 89% (n = 100 of preterm infants received the pneumococcal vaccine (Prevenar. For preterm infants who were at risk of developing serious events related to the tetravalent vaccine, it was elected the scheme Prevenar + DTPa + Hib. Simultaneous administration of meningococcal conjugate vaccines - C (MncC with Prevenar was indicated for candidates for cochlear implants. Conclusion: The integral care to the preterm newborn involves early immunization, that is, the one that starts in the neonatal unit, and requires the inclusion of special immunobiologicals, which should be criteriously recommended.

  20. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  1. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs

  2. Cross-protection in Neisseria meningitidis serogroups Y and W polysaccharides: A comparative conformational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttel, Michelle M; Timol, Zaheer; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2017-06-29

    The capsular polysaccharide is the main virulence factor in meningococcus. The capsular polysaccharides for meningococcal serogroups Y and W are almost identical polymers of hexose-sialic acid, suggesting the possibility of cross-protection between group Y and W vaccines. However, early studies indicated that they elicit different levels of cross-protection. Here we explore the conformations of the meningococcal Y and W polysaccharides with molecular dynamics simulations of three repeating unit oligosaccharide strands. We find differences in Y and W antigen conformation: the Y polysaccharide has a single dominant conformation, whereas W exhibits a family of conformations including the Y conformation. This result is supported by our NMR NOESY analysis, which indicates key close contacts for W that are not present in Y. These conformational differences provide an explanation for the different levels of cross-protection measured for the Y and W monovalent vaccines and the high group W responses observed in HibMenCY-TT vaccinees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Latin America and the Caribbean: a regional analysis Rentabilidad médica de la vacunación antineumocócica en América Latina y el Caribe: un análisis regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushua Sinha

    2008-11-01

    información sobre los posibles beneficios sanitarios, costos y rentabilidad (relación costo-efectividad de la vacunación. Se presenta un análisis económico de la vacunación infantil antineumocócica en América Latina y el Caribe a partir de la información de la vacuna y de datos demográficos, epidemiológicos y de costos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica estructurada previa para llegar a estimados regionales de la incidencia de la enfermedad. Los costos se tomaron de entrevistas a médicos y tarifas públicas. Se construyó un modelo analítico de decisión para comparar la vacunación de los niños de esta región con la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada y la no vacunación, tomando en cuenta solamente el efecto directo de la vacuna en los niños. RESULTADOS: Se proyectó la vacunación antineumocócica con las tasas de cobertura de la vacuna contra la difteria, el tétanos y la tosferina para prevenir 9 500 muertes anuales en menores de 5 años en esta región, o aproximadamente 1 vida salvada por cada 1 100 niños vacunados. Las vidas salvadas y los casos prevenidos de sordera, trastornos psicomotores y convulsiones equivalen a evitar anualmente 321 000 años de vida ajustados por incapacidad (AVAD. A un precio de la vacuna de US$ 5,00 a US$ 53,00 por dosis, el costo por AVAD evitado desde el punto de vista de la sociedad sería de US$ 154,00 a US$ 5 252,00. CONCLUSIONES: La vacuna antineumocócica conjugada fue altamente rentable hasta un precio de US$ 40,00 por dosis. La introducción de esta vacuna en América Latina y el Caribe puede reducir la mortalidad infantil con una alta rentabilidad en un amplio espectro de posibles costos.

  4. Critical analysis of old and new vaccines against N. meningitidis serogroup C, considering the meningococcal disease epidemiology in Brazil Análise crítica das antigas e novas vacinas contra a N. meningitidis do sorogrupo C, considerando a epidemiologia da doença meningocócica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2003-01-01

    . meningitidis mais virulentas ou com aumento da resistência aos antibióticos atualmente utilizados causa grande preocupação, tornando a prevenção essencial. OBJETIVO: Rever as indicações das vacinas para doenças meningocócicas, considerando a situação epidemiológica do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Revisão crítica sobre o tema, usando as bases de dados Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Os sorogrupos B e C foram os mais prevalentes no Brasil, na década de 90. As vacinas polissacarídicas disponíveis contra esses sorogrupos oferecem proteção limitada aos lactentes e podem induzir tolerância ao MenC. As novas vacinas conjugadas contra o MenC podem solucionar parcialmente esse problema, mas é improvável que, em curto prazo, sejam licenciadas novas vacinas contra o MenB. CONCLUSÕES: Para tomar as melhores decisões sobre as recomendações em práticas de imunização, é necessário que se disponha de dados precisos da vigilância epidemiológica, com identificação dos sorogrupos mais prevalentes em cada faixa etária. Estima-se que, no Brasil, o MenC seja responsável por 2.000 casos de doenças meningocócicas , a cada ano. As novas vacinas conjugadas contra o MenC são seguras, efetivas e imunogênicas, devendo ser recomendadas, particularmente, para crianças menores de 5 anos. As vacinas polissacarídicas devem ser recomendadas apenas para os grupos de alto risco ou em situações epidêmicas. Enquanto novas vacinas contra o MenC e MenB não forem incorporadas ao calendário de vacinação de rotina, as mais efetivas medidas para controlar as doenças meningocócicas são o diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e a quimoprofilaxia para contactantes.

  5. Childhood pneumococcal disease burden in Argentina Carga por enfermedad neumocócica en niños de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ariel Augustovski

    2009-05-01

    uso de vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas. MÉTODOS: Se elaboró un modelo de Markov para estimar las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad por meningitis (MEN, bacteremia/septicemia (BACT, neumonía (PNEU y otitis media aguda (AOM asociadas con la EN, en una cohorte hipotética de 750 000 niños nacidos en Argentina entre 2006 y 2015. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para seleccionar los parámetros de entrada y utilizarlos en el modelo. Los resultados se expresaron en años de vida y costos en dólares estadounidenses (US$, con descuento y sin descuento. RESULTADOS: Los episodios de EN que se estima ocurrirían en un período de 10 años en la cohorte hipotética serían 225 MEN, 2 841 BACT, 2 628 PNEU y 2 066 719 AOM. Las secuelas crónicas de las MEN podrían causar daños neurológicos en 43 niños y trastornos auditivos graves en 28. Estos resultados indican que en esta cohorte habría 78 muertes asociadas con la EN (29% por MEN, 54% por BACT y 17% por PNEU. La esperanza de vida sin descuento estimada para los niños de la cohorte fue de 72,4 años (con descuento de 29,9 años. Los costos promedio sin descuento atribuidos a la EN por cada niño de la cohorte durante toda la vida fueron de US$ 167 (con descuento de US$ 151, lo que provocaría un costo total para la cohorte de más de US$ 126 millones (con descuento de US$ 113 millones. CONCLUSIONES: Estos resultados demuestran que la EN impone una carga sanitaria y económica significativa a la población argentina. Esta información es esencial para evaluar el posible impacto sanitario y económico de la introducción de la vacuna conjugada antineumocócica en el programa nacional de vacunación.

  6. Enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana Invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the community of Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Goicoechea-Sáez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La enfermedad neumocócica es una causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad entre la población infantil. La reciente autorización de la vacuna conjugada heptavalente ha incrementado el interés científico que suscita esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer las características epidemiológicas y clínicas, así como la evolución de esta enfermedad invasiva en la población infantil de la Comunidad Valenciana. Método: Los datos se han obtenido de las historias clínicas de los niños menores de 15 años, con aislamiento del neumococo, atendidos en todos los hospitales públicos de la Comunidad Valenciana durante el período 1996-2000. La evolución de la incidencia se valoró mediante la comparación de tasas, los signos clínicos y su evolución (secuelas y letalidad mediante la evaluación de la frecuencia y su distribución por edades. Resultados: Se registró un total de 127 casos, lo que representa un promedio de tasa anual de 3,89/105 habitantes en los menores de 15 años y de 20,14 en los menores de 2 años. Presentaron antecedentes de problemas de salud un 29,1% de los pacientes. Las manifestaciones clínicas predominantes fueron sepsis/bacteriemia (38%, neumonía (31% y meningitis (24%. Al alta, presentaban secuelas 10 niños, de los que el 75% eran menores de 2 años. Fallecieron 8 niños (letalidad del 6,3%. Conclusiones: En nuestro medio, durante el período estudiado, la infección neumocócica se presenta sobre todo en los niños menores de 2 años, así como en los mayores de esta edad con antecedentes de problemas de salud. En estos últimos se ha encontrado una mayor mortalidad. Sería conveniente introducir la enfermedad neumocócica en el Sistema de Vigilancia Epidemiológica, lo que nos permitiría disponer de estimaciones más precisas de su evolución epidemiológica y valorar si la vacuna conjugada es la solución a los problemas que plantea esta bacteria en la actualidad

  7. Pneumococcal meningitis: epidemiological profile pre- and post-introduction of the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane E. Hirose

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the possible effects of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate 10-valent vaccine schedule in the state of Parana on pneumococcal meningitis cases and to assess the distribution of serotypes among cases. Method: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection of cases of pneumococcal meningitis in the state of Paraná reported to Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN, from 1998 to 2011. A total of 1,339 cases of pneumococcal meningitis were analyzed; 1,205 cases from the pre-vaccine period (1998-2009 were compared to 134 cases from the post-vaccine period (2010-2011. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses (chi-squared test and prevalence ratio were performed using JMP 5.1.2 statistical software (JMP Statistical Discovery, North Carolina, USA and EPI INFO 6 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Georgia, EUA. Results: There was a significant reduction in the mean rates of incidence and mortality in the general population. The analysis of cases in the pre- and post-vaccination periods in the age groups covered by vaccination (younger than 2 years showed significant reductions in incidence rates (6.01 cases/100,000 to 2.49 cases/100,000 individuals and mortality (1.85 cases/100,000 population to 0.47 cases/100,000 population, while the mean lethality rate did not change significantly. There was a significant reduction in cases whose serotypes are included in the vaccine (80.7% to 53.3%. Conclusion: Even after a short time of use, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has already had a significant impact in reducing the incidence and mortality of meningitis cases among infants, as well as the reduction of cases whose serotypes are included in the vaccine. Resumo: Objetivos: Avaliar os possíveis efeitos da introdução da vacina pneumocócica conjugada 10 valente no calendário vacinal no Paraná sobre os casos de meningite pneumocócica; avaliar a distribuição dos

  8. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    êcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en países del cinturón Africano de la meningitis, antes y después de la introducción de PsA-TT. Este artículo describe como se estableció el consorcio, sus objetivos y los métodos estandarizados de campo y de laboratorio que se utilizaron para alcanzarlos. La experiencia del consorcio MenAfriCar ayudar

  9. Incidência de meningite por Haemophilus influenzae no RS 1999-2010: impacto da cobertura vacinal Incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul 1999-2010: impact of vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Matiko Anraku de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar e verificar a situação epidemiológica das meningites causadas pelo agente Haemophilus influenzae tipo b nos últimos 10 anos no Rio Grande do Sul. Estudo retrospectivo, descritivo, utilizando o sistema de dados de notificação de meningites, e cobertura vacinal, armazenados em base on line Tabnet - Tabulação de dados Epidemiológicos - CEVS/SES/RS, abrangendo o período de 1999 a 2010. Foram utilizados casos notificados e confirmados, tendo como critério de seleção o ano de inicio dos sintomas, idade, diagnostico e evolução. Foi analisado o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, representado por 19 coordenadorias de saúde. Comparações entre proporções foram avaliadas pelo teste de z. No RS foram notificados 3043 casos confirmados de meningite bacteriana, sendo 6,77% dos casos causados por H. influenzae. O coeficiente de incidência da meningite por H. influenzae, sem considerar faixa etária, caiu significativamente (95,6% após 1999, assim como a mortalidade. Crianças menores de um ano continuam sendo as mais acometidas (52%, não havendo alteração na letalidade. Os resultados apresentados revelaram um impacto positivo das estratégias de vacinação contra Hib no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul nos últimos dez anos.This article seeks to analyze and update the epidemiological situation of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in the past 10 years in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS. It is a retrospective, descriptive study, which used the data notification system of meningitis and vaccination campaign coverage, stored in the Epidemiological TABNET online database, for the period from 1999 to 2010. Cases notified and confirmed were used and the selection criteria were the year when the symptoms were detected, age, diagnosis, and evolution. Nineteen health centers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. The z-test was used to evaluate comparisons between the proportions. In the

  10. Evaluation of a knowledge-based planning solution for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Jim P; Delaney, Alexander R; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2015-03-01

    Automated and knowledge-based planning techniques aim to reduce variations in plan quality. RapidPlan uses a library consisting of different patient plans to make a model that can predict achievable dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for new patients and uses those models for setting optimization objectives. We benchmarked RapidPlan versus clinical plans for 2 patient groups, using 3 different libraries. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans of 60 recent head and neck cancer patients that included sparing of the salivary glands, swallowing muscles, and oral cavity were evenly divided between 2 models, Model(30A) and Model(30B), and were combined in a third model, Model60. Knowledge-based plans were created for 2 evaluation groups: evaluation group 1 (EG1), consisting of 15 recent patients, and evaluation group 2 (EG2), consisting of 15 older patients in whom only the salivary glands were spared. RapidPlan results were compared with clinical plans (CP) for boost and/or elective planning target volume homogeneity index, using HI(B)/HI(E) = 100 × (D2% - D98%)/D50%, and mean dose to composite salivary glands, swallowing muscles, and oral cavity (D(sal), D(swal), and D(oc), respectively). For EG1, RapidPlan improved HI(B) and HI(E) values compared with CP by 1.0% to 1.3% and 1.0% to 0.6%, respectively. Comparable D(sal) and D(swal) values were seen in Model(30A), Model(30B), and Model60, decreasing by an average of 0.1, 1.0, and 0.8 Gy and 4.8, 3.7, and 4.4 Gy, respectively. However, differences were noted between individual organs at risk (OARs), with Model(30B) increasing D(oc) by 0.1, 3.2, and 2.8 Gy compared with CP, Model(30A), and Model60. Plan quality was less consistent when the patient was flagged as an outlier. For EG2, RapidPlan decreased D(sal) by 4.1 to 4.9 Gy on average, whereas HI(B) and HI(E) decreased by 1.1% to 1.5% and 2.3% to 1.9%, respectively. RapidPlan knowledge-based treatment plans were comparable to CP if the patient's OAR-planning target volume

  11. Profile of Immunization Practice by General Practitioners and Pediatricians in Private Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedjatmiko Soedjatmiko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic immunization coverage in Indonesia in 2013 was still low (59.2% (IBHS, 2013. Physicians’ attitude and practice were among the determinant factors of a successful immunization program. This survey aimed to describe general practitioner’s (GP and pediatrician’s attitude towards immunization and its coverage  in private practices. This cross-sectional study was performed by distributing questionnaires consisting of 5 items on opinion and 10 items on immunization practices to 100 respondents in November 2014. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 29 GPs and 65 pediatricians. Most respondents considered that the Expanded Program in Immunization vaccine should be given. First dose of hepatitis B vaccine was mostly given in the first 12 hours after birth (90% GPs and 74% pediatricians. Oral polio vaccine was mostly given shortly before hospital discharge (65% of GPs and 81% pediatricians while the DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine were given by 27% of GPs and 21% of pediatricians to >75% patients. Pneumococcal, rotavirus, hepatitis A, typhoid, and influenza vaccines were provided by less than 25% GPs and pediatricians, except for the influenza vaccine which was provided by 31% pediatricians. MMR vaccine was given to >75% patients by 16% of GPs and 29% of pediatricians. This pilot survey of immunization practice in private setting might be the first study in Indonesia that this can be considered as a preliminary report of immunization in private setting. Further studies need to be done, especially regarding problems in immunization in private practices.  Key words: Attitude, general practitioners, immunization practice, private setting, pediatricians Gambaran Praktek Imunisasi Dokter Umum dan Dokter Spesialis Anak di Praktek Swasta Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 melaporkan bahwa cakupan imunisasi Indonesia masih rendah (59,2%. Sikap dan praktik imunisasi dokter merupakan salah satu faktor penentu keberhasilan. Tujuan penelitian ini mengetahui sikap

  12. Câncer de colo uterino: atenção integral à mulher nos serviços de saúde Cáncer del cuello del útero: la atención integral a la mujer en los servicios de salud Cervical cancer: integral attention to the woman in health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Correa Soares

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se compreender como os serviços de saúde do Sistema Único de Saúde estão organizados para contemplar a integralidade na atenção à mulher com câncer de colo uterino. Pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva, com 20 mulheres. Utilizou-se na coleta dos dados a entrevista semiestruturada conjugada à observação participante. A análise temática evidenciou o tema "A procura pela assistência: o acesso ao Sistema Único de Saúde e a utilização dos serviços na busca de atenção integral". Identificou-se que, na utilização dos serviços de saúde, as mulheres expuseram concepções sobre a atenção recebida, as potencialidades e limites da integralidade nesse contexto. Conclui-se que a efetivação das ações de saúde, em busca da integralidade da atenção às mulheres, requer ousadia e a promoção do diálogo entre os atores sociais, como forma de construir uma consciência sanitária que permita o compromisso ético em direção às mudanças necessárias ao cuidado.Se objetivó comprender cómo los servicios del Sistema Nacional de Salud están organizados para hacer frente a la integralidad de la atención a la mujer con cáncer de cuello uterino. Investigación cualitativa, descriptiva con veinte mujeres. Fue utilizado en la recolección de datos, la observación participante y la entrevista semiestructurada. El análisis temático reveló: La búsqueda de la atención: el acceso a SUS y el uso de los servicios de salud en la búsqueda de atención integral. Se identificó que las mujeres han puesto de manifiesto las concepciones acerca de la atención recibida, las potencialidades y los límites de la integralidad en este contexto. Se concluye que la eficacia de las acciones de salud en esta búsqueda requiere coraje y la promoción del diálogo entre los actores sociales, como una manera de construir una conciencia de salud que permita el compromiso ético hacia los cambios necesarios para el cuidado.This study aims to

  13. Seleção em gradiente de Percoll® sobre os parâmetros espermáticos do sêmen bovino congelado Selection bovine frozen semen in Percoll® gradient on spermatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na produção in vitro de embriões, técnicas de seleção espermática são usadas, dentre elas, o gradiente descontínuo de Percoll®. O objetivo foi avaliar a integridade da membrana plasmática (eosina-nigrosina, do acrossomo (trypan blue- Giemsa – TBG, lecitina do amendoim conjugada ao isotiocianato de fluoresceína associado ao iodeto de propídeo - Fitc-PNA/PI e da cromatina (azul de toluidina, em espermatozóide bovino congelado. Vinte e nove amostras foram analisadas nos momentos pós-descongelação (PD e pós-Percoll® (PP. As variáveis expressas em porcentagem foram submetidas à análise de variância e foi empregado o teste de Tuckey para a comparação entre médias. O estudo da associação entre variáveis foi feito pelo teste de correlação de Pearson. Constataram-se, entre os momentos PD e PP, diferenças significativas (p<0,05 para a motilidade, integridade de membrana plasmática e número de espermatozóides vivos com acrossomo íntegro (TBG e Fitc-PNA/PI, com maiores valores obtidos PP. O percentual de células com alteração na condensação da cromatina não diferiu entre os momentos estudados. Conclui-se que o gradiente descontínuo de Percoll® foi eficaz na seleção de uma maior população de células móveis, com membranas plasmática e acrossomal íntegras, sem haver alteração na condensação da cromatina nuclear.At in vitro embryo production sperm selection techniques are used, one of them is Percoll® density-gradient. The aim with this study was to evaluate the plasmatic membrane (eosin-nigrosin, acrosomal (trypan blue-Giemsa; fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated peanut agglutinin lecitin/propidium iodide (FITC-PNA/PI and chromatin (toluidine blue integrity, in frozen bovine spermatozoa. Twenty nine samples were analysed at post-thaw (PD and post-Percoll® moments. Variable expressed in percentage were submitted to ANOVA and used Tuckey’s test for mean comparison. The association between variables

  14. Costo-efectividad de la vacunación universal antineumocócica en Uruguay Cost-effectiveness of universal pneumococcal vaccination in Uruguay

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    Gustavo Giachetto Larraz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación costo-efectividad del programa de vacunación universal con la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada heptavalente (VCN7 en niños menores de 5 años en Uruguay. MÉTODOS: Se desarrolló un modelo Markov simulando una cohorte de 48 000 niños nacidos en 2007 y su evolución hasta los 76 años de edad. El caso base usó un esquema de tres dosis con una duración estimada de protección de cinco años. La presunción de eficacia y efectividad de la vacuna se realizó acorde con estudios realizados en Estados Unidos con ajuste a la prevalencia-incidencia de serotipos en Uruguay. Los resultados se expresaron como costo incremental por año de vida ganado (AVG y por año de vida [ganado] ajustado por calidad (AVAC. RESULTADOS: Para el caso base, el costo incremental fue de US$ 7 334,6 por AVG y US$ 4 655,8 por AVAC, previniéndose 8 muertes y 4 882 casos de otitis, 56 bacteriemias-sepsis, 429 neumonías y 7 meningitis. El modelo muestra sensibilidad a variaciones en eficacia, costo de la vacuna y tasa de mortalidad por neumonía. CONCLUSIONES: El programa de vacunación universal con VCN7 en Uruguay es altamente costo-efectivo y, en consecuencia, recomendable para otros países con carga de enfermedad neumocócica y cobertura de serotipos similares a Uruguay.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the cost-effectiveness ratio of the program for universal vaccination with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 in children under 5 years of age in Uruguay. METHODS: A Markov model was developed that simulated a cohort of 48 000 children born in 2007 and their progress to age 76. The baseline case used a regimen of three doses with estimated protection for five years. The presumption of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness was based on studies conducted in the United States with adjustment for serotype prevalence-incidence in Uruguay. The results were expressed as the incremental cost per life year gained (LYG and quality-adjusted life year

  15. Tecnologias leves em saúde e sua relação com o cuidado de enfermagem hospitalar Tecnologías leves en salud y su relación con el cuidado de enfermería hospitalaria Light technologies in health and its relation with the hospital nursing care

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    Denise Conceição da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objeto da pesquisa foi a incorporação de tecnologias leves no contexto hospitalar, na ótica de enfermeiras, e sua relação com o cuidado de enfermagem. Objetivos: caracterizar as tecnologias consideradas leves no hospital, na ótica de enfermeiras, e analisar as concepções de enfermeiras sobre o uso dessas tecnologias no cuidado de enfermagem. Fundamentou-se na classificação dos diferentes tipos de tecnologias no trabalho em saúde e em pressupostos sobre o cuidado de enfermagem. Pesquisa exploratória, qualitativo-descritiva, desenvolvida em dois hospitais universitários na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Os dados foram coletados através da técnica de criatividade e sensibilidade "Almanaque", conjugada à entrevista semi-estruturada. Do discurso das enfermeiras emergiram tecnologias fundamentadas em suas experiências de cuidado. Suas concepções sobre tecnologias leves revelaram o que teoristas de enfermagem referem como atributos da relação humana no cuidado. Essas, quando discutidas no âmbito do cuidado de enfermagem, emergem como qualidades do cuidado em si.El objeto de la investigación fue la incorporación de tecnologías leves en hospitales, desde la perspectiva de las enfermeras y las relaciones establecidas con el cuidado de enfermería. Objetivos: caracterizar las tecnologías consideradas leves en el hospital, desde la perspectiva de las enfermeras; y analizar las concepciones de las enfermeras sobre el uso de estas tecnologías en el cuidado de enfermería. El estudio se fundamentó en la clasificación de diferentes tipos de tecnologías aplicadas en el área de la salud y en presuposiciones sobre el cuidado de enfermería. Investigación exploratoria, cualitativa y descriptiva, desarrollada en dos hospitales universitarios de la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de dos técnicas: creatividad y sensibilidad, denominada "Almanaque," y entrevista semi-estructurada. De los discursos de las

  16. Diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias: uma visão crítica

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    Rodrigues Joaquim Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar a literatura quanto ao diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias agudas na faixa etária pediátrica. Fonte dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do Medline e do Lilacs. Síntese dos dados: a utilização dos novos métodos diagnósticos, particularmente as técnicas imunológicas e a reação em cadeia da polimerase, de uso ainda incipiente no Brasil, tem se mostrado importante para a investigação epidemiológica e para a melhora no diagnóstico específico em termos de sensibilidade, especificidade e rapidez de resultados, com finalidade de orientação terapêutica adequada. A revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos das pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade mostrou que o Streptococcus pneumoniae continua sendo o agente bacteriano mais importante, em todas as faixas etárias, tanto nos países desenvolvidos quanto nos em desenvolvimento. A resistência desse agente à penicilina e às cefalosporinas tem aumentado progressivamente em todos os continentes e tem-se constituído em um fator de preocupação. Os agentes de pneumonias atípicas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Chlamydia pneumoniae mostram-se, atualmente, como agentes importantes de pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade, particularmente em crianças acima de 4 a 5 anos de idade, correspondendo, em países desenvolvidos, a cerca de até um terço dos casos. No entanto, ainda não está definida a sua importância epidemiológica nos países em desenvolvimento. O vírus respiratório sincicial é um agente freqüente de PAC, pode determinar quadros mais graves, particularmente nos lactentes e crianças menores, sendo muito importante a sua investigação em crianças hospitalizadas por doença do trato respiratório inferior. A utilização das novas vacinas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b tiveram um impacto importante na morbidade e mortalidade das infecções causadas por esse agentes. Conclusões: a monitoriza

  17. Parâmetros diretos do duplex scan no diagnóstico da estenose da artéria renal: estudo de validação e otimização dos pontos de corte Direct duplex scanning parameters in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis: a study to validate and optimize cut-off points

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    Carla Motta Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar o desempenho dos parâmetros diretos do duplex scan no diagnóstico da estenose da artéria renal (EAR e verificar se os pontos de corte recomendados pela literatura são os mais adequados para se discriminar a gravidade da lesão. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, incluindo 62 pacientes portadores de EAR, submetidos ao duplex scan, seguido da arteriografia seletiva. O pico de velocidade sistólico (PVS e a relação renal-aorta (RRA foram mensurados. A análise estatística incluiu a curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve, t test student não pareado a sensibilidade, especificidade, os valores preditivos positivo e negativo, e a acurácia. RESULTADOS: A arteriografia revelou EAR 0-59% em 31 artérias (24%; EAR 60-99% em 91 artérias (72% e 5 oclusões (4%. A análise de ROC mostrou que o PVS e a RRA apresentaram desempenho semelhante na detecção da lesão, cujas áreas sob as curvas foram 0,96 e 0,95, respectivamente. Considerando os pontos de corte recomendados pela literatura, o PVS de 180 cm/s apresentou sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 81%, enquanto que a RRA de 3,5 apresentou sensibilidade de somente 79%, com 93% de especificidade. Estes parâmetros foram analisados de forma conjugada (critério direto, revelando 79% de sensibilidade e 97% de especificidade. Os pontos de corte otimizados foram: PVS de 189 cm/s e RRA de 2,6, demonstrando 100%, 87%, 96% e 87% de sensibilidade e especificidade para o PVS e para a RRA, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O uso isolado do PVS otimizado apresentou o melhor desempenho na detecção e na graduação da EAR.OBJECTIVE: To test the efficiency of the direct duplex scanning parameters in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis (RAS, and verify whether or not the cut-off points recommended by medical literature are the most appropriate means to distinguish lesion severity. METHODS: Prospective study, including 62 patients with RAS, submitted to a duplex ultrasound scan and

  18. Estado de portador nasofaríngeo de Streptococcus pneumoniae en madres e hijos de la población indígena Panare del estado Bolívar, Venezuela Pneumococcal carriage in mothers and children of the Panare Amerindians from the State of Bolivar, Venezuela

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    T Bello González

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En América del Norte, los grupos indígenas se han identificado como una población con un riesgo elevado de ser portadora de Streptococcus pneumoniae, así como de desarrollar enfermedad neumocócica invasora. Sin embargo, hay poca información con respecto a los indígenas de Latinoamérica. En el presente estudio se evaluó el estado de portador nasofaríngeo y la distribución de los serotipos de S. pneumoniae en madres e hijos de la población panare de Venezuela. Durante el mes de mayo de 2008 se obtuvieron 148 muestras nasofaríngeas de 64 madres y 84 niños menores de 5 años pertenecientes a 8 comunidades panare. Mediante procedimientos estándares se identificaron 65 cepas de S. pneumoniae. Dichas cepas fueron tipificadas por PCR múltiple, y sus patrones de sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos se determinaron por el método de difusión con discos. El 11% de las madres y el 69% de los niños eran portadores de S. pneumoniae. Los serotipos 6B (49%, 33F (21,5%, 6A (6%, 19A (3,1% y 23F (1,5% fueron los más frecuentes. El mismo serotipo se identificó en 3 de los 6 grupos madre-hijo/s colonizados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a la penicilina y el 13,7% fue resistente a los macrólidos. La elevada tasa de colonización en la población panare sugiere que los niños presentan un alto riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad invasora por S. pneumoniae; por lo tanto podrían beneficiarse de la vacunación. Cuatro serotipos de la vacuna conjugada (6B, 6A, 19A y 23F, que representaron el 58% de las cepas aisladas, estaban presentes en la población al momento del estudio. La resistencia a los antibióticos no se presenta como un problema dentro de esta población.In North America, the indigenous groups have been identified as a population with increased risk of pneumococcal colonization and pneumococcal invasive disease. However, little information is available from South American natives. In the present study we evaluated the nasopharyngeal

  19. Distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae aislados de infecciones invasoras en el Hospital de Niños de Santa Fe Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from invasive infections at the Hospital de Niños of Santa Fe.

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    C. Mayoral

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la introducción de vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas se observó, en muchos países, disminución de aislamientos de Streptococcus pneumoniae del serotipo 14 y aumento de aislamientos correspondientes a serotipos no incluidos en esas vacunas. En 1993, el Hospital de Niños de Santa Fe comenzó la vigilancia de la distribución de serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae invasores. En este trabajo se estudió la correlación entre serotipo y a patología (neumonía/meningitis, b edad (menor o mayor de dos años, y c CIM de penicilina, para los serotipos aislados en el período 2003-2005. El serotipo predominante fue el 14, seguido del 1, 6B, 18C, 7F, 19F y 5. El serotipo 14 mostró asociación estadísticamente significativa con valores de CIM de penicilina entre 0,5 y 2 mg/l, no así con alguna patología, aunque se lo halló con mayor frecuencia en neumonías que en meningitis. Los serotipos 14 y 1 prevalecieron en niños menores y mayores de 2 años, respectivamente. La CIM de penicilina = 2 mg/l se observó más en neumonías que en meningitis. La frecuencia relativa de los diferentes serotipos hallados fue semejante a la observada en el período 1993-99; no obstante, los serotipos 18C, 4, 12F y 22F no se habían encontrado antes. La aparición de nuevos serotipos convierte en importante la vigilancia, dada la necesidad de formular vacunas que los incluyan y que efectivamente prevengan las infecciones neumocócicas más comunes.The serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae varies through time. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines showed a decreased prevalence of pneumococcal invasive isolates belonging to serotype 14 and an increase of serotypes not therein included. In 1993, the Hospital de Niños of Santa Fe began surveillance of the serotype distribution of invasive S. pneumoniae disease. In the period 2003 - 2005, 76 isolates were analysed by studying the correlation between serotype and pathology, age and MIC

  20. Las mineralizaciones de uranio en las rocas volcánicas de Macusani. Puno (Perú

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    Arribas, A.

    1985-12-01

    minerales de U se hallan principalmente en los niveles superiores de la pila volcánica.
    2. Las rocas encajantes corresponden a ignimbritas riolíticas y riodacíticas, pliocuaternarlas, formadas por cuarzo, sanidina, oligoclasa, biotita y, ocasionalmente, moscovita y andalucita, en una matriz vítrea, parcialmente desvitrificada, que contiene numerosos c1astos de lutitas.
    3. La biotita, cuarzo ahumado y andalucita son muy abundantes en los niveles mineralizados. 4. Los minerales metálicos se componen casi exclusivamente de pechblenda masiva, más o menos transformada en gummitas, fosfatos y silicatos de U, y muy escasos sulfuros de Fe. 5. La pechblenda rellena fracturas que miden entre unos centímetros y varios metros de longitud, y de 1 a 100 milímetros de anchura. Algunas de estas fracturas son subverticales y debidas a la contracción que dio lugar a la disyunción columnar. Otras son subhorizonta1es y paralelas a un sistema de cizallas dúctiles, conjugadas, que se desarrolló por compactación y asentamiento de los materiales piroclásticos que contienen la mineralización. De acuerdo con esos factores, se propone en este trabajo un modelo metalogénico preliminar para explicar el origen de este singular tipo de yacimientos de uranio.

  1. Indicadores metabólicos en razas lecheras especializadas en condiciones tropicales en Colombia Metabolic profile in dairy cows under tropical conditions in Colombia

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    Rómulo Campos G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha seleccionado un alto número de razas bovinas para producción de leche, sin embargo, las de origen Bos taurus no han logrado adaptarse a las condiciones tropicales. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el comportamiento metabólico de siete razas (Ayrshire, Girolando, Holstein Friesian, Jersey, Lucerna, Pardo Suizo y Simenthal a través de 15 metabolitos. Se emplearon 28 animales por raza, distribuidos en cuatro grupos fisiológicos: novillas, inicio y final de lactancia y vacas secas (final de gestación. Los valores medios de los indicadores metabólicos fueron: BOH 0.5 mmol/l; glucosa 2.8 mmol/l; colesterol 2.5 mmol/l; potasio 4.1 mmol/l; calcio 2.0 mmol/l; fósforo inorgánico 1.7 mmol/l; magnesio 1.1 mmol/l; proteínas totales 66.2 mg/dl; albúmina 25.8 mg/dl; globulinas 40.2 mg/dl; creatinina 109 µmol/l; BUN 3.8 mmol/l; ALT 32.2 UI/l; AST 56.6 UI/l; GGT 12.3 UI/l; bilirrubina total 0.2 µmol/l; bilirrubina conjugada 0.08 µmol/l. Los valores medios de la condición corporal y el hematocrito fueron 3.25% y 27.0% respectivamente. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre grupos raciales y entre grupos de producción. Los animales de menor peso metabólico (Jersey presentaron mejor homeostasis que los de pesos mayores (Simenthal, Holstein.High numbers of bovine breeds have been selected as milk producers, but those derived from the Bos taurus breeds have been unable to adapt to tropical conditions. The aim of this work was to analyze the metabolic profile of the seven breeds (Ayrshire, Girolando, Holstein Friesian, Jersey , Lucerna, Brown Swiss and Simmental through the use of 15 metabolites. For each breed, 28 animals were used, divided into four physiological different groups: heifers, cows from the first stages and last stages of the lactation process and dry cows. The mean values of metabolites indicators were as follow: BOH 0.5 mmol/l; glucose 2.8 mmol/l; cholesterol 2.5 mmol/l; potassium 4.1 mmol/l; calcium 2

  2. Extração, análise e distribuição dos ácidos fenólicos em genótipos pigmentados e não pigmentados de arroz (Oryza sativa L. Extraction, analysis and distribution of phenolic acids in pigmented and non-pigmented genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Nádia Valéria Mussi de Mira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a distribuição dos Compostos Fenólicos Totais (CFT e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos, presentes nas frações, solúvel e insolúvel de dez genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa L. de pericarpo pigmentado e não pigmentado. Devido à sua elevada capacidade antioxidante, os compostos fenólicos vem sendo apontados como possíveis promotores da saúde. Grande parte corresponde aos ácidos fenólicos presentes no grão sob a forma solúvel (livre e conjugada e insolúvel (ligada. Na literatura há poucas informações sobre a contribuição dos compostos fenólicos ligados, cujos teores são costumeiramente subestimados. Os CFT foram quantificados pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau, enquanto os ácidos fenólicos por RP-HPLC. Na fração solúvel dos genótipos pigmentados, os teores de CFT foram variáveis, mas, em média, 5,7 vezes maiores do que nos não pigmentados (média de 3468 e 602 µg eq. Ácido Ferúlico (AF/g arroz, respectivamente, principalmente devido à presença de antocianinas e proantocianidinas. Na fração insolúvel, os pigmentados apresentaram duas vezes mais CFT do que os não pigmentados (825 e 378 µg eq. AF/g arroz, respectivamente, provavelmente devido à retenção de antocianinas e proantocianidinas, mesmo após cinco extrações consecutivas. Dentre os ácidos fenólicos, o ácido ferúlico foi o principal componente em todos os genótipos estudados, exceto no arroz preto, no qual predominou o ácido protocatecóico.This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of total phenolic compounds and phenolic acids in the soluble and insoluble fractions of 10 rice (Oryza sativa L. genotypes with pigmented or non-pigmented pericarp. These compounds were reported to exert beneficial effects on human health due to their high antioxidant activities. The total phenolic compounds (CFT in both fractions was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and phenolic acids RP-HPLC with Diode-Array Detection

  3. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors Relação entre concentrações séricas de procolágeno tipo III, ácido hialurônico com achados histopatológicos do fígado em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos

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    Vera Regina Rodrigues Camacho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated liver function tests [ALT levels > 1.5 times the normal value and alterations of two or more of the following: any changes in the levels of ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, conjugated bilirrubin, gammaglobulin, gammaglutamyltranspeptidase, albumin, platelet count; alkaline phosphatase levels >1.5 times the normal value, or prothrombin time below 70% and above 60%]. Fourty-nine patients were submitted to liver biopsy, blood analysis of PIIIP, hyaluronic acid, besides liver function tests. RESULTS: Liver function tests were not associated with tissular fibrosis, as assessed by ALT (>1.5 times above normal, fibrosis risk=18.8%; RACIONAL: Marcadores sorológicos têm sido propostos para monitorar fibrose hepática em doença crônica do fígado. Dentre os marcadores de fibrose, ácido hialurônico e procolágeno tipo III têm sido estudados nestes pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação de marcadores séricos de fibrose com achados histológicos. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo transversal prospectivo em doadores de sangue anti-HCV positivos. A população estudada incluiu homens e mulheres com idade entre 18-60 anos com provas de função hepática alteradas (níveis de alanina aminotransferase >1.5 vezes do normal e alterações de dois ou mais dos seguintes: qualquer alteração nos níveis de alanina aminotransferase, aspartato aminotransferase, bilirrubina conjugada, gamaglobulina, gamaglutamiltranspeptidase, albumina, plaquetas, níveis de fosfatase

  4. Perfil de proteases de lesões cutâneas experimentais em camundongos tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes de Canavalia brasiliensis Proteases profile of skin wounds treated with lectin from Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

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    Flávio de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de proteases em lesões cutâneas experimentais tratadas com a lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr livre e conjugada com o seu açúcar específico. Lesões cirúrgicas foram produzidas assepticamente na região dorsal de camundongos (n=120, divididos de acordo com o tratamento empregado: Grupo NaCl (NaCl 150mM, Grupo manose (manose 100mM, Grupo ConBr (ConBr 100µg mL-1 e Grupo ConBr/manose (solução contendo ConBr 100µg mL-1 preparada em manose 100mM. Amostras da área lesada foram coletadas para determinação do perfil de proteases e atividade colagenolítica no 2°, no 7° e no 12° dia de pós-operatório. O perfil das proteínas realizado através de eletroforese SDS-PAGE demonstrou a presença de proteínas com massa molecular de 67kDa em todos os grupos. O Grupo ConBr/manose apresentou a maior atividade colagenolítica no 12° dia de pós-operatório. A lectina isolada das sementes da Canavalia brasiliensis influenciou a expressão de proteases com atividade colagenolítica podendo assim interferir no processo cicatricial das lesões cutâneas em camundongos.The objective of the present study was determining the proteases profile of cutaneous healings treated with free and conjugated lectin of Canavalia brasiliensis (ConBr and their specific sugar. An aseptic wound was produced in the thoracic area of the mice (n=120, divided according to the employed treatment: NaCl Group (150mM NaCl, manose Group (100mM manose, ConBr Group (100µg mL-1 ConBr and ConBr/manose Group (solution containing 100µg mL-1 ConBr prepared in 100mM manose. Samples of the injured area were collected for determination of proteases profile and collagenolytic activity on 2nd, 7th e 12th days after the surgery. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE demonstrated proteins with molecular mass of 67kDa in all groups. Group IV presented the highest collagenolytic activity on the 12th day post surgery. Con

  5. Isquemia vertebrobasilar y síndrome de Locked-In

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    Jorge Daza Barriga

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Los eventos vasculares cerebrales de la arteria vertebrobasilar no son tan frecuentes como los que ocurren en la circulación anterior; pero se presentan con igual vulnerabilidad a la ateromatosis, a los fenómenos trombóticos, a los eventos embólicos y a las alteraciones vasoespásticas. Clínicamente, se presentan síntomas y signos combinados o mixtos de ataxia ipsilateral, hemiplejia contralateral con pérdida de la sensibilidad, parálisis ipsilateral horizontal de la mirada, nistagmus, vértigos, náuseas y vómitos, disfagia, sordera, acúfenos, mioclonus palatino y oscilopsia. Cuando el compromiso vascular compromete a la propia arteria basilar, los signos clínicos son bilaterales, con cuadriplegía, parálisis bilaterales de la mirada conjugada horizontal, coma, o el síndrome de deferentización (“Locked In” ó cautiverio. Estos mismos signos pueden producirse por la alteración de las arterias vertebrales o por patología unilateral, cuando una de las arterias vertebrales es la fuente dominante del aporte sanguíneo. La realización de una buena historia clínica y un examen cuidadoso nos dan una impresión clínica precisa. La realización de exámenes complementarios, como las imágenes diagnósticas (Escanografía cerebral simple, resonancia magnética cerebral, angioresonancia, son útiles para diferenciar si el evento es isquémico o hemorrágico, establecer el área de la isquemia y para definir las pautas diagnósticas y terapéuticas que se deben seguir El síndrome “Locked In” es un proceso destructivo (normalmente, obstructivo de la arteria basilar con el consiguiente infarto de tronco que interrumpe los tractos descendentes corticobulbares y corticoespinales, quedando intactas sólo las fibras que controlan el parpadeo, los movimientos oculares verticales y a la sustancia reticular ascendente. El paciente sólo es capaz de comunicarse mediante parpadeos o movimientos oculares verticales, ya que todo lo demás est

  6. Tendência da mortalidade relacionada à paracoccidioidomicose, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1985 a 2005: estudo usando causas múltiplas de morte Paracoccidioidomycosis-related mortality trend, state of São Paulo, Brazil: a study using multiple causes of death

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    Augusto Hasiak Santo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a mortalidade relacionada à paracoccidioidomicose informada em qualquer linha ou parte do atestado médico da declaração de óbito. MÉTODOS: Os dados provieram dos bancos de causas múltiplas de morte da Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SEADE de São Paulo entre 1985 e 2005. Foram calculados os coeficientes padronizados de mortalidade relacionada à paracoccidioidomicose como causa básica, como causa associada e pelo total de suas menções. RESULTADOS: No período de 21 anos ocorreram 1 950 óbitos, sendo a paracoccidioidomicose a causa básica de morte em 1 164 (59,7% e uma causa associada de morte em 786 (40,3%. Entre 1985 e 2005 observou-se um declínio do coeficiente de mortalidade pela causa básica de 59,8% e pela causa associada, de 53,0%. O maior número de óbitos ocorreu entre os homens, nas idades mais avançadas, entre lavradores, com tendência de aumento nos meses de inverno. As principais causas associadas da paracoccidioidomicose como causa básica foram a fibrose pulmonar, as doenças crônicas das vias aéreas inferiores e as pneumonias. As neoplasias malignas e a AIDS foram as principais causas básicas estando a paracoccidioidomicose como causa associada. Verificou-se a necessidade de adequar as tabelas de decisão para o processamento automático de causas de morte nos atestados de óbito com a menção de paracoccidioidomicose. CONCLUSÕES: A metodologia das causas múltiplas de morte, conjugada com a metodologia tradicional da causa básica, abre novas perspectivas para a pesquisa que visa a ampliar o conhecimento sobre a história natural da paracoccidioidomicose.OBJECTIVE: To investigate mortality in which paracoccidioidomycosis appears on any line or part of the death certificate. METHODS: Mortality data for 1985-2005 were obtained from the multiple cause-of-death database maintained by the São Paulo State Data Analysis System (SEADE. Standardized mortality coefficients were

  7. Metabolic profile in dairy cows under tropical Indicadores metabólicos en razas lecheras especializadas en condiciones tropicales en Colombia

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    Campos G. Rómulo

    2007-06-01

    .1 mmol/l; calcio 2.0 mmol/l; fósforo inorgánico 1.7 mmol/l; magnesio 1.1 mmol/l; proteínas totales 66.2 mg/dl; albúmina 25.8 mg/dl; globulinas 40.2 mg/dl; creatinina 109 µmol/l; BUN 3.8 mmol/l; ALT 32.2 UI/l; AST 56.6 UI/l; GGT 12.3 UI/l; bilirrubina total 0.2 µmol/l; bilirrubina conjugada 0.08 µmol/l. Los valores medios de la condición corporal y el hematocrito fueron 3.25% y 27.0% respectivamente. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas entre grupos raciales y entre grupos de producción. Los animales de menor peso metabólico (Jersey presentaron mejor homeostasis que los de pesos mayores (Simenthal, Holstein.

  8. Petição para confirmação do direito do consumidor de utilização de programa de comunicações pela internet em redes sem fio e de conexão de dispositivos em tais redes

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    Christopher Libertelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available À medida que a indústria de telecomunicações sem fio amadurece, a consolidação e o relacionamento enFtre as empresas detentoras de infraestrutura de transporte [carriers] e os produtores de aparelhos celulares [handsets] têm revelado práticas de mercado que levantam questionamentos substanciais sobre se os consumidores estariam desfrutando de todos os benefícios possíveis oriundos da competição nas telecomunicações sem fio. Por exemplo, empresas detentoras de infraestrutura de transporte de telecomunicações têm começado a influenciar agressivamente o design de programas [software] e produtos em detrimento do consumidor. Com o amadurecimento do mercado de telecomunicações sem fio e o reconhecimento de que os aparelhos celulares tornaram-se um componente indispensável para muitos americanos, empresas detentoras de infraestrutura de transporte têm utilizado de sua considerável influência sobre o uso e design destes aparelhos para manutenção do controle e dos limites ao direito dos assinantes de executar aplicativos comunicacionais de sua escolha. Ao invés de transportarem as mensagens dos assinantes independentemente do conteúdo, empresas detentoras de infraestrutura de transporte de telecomunicações têm exercido cada vez mais controle sobre a forma como os consumidores acessam a internet móvel. Ao darem preferência a serviços próprios e ao afastarem seus rivais, ditas empresas têm desabilitado ou inutilizado interfaces amigáveis ao consumidor [consumer-friendly features] em dispositivos móveis. Além disso, as empresas detentoras de infraestrutura de transporte de telecomunicações têm implementado tais práticas em violação ao princípio Carterfone da FCC e às restrições constantes da decisão da Comissão em sua formulação original referente à autorização de venda conjugada [bundling] do terminal de acesso individual e do serviço celular. A Comissão deve agir agora para fazer valer a decis

  9. Apontamentos: a revista que não existe Apontamentos: the journal that does not exist

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    Vera Lúcia Gainssa Balinhas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O texto oferece aos/às leitores/as um processo simultâneo de produção de conhecimento e reinvenção do currículo. Ao relativizar ciência e cultura, concebendo a educação de maneira fluida, argumenta sobre a cientificidade de uma experiência político-pedagógica. O gesto de criação da revista Apontamentos permite desdobrar o espaçotempo pessoal e social; com isso, vem refletir sobre influências na subjetivação, construindo um texto amalgamado entre escrituras, buscando resistir criativamente às relações hegemônicas de poder. Teoriza seu fazer e seus percursos, compondo método em antinomia ética e estética com as posições que representam a verticalização do poder. A investigação projeta o currículo nas relações filosóficas entre o conhecimento e o cuidado de si, apoiando, prioritariamente, o estudo em Michel Foucault. Dentro dessa concepção, não haveria conteúdos pretendidos, separados das formas, da estética e de seu constituir, mas sim uma escritura conjugada em tempos e deslocamentos, vivência curricular construída com encontros em diferentes contextos e instituições educacionais, entre distintos grupos de professores/as e acadêmicos/as.The text offers the reader, simultaneously, knowledge production and curriculum reinvention. By relating science and culture to one another (letting their different standpoints influence one another, conceiving of education as a fluid process, it argues for the scientific validity of the political-pedagogical experience. The gesture of creating the journal, Apontamentos, allows the unfolding of a personal and social space-time; by doing so, it permits reflection on the influences involved in the process of subjectivity (allowing a personal experience and individual interpretation of events. It does so, by amalgamating the texts of various authors, in an attempt to resist hegemonic power relations, in a creative way. The process and the route are theorized to compose a

  10. Current management of occult bacteremia in infants

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    Eduardo Mekitarian Filho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To summarize the main clinical entities associated with fever without source (FWS in infants, as well as the clinical management of children with occult bacteremia, emphasizing laboratory tests and empirical antibiotics. Sources: A non-systematic review was conducted in the following databases – PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO, between 2006 and 2015. Summary of the findings: The prevalence of occult bacteremia has been decreasing dramatically in the past few years, due to conjugated vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Additionally, fewer requests for complete blood count and blood cultures have been made for children older than 3 months presenting with FWS. Urinary tract infection is the most prevalent bacterial infection in children with FWS. Some known algorithms, such as Boston and Rochester, can guide the initial risk stratification for occult bacteremia in febrile infants younger than 3 months. Conclusions: There is no single algorithm to estimate the risk of occult bacteremia in febrile infants, but pediatricians should strongly consider outpatient management in fully vaccinated infants older than 3 months with FWS and good general status. Updated data about the incidence of occult bacteremia in this environment after conjugated vaccination are needed. Resumo: Objetivos: Listar as principais entidades clínicas associadas a quadros de febre sem sinais localizatórios (FSSL em lactentes, bem como o manejo dos casos de bacteremia oculta com ênfase na avaliação laboratorial e na antibioticoterapia empírica. Fonte dos dados: Foi realizada revisão não sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados PubMed, EMBASE e Scielo no período de 2006 a 2015. Síntese dos dados: A ocorrência de bacteremia oculta vem diminuindo sensivelmente em lactentes com FSSL, principalmente devido à introdução da vacinação conjugada contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Neisseria meningitidis nos últimos anos

  11. Misadventures of education in the kingdom of psycholand: the alleged scientific support of the European Higher Education Area Aventuras y desventuras de la educación en el reino de psicolandia: el supuesto respaldo cientifico del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior

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    José Carlos Loredo Narciandi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically assesses the discourse that justifies the latest educational reforms in European and Spanish higher education. It is presented as a techno-scientific discourse that attempts to support one of the most important current practices of subjectivity -the educational one- using a particular definition of psychology that forget the fact of the irreducible plurality of psychological practices and knowledges. This paper aims thus to make a double critical assessment. On the one hand, about the rhetorical use of psycopedagogic knowledge as scientific (indisputable support for the reforms. On the other hand, about the assumption that there is a well definite discipline -psychology- which is unified, scientifically established and able to offer that support. The paper consider also the current socio-cultural scenario of globalization and neoliberalism as a context that makes sense, within the ideology of entrepreneurship, such use of psychology as a scientific guarantor of education reform. Special emphasis is placed on the promotion of subjectivity linked to that ideology, which requires individuals gifted with flexibility, self-monitoring skills and full responsibility for their fate.En este trabajo se valora críticamente el discurso que arropa las últimas reformas educativas de la enseñanza superior europea y española. Se lo presenta como un discurso que intenta justificar tecnocientíficamente una de las más importantes prácticas de subjetivación actuales -la educativa- recurriendo a una determinada definición de la psicología que deja en un segundo plano el hecho de la pluralidad irreductible de las prácticas y saberes psicológicos. Se hace, así, una valoración crítica conjugada de, por un lado, el uso retórico de los saberes psicopedagógicos como respaldo científico -indiscutible- de las reformas, y por otro lado, de la asunción de que existe uma disciplia bien definida -la psicología- unificada, asentada cient

  12. False positive reaction due to endogenous biotin activity in glandular epithelium of decidua Reação falso positiva em epitélio glandular da decídua devido a atividade endógena de biotina

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    Liliana Cruz Spano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotin-labeled probe was used in an in situ hybridisation assay to localize virus infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissues taken from eleven abortion cases. Probes for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, human Parvovirus B19 (B19 and human adenovirus type 2 (HAd2, were labeled with biotin-11-dUTP by nick-translation reaction. Streptavidin-alkaline-phosphatase (SAP was used to detect biotin, followed by 4-nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP solution. Positive reaction was observed in nucleus of glandular ephitelium cells of decidua either in positive or in negative control at first and second gestational trimester. The reaction was not inhibited with blocking solution for alkaline phosphatase endogenous activity and it persisted even with probes omission. The use of adequate negative control permitted to reveal the presence of nuclear biotin in glandular epithelium of decidua, responsible for false positivity in detection systems involving streptavidin biotin system (StrepABC. The stained cells resembled to cytophatic effect due to herpesvirus, which could induce further misinterpretation. The results obtained in this study strongly recommend that DNA detection by in situ hybridisation reaction in gestational endometrium should be done without using StrepABC system.Sondas marcadas com biotina foram utilizadas neste trabalho para detecção de infecção viral por hibridização in situ em tecidos fixados com formalina e embebidos em parafina de 11 casos obtidos de abortamento. Sondas para citomegalovírus humano (HCMV, parvovírus B19 humano (B19 e adenovírus humano tipo 2 (HAd2, foram marcadas com biotina-11-dUTP através da reação de nick-translation. Estreptavidina conjugada com fosfatase alcalina (SAP seguida por solução de 4-nitro-azul de tetrazolio/5-bromo-4-cloro-3-indolil fosfato (NBT/BCIP foram utilizadas para detecção da biotina após a reação de hibridização. Reação positiva foi

  13. Desafíos del trabajo social frente a las desigualdades (Challenges of social work in the face of social inequalities

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    Vicente de Paula Faleiros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este texto plantea la cuestión de la posibilitad/inviabilidad del trabajo social emancipatório en una sociedad capitalista desigual, llevándose en cuenta los planteamientos del movimiento de reconceptualización del trabajo social y del “Radical Social Work”. Hace un análisis de los lineamientos históricos de la profesión de trabajo social en cuanto posiciones político-ideológicas, destacando los límites del economicismo como sobredeterminante del quehacer profesional y de de la autoproducción del sujeto contraponiéndolas a la consideración de la política en general y en la particularidad del cotidiano como relación de fuerzas. En una perspectiva dialéctica plantea el trabajo social en base a una co-producción de la vida social y de la sociabilidad a partir de las confrontaciones y de los conflictos en la sociedad y las instituciones, que presuponen las luchas de clases y de bloques de poder en una perspectiva de poder hegemónico y contra-hegemónico en el enfrentamiento de intereses en distintos campos de acción que van planteando, a la vez, las relaciones del sujeto y sus condiciones en que se construyen estrategias objetivas de acción conjunta y conjugada a los dispositivos, intereses y recursos en un compromiso crítico con la transformación de la sociedad.Abstract: This article discusses the possibility/infeasibility of emancipatory social work in a capitalist and unequal society, taking into account the formulations of the Radical Social Work and of the Movement of Reconceptualization in Latin America. The article analyzes the historical characteristics of social work as a profession under four political-ideological positions, emphasizing the limitations of the economic reductionism as over-determinant of the professional choices and of the development of the self, as opposed to the analysis of politics in general and of everyday life in particular as a power relation. In a dialectical perspective, this

  14. Herpetofauna do Parque Municipal Governador Mário Covas no município de Sorocaba, São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil. Herpetofauna of the Parque Municipal Governador Mário Covas, Sorocaba municipality, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

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    Caio Vinícius de Mira MENDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A compreensão da biodiversidade local torna-se cada vez mais essencial para a implantação de ações futuras como estratégias conservacionistas e planos de manejo de espécies ameaçadas. Este estudo teve como objetivo apresentar uma lista de espécies de anuros e répteis do Parque Municipal Mário Covas ‒ PMGMC, localizado no município de Sorocaba, São Paulo. Foram realizadas visitas mensais entre os meses de setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Os trabalhos de campo totalizaram 48 dias de amostragem, sendo realizadas quatro amostragens por mês, e as expedições foram realizadas de dia e à noite, sendo aplicadas as seguintes metodologias conjugadas: procura limitada por tempo; coleta por terceiros; encontros ocasionais e os métodos direto (avistamento e indireto (zoofonia para os anuros. Foram registradas 17 espécies de anfíbios anuros, pertencentes a nove gêneros e quatro famílias. Os répteis foram representados por 19 espécies, com 17 gêneros e 10 famílias, sendo 11 espécies de serpentes e oito de lagartos. A composição de espécies de anuros do PMGMC tem maior similaridade com a Estação Ecológica de Itirapina e Estação Ecológica de Jataí, enquanto a de répteis apresentou maior similaridade com as localidades da fitofisionomia floresta ombrófila densa. Apesar de o município de Sorocaba estar localizado próximo aos grandes centros de pesquisa do país, existe uma enorme carência de dados básicos sobre as espécies da herpetofauna que ocorrem na região. Neste estudo, acrescentamos 19 novos registros para a região, totalizando 52 espécies para a herpetofauna local. Knowledge of local biodiversity is essential for the implementation of future actions, such as conservation strategies and management plans for endangered species. This paper presents a check list of amphibians and reptiles of the Parque Municipal Mário Covas, at the municipality of Sorocaba, São Paulo. Field works were carried out between

  15. The effect of spectral property and intensity of light on natural refractive development and compensation to negative lenses in guinea pigs.

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    Li, Wentao; Lan, Weizhong; Yang, Shiqi; Liao, Yunru; Xu, Qinglin; Lin, Lixia; Yang, Zhikuan

    2014-10-02

    To investigate the effect of spectral composition and light intensity on refractive development in guinea pigs. One-week-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to groups exposed to broad-spectrum Solux halogen light (BS) or spiked-spectrum fluorescent light (FL) at both high (Hi, 10,000 lux) and low (Lo, 500 lux) intensities under a 12:12 light/dark cycle. Half of the animals in each group were used as controls (n = 24, 20, 22, and 20, respectively), and half were fitted with binocular -4-diopter (D) lenses (L, lenses; n = 22, 20, 24, and 22, respectively). Refractive error, corneal curvature, and axial dimensions were determined by cycloplegic retinoscopy, photokeratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Guinea pigs exposed to FL and BS showed similar changes in refraction under both high (HiFL: 2.26 ± 0.55 D versus HiBS: 2.17 ± 0.65 D, P > 0.05)- and low-intensity lighting (LoFL: 1.39 ± 0.88 D versus LoBS: 1.40 ± 0.93 D, P > 0.05). This was also true for the groups wearing lenses (HiFL-L: -1.81 ± 0.73 D versus HiBS-L: -1.45 ± 0.99 D, P > 0.05; LoFL-L: -2.58 ± 0.65 D versus LoBS-L: -2.29 ± 0.50 D, P > 0.05). Nevertheless, animals under high-intensity lighting exhibited a significantly larger hyperopic shift compared with those under low-intensity lighting (HiFL versus LoFL: P development and negative lens compensation. As found in other species, effects of light intensity on refractive development were also observed in guinea pigs in both illuminants. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Pereira, Alan; Southgate, Rosamund; Ahmed, Hikmet; O’Connor, Penelope; Cramond, Vanessa; Lenglet, Annick

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. Methods: We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. Discussion: As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. Conclusion: We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible. PMID:29511602

  17. Application of natural gas to the direct reduction of iron ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    The Gas Committee of the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe evaluated the potentials of natural gas for direct reduction of iron ore. The report, based essentially on that by the Italian representative E. Pasero with comments and observations from experts of the other member countries, indicated the general tendency of the iron and steel industry to use natural gas to reduce production costs by reducing coke consumption. By the end of 1972, gas consumption by these industries was reported at 38.8 billion Btu/ton (10.79 Gcal/m ton) by the Steel Committee of the U.N. Economic Commission at the symposium on the economic and technical aspects of the direct reduction of iron ore, held in September 1972 in Bucharest. In comparison, coke consumption was 9.5 billion Btu/ton (2.64 Gcal/m ton) steel, liquid hydrocarbons 3.1 billion Btu (0.85 Gcal), and electricity 16.1 billion Btu (4.46 Gcal). Natural gas was used mainly for ore reduction and generation of the reducing gas in-shaft furnaces with backdraft heating circulation, fixed-bed furances (Hyl type), and fluidized-bed reactors. Processes include the Midrex (shaft furnace), H.I.B. (fluidized bed), and Novalfer (fluidized bed). These processes are used to obtain 4.5 million tons/yr of iron sponge for the production of steel in electric furnaces. The natural gas outlook for direct reduction of iron will depend on local conditions and fuel availability. Its industrial application has been most successful in mini-steel installations, especially in the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe, and it is recommended for developing countries with no steel-industry basis.

  18. Vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eileen; Halliday, Sophia R; Campbell, Gemma R; Cardwell, Chris R; Patterson, Chris C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between routine vaccinations and the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus by systematically reviewing the published literature and performing meta-analyses where possible. A comprehensive literature search was performed of MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all studies that compared vaccination rates in children who subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus and in control children. ORs and 95% CIs were obtained from published reports or derived from individual patient data and then combined using a random effects meta-analysis. In total, 23 studies investigating 16 vaccinations met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of these contributed to meta-analyses which included data from between 359 and 11,828 childhood diabetes cases. Overall, there was no evidence to suggest an association between any of the childhood vaccinations investigated and type 1 diabetes mellitus. The pooled ORs ranged from 0.58 (95% CI 0.24, 1.40) for the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in five studies up to 1.04 (95% CI 0.94, 1.14) for the haemophilus influenza B (HiB) vaccination in 11 studies. Significant heterogeneity was present in most of the pooled analyses, but was markedly reduced when analyses were restricted to study reports with high methodology quality scores. Neither this restriction by quality nor the original authors' adjustments for potential confounding made a substantial difference to the pooled ORs. This study provides no evidence of an association between routine vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  19. Vaccines Cold Chain Monitoring: A Cross Sectional Study at Three District In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, L. D.; Ginandjar, P.; Budiyono; Martini; Udiyono, A.; Kairul

    2018-02-01

    Vaccine cold chain is a procedure that is used to keep vaccines at a certain temperature. The aim was to describe the vaccine cold chain management of basic immunization program in health centers district. The study design descriptive observational. The samples was Health Centers (HCs); 12 HCs in Sarolangun Jambi Province, 16 HCs in Brebes Central Java Province, and 24 HCs in Temanggung Central Java Provice. Basic immunization vaccines were BCG, DPT-HB-HIB, Polio, and Measles. The results showed proportion of officers graduated from college in Sorolangun, Brebes, and Temanggung were 66.7%, 81.3%, and 52.0% respectively. Proportion of HC that did not have thermometer and fridge freeze was mostly found in Temanggung (52%) and in Sorolangun (91.7%). The heat-sensitive vaccines arranged near the evaporator mostly found in Temanggung (88%), while freeze-sensitive vaccines prepared away of the evaporator mostly in Brebes (100%). Freezer temperature recording chart is not available mostly found in Sorolangun and Brebes (50%), In Sorolangun 41.7% of the officers monitoring 2 times a day and mostly (91.7%) the refrigerator thermostat tape was not isolated. The officers did not perform daily maintenance (50%), weekly (66.7%), and montly (33.3%) mostly found in Sorolangun. From this study we can conclude there is no vaccine immunization program management in Sarolangun, Brebes, and Temanggung that managed according to Ministry of Health Regulations number 42/2013 on the Implementation of immunization. Improvement oversight, control over management of vaccine and management personal, also managing the temperature of the vaccine were recommended.

  20. Regulatory motifs for CREB-binding protein and Nfe2l2 transcription factors in the upstream enhancer of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jong S; Kozak, Leslie P

    2002-09-13

    Thermogenesis against cold exposure in mammals occurs in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP1). Expression of the Ucp1 gene is unique in brown adipocytes and is regulated tightly. The 5'-flanking region of the mouse Ucp1 gene contains cis-acting elements including PPRE, TRE, and four half-site cAMP-responsive elements (CRE) with BAT-specific enhancer elements. In the course of analyzing how these half-site CREs are involved in Ucp1 expression, we found that a DNA regulatory element for NF-E2 overlaps CRE2. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and competition assays with the CRE2 element indicates that nuclear proteins from BAT, inguinal fat, and retroperitoneal fat tissue interact with the CRE2 motif (CGTCA) in a specific manner. A supershift assay using an antibody against the CRE-binding protein (CREB) shows specific affinity to the complex from CRE2 and nuclear extract of BAT. Additionally, Western blot analysis for phospho-CREB/ATF1 shows an increase in phosphorylation of CREB/ATF1 in HIB-1B cells after norepinephrine treatment. Transient transfection assay using luciferase reporter constructs also indicates that the two half-site CREs are involved in transcriptional regulation of Ucp1 in response to norepinephrine and cAMP. We also show that a second DNA regulatory element for NF-E2 is located upstream of the CRE2 region. This element, which is found in a similar location in the 5'-flanking region of the human and rodent Ucp1 genes, shows specific binding to rat and human NF-E2 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay with nuclear extracts from brown fat. Co-transfections with an Nfe2l2 expression vector and a luciferase reporter construct of the Ucp1 enhancer region provide additional evidence that Nfe2l2 is involved in the regulation of Ucp1 by cAMP-mediated signaling.

  1. Etiologic Agents of Central Nervous System Infections among Febrile Hospitalized Patients in the Country of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T.; Shakarishvili, Roman; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Imnadze, Paata; Tatishvili, Nana; Davitashvili, Tamar; Samkharadze, Tamar; Chlikadze, Rusudan; Dvali, Natia; Dzigua, Lela; Karchava, Mariam; Gatserelia, Lana; Macharashvili, Nino; Kvirkvelia, Nana; Habashy, Engy Emil; Farrell, Margaret; Rowlinson, Emily; Sejvar, James; Hepburn, Matthew; Pimentel, Guillermo; Dueger, Erica; House, Brent; Rivard, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives There is a large spectrum of viral, bacterial, fungal, and prion pathogens that cause central nervous system (CNS) infections. As such, identification of the etiological agent requires multiple laboratory tests and accurate diagnosis requires clinical and epidemiological information. This hospital-based study aimed to determine the main causes of acute meningitis and encephalitis and enhance laboratory capacity for CNS infection diagnosis. Methods Children and adults patients clinically diagnosed with meningitis or encephalitis were enrolled at four reference health centers. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected for bacterial culture, and in-house and multiplex RT-PCR testing was conducted for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, mumps virus, enterovirus, varicella zoster virus (VZV), Streptococcus pneumoniae, HiB and Neisseria meningitidis. Results Out of 140 enrolled patients, the mean age was 23.9 years, and 58% were children. Bacterial or viral etiologies were determined in 51% of patients. Five Streptococcus pneumoniae cultures were isolated from CSF. Based on in-house PCR analysis, 25 patients were positive for S. pneumoniae, 6 for N. meningitidis, and 1 for H. influenzae. Viral multiplex PCR identified infections with enterovirus (n = 26), VZV (n = 4), and HSV-1 (n = 2). No patient was positive for mumps or HSV-2. Conclusions Study findings indicate that S. pneumoniae and enteroviruses are the main etiologies in this patient cohort. The utility of molecular diagnostics for pathogen identification combined with the knowledge provided by the investigation may improve health outcomes of CNS infection cases in Georgia. PMID:25369023

  2. A phase 2 randomized controlled trial of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymula, Roman; Esposito, Susanna; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Xie, Fang; Toneatto, Daniela; Kohl, Igor; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The novel meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero(®)), recently approved in Europe and Australia, may soon be included in routine infant immunization schedules, subject to guidance from national or regional recommending bodies. In the development of 4CMenB and consistent with other newly introduced vaccines, clinical studies have shown concomitant administration with routine infant vaccines induces an incremental increase in some reactions, including fever. As this may hinder acceptability, we examined the impact of prophylactic paracetamol on the occurrence of fever and other solicited reactions, as well as the immune responses to study vaccines, in a prospectively designed study. 4CMenB was administered as a 4-dose series at 2, 3, 4, and 12 months of age concomitantly with routine infant vaccines: DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and PCV7, with or without prophylactic paracetamol; a third group received MenC vaccine. Immune responses to 4CMenB were not decreased by the use of paracetamol prophylaxis and there were no clinically relevant effects on immune responses to routine vaccines. Occurrence of fever was higher in infants co-administered with 4CMenB compared with those given MenC vaccine, but was significantly decreased by prophylactic paracetamol, as were other solicited reactions to vaccination, both local and systemic. Co-administration of 4CMenB had an acceptable tolerability profile, with no withdrawals due to vaccination-related adverse events. Inclusion of 4CMenB in routine infant immunization schedules will be a major advance in the control of meningococcal disease, and our study indicates that by using paracetamol prophylaxis, post-vaccination reactions are reduced without clinically relevant negative consequences on vaccine immunogenicity.

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a CRM-conjugated meningococcal ACWY vaccine administered concomitantly with routine vaccines starting at 2 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry M; Nissen, Michael D; Naz, Aftab; Shepard, Julie; Bedell, Lisa; Hohenboken, Matthew; Odrljin, Tatjana; Dull, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Infants are at the highest risk for meningococcal disease and a broadly protective and safe vaccine is an unmet need in this youngest population. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 4-dose infant/toddler regimen of MenACWY-CRM given at 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of age concomitantly with pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-Hemophilus influenzae type b-inactivated poliovirus-combination vaccine (DTaP-IPV/Hib), hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), 7- or 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV), and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR). Four doses of MenACWY-CRM induced hSBA titers ≥8 in 89%, 95%, 97%, and 96% of participants against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y, respectively. hSBA titers ≥8 were present in 76-98% of participants after the first 3 doses. A categorical linear analysis incorporating vaccine group and study center showed responses to routine vaccines administered with MenACWY-CRM were non-inferior to routine vaccines alone, except for seroresponse to the pertussis antigen fimbriae. The reactogenicity profile was not affected when MenACWY-CRM was administered concomitantly with routine vaccines. MenACWY-CRM administered with routine concomitant vaccinations in young infants was well tolerated and induced highly immunogenic responses against each of the serogroups without significant interference with the immune responses to routine infant vaccinations. Healthy 2 month old infants were randomized to receive MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines (n = 258) or routine vaccines alone (n = 271). Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay using human complement (hSBA). Medically attended adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and AEs leading to study withdrawal were collected throughout the study period.

  4. Haemophilus influenzae : Caracterización de aislamientos recuperados de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba durante el período 2008-2011

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    Gilda Toraño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar los aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae, responsables de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba, en la etapa posterior a la vacunación se estudió el total de los recuperados durante el período 2008-2011, remitidos al Instituto "Pedro Kourí" desde diferentes provincias del país. La confirmación de especie y determinación de serotipos se realizó atendiendo al requerimiento de los factores V y X y empleando el método de aglutinación en lámina, respectivamente. Se definieron los biotipos a través de las pruebas de indol, urea y ornitina; se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mediante la prueba del elipsómetro para la ampicilina, la ceftriaxona, el cloranfenicol y la rifampicina. Para 23 aislamientos se corroboró la identificación como H. influenzae : 21 fueron serotipables y 2 no tipables (HNT. El 90,4% de los serotipables fueron serotipo b y se detectaron dos serotipos a. Nueve aislamientos de H. influenzae b pertenecieron al biotipo I y los aislamientos, serotipo a y HNT, al biotipo II. En una cepa se demostró producción de la enzima ß-lactamasa y resistencia para la ampicilina y el cloranfenicol, con valores de CMI= 8 y 12 µg/mL, respectivamente. Se puso en evidencia que a pesar de la disminución de la incidencia de la enfermedad invasiva por Hib, este serotipo aún constituye el más frecuente y se alerta sobre la necesidad de una vigilancia sostenida que permita detectar fallos vacunales. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana demostrada para este período pudiera considerarse como un beneficio adicional de la introducción de la vacunación en Cuba.

  5. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  6. Acellular pertussis vaccines--a question of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, P

    1995-06-01

    Whole cell pertussis vaccine is considered to offer at least 80% protection against typical whooping cough. The quest for an equally effective but less reactogenic vaccine is now drawing to a close. During the forthcoming year a number of efficacy trials of acellular pertussis vaccines will be terminated. A variety of vaccines containing one, two, three or five purified pertussis antigens are being tested in Germany, Italy, Senegal and Sweden. About 30,000 infants have been enrolled in placebo-controlled studies and more than 100,000 in whole cell vaccine-controlled trials. The final plans for analysis of a Swedish placebo-controlled trial of whole cell and acellular vaccines is presented. Due to the unexpected high incidence of pertussis in Sweden during 1993-1994, relative risk comparisons between vaccines will be attempted in that trial, in addition to estimating absolute efficacy. A crucial issue is to what extent data may be compared between trials, given differences in design, vaccination schedules, and chosen endpoints. A primary case definition of laboratory-confirmed pertussis with at least 21 days of paroxysmal cough have been adopted in most trials. Pre-planned meta-analysis using this single endpoint will facilitate comparisons between vaccines. Serological correlates to protection in individuals will be sought in the ongoing placebo-controlled trials. The concept of a serological correlate valid for a vaccinated population but not necessarily for the vaccinated individual, as is the case with Hib vaccines, may turn out to be the only alternative to performing large efficacy trials in the future.

  7. Single variant bottleneck in the early dynamics of H. influenzae bacteremia in neonatal rats questions the theory of independent action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxian; Levin, Bruce; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-08-01

    There is an abundance of information about the genetic basis, physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. In contrast, relatively little is known about population dynamic processes, by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade tissues and cells and thereby cause disease. In an article published in 1978, Moxon and Murphy presented evidence that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture streptomycin sensitive and resistant (Sm S and Sm R ) and otherwise isogenic strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one strain, Sm S or Sm R . After ruling out other possibilities through years of related experiments, the field seems to have settled on a plausible explanation for this phenomenon: the first bacterium to invade the host activates the host immune response that ‘shuts the door’ on the second invading strain. To explore this hypothesis in a necessarily quantitative way, we modeled this process with a set of mixed stochastic and deterministic differential equations. Our analysis of the properties of this model with realistic parameters suggests that this hypothesis cannot explain the experimental results of Moxon and Murphy, and in particular the observed relationship between the frequency of different types of blood infections (bacteremias) and the inoculum size. We propose modifications to the model that come closer to explaining these data. However, the modified and better fitting model contradicts the common theory of independent action of individual bacteria in establishing infections. We suggest possible experiments that would be able to confirm or reject our proposed modification of the early infection model.

  8. Compliance with birth dose of Hepatitis B vaccine in high endemic and hard to reach areas in the Colombian amazon: results from a vaccination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choconta-Piraquive, Luz Angela; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Sarmiento-Limas, Carlos Arturo

    2016-07-21

    Hepatitis B vaccination was introduced into the Expanded Program of Immunization in Colombia in 1992, in response to WHO recommendations on hepatitis B immunization. Colombia is a low endemic country for Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) but it has several high endemic areas like the Amazon basin where more than 70 % of adults had been infected. A cross- sectional study was carried out in three rural areas of the Colombian Amazon to evaluate compliance with the recommended schedule for hepatitis B vaccine in Colombian children (one monovalent dose given in the first 24 h after birth + 3 doses of a pentavalent containing Hepatitis B. (DPT + Hib + Hep B). A household survey was conducted in order to collect vaccination data from children aged from 6 months to studied, 79 % received a monovalent dose of hepatitis B vaccine, but only 30.7 % were vaccinated in the first 24 h after birth. This proportion did not increase by age or subsequent birth cohorts. Coverage with three doses of a DTP-Hib-HepB vaccine was 98 %, but most children did not receive them according to the recommended schedule. Being born in a health facility was the strongest predictor of receiving a timely birth dose. This study suggests that more focused strategies on improving compliance with hepatitis B birth dose should be implemented in rural areas of the Amazon, if elimination of perinatal transmission of HBV is to be achieved. Increasing the proportion of newborns delivered at health facilities should be one of the priorities to reach that goal.

  9. A Meningococcal Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccine Incorporating Genetically Attenuated Endotoxin Dissociates Inflammation From Immunogenicity

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    David J. Dowling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Group B Neisseria meningitidis, an endotoxin-producing gram-negative bacterium, causes the highest incidence of group B meningococcus (MenB disease in the first year of life. The Bexsero vaccine is indicated in Europe from 8 weeks of age. Endotoxin components of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs or soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS represent a potential source of inflammation and residual reactogenicity. The purpose of this study was to compare novel candidate MenB vaccine formulations with licensed vaccines, including Bexsero, using age-specific in vitro culture systems.Methods. OMVs from wild type and inactivated lpxL1 gene mutant N. meningitidis strains were characterized in human neonatal and adult in vitro whole blood assays and dendritic cell arrays. OMVs were benchmarked against licensed vaccines, including Bexsero and whole cell pertussis formulations, with respect to Th-polarizing cytokine and PGE2 production, as well as cell surface activation markers (HLA-DR, CD86, CCR7. OMV immunogenicity was assessed in mice.Results. ΔlpxLI native OMVs demonstrated significantly less cytokine induction in human blood and DCs than Bexsero and most of the other pediatric vaccines (e.g., PedvaxHib, EasyFive, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG tested. Despite a much lower inflammatory profile in vitro than Bexsero, ΔlpxLI native OMVs still had moderate DC maturing ability and induced robust anti-N. meningitidis antibody responses after murine immunization.Conclusions. A meningococcal vaccine comprised of attenuated LPS-based OMVs with a limited inflammatory profile in vitro induces robust antigen-specific immunogenicity in vivo.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISATION OF Haemophilus influenzae STRAINS ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH INVASIVE AND RESPIRATORY DISEASES

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    Tomislav Kostyanev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 H. influenzae strains were collected between 1994 and 2009 from all aged patient groups. The strains were isolated from patients with invasive and community-acquired respiratory tract infections. All strains were identified according to standard microbiological methods. Serotyping was done by a coagglutination test and by molecular PCR capsular genotyping. Beta-lactamase production was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin test with nitrocephin as substrate. Most of the isolated H. influenzae strains were from children under 5 years of age (57.7%. Overall, 61 strains belonged to serotype b (34.9% by the means of PCR capsular typing, 1 strain was type f, and 113 isolates (64.6% were non-typeable (non-encapsulated H. influenzae. Among the infants and children with meningitis or other invasive infections, aged 2 month to 5 years, all strains, except one, were serotype b. In respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and people with chronic pulmonary diseases - exacerbations of COPD, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis the most common - 96.5% were non-typeable strains in both groups children and adults. Overall, the prevalence of beta-lactamase production was 19.4%. But, it was much higher for invasive strains from CSF isolates - 37.7%, 25% in blood samples, and 37.5% in otitis media causative strains. Beta-lactamase production was less frequent in respiratory tract isolates - in sputum 13.3% and in URT samples - 2.3%. The rate of beta-lactamase production in CSF isolates has not changed for the last 10 years.PCR capsular genotyping method has to be performed for all non-b-type strains. The implementation of Hib vaccine in our country will be accompanied by a reduction in invasive diseases caused by H. influenzae type b in children, but it is not useful in preventing infections caused by non-typeable H. influenzae strains.

  11. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of dietary 5-hydroxytryptophan and tyrosine are found on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J Trachte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available George J Trachte1, Thomas Uncini2, Marty Hinz31Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of MN Medical School Duluth, Duluth, MN, USA; 2Chief Medical Examiner, St. Louis County, Hibbing, MN, USA; 3Clinical Research, NeuroResearch Clinics, Inc., Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Amino acid precursors of dopamine and serotonin have been administered for decades to treat a variety of clinical conditions including depression, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, and a host of other illnesses. Dietary administration of these amino acids is designed to increase dopamine and serotonin levels within the body, particularly the brain. Convincing evidence exists that these precursors normally elevate dopamine and serotonin levels within critical brain tissues and other organs. However, their effects on urinary excretion of neurotransmitters are described in few studies and the results appear equivocal. The purpose of this study was to define, as precisely as possible, the influence of both 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP and tyrosine on urinary excretion of serotonin and dopamine in a large human population consuming both 5-HTP and tyrosine. Curiously, only 5-HTP exhibited a marginal stimulatory influence on urinary serotonin excretion when 5-HTP doses were compared to urinary serotonin excretion; however, a robust relationship was observed when alterations in 5-HTP dose were compared to alterations in urinary serotonin excretion in individual patients. The data indicate three statistically discernible components to 5-HTP responses, including inverse, direct, and no relationships between urinary serotonin excretion and 5-HTP doses. The response to tyrosine was more consistent but primarily yielded an unexpected reduction in urinary dopamine excretion. These data indicate that the urinary excretion pattern of neurotransmitters after consumption of their precursors is far more complex than previously appreciated. These data on urinary neurotransmitter excretion might

  12. [Immunisation schedule of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics: 2018 recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, David; Álvarez García, Francisco José; Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Cilleruelo Ortega, María José; Garcés Sánchez, María; García Sánchez, Nuria; Hernández Merino, Ángel; Méndez Hernández, María; Merino Moína, Manuel; Montesdeoca Melián, Abián; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics annually publishes the immunisation schedule considered optimal for children resident in Spain, according to available evidence on current vaccines. Regarding funded immunisations, 2+1 strategy (2, 4, 11-12 months) with hexavalent (DTPa-IPV-Hib-HB) and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccines are recommended. Administration of the 6-year booster dose with DTPa is recommended, and a poliomyelitis dose for children who had received the 2+1 scheme, as well as Tdap vaccine for adolescents and pregnant women in every pregnancy between 27 and 32 weeks' gestation. The two-dose scheme should be used for MMR (12 months and 2-4 years) and varicella (15 months and 2-4 years). MMRV vaccine could be applied as the second dose if available. Coverage of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls aged 12 with a two dose scheme (0, 6 months) should be improved. Information and recommendation for male adolescents about potential beneficial effects of this immunisation should be provided as well. The new 9 genotypes vaccine is now available, expanding the coverage for both gender. Regarding non-funded immunisations, Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics recommends meningococcal B vaccination, with a 3+1 schedule, and requests to be included in the National Immunisation Program. Tetravalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) is recommended to adolescents (14-18 years) who are going to live in countries with systematic vaccination against ACWY serogroups, and people >6 weeks of age with risk factors or travellers to countries with very high incidence. Vaccination against rotavirus is recommended in all infants. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

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    Facciolo Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB and hibernating (HIB hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR, 3-(+-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p Conclusion We conclude that predominant drinking events evoked by glutamatergic mechanisms, in the presence of prevalently down regulated levels of NR1/2A of some telencephalic and hypothalamic areas appear to constitute an important neuronal switch at least during arousal stage of hibernation. The establishment of the type of glutamatergic subtypes that are linked to successful hibernating states, via drinking stimuli, may have useful bearings toward sleeping disorders.

  14. Infectious Disease Risk and Vaccination in Northern Syria after 5 Years of Civil War: The MSF Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Pereira, Alan; Southgate, Rosamund; Ahmed, Hikmet; O'Connor, Penelope; Cramond, Vanessa; Lenglet, Annick

    2018-02-02

    In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015. We implemented a pre-SIA survey in 135 randomly-selected households in Kobanê using a vaccination history questionnaire for all children Syria. The VPD Risk Analysis prioritised measles, Haemophilus Influenza type B (Hib) and Pneumococcus vaccinations. In the measles SIA, 3410 children aged 6-59 months were vaccinated. The use of multiple small vaccination sites to reduce risks associated with crowds in this active conflict setting was noted as a lesson learnt. The post-SIA survey estimated 82% (95%CI: 76.9-85.9%; n=229/280) measles vaccination coverage in children 6-59 months. As a result of the conflict in Syria, the progressive collapse of the health care system in Kobanê has resulted in low vaccine coverage rates, particularly in younger age groups. The repeated displacements of the population, attacks on health institutions and exodus of healthcare workers, challenge the resumption of routine immunization in this conflict setting and limit the use of SIAs to ensure sustainable immunity to VPDs. We have shown that the risk for several VPDs in Kobanê remains high. We call on all health actors and the international community to work towards re-establishment of routine immunisation activities as a priority to ensure that children who have had no access to vaccination in the last five years are adequately protected for VPDs as soon as possible.

  15. Safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of two doses of RIX4414 live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Eliete C; Clemens, Sue Ann C; Oliveira, Consuelo S; Justino, Maria Cleonice A; Rubio, Pilar; Gabbay, Yvone B; da Silva, Veronilce B; Mascarenhas, Joana D P; Noronha, Vânia L; Clemens, Ralf; Gusmão, Rosa Helena P; Sanchez, Nervo; Monteiro, Talita Antônia F; Linhares, Alexandre C

    2007-01-01

    To determine the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of two doses of rotavirus vaccine in healthy Brazilian infants. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela. Infants received two oral doses of vaccine or placebo at 2 and 4 months of age, concurrently with routine immunizations, except for oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV). This paper reports results from Belém, Brazil, where the number of subjects per group and the viral vaccine titers were: 194 (10(4.7) focus forming units - FFU), 196 (10(5.2) FFU), 194 (10(5.8) FFU) and 194 (placebo). Anti-rotavirus (anti-RV) antibody response was assessed in 307 subjects. Clinical severity of gastroenteritis episodes was measured using a 20-point scoring system with a score of >or= 11 defined as severe GE. The rates of solicited general symptoms were similar in vaccine and placebo recipients. At 2 months after the second dose, a serum IgA response to RV occurred in 54.7 to 74.4% of vaccinees. No interference was seen in the immunogenicity of routine vaccines. Vaccine efficacy against any rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) was 63.5% (95%CI 20.8-84.4) for the highest concentration (10(5.8) FFU). Efficacy was 81.5% (95%CI 44.5-95.4) against severe RVGE. At its highest concentration (10(5.8) FFU), RIX4414 provided 79.8% (95%CI 26.4-96.3) protection against severe RVGE by G9 strain. RIX4414 was highly immunogenic with a low reactogenicity profile and did not interfere with seroresponse to diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Hib antigens. Two doses of RIX4414 provided significant protection against severe GE caused by RV.

  16. "Sügis on salali maa peale laskumas..." : [luuletused] / Maksõm Rõlski ; tlk. Harald Rajamets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rõlski, Maksõm

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: "Sügis on salali maa peale laskumas..." ; "Küpsenud on õunad, punetavad õunad..." ; "Möödas on kõu, mähib maad magus raugus ja hõngab..." ; "Siin kõrgel on vaid kivi, karm ja vaik..." ; "Ühtäkki kardin õõtsus aknasuul..." ; "Lõksatas lukku mu uks. Taas töötama toa rahus üksi..." ; "Haab väriseb, ning tüve hõbedase..." ; "Erootika on väsitanud mind..." ; Kolm meest paadis (rääkimata koerast) ; "Ürglaanes, kus on üksnes loomarajad..." ; "Tuul peksab külmi aknaid jäisel uhal..." ; "Näe, hirmuähmis pageb lambakari..." ; Ausammas ; Haned ; "Kord katab laotust pilv ja paiskab piisku alla..." ; Sadamasillal ; "Oo vaikne sadam sa, mu töölaud, reisi eel ..." ; Chopin ; "Kevad suitsedes on teel ..." ; "Laht tukub, päikses roheliselt särav..." ; "Öösse nagu kaevuvette..." ; "Jõeluhalt kõlas vileviis..." ; Lumikelluke torkas salus..." ; "Ja meenus (aknasse lõi kerge tuul ja lõhnav pimedus) üks pilt, nii kauge..." ; "Glütsiiniatel tung on ikka kõrgemale..." ; Tasa ; Sügisele ; Äike ; Öökülm ; Sonett ; "Ikka tuleb habras õhtu meelde..." ; Flamingod ; Notre Dame ; Aadria meri ; "Mets on hõbesulgses suitsuvines..." ; Kuis ma ei armastaks... ; Luulekunst ; "Käod lahkumist kukkusid kaugel..." ; "Kui mõnus elada on sel..." ; Kiir ; "Ju kustus õhtu punav lee..."

  17. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  18. CD19 negative precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL)-Immunophenotypic challenges in diagnosis and monitoring: A study of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, Kiran; Bibi, Asma; Rabade, Nikhil; Patkar, Nikhil; Subramanian, P G; Kadam, Pratibha Aamre; Badrinath, Y; Ghogale, Sitaram; Gujral, Sumeet; Tembhare, Prashant

    2017-07-01

    CD19 is a B-cell specific marker, expressed on all stages of B-lymphocytes including plasma cells. It is widely used in the flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) of B-cell and plasma cell malignancies. The analysis approach of FCI for the diagnosis and monitoring of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is totally based on the CD19-based primary gating strategy and it would be challenging to study B-ALL without CD19 expression. Since CD19 negative B-ALL are extremely rare, we report three cases of B-ALL with negative expression of CD19 and discussed its implication in the diagnosis, residual disease monitoring and future targeted therapy. Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from three cases suspicious of acute leukemia were studied for morphology, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping and cytogenetics. FCI was performed using a comprehensive six to eight-color multiparametric assay. The cytogenetic studies for standard recurrent genetic translocations were performed by FISH & Karyotyping. The three cases studied were diagnosed as B-ALL based on the expression of CD10, CD20, CD22, CD34, and CD79a by leukemic blasts. CD19 was studied using two different clones (i.e. J3-119 & HIB-19) and found to be severely down regulated in all three cases. There were no significant differentiating features in morphology. Cytogenetic studies were negative for recurrent translocations. We report three cases of extremely rare CD19 negative B-ALL. Lack of awareness of negative CD19 expression in B-ALL can leads to incorrect immunophenotypic diagnosis and monitoring of B-ALL, especially in laboratories using limited markers. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Sex-dependent expression of caveolin 1 in response to sex steroid hormones is closely associated with development of obesity in rats.

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    Rajib Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Caveolin-1 (CAV1 is a conserved group of structural membrane proteins that form special cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich compartments, especially in adipocytes. Recently, it has been reported that CAV1 is an important target protein in sex hormone-dependent regulation of various metabolic pathways, particularly in cancer and diabetes. To clarify distinct roles of CAV1 in sex-dependent obesity development, we investigated the effects of high fat diet (HFD and sex steroid hormones on CAV1 expression in adipose tissues of male and female rats. Results of animal experiments revealed that estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2 and androgen (dihydrotestosterone, DHT had opposite effects on body weight gain as well as on the regulation of CAV1, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in adipose tissues. Furthermore, sex hormone receptors and aromatase were differentially expressed in a sex-dependent manner in response to E2 and DHT treatments. In vivo data were confirmed using 3T3-L1 and HIB1B cell lines, where Cav1 knock down stimulated lipogenesis but suppressed sex hormone receptor signaling proteins. Most importantly, co-immunoprecipitation enabled the identification of previously unrecognized CAV1-interacting mitochondrial or lipid oxidative pathway proteins in adipose tissues. Taken together, current data showed that CAV1 may play important preventive role in the development of obesity, with more prominent effects in females, and proved to be an important target protein for the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue metabolism by manipulating sex hormone receptors and mitochondrial oxidative pathways. Therefore, we can report, for the first time, the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of sex steroid hormones in the sex-dimorphic regulation of CAV1.

  20. Impact of meningitis on intelligence and development: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Deborah; Rashid, Harunor; El-Bashir, Haitham; Sweeney, Faye; Shore, Tim; Booy, Robert; Viner, Russell M

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to address the question "what is the impact of meningitis on IQ and development." Search: conducted using standardized search terms across Medline, PsychInfo and EMBASE to 06/2014. Eligibility: human studies of any infectious aetiology of meningitis reporting IQ or infant developmental age or stage outcomes. Quality: Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Oxford, quality tools. Analysis: random effects meta-analysis by organism. 39 studies were included in the review, 34 providing data on IQ (2015 subjects) and 12 on developmental delay (382 subjects). Across all bacterial organisms, meningitis survivors had a mean IQ 5.50 (95% CI: -7.19, -3.80; I2 = 47%, p = 0.02) points lower than controls. IQ was significantly lower than controls for Neisseria meningitides (NM: 5 points) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib: 6 points) but not in viral meningitis, with only single studies included for Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and group B streptococcus (GBS). The pooled relative risk (RR) for low IQ (IQ<70) in survivors of bacterial meningitis compared with controls was 4.99 (95% CI: 3.17, 7.86) with no significant heterogeneity (I2 = 49%, p = 0.07). Developmental delay of approximately 0.5SD was reported in studies of bacterial meningitis but no delay in the only study of viral meningitis. We found moderate evidence that surviving bacterial meningitis has a deleterious impact on IQ and development but no evidence that viral meningitis had meaningful cognitive impacts. Survivors of bacterial meningitis should be routinely offered screening for cognitive deficits and developmental delay in addition to hearing loss.

  1. Non-transactivational, dual pathways for LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation in primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Therese E.; Mattsson, Charlotte L.; Wang, Yanling; Iakovleva, Irina; Petrovic, Natasa; Nedergaard, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In many cell types, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation is mediated via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) transactivation, in particular via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting via GPCRs, is a mitogen and MAP kinase activator in many systems, and LPA can regulate adipocyte proliferation. The mechanism by which LPA activates the Erk1/2 MAP kinase is generally accepted to be via EGF receptor transactivation. In primary cultures of brown pre-adipocytes, EGF can induce Erk1/2 activation, which is obligatory and determinant for EGF-induced proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we have here examined whether LPA, via EGF transactivation, can activate Erk1/2 in brown pre-adipocytes. We found that LPA could induce Erk1/2 activation. However, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation was independent of transactivation of EGF receptors (or PDGF receptors) in these cells (whereas in transformed HIB-1B brown adipocytes, the LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation indeed proceeded via EGF receptor transactivation). In the brown pre-adipocytes, LPA instead induced Erk1/2 activation via two distinct non-transactivational pathways, one G i -protein dependent, involving PKC and Src activation, the other, a PTX-insensitive pathway, involving PI3K (but not Akt) activation. Earlier studies showing LPA-induced Erk1/2 activation being fully dependent on RTK transactivation have all been performed in cell lines and transfected cells. The present study implies that in non-transformed systems, RTK transactivation may not be involved in the mediation of GPCR-induced Erk1/2 MAP kinase activation.

  2. Equity and child-survival strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Ek; Smith, L; Carneiro, I; Becher, H; Lehmann, D

    2008-05-01

    Recent advances in child survival have often been at the expense of increasing inequity. Successive interventions are applied to the same population sectors, while the same children in other sectors consistently miss out, leading to a trend towards increasing inequity in child survival. This is particularly important in the case of pneumonia, the leading cause of child death, which is closely linked to poverty and malnutrition, and for which effective community-based case management is more difficult to achieve than for other causes of child death. The key strategies for the prevention of childhood pneumonia are case management, mainly through Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), and immunization, particularly the newer vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and pneumococcus. There is a tendency to introduce both interventions into communities that already have access to basic health care and preventive services, thereby increasing the relative disadvantage experienced by those children without such access. Both strategies can be implemented in such a way as to decrease rather than increase inequity. It is important to monitor equity when introducing child-survival interventions. Economic poverty, as measured by analyses based on wealth quintiles, is an important determinant of inequity in health outcomes but in some settings other factors may be of greater importance. Geography and ethnicity can both lead to failed access to health care, and therefore inequity in child survival. Poorly functioning health facilities are also of major importance. Countries need to be aware of the main determinants of inequity in their communities so that measures can be taken to ensure that IMCI, new vaccine implementation and other child-survival strategies are introduced in an equitable manner.

  3. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day. Journal of Animal

  4. INSIDAD BAB AL-IJTIHAD DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP MADHHAB SHAFI‘I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Hadi Aminuddin

    2016-02-01

      Abstract: This work is based on historcal Islamic legal development especially discourse of closing ijtiha>d ’authority’. Muslem and non-moslem specialist writers sure that this discourse happened pasca a’immat al-madha>hib phase.  This phase refers to the era when the creative thinking is stagnant. Amount of Shafi’ithe ulama> who state a binding ruling in religious matters of closing ijtiha>d authority, according to them, are responsible. This paper is to show that closing ijtiha>d ’authority’ discourse (insida>d ba> al-ijtiha>d begins from the times when al-Ghaza>li>, al-Ra>fi’i>, and al-Nawa>wi> clasify mujtahid prerequsites. Their ’mujtahid qualifications’ are efforts which can close ijtiha>d ’authority’ (bab> al-ijtiha>d. Mujtahids did do Ijtiha>d as a creative thinking such as insha>’i> and intiqa>’i>. But they did this as mujtahid muntasib, mujtahid fi> al-madhhab or al-mujtahid al-murajjih} as a different level from mujtahid mustaqill. As}ha>b al-Sha>fi‘i> such as al-Muzani>, al-Buwayt}i>, a-Juwayni>, al-Shayra>zi>, al-Ghaza>li>, al-Ra>fi‘i> and al-Nawa>wi> standardize istinba>t} method which Sha>fi’i> formulated.   Keywords: Insida>d Ba>b al-Ijtiha>d, Dissenting Opinion, Tah}ri>r, Ijtiha>d Intiqa>’i>, Takhri>j.

  5. СOMPLEXES OF Sn(IV WITH ISONICOTINOYLHYDRAZONES OF AROMATIC ALDEHYDES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, EFFECT ON THE GROWTH OF Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shmatkova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Сomplexes[SnCl4(R-Ib∙Н], where R=H (1, 4-Br (2, 4-NO2(3, 2-OCH3(4, 4-OCH3(5, -ОC7H15(6,were synthesized by interaction of SnCl4 with isonicotinoylhydrazones of R-benzoic aldehydes (R-HIb in acetonitrile and complex [SnCl3(2-OH-Inf∙Н](9 – by interaction of SnCl4with 2-OH- naphthaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone (2-OH-H2Inf. In (1-6 bidentateO(C-O–N(N=CH-coordination of the enol form of the ligand is realized and the coordination node {SnCl4ON}– is formed, and in (9 the enol form remains, but the composition of the node changes – {SnCl3O2N}– due to O(C-O–N(N=CH–О(Ph-O- tridentate coordination.The compounds were characterized by the methods of elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, conductometry, thermogravimetry. Their structure was established by comparing the mass- and IR spectra (1-6 and (9 with previously obtained and X-ray structurally characterized complexes [SnCl4(R-Ib∙Н]∙CH3CN (R=4-N(CH32(7 and [SnCl3(R-Ib∙Н]∙2CH3CN (R=2-OH(8with bi- (7 and tridentate coordination (8 of isonicotinoylhydrazones, respectively. It is shown that (1-6 and (9 are complex compounds of the zwitterionic type: the negative charge on the coordination nodes of tin(IVis delocalized by the oxyazine fragment N=C–O, and the positive charge – by the protonation of the vacant pyridine nitrogen atomof hydrazide fragment. The influence of the composition of the coordination node of complexes (1-9, as well as the nature and position of the substituents (R in their molecules on the activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis was determined. It was found that the effect of complexes with tridentate hydrazones (8 and (9 on the growth of pathogen is lower (MIC = 12.5 and 25 μM/ml, respectively compared with bidentatehydrazones (MIC (1-7 = 0,8 – 6,25 μM/ml, among which [SnCl4(2-OCH3-Ib∙Н] (4  stand out (MIC = 0.8 μM/ml.

  6. [TRANSPORT OF OXYGEN DURING GEOMETRICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN CONJUNCTION WITH CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING AND USING OF HIGH THORACIC EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA AS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatevahina, M V; Farzutdinov, A F; Rahimov, A A; Makrushin, I M; Kvachantiradze, G Y

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the perioperative dynamics of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators: delivery (DO2), consumption (VO2), the coefficient of oxygen uptake (CUO2) and their composition, as well as the dynamics of blood lactate indicators in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) who underwent surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass with high thoracic epidural anaesthesia (HTEA) as the main component of anesthesia. Research was conducted in 30 patients with a critical degree of operational risk, during the correction of post-infarction heart aneurysmn using the V. Dor method in combination with coronary artery bypass grafting. The strategic blood oxygen transport indicators (delivery, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient) showed a statistically significant decrease compared to the physiological norm and to the initial data at two points of the research: the intubation of the trachea and during cardiopulmonary bypass. The system components of oxygen were influenced at problematic stages by the dynamics of SvO2 (increase), AVD (decrease), hemodilution withe fall of the HIb- in the process of JR in the persence of superficial hypothermia. The maintenance of optimal CA in the context of HTEA, combined with a balanced volemic load and a minimized cardiotonic support ensured the stabilisation of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators aithe postperfusion stage and during the immediate postoperative period The article is dedicated to the study of strategic blood oxygen transport indicators and their components during the operation of geometric reconstruc-tion of the left ventricle combined with coronary artery-bypass using cardiopulmonary bypass and with high thoracic epidural anesthesia as the main component of general anaesthesia. The analysis has covered the stagewise delivery dynamics, consumption and the oxygen uptake coefficient at II stages of the operation and of the immediate postoperative period. The study has ident (fled

  7. Niger's Child Survival Success, Contributing Factors and Challenges to Sustainability: A Retrospective Analysis.

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    Donela Besada

    Full Text Available Household surveys undertaken in Niger since 1998 have revealed steady declines in under-5 mortality which have placed the country 'on track' to reach the fourth Millennium Development goal (MDG. This paper explores Niger's mortality and health coverage data for children under-5 years of age up to 2012 to describe trends in high impact interventions and the resulting impact on childhood deaths averted. The sustainability of these trends are also considered.Estimates of child mortality using the 2012 Demographic and Health Survey were developed and maternal and child health coverage indicators were calculated over four time periods. Child survival policies and programmes were documented through a review of do