WorldWideScience

Sample records for hhs poverty guidelines

  1. 77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last... program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the Hill-Burton Uncompensated...

  2. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last... program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the Hill-Burton Uncompensated...

  3. 78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty... update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last... program. For information about poverty figures for immigration forms, the Hill-Burton Uncompensated...

  4. 75 FR 3734 - 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines... 2009 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines will remain in effect until updated 2010 poverty guidelines are published, which shall not take place before March 1, 2010. DATES...

  5. 75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ..., Division of Facilities Compliance and Recovery, Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS, Room 10... reduction in eligibility for certain means-tested programs, including Medicaid, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and child nutrition * * *.'' (Congressional Record (House), December 16, 2009, p...

  6. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Legal Services Corporation 2010 Poverty Guidelines *

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal Services Corporation 2010 Poverty Guidelines... Corporation 2010 Poverty Guidelines * Legal Services Corporation 2010 Income Guidelines * Size of household 48...: 4,675 5,850 5,375 * The figures in this table represent 125% of the poverty guidelines by household...

  7. 20 CFR 30.318 - Can the FAB consider objections to HHS's reconstruction of a radiation dose or to the guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the FAB consider objections to HHS's... OF 2000, AS AMENDED Adjudicatory Process Hearings and Final Decisions on Claims § 30.318 Can the FAB... to HHS's reconstruction of the radiation dose to which the employee was exposed, the FAB will...

  8. Poverty, bioethics and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cléa Regina de Oliveira; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a reflection on conception of poverty as a condition or circumstance that restricts personal autonomy and increases vulnerability. Focusing on bioethical arguments, the authors discuss two perspectives: (i) economic, that relates poverty to incapacity to work and (ii) ethical-philosophical, which relates poverty to inequality and injustice. The first perspective corresponds to the World Bank's view according to its recommendations to the political and economic adjustment in Latin America. The second one is based on concepts of fairness and equality as components of social justice. The subjects' autonomy and vulnerability have been under question in an international movement that requests revision of ethical guidelines for the biomedical research. The bioethical arguments presented in this article enhance a discussion on unfair treatment to subjects enlisted in protocols sponsored by rich countries and hosted by poor nations.

  9. Understanding Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definitions, I describe indicators, strategies, and approaches to poverty reduction and gender equality. Second, I analyze how targeting, mainstreaming, and market-based initiatives all fail both to distinguish empirical from analytical gender and to incorporate environment and gender into development policy and action—despite their key role in meeting the normative goal of poverty reduction. Third, through a political-ecology lens, I suggest an integrated approach to poverty, inequality, and socioenvironmental challenges that arise at the intersections of development, gender, and environment, and for that, I draw examples from research on social and environmental change and action in sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. Law's Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Modiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an analysis that explicitly politicises poverty and relates it to the concrete history of racialised capitalism and structural inequality that defined colonialism and apartheid and continues to persist and intensify in "post"-apartheid South Africa. Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and violence. Such a formulation would make social structure, historical injustice and power central and would also allow for poverty to be grasped beyond a purely distributive logic by bringing to light the non-distributive, non-economic dimensions of poverty. Comprehending poverty in this way, as not only a question of economic distribution and empowerment, but also one of ethical, moral and even ontological recognition necessitates an enquiry into the emancipatory force of rights. Given their centrality in political and social discourse and in legal scholarship on poverty, it is worth considering whether and to what extent rights can be utilised in the struggle against (racialised poverty.

  11. 42 CFR 64.9 - Other HHS regulations that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.9 Other HHS regulations that apply. Several...) and requirements for drug-free workplace (grants). 45 CFR part 80—Nondiscrimination under programs...

  12. 42 CFR 73.3 - HHS select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... been genetically modified. (d) HHS select agents or toxins that meet any of the following criteria are... Recombinant Organisms: (1) Nucleic acids that can produce infectious forms of any of the select agent viruses...

  13. Law's Poverty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    Due to the materiality of class, race and gender, for instance, as well as the shared - though not necessarily .... cultural imperialism and violence, which show more clearly how poverty is a composite part of the racial ..... technologies of violence,48 actual physical violence, killings, rapes, and beatings still remain part of the ...

  14. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  15. 24 CFR 232.620 - Determination of compliance by HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND... of Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.620 Determination of compliance by HHS. An...

  16. 42 CFR 93.227 - Secretary or HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary or HHS. 93.227 Section 93.227 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  17. Poverty and Health: Defeating poverty by going to the roots

    OpenAIRE

    Anirudh Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is dynamic in nature: even as some people move out of poverty, other people simultaneously fall into poverty. The poverty pool is being simultaneously both depleted and refilled. Anirudh Krishna argues that efforts for poverty reduction tend to focus exclusively on raising people out of poverty, and therefore will not be very successful unless poverty creation is also addressed. Ill health and high healthcare expenses are the principal reasons associated with falling into poverty; the...

  18. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  19. Poverty Monitor 1999

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) have together collected and analysed a large amount of data on poverty. The findings are set out in this publication. The report also evaluates some aspects of the policy on povert...

  20. On 'Consistent' Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Rod Hick

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of poverty as ‘consistent’ poverty offers a solution to one of the primary problems of poverty measurement within Social Policy of the last three decades. Often treated as if they were synonymous, ‘indirect’ measures of poverty, such as low income measures, and ‘direct’ measures, such as indices of material deprivation, identify surprisingly different people as being poor. In response to this mismatch, a team of Irish researchers put forward a measure which identified responde...

  1. Poverty in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  2. Adolescents and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  3. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and

  4. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP

  5. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... phenomenon and the democratization perspective views the risk of poverty as spread equally in the population. Both perspectives challenge the mainstream tradition of class analysis, and therefore both view poverty as largely independent of traditional stratification factors. In this article, I argue...

  6. Poverty | La pauvreté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty Evolution, 1990–2010 (World Bank income categoriesEvolution de la pauvreté, 1990-2010 (catégories de revenus de la Banque mondialeSource: World Bank, World Bank GNI per Capita Operational Guidelines and Analytical Classifications, http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications/a-short-history.Where the Poor Are, 2007–2008 (million of people living under USD 1.25/day, Purchasing Power Parity*Où sont les pauvres, 2007-2008 (millions de pauvres qui vivent avec moins de 1.25 U...

  7. Poverty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    Recently poverty has become an issue in Danish public debates and research after some quiet years with not much attention. The intention with this paper is to make a descriptive covering view of the Danish research on poverty since the year of 2000 until summer 2009. We see quite some...... differentiation in the methods, measurement and results though most accept the concept of relative poverty (see for instance Peter Townsend 2006). We see qualitative and quantitative studies; studies based on the median income, studies based on poverty lines from minimum budget definitions and surveys including...... questions on deprivation etc.. This paper will present all major studies of empirical poverty research and discuss strengths and inadequacies in the research of poverty and finally raise some perspectives from the current political and professional debates which question poverty research....

  8. 42 CFR 420.303 - HHS criteria for requesting books, documents, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HHS criteria for requesting books, documents, and... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICARE Access to Books, Documents, and Records of Subcontractors § 420.303 HHS criteria for requesting books, documents, and records...

  9. Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication? | Kritzinger | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is ...

  10. International Comparisons of Income Poverty and Extreme Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, McKinley L.

    1993-01-01

    Uses LIS data to study the sensitivity of cross-national income poverty comparisons to the method in which poverty is measured. Examined are the differences between using absolute and relative poverty comparisons as well as the consequence of lowering the real value of the poverty line to examine extreme poverty.

  11. Poverty in Edwardian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeley, Ian; Newell, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a newly discovered household budget data set for 1904. We use these data to estimate urban poverty among working families in the British Isles. Applying Bowley's poverty line, we estimate that at least 23 per cent of people in urban working households and 18 per cent of working households had income insufficient to meet minimum needs. This is well above Rowntree's estimate of primary poverty for York in 1899 and high in the range that Bowley found in northern towns in 1912–13. The skill gradient of poverty is steep; for instance, among labourers' households, the poverty rates are close to 50 per cent. Measures of the depth of poverty are relatively low in the data, suggesting that most poor male-headed working households were close to meeting Bowley's new standard.

  12. Shadow Economy and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Nikopour, Hesam; Shah Habibullah, Muzafar

    2010-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the relationship between shadow economy and poverty by explaining the mechanism through which shadow economy affects poverty via its impact on government size and economic growth, and using the human poverty index (HPI) for developing and developed countries. In order to achieve this objective, the three-way interaction model is utilized using data of 139 developing and 23 developed countries separately during 1999-2007. For developing countries the dynamic ...

  13. Gender and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Haddad, Lawrence James; Peña, Christine

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents new evidence on the association between gender and poverty based on an empirical analysis of 11 data sets from 10 developing countries. The paper computes income- and expenditure-based poverty measures and investigates their sensitivity to the use of per capita and per adult equivalent units. It also tests for differences in poverty incidence between individuals in male- and female-headed households using stochastic dominance analysis. Stochastic dominance analysis reveals...

  14. Halving Poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Auwalin, Ilmiawan

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the literature on relationship between economic growth, income inequalities, and poverty reduction. We discuss poverty reduction, using the case ofIndonesia, as one of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000. Using provincial level data of Indonesia from 1993 to 2000, we examine the required conditions in order to halve the poverty in Indonesia by2015. The result of analysis shows that Indonesia would need to achiev...

  15. Poverty Mapping Project: Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Area Estimates of Poverty and Inequality dataset consists of consumption-based poverty, inequality and related measures for subnational administrative...

  16. Medicare depreciation; useful life guidelines--HCFA. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    We are proposing to amend Medicare regulations to clarify which useful life guidelines providers of health care services may use to determine the useful life of a depreciable asset for Medicare reimbursement purposes. Current regulations state that providers must utilize HHS useful life guidelines or, if none have been published by HHS, the American Hospital Association (AHA) useful life guidelines of 1973 or IRS guidelines. We are proposing to eliminate the reference to IRS guidelines because those previously acceptable for Medicare purposes are outdated and have been made obsolete by the IRS or by statutory change. We would also delete the specific reference to the 1973 AHA guidelines. In addition, we intend this amendment to clarify that certain tax legislation on accelerated depreciation, recently passed by Congress, does not apply to the Medicare program.

  17. Pathways from Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…

  18. Poverty and Aspirations Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this

  19. Poverty and aspirations failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and ‘aspirations failure’, defined as the failure to aspire to one’s own potential. In our framework, rich and the poor persons share the same preferences and same behavioral bias in setting aspirations. We show that poverty can

  20. Poverty Survey 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos e.o.

    2014-01-01

    In this joint publication, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The development of the poverty rate is described for the Dutch population as a whole as well as for the main groups at

  1. Poverty Survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2013 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP present the most recent data on poverty in the Netherlands. The report describes the trend in the poverty rate for the Dutch population as a

  2. Poverty Survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2012 In this joint publication, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole as

  3. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes

  4. Poverty Survey 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2011 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole and

  5. Poverty Monitor 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Henk-Jan Dirven; Stella Hoff; Ger Linden

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2003. The Poverty Monitor 2003 (Armoedemonitor 2003) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  6. Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  7. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  8. Rethinking Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In "Rethinking Education and Poverty," William G. Tierney brings together scholars from around the world to examine the complex relationship between poverty and education in the twenty first century. International in scope, this book assembles the best contemporary thinking about how education can mediate class and improve the lives of…

  9. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of

  10. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  11. Trade, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, David; Kraay, Aart

    2001-01-01

    The evidence from individual cases and from cross-country analysis supports the view that globalization leads to faster growth and poverty reduction in poor countries. To determine the effect of globalization on growth, poverty, and inequality, the authors first identify a group of developing countries that are participating more in globalization. China, India, and several other large coun...

  12. The poverty elasticity of growth

    OpenAIRE

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    How much does economic growth contribute to poverty reduction? I discuss analytical and empirical approches to assess the poverty elasticity of growth, and emphasize that the relationship between growth and poverty change is non-constant. For a given poverty measure, it depends on initial inequality and on the location of the poverty line relative to mean income. In most cases, growth is more important for poverty reduction than changes in inequality, but this does not tender inequality unimp...

  13. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  14. Decisions in poverty contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-01

    The circumstances surrounding poverty-tight financial challenges, instability of income and expenses, low savings, no insurance, and several other stressors-translate into persistent and cognitively taxing hardship for people in poverty contexts. Thoughts about money and expenses loom large, shape mental associations, interfere with other experiences, and are difficult to suppress. The persistent juggling of insufficient resources affects attention, cognitive resources, and ensuing decisions. Despite the demanding struggle with challenging circumstances, people in poverty encounter disdain rather than admiration, and obstacles rather than support. Societal appreciation for the power of context, along with behaviorally informed programs designed to facilitate life under poverty, are essential for those in poverty contexts to be able to make the most of their challenging circumstances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  16. Poverty culture and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koković Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An individual and social groups do not have to be only affected by poverty in economic way, but in a cultural way as well. There is an expression 'poverty culture', which leads to the development of the theory of cultural deprivation. The use of the term poverty culture implies that behavioral patterns of the poor are adopted through education; adopted behavioral patterns are resistant to changes - and, as it is known, education of people, among other, should imply accepting changes. The inveteracy of the poverty culture implies living your own life, which is secluded from identified and dominant life of the ruling culture. Enforcement of poverty and social-economic conditioning influence the tendencies for specific behavioral patterns.

  17. Seven words you can never say at HHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The recent announcement of the seven words you can never say at Health & Human Services (HHS reminded me of the late George Carlin’s routine, “Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television” (1. Policy analysts at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC in Atlanta were told of the list of forbidden words at a meeting last Thursday, December 14, with senior CDC officials who oversee the budget, according to an analyst who took part in the 90-minute briefing (2. The forbidden words are "vulnerable," "entitlement," "diversity," "transgender," "fetus," "evidence-based" and "science-based." In some instances, the analysts were given alternative phrases. Instead of “science-based” or “evidence-based,” the suggested phrase is “CDC bases its recommendations on science in consideration with community standards and wishes,” the person said. In other cases, no replacement words were immediately offered. This is the latest attempt by government departments to distort fact. As an example, the …

  18. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  19. The HHS-HCC Risk Adjustment Model for Individual and Small

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review includes three articles describing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk...

  20. Demystifying Poverty Measurement in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Demombynes, Gabriel; Hoang Vu, Linh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of poverty measurement issues in Vietnam for the non-specialist. Vietnam has two main approaches to measuring poverty. An income-based approach is used by the Ministry of Labor, Invalids, and Social Affairs to generate a classification used for determining anti-poverty program eligibility as well as poverty monitoring over the short term. A separate consumpt...

  1. Cambodia: Country Poverty Analysis 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Cambodia’s new national poverty lines show higher historical poverty rates and a dramatic decline in poverty during the 2007–2009 global financial crisis. With 18.9% of the population being poor in 2012, Cambodia now counts among the countries with the most rapid poverty reduction in the world. However, many people moved only slightly above the poverty line—remaining highly vulnerable—and poverty is increasing both in urban areas and according to the international poverty line of $2 per day. ...

  2. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  3. How we see poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Morduch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How we think about poverty is colored by how we measure it. For economists, that often means seeing poverty through quantities measured in large, representative surveys.  The surveys give a comprehensive view, but favor breadth over depth. Typical economic surveys are limited in their ability to tease out informal activity, and, while they capture yearly sums, they offer little about how the year was actually lived by families. Year-long financial diaries provide a complementary way of seeing poverty, with a focus on week by week choices and challenges. The result is a re-framing of poverty and its relationship to money, calling for greater attention to financial access and a broader notion of how finance matters.

  4. Growth and Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Leyaro, Vincent; Mahrt, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter considers the evolution of welfare of the Tanzanian population using a multi-dimensional approach. It also employs a detailed economy-wide model of the Tanzanian economy to explore growth and monetary poverty reduction scenarios from 2007 to 2015. This approach permits assessment...... of the coherence of observed trends in macroeconomic variables and projects consumption poverty outcomes to 2015. In the multi-dimensional approach, we find that real gains have been achieved. On monetary poverty, our model broadly reproduces key macroeconomic features of the past eight years. We find...... that published consumption poverty reductions for 2007 to 2011/12 from the most recent assessment fall within a reasonable to optimistic range. And, the simulations generate broader based growth across the income distribution compared with the recent assessment. Looking forward, the simulations from 2012 to 2105...

  5. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    Measuring poverty remains a complex and contentious issue. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty rates are higher, information bases typically weaker, and the underlying determinants of welfare relatively volatile. This paper employs recently collected data on household...... consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...... of the implications of these world commodity price changes for living standards of poor people. Second, a novel ‘backcasting’ approach using a computable general equilibrium model of Mozambique, linked to a poverty module is introduced. Third, the backcasting approach is also employed to rigorously examine...

  6. Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) ... quite comprehensive definition of poverty, whose ethical basis is briefly presented ..... from the world of reading and communications, corresponding to the subset {I2}.

  7. Poverty-Exploitation-Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Martin

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how knowledge derived from the discipline of economics can be used to help shed light on social problems such as poverty, exploitation, and alienation, and can help decision makers form policy to minimize these and similar problems. (DB)

  8. Vietnam; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper of Vietnam, known as the Comprehensive Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy (CPRGS). It is an action program to achieve economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. This paper reviews the objectives and tasks of socio-economic development and poverty reduction. The government of Vietnam takes poverty reduction as a cutting-through objective in the process of country socio-economic development and declares its commitment to impleme...

  9. Regional differences in family poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Robert K. Triest

    1997-01-01

    Poverty rates vary considerably over regions, as do the demographic characteristics of the poor, but why the extent of poverty varies as much as it does across different regions of the country is not fully understood. This is an unfortunate gap in our knowledge, since it is difficult to analyze how recent changes in federal anti-poverty policy will affect the regional distribution of poverty without a better understanding of current regional differences in the poverty rate.> The main goal of ...

  10. 76 FR 36891 - Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 81 [Docket Number NIOSH-0209] RIN 0920-AA39 Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness...: HHS published a proposed rule entitled ``Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the...

  11. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  12. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  13. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  14. Some Thoughts on Mexican Poverty Viewed from the Perspective of the World Population Plan of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serron, Luis A.

    The paper summarizes findings of a study of Mexican poverty (SO 010 522), and relates these findings to guidelines of the World Population Plan of Action. The study indicated that poverty in Mexico is based upon national and international economic, political, and social factors. Included among these factors are exploitation of labor, rapid…

  15. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  16. Poverty Mapping Project: Poverty and Food Security Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Poverty and Food Security Case Studies dataset consists of small area estimates of poverty, inequality, food security and related measures for subnational...

  17. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  18. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food secu...

  19. Impacts of Policies on Poverty. Relative Poverty Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how to define “relative” poverty lines, i.e. poverty lines based on approaches that consider the welfare position of each individual or household in relation to the welfare position of other individuals or households belonging to the same community. In particular, the module, after emphasizing the importance of the relative poverty concept in policy work, discusses two methods to define relative poverty lines: a) the “income levels” method; and b) the “income positions...

  20. Determinants of Poverty in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Yousaf; Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    This research discusses impact of macroeconomic variables on poverty in Pakistan. In this article five variables are used and two models are run. The ordinary least squares approach is applied. In first model we check the impact of budget deficit, government expenditure and unemployment on poverty in Pakistan. Budget deficit and government expenditure shows negative relationship with poverty in Pakistan while unemployment has positive relationship with poverty. In second model we check the im...

  1. Poverty and precarity in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Izaura

    2016-01-01

    This research assesses poverty levels in Portugal within a multidimensional approach, over a period from 2008 to 2014. Further, it aims at inferring a causal relationship between precarious jobs and the estimated multidimensional poverty level. This research adds to the existing literature by applying a discrete choice experiment in the construction of the poverty index, as well as by nding causality between poverty and precarity. Empirical results suggest that, while multidim...

  2. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  3. Poverty on the Cards 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut; Benedikt Goderis; Cok Vrooman

    2016-01-01

    Decline in poverty since 2014 According to SCP’s ‘modest but adequate’ poverty threshold, 7.6% of the Dutch population were living in poverty in 2014. That figure is expected to have fallen to 7% in 2016. If the promised measures to improve purchasing power are implemented,

  4. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. - Research Highlights: →We estimate energy poverty for rural Bangladesh adopting a demand-based approach. →Findings suggest that energy poverty does not necessarily follow the same pattern as income poverty. →Access to modern energy and efficient use of traditional energy help alleviate energy poverty. →Energy poverty indicator can help track the effectiveness of a wide range of energy policies.

  5. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  6. The neurology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce.

  7. Reducing poverty through tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bolwell, Dain; Weinz, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Outlines the background to poverty reduction approaches and how the ILO is involved within the context of Decent Work and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Recent developments in tourism and a vision for an inclusive, pro-poor tourism industry are summarized.

  8. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  9. Poverty and Political Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouda, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Frances Gouda examines the different rhetorical approaches to poverty, charity, and social welfare embraced by intellectuals and policy-makers in the Netherlands and France in the period 1815 - 1854. She explores the different discourses in Holland and France about the revolutionary threat implicit

  10. Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Rachel; Carney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Microcredit strategies combine the logic of business, progressive approaches to learning from experience and the key aim to reduce poverty, especially amongst women. The focus in such interventions on the independent, entrepreneurial citizen suggests not only new ways to generate economic growth...

  11. Poverty and household size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, P.; Ravallion, M.

    1995-01-01

    The widely held view that larger families tend to be poorer in developing countries has influenced research and policy. The scope for size economies in consumption cautions against this view. The authors find that the correlation between poverty and size vanishes in Pakistan when the size elasticity

  12. Strategies Against Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riessman, Frank

    The major antipoverty strategies of the 1960's are analyzed--the conflict model of Alinsky, the welfare crisis approach of Cloward and Piven, and the new careers viewpoint of Riessman and Pearl. The latter strategy is said to have a greater "multiplier effect" on poverty than other approaches. Discussed are such specific strategies in…

  13. Trends in Child Poverty Using an Improved Measure of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Fox, Liana

    2016-04-01

    The official measure of poverty has been used to assess trends in children's poverty rates for many decades. But because of flaws in official poverty statistics, these basic trends have the potential to be misleading. We use an augmented Current Population Survey data set that calculates an improved measure of poverty to reexamine child poverty rates between 1967 and 2012. This measure, the Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure, is based partially on the US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics' new Supplemental Poverty Measure. We focus on 3 age groups of children, those aged 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years. Young children have the highest poverty rates, both historically and today. However, among all age groups, long-term poverty trends have been more favorable than official statistics would suggest. This is entirely due to the effect of counting resources from government policies and programs, which have reduced poverty rates substantially for children of all ages. However, despite this progress, considerable disparities in the risk of poverty continue to exist by education level and family structure. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  15. 78 FR 50419 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-10; HHS Computer Match No. 1310

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-10; HHS Computer Match No. 1310 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching... notice announces the establishment of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Department of Homeland...

  16. 78 FR 39730 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-11; HHS Computer Match No. 1302

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-11; HHS Computer Match No. 1302 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching... notice announces the establishment of a CMP that CMS intends to conduct with State-based Administering...

  17. 76 FR 14669 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2011-02; HHS Computer Match No. 1007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2011-02; HHS Computer Match No. 1007 AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). ACTION: Notice of computer... notice establishes a computer matching agreement between CMS and the Department of Defense (DoD). We have...

  18. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended, this notice announces the renewal of a CMP that CMS plans...

  19. Developing and implementing health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H; Bowden, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability.

  20. Developing and Implementing Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Institutional Food Service123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H.; Bowden, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability. PMID:22585909

  1. 48 CFR 301.603-72 - FAC-C and HHS SAC certification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and... retention of certification, including the requirement to earn continuous learning points (CLPs). FAC-C... to employees for the first time at a department or agency.) (c) The FAC-C certification is based on...

  2. 76 FR 20568 - HHS Plan for Retrospective Review Under Executive Order 13563

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... impact on a substantial number of small businesses as required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act; annual... technologies to facilitate greater participation in the rulemaking process, particularly social media and... actual impact? Public Participation--HHS solicits comments on ways to further engage and increase public...

  3. Optimization of the Fermentation Process of Actinomycete Strain Hhs.015T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    inoculation volume of 15.8%. The antimicrobial activity was increased by 20% by optimizing the environmental parameters. The results obtained allow an efficient production of components with antimicrobial activity by strain Hhs.015T on a large scale at low costs.

  4. Updated Findings from the HHS Teen Pregnancy Prevention Evidence Review: January 2011 Through April 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Goesling; Joanne Lee; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Timothy Novak

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has sponsored an ongoing systematic review of the teen pregnancy prevention research literature to help identify programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and associated sexual risk behaviors.

  5. 45 CFR 91.18 - Age distinctions contained in HHS regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....18 Section 91.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... distinctions contained in a rule or regulation issued by HHS shall be presumed to be necessary to the achievement of a statutory objective of the program or activity to which the rule or regulation applies...

  6. Poverty and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay there is argued that the notions ofpoverty, development, quality of life and, in general, all the concepts, variables and indicators used in the explanations and theories on this type, are different points of view from the observers' interests,of the same and only social phenomenon. Therefore,there are multiple works on poverty and development. However, an approximation from the perspective of complexity must bear in mind that the development may refer to the social structure as a whole, and to the actions that modify context of the system, just when it has been ordered through the science in order to explain the reality. Therefore,there is a clase relation between poverty and development. These are different ways to see the same phenomenon, which allow us to think about the life quality from a global sense.

  7. Tourism and poverty relief

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Adam; Arbache, Jorge Saba; Sinclair, Thea; Teles, Vladimir Kühl

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of how tourism affects poverty in the context of the effects of tourism on an economy as a whole and on particular sectors within it. A framework for analysing the channels through which tourism affects different households is developed, and a computable general equilibrium model of the Brazilian economy is used to examine the economic impact and distributional effects of tourism in Brazil. It is shown that the effects on all income groups are posi...

  8. SMEs, Growth, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Thorsten; Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli

    2004-01-01

    This Note explores the relationship between the size of the small and medium-size enterprise (SME) sector and economic growth and poverty reduction. A new study finds no support for the widely held belief that SMEs promote higher growth and lower pover ty. But it does provide some support for the view that the quality of the business environment facing all firms, large and small, influen...

  9. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  10. Poverty among Foster Children: Estimates Using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Current Population Survey and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) to provide estimates for poverty among foster children over the period 1992 to 2013. These are the first large-scale national estimates for foster children who are not included in official poverty statistics. Holding child and family demographics constant, foster children have a lower risk of poverty than other children. Analyzing income in detail suggests that foster care payments likely play an important role in reducing the risk of poverty in this group. In contrast, we find that children living with grandparents have a higher risk of poverty than other children, even after taking demographics into account. Our estimates suggest that this excess risk is likely linked to their lower likelihood of receiving foster care or other income supports. PMID:28659651

  11. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Child Poverty and Family Poverty in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Forssén, Katja

    1998-01-01

    Childhood in an underdeveloped environment is a stage of life very likely to be overshadowed by poverty. The main aim of this study is to look at the development of child poverty in the comparative angle. The study seeks to detect connections between child poverty and the implemented family policies. Discussion include an overview of family policies in different welfare state models, specification of the goals of the study, report of the results of the empirical analysis, and discussion of th...

  13. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  14. Urban Poverty and Gender Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitullah, W.V.

    1999-01-01

    Poverty continues to be a global concern. In Kenya at independence poverty was identified as one of the three main enemies of development; the other two being disease and ignorance. Although there has been deliberate efforts to address disease and ignorance, poverty seem to have overwhelmed the GoK. This is depicted in the fact that 46 per cent of the country's rural population live below poverty line whereas in urban areas incidence of poverty is about 30 per cent. Further Kenya has one of the lowest per-capita incomes in the world and ranks high among world countries that have very high levels of inequality (Kenya and UNICEF, 1992). Overall, 13 million Kenyans have no access to safe water, 6 million have no access to health facilities and 14 million have no access to sanitation (Ikiara and Tostensen, 1995). Many households and individuals are added to the 'poverty space' on daily basis

  15. Urbanization and Inequality/Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brantley Liddle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The level of world urbanization has crossed the 50% mark, and nearly all future population growth is projected to occur in cities. Cities are disproportionately wealthy, but are associated with poverty, too. Addressing the dual challenges of urbanization and poverty is key to achieving sustainable development. This paper performs cross-sectional regressions, based on Kuznets, as a starting point for understanding the relationship between urbanization and poverty/inequality indicators. Increases in gross domestic product per capita unambiguously lowered poverty and narrowed rural-urban gaps. By contrast, levels of urbanization were either unrelated to poverty/inequality indicators and measures of rural-urban gaps, or had a nonlinear effect where, initially, increases in urbanization likewise led to improvements in those areas, while at higher levels of urbanization, increases in urbanization exacerbated poverty and rural-urban gaps.

  16. Local Agenda 21 and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Palmans, Eva; Marysse, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    Poverty, the increasing urbanisation of poverty and the environmental degradation are major problems facing the actual world. This is reflected in international conferences and agendas, such as Local Agenda 21. This agenda is responding to the current problems by promoting sustainable development through local action and by using participatory methods. Our major concern is to reflect on the impact of the Local Agenda 21 on the reduction of poverty in a Third World context.

  17. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  18. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    and accrual of land rents to smallholders, compared with the more capital-intensive plantation approach. Moreover, the benefits of outgrower schemes are enhanced if they result in technology spillovers to other crops. These results should not be taken as a green light for unrestrained biofuels development...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...

  19. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  20. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  1. Elite perceptions of poverty and Nigeria's poverty reduction research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The way the elite perceive poverty and the poor in any society constitutes a very important dimension of poverty research. This is because normally there are several areas of interrelationship and interdependence between the poor and the elite, and these form part of the basis for social life in all societies. Perceptions of the ...

  2. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  3. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  4. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  5. Federal Research Opportunities: DOE, DOD, and HHS Need Better Guidance for Participant Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    contract with DOE and the Economy Act of 1932, as amended. In addition, we examined documents developed by ORAU and used by DOE, DOD, and HHS to set forth...energy and climate change policy and analyses in the international economy , and building efficiencies. Environmental Protection Agency Climate...biomarkers for environmental contaminants. Federal Bureau of Investigation Juvenile prostitution and child abduction, causes of postmortem hair root

  6. The elusive constellations of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Seger M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Poluektova, Olga; Efremova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The empirical record on poverty-related behaviors is much more divergent and broad than such constellations suggest.

  7. Measuring energy poverty in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papada, Lefkothea; Kaliampakos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive research in the field of energy poverty is undertaken in this paper, in an attempt to highlight the great vulnerability of Greek households on energy poverty, in the middle of a severe economic crisis. Till now, Greek energy policy has been considered insufficient to tackle energy poverty issues, as focusing mainly on short-term rather than permanent solutions. A primary survey has been conducted, recording objective data of energy expenses as well as subjective perceptions about housing conditions. The findings showed that, under the objective expenditure-based method, 58% of Greek households are energy poor. Among households under the poverty threshold, the energy poverty rate exceeds 90%. Existing and new subjective indicators shed light on other aspects of energy poverty, such as the level of thermal comfort at home, damp problems detected, restriction of other essential needs in order to manage energy payments, etc. Some interesting conclusions are also drawn by exploring the relationship between various indicators. It appears that households considered energy poor are not identical when examined by objective and subjective indicators. However, different indicators complement each other by capturing different aspects of the problem and provide a broader overview of the issue. - Highlights: •58% of Greek households are energy poor. •75% of Greek households have reduced other essentials in favor of energy needs. •Combination of objective and subjective indicators captures better energy poverty. •Greek energy policy has failed to tackle energy poverty issues.

  8. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  9. Rural Poverty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1999-01-01

    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  10. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Patricio; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor; Noussair, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We study whether poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared

  11. Gender, poverty and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chhachhi (Amrita); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViews on poverty are deeply rooted in cultural frameworks about the human condition shaped by histories. In the debate on modernity, perspectives on poverty oscillate between: a) making the poor -- their "morals" and "culture" -- responsible for their own situation and b) positioning the

  12. Should poverty researchers worry about inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos

    2010-01-01

    The paper constructs a case for arguing that poverty researchers need not worry about inequality (as poverty researchers). It reviews conceptualisations of poverty as essentially relational, a particular reflection of prevailing inequalities. In this approach, people are in poverty because they are less well off than others along important dimensions of wellbeing. As against this view, the paper constructs a case for studying poverty as non-relational. In this approach, people are in poverty ...

  13. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio S Dalton

    Full Text Available We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity.

  14. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity. PMID:28125621

  15. 75 FR 22809 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... time for related training in Federal and federally-regulated workplace drug testing programs and will... related training in Federal and federally-regulated workplace drug testing programs, including HHS... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing...

  16. Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.

  17. Vaccines against poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  18. Monetary Poverty, Material Deprivation and Consistent Poverty in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Farinha Rodrigues; Isabel Andrade

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use the Portuguese component of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions {EU-SILC) to develop a measure of consistent poverty in Portugal. It is widely agreed that being poor does not simply mean not having enough monetary resources. It also reflects a lack of access to the resources required to enjoy a minimum standard of living and participation in the society one belor]gs to. The coexistence of material deprivation and monetary poverty leads ...

  19. Poverty in Mexico in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, Jesus Manuel

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores poverty trends in Mexico during the 1990's using three different definitions of poverty. The paper then uses poverty convergence analysis to explore the pre-crisis (1992-1994), the crisis (1994-1996), and the recovery periods (1996-1998). Finally, the paper incorporates a regional analysis in order to examine these poverty effects in greater detail.

  20. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS and...

  1. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the poverty...

  2. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts within...

  3. IDRC on Microfinance and Poverty

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The first step in making micro-insurance more accessible is simply finding out what works. ... make better decisions, increase productivity, and reduce poverty. Now, DrumNet is developing a new credit system to allow poor farmers to purchase.

  4. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    a logistic regression model to identify determinants of wellbeing of the household ... interest of researchers, public authorities and international organizations. The ... have to understand the determinants of poverty in rural and urban Ethiopia.

  5. Poverty, disability and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez Ríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.

  6. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  7. The poverty of liberal economics

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David

    2003-01-01

    Liberal economic precepts have long been a foundation for the social science of poverty and continue to profoundly influence public policy. Liberal economics contends that poverty is dependent on the harmonious progress of economic growth, free market capitalism, worker productivity, and the supply and demand of labor. This paper traces its origins from classical economics and its influence throughout contemporary social science, public policy and conventional wisdom. Next, I evaluate the lib...

  8. Joining together to combat poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development.

  9. 45 CFR 2551.43 - What income guidelines govern eligibility to serve as a stipended Senior Companion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guideline for each State is 200 percent of the poverty line, as set forth in 42 U.S.C. 9902 (2). (b) For... percent of the poverty line shall be given special consideration for enrollment. (e) Once enrolled, a... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What income guidelines govern eligibility to serve...

  10. 45 CFR 2552.43 - What income guidelines govern eligibility to serve as a stipended Foster Grandparent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... guideline for each State is 200 percent of the poverty line, as set forth in 42 U.S.C. 9902 (2). (b) For... percent of the poverty line shall be given special consideration for enrollment. (e) Once enrolled, a... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What income guidelines govern eligibility to serve...

  11. Quality Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/criteria.html MedlinePlus Quality Guidelines To use the sharing features on this ... materials must also meet our existing quality guidelines. Quality, authority and accuracy of health content The organization's ...

  12. 76 FR 16599 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Income Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... the WIC Program only if they are members of families that satisfy the income standard prescribed for... the Federal poverty guidelines, as adjusted. Section 9(b) also requires that these guidelines be... guidelines published by HHS are referred to as the poverty guidelines. Section 246.7(d)(1) of the WIC...

  13. Energy and poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghir, J.

    2004-05-01

    The energy community has its work cut out for it: 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity, and 2.4 billion still rely on traditional biomass fuels. This deprivation in energy has enormous impacts on the lives of poor people. Strong links between the energy sector and poverty reduction (through income, health, education, gender, and the environment) underscore the importance of the energy sector in social and economic development. They also point to the importance of the energy sector working closely with other sectors in tackling energy deprivation. If it does so, the world's poor people can look forward to enjoying the same benefits of modern energy as its affluent people do. Even so, ending energy deprivation will not be easy. It calls for tough public policy choices and sustained commitment. And the energy business is such that these choices require a delicate balancing act: provide enough subsidies and financing to make modern energy accessible to the poor, yet avoid distorting energy markets by favoring one fuel over another or stifling the markets through counterproductive pricing and subsidy policies. How best to design and implement policies for expanding access to energy is a question requiring close attention to the lessons from experience. But experience already points to some good choices. It shows the importance of removing institutional and regulatory barriers, designing subsidies carefully, ensuring local involvement in the design and delivery of energy services, and protecting the poor during reforms. These policies are not enough to end energy deprivation, but they are certainly necessary for doing so. Moreover, no one way of applying these policies will work under all the widely varying social and economic conditions around the world. Recognizing this, the World Bank is pioneering some of the most innovative research in this area. Where it sees appropriate opportunities, it remains open to providing investment and adjustment lending. It

  14. [An end to poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  15. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  16. The Africanization of poverty: a retrospective on "Make Poverty History".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the British campaign coalition Make Poverty History represented Africa throughout 2005. Focusing particularly on the G8 Gleneagles summit, Make Poverty History (MPH) asserted a series of justice claims which had no geographical reference. Nevertheless, as a result of internal tensions within the coalition, and especially as a result of the ways in which MPH interacted with other political agencies as the summit approached, MPH's messages became increasingly interpolated by references to Africa as a result of the emergence of government, media, and celebrity involvement. The result of this was that global poverty increasingly became an African issue. As 2005 became the "Year of Africa," the justice messages that constituted MPH were largely effaced by the more familiar imperial legacy which represents Africa as a place of indigence in need of outside assistance.

  17. Indicators System for Poverty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.

  18. Energy and poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghir, J. [The World Bank Group, Washington DC (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The energy community has its work cut out for it: 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity, and 2.4 billion still rely on traditional biomass fuels. This deprivation in energy has enormous impacts on the lives of poor people. Strong links between the energy sector and poverty reduction (through income, health, education, gender, and the environment) underscore the importance of the energy sector in social and economic development. They also point to the importance of the energy sector working closely with other sectors in tackling energy deprivation. If it does so, the world's poor people can look forward to enjoying the same benefits of modern energy as its affluent people do. Even so, ending energy deprivation will not be easy. It calls for tough public policy choices and sustained commitment. And the energy business is such that these choices require a delicate balancing act: provide enough subsidies and financing to make modern energy accessible to the poor, yet avoid distorting energy markets by favoring one fuel over another or stifling the markets through counterproductive pricing and subsidy policies. How best to design and implement policies for expanding access to energy is a question requiring close attention to the lessons from experience. But experience already points to some good choices. It shows the importance of removing institutional and regulatory barriers, designing subsidies carefully, ensuring local involvement in the design and delivery of energy services, and protecting the poor during reforms. These policies are not enough to end energy deprivation, but they are certainly necessary for doing so. Moreover, no one way of applying these policies will work under all the widely varying social and economic conditions around the world. Recognizing this, the World Bank is pioneering some of the most innovative research in this area. Where it sees appropriate opportunities, it remains open to providing investment and adjustment lending. It

  19. Poverty Underestimation in Rural India- A Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar, Marimuthu; Sarvalingam, A

    2010-01-01

    When ever the Planning Commission of India releases the poverty data, that data is being criticised by experts and economists. The main criticism is underestimation of poverty especially in rural India by the Planning Commission. This paper focuses on that criticism and compares the Indian Planning Commission’s 2004-05 rural poverty data with the India’s 2400 kcal poverty norms, World Bank’s US $1.08 poverty concept and Asian Development Bank’s US $1.35 poverty concept.

  20. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  1. DETERMINANTS OF POVERTY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDREEA UREAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania is one of the poorest countries in Europe. The purpose of this investigation is to determine which factors influence the magnitude of this socio-economic phenomenon. Current availability of data from National Institute of Statistics ensures our sample. We apply a panel data analysis of regional development: North-East, SouthEast, South, South-West, West, North-West, Centre and Bucharest-Ilfov to understand how Romania can reduce poverty. The authors found a direct link between relative poverty rate and education. In addition, the negative relationship between poverty and pensioners shows the importance of a good government policies. In this context, we propose to focus our attention on the needs of people. Education can be an important determinat of national development, on the other slide, educated people are more willing to understand the role of pension system.

  2. Improving Community Stroke Preparedness in the HHS (Hip-Hop Stroke) Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann Quinn, Ellyn; Teresi, Jeanne; Eimicke, Joseph P; Kong, Jian; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Noble, James

    2018-04-01

    Deficiencies in stroke preparedness cause major delays to stroke thrombolysis, particularly among economically disadvantaged minorities. We evaluated the effectiveness of a stroke preparedness intervention delivered to preadolescent urban public school children on the stroke knowledge/preparedness of their parents. We recruited 3070 fourth through sixth graders and 1144 parents from 22 schools into a cluster randomized trial with schools randomized to the HHS (Hip-Hop Stroke) intervention or attentional control (nutrition classes). HHS is a 3-hour culturally tailored, theory-based, multimedia stroke literacy intervention targeting school children, which systematically empowers children to share stroke information with parents. Our main outcome measures were stroke knowledge/preparedness of children and parents using validated surrogates. Among children, it was estimated that 1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-1%) of controls and 2% (95% CI, 1%-4%; P =0.09) of the intervention group demonstrated optimal stroke preparedness (perfect scores on the knowledge/preparedness test) at baseline, increasing to 57% (95% CI, 44%-69%) immediately after the program in the intervention group compared with 1% (95% CI, 0%-1%; P <0.001) among controls. At 3-month follow-up, 24% (95% CI, 15%-33%) of the intervention group retained optimal preparedness, compared with 2% (95% CI, 0%-3%; P <0.001) of controls. Only 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%) of parents in the intervention group could identify all 4 letters of the stroke FAST (Facial droop, Arm weakness, Speech disturbance, Time to call 911) acronym at baseline, increasing to 20% at immediate post-test (95% CI, 16%-24%) and 17% at 3-month delayed post-test (95% CI, 13%-21%; P =0.0062), with no significant changes (3% identification) among controls. Four children, all in the intervention group, called 911 for real-life stroke symptoms, in 1 case overruling a parent's wait-and-see approach. HHS is an effective, intergenerational model for

  3. Female Poverty in Development Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    PEKER, Ayşe Esra

    2018-01-01

    The scope  of  poverty differs  from country tocountry,  from the  period to period,  and  depending on  the  developments in welfare  level.  Today, although  the  phenomenon poverty is seen  the problem  of   less developed  and   developing c...

  4. A decade of fuel poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-01-01

    Neighbourhood Energy Action was established in 1981 to develop practical solutions to the problem of fuel poverty. The scale of fuel poverty was evident even then. In that year 2.3. million households received a weekly Heating Addition to help heat their homes, at an annual cost of Pound 260 million, 48,000 Supplementary Benefit claimants received emergency cold weather payments, 151,000 households were disconnected from their gas or electricity supply, and local authority expenditure on energy efficiency improvements halved to Pound 15 million. (author).

  5. Poverty, Dependence, Optimizing, and Adapting : Material and Spiritual Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, Marcel; Speelman, Willem Marie

    2017-01-01

    In the preparations of this project, there have been some serious objections against the approach of poverty as a spiritual path. Sarot argues that Christians should listen carefully to these criticisms, for ideals may easily cover up realities of evil, and, in response, contemplates the use of the

  6. Community Awareness and Participation in Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty policies and strategies. Consistent with this, the government of Tanzania is determined to encourage bottom-up participatory planning with focus on the objectives of poverty alleviation. Despite the importance of community participation ...

  7. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    C.I. Oriahi; A.O. Aitufe

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business) and Advance Fee Frau...

  8. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world

    OpenAIRE

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries’ right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even...

  9. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  10. An Asian poverty line? Issues and options

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Given Asia's record of rapid economic growth and the conceptual and empirical problems of the current international income poverty line ('dollar-a-day'), this paper discusses whether there is merit to develop an Asia-specific poverty line that addresses some of the shortcomings of the dollar-a-day line and additionally considers Asia's particular economic situation. We consider various ways of creating an Asia-specific poverty line, including an Asia-specific international income poverty line...

  11. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  12. 78 FR 48169 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-02; HHS Computer Match No. 1306; DoD-DMDC Match...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-02; HHS Computer Match No. 1306; DoD-DMDC Match No. 12 AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). ACTION: Notice... of 1974, as amended, this notice establishes a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Department of...

  13. 78 FR 42080 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-07; HHS Computer Match No. 1303; DoD-DMDC Match...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-07; HHS Computer Match No. 1303; DoD-DMDC Match No. 18 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION... Act of 1974, as amended, this notice announces the establishment of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct...

  14. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  15. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  16. Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...

  17. Development theory and poverty. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Farina

    2015-01-01

    This review article presents the evolution of development theory during the XX century, the measurement of poverty, the concept and the indices of multidimensional poverty. A special focus concerns the complex linkages between income inequality, poverty and institutions during the growth process of developing countries.

  18. Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in

  19. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...

  20. Poverty among Elderly in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  1. The elusive constellations of poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugelmans, S.M.; Plantinga, A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Poluektova, Olga; Efremova, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Pepper & Nettle describe possible processes underlying what they call a behavioral constellation of deprivation (BCD). Although we are certain about the application of evolutionary models to our understanding of poverty, we are less certain about the utility of behavioral constellations. The

  2. Child poverty and environmental justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Claudia; Pauli, Andrea

    2007-10-01

    Child poverty and social inequality in Western countries are growing both in scope and in complexity. The clustering of income poverty in urban settings reflects the complex process of residential segregation. Living in segregated neighbourhoods with much poverty and predominantly substandard housing is usually associated with poor physical, chemical and social environmental living conditions at the individual and community level which influence and shape children's health both directly and indirectly. This paper shows research data on the link between child poverty and income-related health inequalities according to the unequal exposure to environmental hazards as well as the unequal distribution of environmental resources in the domestic environment and within the local context as an increasing public health issue in Germany. The links between these factors are drawn from the conceptual framework of environmental justice. Examples are shown of integrated approaches to alleviate social and environmental disparities at the community level. The implications of environmental justice for public health include the need to uncover the link between socioeconomic factors and environmental health disparities related to the man-made environment. Developing relevant indicators for environmental inequalities in the context of housing and health is an important task for public health research. More emphasis should be placed on a comprehensive holistic approach to understand the mechanisms by which socioeconomic factors modify children's susceptibility and exposure to environmental hazards, particularly in low-income areas.

  3. 48 CFR 311.7001 - Section 508 accessibility standards for HHS Web site content and communications materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., documents, charts, posters, presentations (such as Microsoft PowerPoint), or video material that is specifically intended for publication on, or delivery via, an HHS-owned or -funded Web site, the Project... standards, and resolve any related issues. (c) Based on those discussions, the Project Officer shall provide...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to...

  5. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  6. Optimal multi-dimensional poverty lines: The state of poverty in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Jamal R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Poverty estimation based on calories intake is unrealistic. The established concept of multidimensional poverty has methodological weaknesses in the treatment of different dimensions and there is disagreement in methods of combining them into a single poverty line. This paper introduces a methodology to estimate optimal multidimensional poverty lines and uses the Iraqi household socio-economic survey data of 2012 to demonstrate the idea. The optimal poverty line for Iraq is found to be 170.5 Thousand Iraqi Dinars (TID).

  7. Targeting poverty : lessons from monitoring Ireland's National Anti-Poverty Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Layte, Richard; Nolan, Brian; Whelan, Christopher T.

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 the Irish government adopted the National Anti-Poverty Strategy (NAPS), a global target for the reduction of poverty which illuminates a range of issues relating to official poverty targets. The Irish target is framed in terms of a relative poverty measure incorporating both relative income and direct measures of deprivation based on data on the extent of poverty from 1994. Since 1994 Ireland has experienced an unprecedented period of economic growth that makes it particularly importa...

  8. Understanding energy poverty - Case study: Tajikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robic, Slavica; Olshanskaya, Marina; Vrbensky, Rastislav; Morvaj, Zoran

    2010-09-15

    Access and affordability to energy services determine the state of energy poverty; however, there is no widely applicable definition of energy poverty and no universal set of measures for its eradication exists. This paper offers a new definition and possible solution for decrease, and eventually eradication, of energy poverty for the specific case of Tajikistan. As eradication of energy poverty needs to go in hand with nature preservation and economic development, authors provide possible approach to decrease of energy poverty in Tajikistan while simultaneously preserving nature and boosting the local economy.

  9. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-pover...

  10. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Jentoft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, security, etc.—all of which make poverty alleviation a particularly “wicked problem” that would require a broad process of political, social and institutional reform. In other words, poverty alleviation is not only an issue of sustainable resource management but also one of societal governance. Drawing from research in small-scale fisheries communities in Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Bangladesh, this paper describes how fishing people cope with poverty. The paper discusses what the governance implications are for alleviating poverty at individual, household and community levels, and argue that both the definition of poverty and poverty alleviation in small-scale fisheries must be rooted in real life experiences.

  11. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  12. Beyond the feminisation of poverty: gender-aware poverty reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, M; Baden, S

    1995-09-01

    There must be an awareness of gender issues in poverty reduction programs. For example, program efforts that direct aid to the promotion of labor intensive employment options disregard women's already overburdened work regime. Public expenditures to benefit the poor, such as primary education or reformed agricultural extension, may be based on the assumption that men and women will benefit equally, yet there is often gender bias in the delivery of services. One recommendation is to target female headed households in budget-constrained anti-poverty programs. One of the few examples of such programs provides urban female household heads in Chile with employment training, housing, health care, child care, and legal aid services. Causes of female headship vary, and a simple correlation with poverty is not always the case. Well-intentioned women-in-development credit programs in Ghana and Bangladesh have been "hijacked" by men. Programs to address gender discrimination only among the poor may overlook other oppressed women. In India gender discrimination is often greatest among women in wealthy households. Programs must offer more than economic resources, they must help women stretch traditional gender boundaries and obtain skills such as literacy or financial management. They must help women organize collectively to protest injustices and achieve institutional reforms.

  13. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  14. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interconnection Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  16. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  17. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  18. Population dynamics and rural poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, M S

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the relationship between demographic factors and rural poverty in developing countries is presented. The author examines both the micro- and macro-level perspectives of this relationship and the determinants and consequences of population growth. The author notes the prospects for a rapid increase in the rural labor force and considers its implications for the agricultural production structure and the need for institutional change. Consideration is also given to the continuing demand for high fertility at the family level and the role of infant and child mortality in the poverty cycle. "The paper concludes by drawing attention to the need for developing the mechanism for reconciliation of social and individual optima with respect to family size and population growth." The need for rural development projects that take demographic factors into account is stressed as is the need for effective population programs. (summary in FRE, ITA) excerpt

  19. OSART guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) programme provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the operational safety of nuclear power plants. These OSART Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of the operational safety review. Specific guidelines are provided as guide for the systematic review in the following areas important to operational safety: management, organization and administration, training and qualification, operations, maintenance, technical support, radiation protection, chemistry, emergency planning and preparedness

  20. Population, poverty and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on ...

  1. Poverty, governance and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefi Mohamed Karim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effect of governance and povrety on economic growth of a set of eight developing countries during the period 2000-2009, using a dynamic and static panel data model and a simultaneous equations model. The key findings generated from these three empirical tests stipulate a negative effect of governance on povrety and a positive effect of political instability and corruption on poverty

  2. Measuring and monitoring energy poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Spreng, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a review of alternative measures and indicators of energy poverty targeted to specific audiences and for particular purposes. At the national and international scales there have been some efforts for constructing measures of energy poverty. However, much more needs to be done to develop an internationally consistent measurement framework and to put in place data collection systems that will enable regular reporting. At the programme and project level, indicator systems by necessity need to be designed for specific purposes. Nevertheless, the article proposes that in many instances it is desirable to widen the scope of metrics used for designing and evaluating policies and programmes. In the past, monitoring and evaluation indicators have focused largely on outputs, service delivery or dissemination. Central to the recommendations laid out in the paper is the call for widening the focus of evaluation and necessity to design indicators that adequately assess the needs of beneficiaries and describe the living conditions of families and communities, who are targeted by such programmes and initiatives. - Highlights: ► Consistent measurement frameworks and regular data collection systems on energy poverty are needed. ► Metrics used for designing and evaluating energy access programmes should be widened. ► Indicators that adequately assess needs and describe living conditions of targeted beneficiaries are required.

  3. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  4. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure. We examine changes over time and the current status, both for young children overall and for key subgroups (by child age, and by child race/ethnicity). Our findings can be summarized in three key points. First, poverty among all young children age 0-5 years has fallen since the beginning of our time series; but absent the safety net, today's poverty rate among young children would be identical to or higher than it was in 1968. Second, the safety net plays an increasing role in reducing the poverty of young children, especially among Black non-Hispanic children, whose poverty rate would otherwise be 20.8 percentage points higher in 2013. Third, the composition of support has changed from virtually all cash transfers in 1968, to about one third each of cash, credit and in-kind transfers today.

  5. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure. We examine changes over time and the current status, both for young children overall and for key subgroups (by child age, and by child race/ethnicity). Our findings can be summarized in three key points. First, poverty among all young children age 0–5 years has fallen since the beginning of our time series; but absent the safety net, today’s poverty rate among young children would be identical to or higher than it was in 1968. Second, the safety net plays an increasing role in reducing the poverty of young children, especially among Black non-Hispanic children, whose poverty rate would otherwise be 20.8 percentage points higher in 2013. Third, the composition of support has changed from virtually all cash transfers in 1968, to about one third each of cash, credit and in-kind transfers today. PMID:28659652

  6. On the Robustness of Poverty Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Nhate, Virgulino; Silva, Patricia Castro Da

    Monitoring of poverty requires timely household budget data. However, such data are not available as frequently as needed for policy purposes. Recently, statistical methods have emerged to predict poverty overtime by combining detailed household consumption and expenditure data with more frequent...... data collected from other surveys. In this paper we compare poverty predictions for Mozambique using different source data to test the robustness of the predicted poverty statistics. A critical element in this exercise of predicting poverty overtime is the stability of the parameters that determine...... household consumption. We find that the assumption of stable consumption determinants does not hold for Mozambique during the time period examined. We also examine what drives the resulting predicted poverty statistics. The paper then considers the policy implications of these findings for Mozambique...

  7. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POVERTY AT DIFFERENT SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi PAWITAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty mapping is usually developed from some sources of data, such as from census and survey data. In some practical application, the poverty was measured usually by household income or expenditure of daily basic consumption. Using different scales and zoning on a particular set of spatial data may leads to problems in interpreting the results. In practice, organizations publish statistics and maps at a particular area level. Minot and Baulch (2005a discussed some consequences of using aggregated level data in poverty mapping, which may affect the validity of the output. The key point of this paper is to compare spatial distribution of the poverty at two different scale, which is the province and district level. How the spatial distribution of the poverty at province level can be use to infer the distribution at the district level. The geographical weighted regression will be applied, and the poverty data of Vietnam will be used as an illustration.

  8. Defense Civil Support: DOD, HHS, and DHS Should Use Existing Coordination Mechanisms to Improve Their Pandemic Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    documentation is not shared with a broad audience , HHS officials said that it is available to DOD stakeholders upon request, and as soon as it is approved...instructions to support incident relief efforts. • Alerts the NDMS FCCs to activate NDMS patient reception plans with a phased, regional approach and, when...patient reception areas, using available DOD transportation resources in coordination with the NDMS Medical Interagency Coordination Group

  9. Do we understand the linkages between economic growth, poverty targets and poverty reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Jensen, Stig Eduard Breitenstein

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on poverty trends in Africa, looking at the argument for a correspondence between economic growth and poverty reduction. It questions whether a link between economic growth and poverty reduction can be established. We first look at the general picture...... appears more obvious, social and political unrest in 2009 casts doubt on the reliability of the data. Indeed, it is probable that an increase in poverty contributed to the crisis in Madagascar. Furthermore, there a signs that in both countries poverty strategies are increasingly giving way to Poverty...... Reduction Growth Facility programmes, closely related to former structural adjustment loans. We conclude, first, that analysing poverty strategies through Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers does not help in resolving the uncertainty, since these strategies assume a priori the existence of a link between...

  10. Multidimensional Poverty and Health Status as a Predictor of Chronic Income Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. 42 CFR 52.8 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (March 28, 1994)—NIH Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research... on Women's Health, NIH, Room 201, Building 1, MSC 0161, BETHESDA, MD 20892-0161 (301-402-1770; not a...

  12. 42 CFR 63.10 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 14508 (March 28, 1994)—NIH Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities as Subjects in Clinical Research. (Note: Interested persons should contact the Office of Research on Women's Health, NIH, Room 201...

  13. 42 CFR 65a.11 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions on lobbying 59 FR 14508 (March 28, 1994)—NIH Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities... should contact the Office of Research on Women's Health, NIH, Room 201, Building 1, MSC 0161, Bethesda...

  14. 42 CFR 63a.11 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions on lobbying 59 FR 14508 (March 28, 1994)—NIH Guidelines on the Inclusion of Women and Minorities... should contact the Office of Research on Women's Health, NIH, Room 201, Building 1, MSC 0161, Bethesda...

  15. Gender, Poverty and Employment in India

    OpenAIRE

    V. Gayathri

    2005-01-01

    Development theories recognise that employment is central to the alleviation of poverty and the enhancement of well-being. This means that at the practical level, it is understood that labour-intensive growth and greater labour-force participation by women are necessary elements for poverty reduction. At the level of discursive practice, the gender and poverty debates treat labour as an abstract category. In recognition of this lacuna, this paper attempts to address two principal questions: a...

  16. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas.The economic theory of crime [1] demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime.The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  17. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    José Juan Vázquez; Sonia Panadero

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors") and Spanish ("observers") undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ). Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are difference...

  18. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  19. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  20. Does Inequality Matter for Poverty Reduction? Evidence from Pakistan’s Poverty Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between poverty, growth and inequality in the context of Pakistan. Time series macro data are used for the period 1979 to 2002. Consistent poverty and inequality measures are interpolated to facilitate the estimation of poverty elasticity with respect to growth and inequality in a multivariate regression framework. The paper also attempts to find out macroeconomic and structural correlates of inequality. The empirical findings—high poverty elasticity with respe...

  1. Poverty in the Brazilian Amazon: An Assessment of Poverty Focused on the State of Para

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    The states in the Brazilian Amazon have made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the last decade. Despite this progress, the poverty rate in the Amazon is among the highest in Brazil. As of 2000, rural poverty is the greatest challenge. In Par?, not only is the headcount poverty rate of 58.4 percent in rural areas more than 55 percent higher than headcount pover...

  2. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  3. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Real Life Poverty in America: Where the American Public Would Set the Poverty Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, William; And Others

    This report discusses the results of a 1989 poll conducted by the Gallup Organization in which a representative sample of Americans were asked where they would set the poverty line. The poverty line in current use by the Federal Government was created in the mid-1960s, using data from the 1950s. Setting the poverty line involves a basic decision…

  5. 78 FR 48170 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-12; HHS Computer Match No. 1307; SSA Computer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 (Public... computer matching involving Federal agencies could be performed and adding certain protections for... Affordability Programs under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act''. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...

  6. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  7. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  8. A Novel Protein Elicitor BAR11 From Saccharothrix yanglingensis Hhs.015 Improves Plant Resistance to Pathogens and Interacts With Catalases as Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Yanan Zhang; Yanan Zhang; Xia Yan; Xia Yan; Hongmei Guo; Hongmei Guo; Feiyang Zhao; Feiyang Zhao; Lili Huang; Lili Huang

    2018-01-01

    Previously, we reported the biocontrol effects of Saccharothrix yanglingensis strain Hhs.015 on Valsa mali. Here, we report a novel protein elicitor BAR11 from the biocontrol strain Hhs.015 and its functions in plant defense responses. Functional analysis showed that the elicitor BAR11 significantly stimulated plant systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. In addition, systemic tissues accumulated reactive oxygen species and deposited callose in a...

  9. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network.

  10. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  11. The Impact of International Remittance on Poverty, Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    remittances poverty head count index, poverty gap and squared poverty gap declined by .... salary/wage income and hence there is no difference on how households ..... age, education, gender and marital status are important variables in this.

  12. Crime and poverty in urban Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... The ways in which crime and poverty interact have been much studied and ... Social and Economic Research, on the relationship between poverty and crime in ... Poverty, population growth, and youth violence in DRC's cities.

  13. 6. Characterization and Local Perceptions of Poverty Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Background: Poverty has been linked with poor ... seeking behaviours especially for the rural poor ... of women and children to poverty and its effects. ..... India. 14. Francis Teal (2001) Education, incomes, poverty and inequality in Ghana in the ...

  14. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the impact of industrial diversification on employment and rural poverty reduction in China and Nigeria. The fact that both countries ... better success. Key Words: Agro-Allied Industry, Industrial Diversification, Rural Development, Poverty Reduction, Employment, Non-Farm Enterprise, Nigerian Economy.

  15. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  16. Poverty - The road ahead. A theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. J. Meiring

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of the Church in combating poverty in South Africa. After a brief discussion of Biblical perspectives on poverty, an overview of the involvement of the Church throughout history, especially during the second half of the 20th century, is given.

  17. The History and Context of Rural Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Bonnie

    1987-01-01

    Those who are poor and reside in the rural pockets of poverty are at a cumulative disadvantage in United States society. Low educational levels, poor health, lack of competitive job skills, and a mindset restricted by poverty give little hope for mobility--especially in communities devoid of opportunity and supportive services. (JHZ)

  18. Declining poverty, rising inequality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... In three decades of rapid economic growth, China has lifted hundreds of ... Regional disparities persist, and pockets of deep poverty remain, ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu ... Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network: A bridge linking China and Canada.

  19. Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in Fragile and Post Conflict States. Both the social science literature and policymakers tend to take for granted that poverty reduction, risk mitigation and democratization are mutually reinforcing. This basic assumption was first challenged ...

  20. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K

    2011-01-01

    Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  1. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  2. European welfare regimes: Political orientations versus poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry analyzes how political orientations shape welfare states and labour market institutions when seeking to reduce poverty. In order to identify effects of these two key variables, we conduct a panel regression analysis that includes two poverty measures: poverty rates before and after social spending. This inquiry considers 14 EU countries, and in the period from 1995 to 2008, which are grouped according to welfare state regimes. We consider Social Democratic, Corporatist, Mediterranean and Liberal welfare state regimes. Panel regression results indicate that political orientation engenders no significant statistically measurable effects on poverty rates before social spending. Effects register, however, as significant when considering poverty rates after social spending. With respect to the first set of results, we advance two key explanations. First, we note a longer period of time is necessary in order to observe actual effects of political orientation on market generated poverty. Second, political parties with their respective programs do not register as influential enough to solve social problems related to income distribution when taken alone. Influences register as indirect and are expressed through changes in employment rates and social spending. The second set of results support the hypothesis that a selected political regime does indeed contribute to poverty reduction. In sum, political orientation and political regime does indeed affect poverty through welfare state institutions, as well as through labour market institutions.

  3. Alleviating Poverty Through Vocational Education: The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper concludes that well-articulated vocational education policy and programmes will assist in employment generations and poverty reduction in Nigeria. Keywords: Alleviating Poverty, Vocational Education, Nigerian Experience Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria Vol. 10 (2) 2005: pp. 10-14 ...

  4. partnering, poverty reduction and rural enterprise advancement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    establishment of the Rural Enterprise Advancement Programme (REAP) and its ... poverty, enabling food security and managing natural resources in a sustainable ... Extending the area under sustainable land management and .... the challenges facing the implementation of poverty reduction .... perceived “most beneficial.

  5. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses.The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed.Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  6. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  7. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  8. Programmes and Strategies Targeting Gender and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article emanates from a broader research project that sought to explore 'new models' and innovative ways of thinking and dealing with poverty. Using an interpretive research paradigm and multiple case studies, this article seeks to establish if a common understanding of poverty exists within government departments.

  9. Terrorism and poverty: double trouble for macroeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates poverty and terrorism as allies in hindering economic growth in African countries. This study uses data for 22 African countries from 1970 to 2013 i.e. 44 years. Data for terrorism, poverty and national income is taken from GTD and WDI. Panel cointegration techniques of dynamic fixed effect, mean ...

  10. Energy Poverty in Europe: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Andrea Bollino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the European Commission’s “Third Energy Package”, the challenges posed by energy poverty have been recently acknowledged by European legislation. The paper develops a synthetic indicator of energy poverty for the purpose of assessing households’ well-being across different domains of inequality in access to energy services and to a healthy domestic environment. These dimensions are broadly defined in terms of energy affordability and thermal efficiency, two of the main manifestations of energy poverty. The analysis focuses on Europe and expands on existing economic literature by employing a fuzzy analysis for the definition of a multidimensional energy poverty index, which is then used to investigate the role of individual and household characteristics in shaping energy poverty. We find that during the European crisis energy poverty has been more stable than monetary poverty, and that thermal efficiency plays a crucial role in shaping individual and countries’ average degrees of energy poverty. JEL codes: I32; Q41; D10; D63

  11. Economic diversification and poverty in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijima, Yoko; Lanjouw, Peter

    This paper analyses National Sample Survey data for 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-00 to explore the relationship between rural diversification and poverty. While there is little consensus regarding the rate of poverty decline during the 1990s, the region-level estimates provided here suggest that

  12. Violence, Grants, Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Hope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the impressive achievements recorded in poverty reduction, extraordinarily high levels of violent rebellion and strikes are encountered, unexpected after 20 years of democratic transition. This paper locates the drivers of this socio-political instability in poverty, inequality and unemployment: the consequence ...

  13. Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria: Reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In it, we have argued that past poverty alleviation policies and programmes have been elitist and non-participatory, especially by the target population. In most cases the designs for poverty alleviations are characterized by improper conceptualization, grandiosity and lack of social justice even in implementation. Based on ...

  14. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)

  15. Choosing among rival poverty rates : some tests for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    William Gruben; Darryl McLeod

    2003-01-01

    Poverty rates are now widely available, but are they reliable? Wide variations in estimated poverty rates for the same poverty line, year and country reflect an underlying reality: there is no widely accepted procedure for estimating national poverty rates. This paper proposes a simple, ex post procedure for selecting poverty rates that have certain desirable properties. Absolute poverty measures, estimated uniformly across countries, should be correlated with nonmonetary indicators that refl...

  16. Poverty and development thinking:synthesis or uneasy compromise?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how the concept of poverty has waxed and waned within development thought and how these fluctuations have shaped development policy and action towards, or away from, direct goals of poverty reduction or eradication. It provides an overview of poverty in social thought; examines the contestations over how poverty analysis is positioned in development theory; charts the conceptual contestations around poverty; presents a brief history of poverty in development thoug...

  17. TOURISM AND POVERTY IN BADUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Patera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and poverty’s phenomenon had already been known since the birth of human civilization. In the 1980s poverty became a serious concern of practitioners and scholars in various part of the world, including Indonesia. Poverty is not only understood in understanding as an abstract concept, but also as a reality of economic injustice and inability to meet basic human needs in some rich countries but also in many developing countries in the world. The problem of poverty is a fundamental and tourism is one of the many ways to solve this. The objective of this paper is to study the role of tourism to poverty alleviation including: 1 to analyze the influence of tourism development toward economic performance; 2 to analyze the effect of economic performance on poverty eradication; 3 to analyze the influence of tourism on poverty alleviation; 4 to formulate a strategy to increase tourism's role in poverty alleviation in Badung Regency. This study uses quantitative approach supported by secondary data and qualitative approach using primary data obtained through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Research was conducted in South Badung Regency in the most developed tourism growth and considered the richest district among all regencies in Bali Regencies. Various attempts have been made to alleviate poverty, however have not been able to resolve poverty problems. The grand theory of this study refers to Neoliberalism Theory, supported by Social Democratic Theory and Empowerment Theory. Neoliberalism emphasizes that poverty as an individual problem and prosperity can only be achieved by achievement of economic growth through free market mechanism. According to Social Democratic Theory the emergence of poverty came from outside of the community itself. While the emphasis on the Empowerment Theory is in improving the ability of individual or communities to become indepedence on economic, social welfare and political right. Data

  18. Methodological guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs

  19. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  20. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  1. Role of animal husbandry to alleviate poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Faye

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty reduction is one of the top priorities of many international authorities. In this context the role played by animal husbandry deserves to be specified. Poverty is defined by economic, but also by social and cultural parameters. It is expressed at different levels such as the country, region, social category, and individual levels. Urban and rural poverty are closely related. Three types of poor farmers might be distinguished: farmers who lost their herds, farmers whose herds are too small or little productive, indebted farmers. These three types might correspond to various stages of increasing poverty. In response to the challenge of poverty reduction animal husbandry intervenes at the following five levels: security, capitalization, diversification, economical integration, and social integration. The place held by animal husbandry brings to light the need for some research and development issues to be specified.

  2. AIDS guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, R

    1986-04-30

    The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text

  3. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Thorlund, Kristian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    Presenting continuous outcomes in Summary of Findings tables presents particular challenges to interpretation. When each study uses the same outcome measure, and the units of that measure are intuitively interpretable (e.g., duration of hospitalization, duration of symptoms), presenting differences...... and absolute effects, presenting the ratio of the means of intervention and control groups, and presenting the results in minimally important difference units. We outline the merits and limitations of each alternative and provide guidance for meta-analysts and guideline developers....

  4. ASCOT guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    These guidelines describe an approach used in conducting an Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team (ASCOT) review. They are intended to assist the team members in conducting their reviews and at the same time provide guidance to hosts preparing to receive an ASCOT review. They may also be used by any organization wishing to conduct their own self-assessment of safety culture, independent of an ASCOT review

  5. Halving poverty in South Africa: Growth and distributional aspects ; distributional implications of halving poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration commits to halving extreme poverty between 2000 and 2015. The South African government has set a goal of halving poverty by 2014, although the meaning of this goal has not yet been defined. This article specifies government's stated target of halving poverty by 2014 in terms of specific measures of the poverty gap and poverty headcount ratio, using income and expenditure survey microdata. With the poverty line as defined here, approximately half the S...

  6. Population, poverty and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-10-27

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies.

  7. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Poverty and Social Transfers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šuæur

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of poverty in Croatia are still insufficiently well researched. Not only is there no knowledge about how long Croatian citizens remain poor, but there are also some disagreements about the actual number of the poor and the choice of the national poverty line. Nor has there been any precise evaluation of the effects of the individual anti-poverty policy measures. The objective of this paper was to analyse the basic indicators of the scope and distribution of poverty, the risk groups and the structure of the population of the poor and to investigate the role of social transfers in the reduction of poverty. The paper consists of four parts and an introduction. In Part 1 there is an analysis of the trends in the numbers of the poor in Croatia at the beginning of the millennium and the profile of poverty. The second part deals with the policy for the reduction or elimination of poverty, while in Part 3 the author deals with the problem of selecting the official poverty line and the role of the minimum income in Croatia. Part 4 contains the conclusions. Using the official EU poverty line, a comparative analysis shows that the rates of relative poverty in Croatia do not deviate greatly from the EU mean, although Croatia does have a somewhat higher rate of poverty than most of the countries in the Union. Most at risk of falling below the poverty line are the elderly, the retired and the unemployed, single-person households, single-parent families and families with three or more children. The total system of social transfers is not less effective than the transfer systems of most of the countries of the EU. If we exclude old age and survivor pensions from the social transfers, in fact, Croatia has the most effective social transfers of any of the countries observed. However, on the other hand, the poverty rate reduction due to old age and survivor pensions is one of the lowest in the countriescompared.

  9. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  10. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  11. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    to food and eating and the emergence of proposals for integrated guidelines. It explores the conflicts and controversies that have arisen in the wake of the various proposals and identifies a number of different types of conflicts. These relate to conflicts of interests between the various actors involved...... and political resistance against initiatives that are perceived as being in conflict with the values of a market economy and free trade. Furthermore, there are controversies that can be broadly characterised as relating to the politics of knowledge and have to do with the differentiation of expertise...

  12. Fuel poverty in Europe: a comparative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyet, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Notably based on various studies and reports, the author comments how the issue of fuel poverty is addressed in Europe. She first outlines the lack of a common definition of this problem or phenomenon: it is often equated to poverty; there is a lack of statistics which makes this phenomenon sometimes not visible; the institutional recognition of the problem differs from one country to the other. Then she shows that policies reveal to be inefficient. A table proposes a synthesis of how fuel poverty in addressed in Great-Britain, France, Germany, Hungary and Poland. It specifies the existence of a definition, available statistics, and existence of re-distributive or preventive arrangements

  13. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  14. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  15. Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing...... the discursive level with developments on the policy and operational level reveals that the poverty or social agenda has grown incrementally from the late 1960s even in times when neoliberalism dominated world politics and economy. The article goes beyond such an organisational analysis in critically assessing...

  16. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  17. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  18. Vietnam's evolving poverty map : patterns and implications for policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanjouw, Peter; Marra, Marleen; Nguyen, Cuong

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses small area estimation techniques to update Vietnam's province and district-level poverty map to 2009. It finds that poverty rates continue to be highest in the northern and central mountainous regions, where ethnic minorities make up a large fraction of the population. Poverty has fallen in most provinces and districts over this decade, but the pace of poverty reduction has...

  19. Poverty Assessment in the Philippines and Indonesia: A Methodological Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    David, Isidoro P.; Asra, Abuzar; Virola, Romulo A.

    1997-01-01

    Existing official poverty statistics cannot be directly utilized for cross-country comparison. This paper illustrates why. It presents an assessment of poverty measurement in the Philippines and Indonesia by examining methodologies used and the disparity in their respective poverty statistics. A more comparable poverty estimates in these countries are provided.

  20. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  1. Poverty alleviation in Uganda: the case for a viable optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation is a long and painstaking process. It involves knowing what poverty is, its causes and means of alleviating it. Poverty is one of the scourges including disease and ignorance a combination of which deprives humanity of the basic needs for living. Among the strategies to alleviate poverty is effective ...

  2. Estimating International Poverty Lines from Comparable National Thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jolliffe, Dean; Prydz, Espen Beer

    2016-01-01

    World Bank's international poverty line of $1.90/day, at 2011 purchasing power parity, is based on a collection of national poverty lines, which were originally used to set the international poverty line of $1.25/day at 2005 purchasing power parity. This paper proposes an approach for estimating a more recent, complete, and comparable collection of national poverty thresholds from reported...

  3. Urban growth and poverty in India, 1983–2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku

    2010-01-01

    Although poverty in India remains disproportionately rural at the aggregate level, urban poverty is growing in importance. Efforts to address urban poverty should note its spatial distribution. This paper shows that the incidence of poverty in India’s small towns is markedly higher than in large

  4. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  5. New Thinking on Poverty: Implications for Globalisation and Poverty Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Shaffer

    2008-01-01

    Three main changes in thinking about poverty have gained increasing currency over the past decade. First, the concept of poverty has broadened, with increasing attention to issues of vulnerability, inequality and human rights. Second, the causal structure has broadened to include causal variables, such as social, political, cultural, coercive and environmental capital. Third, the causal structure has deepened to focus on flows of individuals into and out of poverty, rather than on changes in ...

  6. ADAPTATION TO POVERTY IN LONG-RUN PANEL DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Ghislandi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 54,000 individuals living in Germany from 1985 to 2012 to show, first, that life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. We then reveal that there is little evidence of adaptation within a poverty spell: poverty starts bad and stays bad in terms of subjective well-being. We cannot identify any cause of poverty entry that explains the overall lack of poverty adaptation.

  7. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  8. Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in Nigeria: A Comparative Assessment of Asa and Ilorin West Local ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 4 (2009) > ... and worst hit income inequality group with about 84percent of total

  9. Child poverty vs Medicare and Social Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H B

    1997-01-01

    The series of government safety net programs provides economic security primarily to older populations. In this period of competition for limited federal resources, the need to create a public awareness of the continuing and growing poverty of children is emphasized.

  10. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) principles of child survival, development, protection, equal treatment and participation. The paper concludes by drawing on the best practices of PRSPs in other countries and outlining how a child-focused PRSP could more effectively address...

  11. RETHINKING POVERTY: THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J MUGUMBATE

    KEY TERMS: Chaos Theory, inequalities, poverty reduction, international organizations, Social Choice Theory, grassroots development a Assistant .... in isolated communities to identify intangible community capital such as, valuable skills that ...

  12. 17 GLOBALIZATION AND DEEPENING RURAL POVERTY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between globalization phenomenon and deepening rural poverty situation in ... with low asset base, which translates to insufficient land, livestock possession, capital .... more general question of inequality and social stratification, although the ...

  13. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  14. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    , is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing......D study focuses on answering two main research questions: 1) What is the importance of environmental income in assessments of poverty and poverty dynamics in rural forest reliant communities? and 2) What are the impacts of infrastructural development, in the form of rural roads, on rural household income......Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods...

  15. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  16. Monitoring poverty in the Philippines | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... Measuring quality-of-life ... Through this work, a community-based poverty monitoring system has ... Regular surveys provide data on macro variables, such as the rate of inflation, the exchange rate, and the balance of trade.

  17. Poverty, Race, and Hospitalization for Childhood Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examination of Maryland hospital discharge data for 1979 to 1982 reveals that Black children are three times more likely to be hospitalized for asthma than are White children. This, however, is due to poverty, not race. (Author/BJV)

  18. Rural poverty unperceived: problems and remedies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, R

    1981-01-01

    There are major obstacles to perceiving the nature and the extent of rural poverty in developing countries. These obstacles originate not only in the nature of rural poverty itself, but also in the condition of those, not themselves of the rural poor, who do or, more significantly, do not perceive that poverty. The argument has implications for all rural development programs and projects, and for the training of staff. The conclusion is that reversals of current positions and practices are required if the obstacles are to be surmounted, if the nature and the extent of rural poverty are to be truly appreciated, and if future actions are to be tailored to the actual needs of the rural poor. 49 references.

  19. Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Rural Poverty and Community Natural Resource Management in Cambodia. Cambodia has a ... Cambodia, Far East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  20. Investigating social vulnerability in community - based poverty ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fajardojp

    An important dimension for analyzing poverty and conflict related aspects is the impact of ... choices are seen in unhindered access to education and health care. ..... This was often only possible due to investments in the human capital of.

  1. Understanding Poverty Dynamics in Nebbi District, Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... to receive increasing political, business and academic attention. In Uganda, ... Arising from this, poverty performance tracking has also lacked focus, ...... those already married was high for women (7%) compared to men (3%).

  2. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poverty and government expenditure on growth strategies that have been implemented in Tanzania since the mid 2000s. The paper shows that despite impressive economic growth of about 6 percent per annum that the country has enjoyed in ...

  3. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty ... new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, without ...

  4. Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... Weavers' Association easing poverty in Ecuador ... frenzy among the 54 members of Ecuador's Chordeleg Agricultural Craft Centre (CACH). ... Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin American study.

  5. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  6. Poverty – a major economical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistent Professor Somogyi János

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this? How is to blame? Poor people for their own predicament? Have they been lazy, madepoor decisions, and been solely responsible for their plight? What about their governments? Have theypursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are nodoubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. This article explores variouspoverty problems in more depth.

  7. Progress on Poverty? New Estimates of Historical Trends Using an Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Fox, Liana; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau’s recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families’ expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM’s 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a posttax/posttransfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time. PMID:27352076

  8. Progress on Poverty? New Estimates of Historical Trends Using an Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Fox, Liana; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This study examines historical trends in poverty using an anchored version of the U.S. Census Bureau's recently developed Research Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) estimated back to 1967. Although the SPM is estimated each year using a quasi-relative poverty threshold that varies over time with changes in families' expenditures on a core basket of goods and services, this study explores trends in poverty using an absolute, or anchored, SPM threshold. We believe the anchored measure offers two advantages. First, setting the threshold at the SPM's 2012 levels and estimating it back to 1967, adjusted only for changes in prices, is more directly comparable to the approach taken in official poverty statistics. Second, it allows for a better accounting of the roles that social policy, the labor market, and changing demographics play in trends in poverty rates over time, given that changes in the threshold are held constant. Results indicate that unlike official statistics that have shown poverty rates to be fairly flat since the 1960s, poverty rates have dropped by 40 % when measured using a historical anchored SPM over the same period. Results obtained from comparing poverty rates using a pretax/pretransfer measure of resources versus a post-tax/post-transfer measure of resources further show that government policies, not market incomes, are driving the declines observed over time.

  9. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  10. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  11. Social factors of poverty in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Akchurin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the article due to the fact that poverty and low income, along with their attendant high levels of social inequality, continued to be one of the most acute social problems of modern Russian society. The article analyses the main factors of the low level of living standards of a considerable number of Russians, specifics of Russian poverty, and suggests ways of reduction of this social phenomenon.

  12. Income distribution policies for faster poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, Tony; Cornia, Giovanni Andrea

    2001-01-01

    Inequality has risen in many countries over the last two decades, especially in the transition economies, but also in many developing and developed economies. This is disturbing since little progress can be made in poverty reduction when inequality is high and rising. Moreover, contrary to earlier theories of development, high inequality tends to reduce economic growth, and therefore poverty reduction through growth. This paper finds evidence of a concave relationship between inequality and g...

  13. Fiscal Imbalances, Poverty and Inequality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Ullah - Naimatullah Baber

    2014-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the fiscal imbalances, poverty and inequality with relevance to Pakistan. We use time series data from 1981 to 2010 and employ Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) to cointegration for estimation. The empirical findings suggest that fiscal deficits increase the poverty level and provide biases for inequality. Since deficit is financed through money supply, government debt and indirect taxes which threaten the purchasing power of the poor and drag them towards po...

  14. What is food poverty? A conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Niamh; Farag, K.W.; Baines, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Recently, food poverty has been subject to much academic, political and media attention following the recent reduction in consumer purchasing power as a result of food and energy price volatility. Yet the lack of consensus related to food poverty terminology acts as an inhibitor in both identifying and addressing the issue in the UK, specifically as a separate problem to that of food insecurity. Misunderstanding of terminology is an impediment to identifying similarities and differe...

  15. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. School composition, family poverty and child behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily

    2016-06-01

    There is little research on the role of school composition in young children's behaviour. School composition effects may be particularly important for children in disadvantaged circumstances, such as those growing up in poverty. We explored the role of school academic and socio-economic composition in internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour at age 7 years, and tested if it moderates the effect of family poverty on these outcomes. We used data from 7225 7-year-olds of the Millennium Cohort Study who attended state primary schools in England and for whom we had information on these outcomes. In multiple membership models, we allowed for clustering of children in schools and moves between schools since the beginning of school, at age 5. Our school academic and socio-economic composition variables were school-level achievement and % of pupils eligible for free school-meals, respectively. Poverty (family income below the poverty line) was measured in all sweeps until age 7. We explored the roles of both timing and duration of poverty. The effects of poverty were strong and robust to adjustment. School socio-economic composition was associated with individual children's internalising and externalising problems, even in adjusted models. School composition did not interact with poverty to predict any of the outcomes. Neither the academic nor the socio-economic composition of the school moderated the effect of family poverty on children's behaviour in primary school. However, children attending schools with more disadvantaged socio-economic intakes had more internalising and externalising problems than their counterparts.

  17. Openness, Inequality and Poverty in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu Geda

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between openness, poverty and inequality in Africa. The analysis begins with a review of social development on the continent since 1980, followed by a discussion of openness and a lengthy exploration of the patterns of trade and finance that link Africa to the rest of the world. The macroeconomic policy framework that guided African policymaking over the last three decades is the lens through which poverty and inequality are further examined. The paper hi...

  18. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  19. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Yun, Shumei

    2008-10-16

    With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variation and the effect of area-level poverty rate on CRC screening use among persons age 50 or older. Individuals were nested within ZIP codes (ZIP5 areas), which in turn, were nested within aggregations of ZIP codes (ZIP3 areas). Six groups of individual-level covariates were considered as potential mediators. An estimated 51.8% of Missourians aged 50 or older adhered to CRC screening recommendations. Nearly 15% of the total variation in CRC screening lay between ZIP5 areas. Persons residing in ZIP5 areas with > or = 10% of poverty rate had lower odds of CRC screening use than those residing in ZIP5 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.58-0.81; adjusted OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Persons who resided in ZIP3 areas with > or = 20% poverty rate also had lower odds of following CRC screening guidelines than those residing in ZIP3 areas with poverty rate (unadjusted OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83; adjusted OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.83). Obesity, history of depression/anxiety and access to care were associated with CRC screening, but did not mediate the effect of area-level poverty on CRC screening. Large geographic variation of CRC screening exists in Missouri. Area-level poverty rate, independent of individual-level characteristics, is a significant predictor of CRC screening, but it only explains a small portion of the geographic heterogeneity of CRC screening. Individual-level factors we examined do not mediate the effect of the area-level poverty rate on

  20. Europe's neglected infections of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Gurwith, Meredith

    2011-09-01

    To review the prevalence, incidence, and geographic distribution of the major neglected infections of poverty in Europe as a basis for future policy recommendations. We reviewed the literature from 1999 to 2010 for neglected tropical diseases listed by PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (http://www.plosntds.org/static/scope.action) and the geographic regions and countries of (continental) Europe. Reference lists of identified articles and reviews were also hand searched, as were World Health Organization databases. In Eastern Europe, the soil-transmitted helminth infections (especially ascariasis, trichuriasis, and toxocariasis), giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis remain endemic. High incidence rates of selected food-borne helminthiases including trichinellosis, opisthorchiasis, taeniasis, and echinococcosis also occur, while brucellosis and leptospirosis represent important bacterial zoonoses. Turmoil and economic collapse following the war in the Balkans, the fall of Communism, and Europe's recent recession have helped to promote their high prevalence and incidence rates. In Southern Europe, vector-borne zoonoses have emerged, including leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, and key arboviral infections. Additional vulnerable populations include the Roma, orphans destined for international adoption, and some immigrant groups. Among the policy recommendations are increased efforts to determine the prevalence, incidence, and geographic distribution of Europe's neglected infections, epidemiological studies to understand the ecology and mechanisms of disease transmission, and research and development for new control tools. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Macroeconomic Policies and their Impact on Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Amjad; A.R. Kemal

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides a consistent time-series of poverty estimates for the period 1963- 64 to 1992-93 for both the rural as well as the urban areas, examines the influence of macroeconomic policies on the poverty levels, analyses the impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes on the levels of poverty, and suggests a strategy for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. The paper explores in particular the influence on poverty of such factors as economic growth, agricultural growth, terms of trade for t...

  2. Poverty in India: concepts,measurement and status

    OpenAIRE

    More, Sachin; Singh, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Poverty is a major hurdle of inclusive economic growth in any country. Thus eradication of poverty is become one of the important objectives of Government programme especially for developing country like India. To effectively design and execute the poverty eradication programme, government has to describe the meaning of poverty and explain how they can measure it. This paper brings together movement in the meaning of term poverty used by Government of India over the year and its measurement....

  3. Impact of Mental Poverty on Rural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lan-xiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...

  4. Is fuel poverty in Ireland a distinct type of deprivation?

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Dorothy; Maitre, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we draw on the Central Statistics Office SILC data for Ireland to ask whether fuel poverty is a distinctive type of deprivation that warrants a fundamentally different policy response than poverty in general. We examine the overlap between fuel poverty (based on three self-report items) and poverty in general – with a particular emphasis on the national indicator of basic deprivation which is used in the measurement of poverty for policy purposes in Ireland. We examine changes ...

  5. A Modern Framework for Measuring Poverty and Basic Economic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Fremstad

    2010-01-01

    This report details how the dominant framework for understanding and measuring poverty in the United States has become a conservative one. The current U.S. approach to measuring poverty views poverty only in terms of having an extremely low level of annual income, and utilizes poverty thresholds that are adjusted only for inflation rather than for changes in overall living standards. As a result, the official poverty measure has effectively defined deprivation down over the last four decades,...

  6. Data-Mining for Development? Poverty, Payment, and Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, WM

    2015-01-01

    Territories of Poverty challenges the conventional North-South geographies through which poverty scholarship is organized. Staging theoretical interventions that traverse social histories of the American welfare state and critical ethnographies of international development regimes, these essays confront how poverty is constituted as a problem. In the process, the book analyzes bureaucracies of poverty, poor people's movements, and global networks of poverty expertise, as well as more intimate...

  7. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all.

  8. Learning communities and overcoming poverty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Pitanga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Object: Brazil has implemented social programs to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and inequality. Despite the good results still there are ghettos and educational and social inequalities. Moreover Learning Communities are responding to these needs by promoting education based on successful actions scientifically proven of which promote educational change and social inclusion. The aim of this article is to highlight the characteristics of Learning Communities that allow overcoming poverty, and in this perspective, explain the implementation of the Learning Communities in Brazil and how, in this way, it is creating the conditions for effective overcoming give poverty and inequality in this country.Design / methodology: This article is based on documentary analysis of reports of the INCLUD-ED - the project on school education more scientific resources has been funded by the European Union, United Nations / ECLAC, Brazilian public agencies and websites of official institutions that promote Learning Communities in Brazil. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics are also collected.Contributions and results: It highlights successful actions that contribute to overcoming poverty and social exclusion. Such actions are based on dialogic learning, democratic management and the formation of heterogeneous groups. It is observed that in Brazil are carrying out such actions and the ongoing expansion of the project in the country is creating the conditions for effective poverty reduction.Added value: This article reveals specific elements of overcoming poverty through education.

  9. IWRM and poverty reduction in Malawi: A socio-economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Msosa, Hendrina K.

    Like most other countries in the SADC region, Malawi has swiftly endorsed the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In the water sector, these principles are reflected in the National Water Policy (2004) and in the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) (2002) which emphasize three key aspects. First, the articulation of a vision and policy objectives that address development and management of water for productive purposes, conservation and poverty reduction. Second, the recognition of international and regional conventions and agreements on water resources to which Malawi is a signatory, thereby promoting global partnership for development. Third, the provision of mechanisms for monitoring, assessment and development related to watershed management, conservation and the mitigation of floods and droughts. Both the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the National Water Policy seek to reduce poverty by increasing access to water for domestic and productive purposes. In particular, the MPRSP will focus on constructing and rehabilitating water facilities, extend water supply capacity, promote community-based management and improve water resources conservation and management. In this paper, we examine the challenges of implementing these goals against the background of various institutional reforms in the water sector. We argue that although Malawi has come up with very clear strategies and guidelines for promoting MDGs, a combination of human and financial resources, bedevil the successful implementation of these ideas. In addition, the strategies do not articulate water as a medium for poverty alleviation in a holistic manner. The paper further demonstrates ways in which the promotion of IWRM can facilitate in reducing poverty.

  10. Poverty, health, and nutrition in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relation between poverty and several variables describing health and nutrition behavior in East Germany and West Germany. Data are from the third National Health Survey in West Germany and the first Health Survey for the new federal states of Germany (1991/92). Both health surveys included a self-administered questionnaire ascertaining sociodemographic variables, smoking history, nutritional behavior (using a food-frequency list), physical activity, and a medical examination comprising measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood sampling for serum cholesterol determination. Participants included 4958 subjects in the West Survey and 2186 subjects in the East Survey aged 25-69 years, with a respective net response rate of 69.0% and 70.2%. Poverty was defined as a household equivalence income of 62.5% or less of the median income of the general population. The lowest income group (poverty or near poverty) comprised 11.6% of East German versus 15.9% of West German males and 14.8% of East German versus 19.3% of West German females. For most but not all health and nutrition parameters, less favorable results were obtained for subjects with an equivalence income below or near poverty. The most striking poverty-related differences regarding cardiovascular disease risk factors were found for lack of regular exercise for both genders and obesity in females. No poverty-related differences were found for the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, despite a much higher prevalence of obesity in persons with an income below the poverty line. Current nutritional behavior and changes in nutritional behavior during the last three years was strongly related to income status, with a more unhealthy status for low-income population groups in both East and West Germany. In Germany, poverty has strong effects on individual health status and nutritional behavior. Because of rising unemployment rates and reductions in social security payments for low

  11. ASSET guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Service provides advice and assistance to Member States to enhance the overall level of plant safety while dealing with the policy of prevention of incidents at nuclear power plants. The ASSET programme, initiated in 1986, is not restricted to any particular group of Member States, whether developing or industrialized, but is available to all countries with nuclear power plants in operation or approaching commercial operation. The IAEA Safety Series publications form common basis for the ASSET reviews, including the Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) and the Basic Safety Principles (Recommendations of Safety Series No. 75-INSAG-3). The ASSET Guidelines provide overall guidance for the experts to ensure the consistency and comprehensiveness of their review of incident investigations. Additional guidance and reference material is provided by the IAEA to complement the expertise of the ASSET members. ASSET reviews accept different approaches that contribute to ensuring an effective prevention of incidents at plants. Suggestions are offered to enhance plant safety performance. Commendable good practices are identified and generic lessons are communicated to other plants, where relevant, for long term improvement

  12. The effectiveness of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG as global paradigm shift for poverty eradication in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van der Elst

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite isolated progress there seems to be no clear-cut guideline or solution to the collective eradication of extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to overcome the above reality, the objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs is short term poverty relief to the poorest of the poor by 2015. This is to be achieved through the realisation of eight pro-poor objectives. Since 2000 there has been notable progress. Developmental organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the Freedom House Index project that global poverty will have been reduced to below fifteen per cent by 2015. The MDGs can, however, currently only be perceived as partially effective because poverty relief remains restricted to mainly Latin America and South and South East Asia. This partial success is substantiated by the reality that the majority of states in sub-Saharan Africa remains subjected to a cycle of extreme poverty, which seems impossible to overcome. There is consensus amongst many researchers that none of the MDGs will be achieved in this region by 2015. This article aims to critically analyse the nature, objectives and progress of the MDGs as a global developmental paradigm shift. In order to explore future trends and identify potential solutions, an emphasis is, however, placed on the possible reasons for the slow progress of the MDGs, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Global paradigm shift, new conditionality, extreme poverty, poverty eradication, sub-Saharan Africa, foreign aid, deprivation hypothesis, weak governance, free-market approach and the poverty trap Disciplines: International relations, law, political economy, politics, environmental studies, water studies, communication studies, public management and governance, education, sociology, anthropology and history.

  13. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  14. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  15. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  16. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the Content  1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  17. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  18. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission   SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION 1.1      Subheading of the content  1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from

  19. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  20. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  1. Poverty eradication in a carbon constrained world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Patwardhan, Anand

    2017-10-24

    The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change aims to keep warming below 2 °C while recognizing developing countries' right to eradicate extreme poverty. Poverty eradication is also the first of the Sustainable Development Goals. This paper investigates potential consequences for climate targets of achieving poverty eradication. We find that eradicating extreme poverty, i.e., moving people to an income above $1.9 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day, does not jeopardize the climate target even in the absence of climate policies and with current technologies. On the other hand, bringing everybody to a still modest expenditure level of at least $2.97 PPP would have long-term consequences on achieving emission targets. Compared to the reference mitigation pathway, eradicating extreme poverty increases the effort by 2.8% whereas bringing everybody to at least $2.97 PPP would increase the required mitigation rate by 27%. Given that the top 10% global income earners are responsible for 36% of the current carbon footprint of households; the discourse should address income distribution and the carbon intensity of lifestyles.

  2. Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys—income, co......Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on large-scale, nationally representative household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now conduct on a regular basis a variety of household surveys......—income, consumption, health, demographics, labour force, household enterprise, and others. And the information base in developing countries with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial; this chapter lays out...... for the reader the issues and challenges. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized...

  3. Objective and subjective measures of fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddams Price, Catherine; Brazier, Karl; Wang, Wenjia

    2012-01-01

    As energy prices continue to rise to reflect the real cost of carbon, the numbers of households in fuel poverty is increasing rapidly. This paper uses a unique data set to explore one alternative measure of fuel poverty based on whether consumers feel able to afford their energy, similar to one introduced by the government a few years ago. We explore the links between an expenditure based and our subjective measure of fuel poverty and compare these differences with those between official measures. Amongst low income households, 28% spent more than a tenth of their income on energy in the home, and so would be likely to qualify as fuel poor under the most usual definition; but only 16% felt unable to afford sufficient energy to keep their homes warm. Amongst this group who felt they had difficulty in affording sufficient energy, less than half were ‘expenditure’ fuel poor. The paper argues that reintroduction of a self-reported measure by the government would be a valuable aid to policy development. - Highlights: ► Defines a subjective measure of fuel poverty (unable to afford heating). ► Fewer households feel fuel poor than meet the official definition of fuel poverty. ► Though they are positively related, different factors affect the two measures. ► Those on standard and prepayment metres more likely to feel fuel poor. ► Large families spend a higher proportion of income on energy but are no more likely to feel fuel poor.

  4. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  5. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  6. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  7. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  8. The boundaries of poverty in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Uribe Mallarino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analytical perspective on poverty with a multidimensional approach, not only as an aggregate of variables and indicators, but also using a probing strategy that considers the way in which it is perceived between the groups receiving programs to alleviate poverty or use subsidized public services, and those without. Based on tools for quantitative and qualitative analysis applied to data collected on a sample of residents of Bogota, the authors analyze how the boundaries of sense on poverty are related to both objective and subjective factors related to being or not users of these programs, socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as political participation, degree of association and use of mechanisms to enforce civil rights.

  9. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motilal SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that the term poor should cover all those who cannot cope with survival, security, and enabling needs. If one were to apply this comprehensive definition of poverty, the poor certainly account for more than 900 million in this region. The poor experience shortfalls in economic welfare; gaps in access to good quality education and health care; deficiencies in the provision of physical infrastructure; and political barriers that stifle personal initiative and self-development. They are unable to participate in governance, which is necessary for a healthy democracy and peaceful development. The poverty encourages corruption, anti-social activities like drugs, smuggling, prostitution, and all sorts of deviant behavior. Poverty is considered an unacceptable human condition Moreover, despite the vast advances that are being made in the spheres of science and technology, information and communication technology(ICT , medicine, capital mobility, etc., income disparities are ever widening, both within countries and nations – world's rich and poor nations. The trends in poverty reduction have recently worsened. The population growth in the developing countries is also adding to absolute number of poor. Overcoming poverty therefore remains the single most important challenge facing those involved in the development activities. It has been recognized by all multilateral and bilateral donors involved in development assistance that expected outcomes could not be achieved in the area of poverty reduction. Poverty constrains implementation of development initiatives because the poor (the beneficiaries are not able to

  10. Climate Change Through a Poverty Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of the economic impact of climate change typically considers regional or national economies and assesses its impact on macroeconomic aggregates such as gross domestic product. These studies therefore do not investigate the distributional impacts of climate change within countries or the impacts on poverty. This Perspective aims to close this gap and provide an assessment of climate change impacts at the household level to investigate the consequences of climate change for poverty and for poor people. It does so by combining assessments of the physical impacts of climate change in various sectors with household surveys. In particular, it highlights how rapid and inclusive development can reduce the future impact of climate change on poverty.

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  12. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  13. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  14. 75 FR 30839 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2010-03, HHS Computer Match No. 1003, SSA Computer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2010-03, HHS Computer Match No. 1003, SSA Computer Match No. 1048, IRS... Services (CMS). ACTION: Notice of renewal of an existing computer matching program (CMP) that has an...'' section below for comment period. DATES: Effective Dates: CMS filed a report of the Computer Matching...

  15. 75 FR 57958 - Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft Tier 2 Strategies/Modules for Inclusion in the “HHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft Tier 2 Strategies/ Modules for Inclusion in the ``HHS Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare- Associated Infections'' AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of...

  16. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  17. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  18. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA and the Herth hope scale (HHS in the prediction of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanna Morote

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS, in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25. Methods Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25. Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM. First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r, then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. Results The hierarchical models showed that (1 hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2 Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3 RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness. Women showed higher scores

  19. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Krysinska, Karolina; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-10-27

    Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25). Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM). First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r), then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. The hierarchical models showed that (1) hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2) Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3) RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope) and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness). Women showed higher scores in social competences and resources (RSA

  20. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  1. Women and poverty: a demographic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J B

    1987-01-01

    In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty, much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies.

  2. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY, FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth in short-run and long-run. Financial development is beneficial to the reduction of poverty. But the financial instability which accompanies financial development is is costly for the poor and reduces the positive effect of financial development on the reduction of poverty. The paper aims to analyze in detail the relationship and the (direct and indirect effects between these variables, taking into account their economic and social importance. It is also highlighted the correlation between the financial economy and the real economy, emphasizing the impact on social welfare involved by the interaction of the above mentioned variables.

  3. International Remittances, Poverty and Inequality : a Case Study of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Remittances, Poverty and Inequality : a Case Study of Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria (West Africa) ... through official and unofficial channels, and the impact of remittances on poverty and income inequality. ... Journal articles.

  4. Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Government Anti-Poverty Programme on Development of Rural Areas of ... of National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) among rural population in ... different statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics among others.

  5. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  6. Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty: Theory and Case Studies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... ... of applying a factorial technique, Multiple Correspondence Analysis, to poverty analysis. ... Analysis of Multidimensional Poverty: Theory and Case Studies ... agreement to support joint research projects in December 2017.

  7. A robust poverty profile for Brazil using multiple data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Francisco H. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a poverty profile for Brazil, based on three different sources of household data for 1996. We use PPV consumption data to estimate poverty and indigence lines. ''Contagem'' data is used to allow for an unprecedented refinement of the country's poverty map. Poverty measures and shares are also presented for a wide range of population subgroups, based on the PNAD 1996, with new adjustments for imputed rents and spatial differences in cost of living. Robustness of the profile is verified with respect to different poverty lines, spatial price deflators, and equivalence scales. Overall poverty incidence ranges from 23% with respect to an indigence line to 45% with respect to a more generous poverty line. More importantly, however, poverty is found to vary significantly across regions and city sizes, with rural areas, small and medium towns and the metropolitan peripheries of the North and Northeast regions being poorest.

  8. and Asset-based Poverty Dynamics in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    poverty status based on consumption and asset ownership. Using panel data ... In recent years Ethiopia has experienced remarkable economic growth with a ...... Understanding the relationship between household demographics and poverty ...

  9. a human rights-based approach to poverty reduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    poverty, stands in contraposition with poverty alleviation, which only temporarily ...... water and adequate sanitation facilities, hospitals, clinics and other ..... goals serve as benchmarks for the assessment of progress and each goal is linked to.

  10. 77 FR 52116 - Title VI; Final Circular

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... previously published separate and distinct EJ guidance for its grantees, but instead included EJ concepts in..., recipients may use a more inclusive definition of low-income, e.g., 150% of poverty level, or incomes at a... inclusive as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines. A few commenters...

  11. 20 CFR 645.213 - Who may be served as an individual in the “other eligibles” (30 percent) provision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 475(4) under part E of the Social Security Act, or (c)(1) Is a custodial parent with income below 100 percent of the poverty line, determined in accordance with the most recent HHS Poverty Guidelines... of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, income is defined as total family income for the last six months...

  12. Remittances, inequality and poverty in Pakistan: macro and microeconomic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Amar Iqbal ANWAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of remittance incidence on inequality and poverty in Pakistan. Using the 2005-06 and 2007-08 Household Integrated Economic Survey data, we find that remittances substantially lower the poverty headcount, as well as the depth and severity of poverty. Foreign remittances have also a beneficial effect on economic inequality in Pakistan. The contribution of foreign remittances in poverty alleviation and inequality reduction is much stronger than that of internal remi...

  13. The Role of Zakah and Binary Economics in Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Muniaty

    2014-01-01

    Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for every countries. Zakah, as an Islamic faith-based institution, is a strategic tool for combating poverty. This study aims to identify the role of zakah and compare its principles with an overview of the characteristics and practices within binary economics which also provides a systemic solution for poverty. The study shows that zakah has an essential role to the economic growth and poverty reduction in Muslim community, as well as,...

  14. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  15. Children in transition: child poverty in The Kyrgyz Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Falkingham, Jane; Ibragimova, Shamsia

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines trends in the prevalence and severity of child poverty in the Kyrgyz Republic since the mid 1990s. Poverty is a multi-dimensional phenomenon and trends in both monetary poverty, as measured by household expenditure, and capability poverty, as measured by education, health status and access to related social services, are discussed. Recent evidence on child food security is also presented. Using newly available panel data from the 1998-2001 Household Budget Survey, the pape...

  16. The Relationship Among Poverty, Economic Growth, and Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lonnie K. Stevans; David N. Sessions

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown in prior research that increased economic growth reduces poverty. Authors have also found that the effect of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on poverty growth has either diminished or remained unchanged over time, and economic expansion in the 1980s in the United States had no affect on poverty. Using a formal error-correction model, we find that increases in economic growth are significantly related to reductions in the poverty rate for all families. Specifically, GD...

  17. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring Local Conceptions of Poverty, Wealth and Well-Being ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the conceptions of poverty by the poor in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe. It seeks to broaden the discussion of poverty around the definition of the poor from the perspective of the poor. A cause-effect framework for poverty analysis is proposed, as well as the introduction of the notion of ...

  19. Using Dialogic Research to Overcome Poverty: From Principles to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Rosa; Padros, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the EU commitment to alleviating the high rates of poverty in Europe there is widespread agreement among policy-makers that it is crucial to include the voices of those who are living in poverty in order to fight exclusion most effectively. Similarly, those studying ways to address poverty and inequality are increasingly required to seek…

  20. Restricted and Unrestricted Dominance for Welfare, Inequality and Poverty Ordenings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duclos, J.-Y.; Makdissi, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the previous literature on the ethical links between the measurement of poverty, social welfare and inequality. We show inter alia, how, when the range of possible poverty lines is unbounded above, a robust ranking of absolute poverty may be interpreted as a robust ranking of

  1. Online Resources for Developing an Awareness of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    In the elementary school, poverty, hunger, and homelessness are most often discussed in terms of a canned food drive conducted during a holiday season, but there are other options for activities in which children can learn about poverty, and to do something about it. This article describes ways to develop students awareness of poverty. Some print…

  2. 59 Poverty Eradication and Sustainability of Healthful Living in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... sustainable livelihoods; hunger, and malnutrition; ill health, limited or lack of ... poverty level has changed very little over the past two decades, poverty ... recent estimate of the food and Agriculture Organization of the United ... b) the food and energy price hikes in 2007-2008 increased the global poverty.

  3. Education, Cognitive Development, and Poverty: Implications for School Finance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a growing problem that adversely affects both future society and the poor children themselves. This paper's purpose is to investigate the intergenerational links between education and poverty. Israel serves as an interesting case study because it has exhibited an incremental trend in child poverty between 1980 and 2010 (from 5% to…

  4. Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE): 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document presents 2010 data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program of the U.S. Census Bureau. The SAIPE program produces poverty estimates for the total population and median household income estimates annually for all counties and states. SAIPE data also produces single-year poverty estimates for the school-age…

  5. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J; Haider, L Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-05-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to "push" the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges.

  6. Evolving Approaches to the Study of Childhood Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Emily; Liu, Ran; Alvarado-Urbina, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have conceptualised poverty in multiple ways, with measurement approaches that seek to identify absolute, relative, subjective, and multi-dimensional poverty. The concept of poverty is central in the comparative education field, but has been empirically elusive in many large, international educational surveys: these studies have…

  7. estimating consumption-based poverty in the ethiopia demographic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    It turns out that the poverty scorecard and the ... B. No female head/spouse .... Total household asset score (sum of individual score items): .... rather than 95 percent are non-owners) with variation linked with the poverty of people ..... the average score is (20 + 30 + 40) ÷ 3 = 30, and the poverty likelihood associated with the.

  8. Poverty Measurement Under Income Risk. Armutsmessung bei Einkommensrisiken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikard, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Poverty indices are usually calculated on the basis of (cross section) income data from the past. As past income is fixed and future income is uncertain such measurement does not reflect the ex ante risk of falling into poverty. This paper presents refinements of commonly used poverty measures to

  9. Poverty and inequality in Ethiopia: 1995/96-2004/05

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Hoddinott, J.; Dercon, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and inequality, and the role of growth, inequality and sectoral changes in the evolution of poverty in Ethiopia between 1996 and 2005. We find that while poverty remains widespread, it declined markedly over this period. However, while inequality remained

  10. Poverty Lines in History, Theory, and Current International Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Allen

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares historical poverty baskets to modern food security and poverty lines. Changes in the historical baskets and indexing methods are proposed to bring historical studies into better alignment with modern measures as well as with historically based estimates of energy requirements. In addition, it is argued that modern poverty measures could be improved by emulating the historical methods.

  11. Economics of poverty, environment and natural-resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellink, R.B.; Ruijs, A.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of poverty is a tremendous and persistent challenge for the global community. Given that the livelihood of millions is at stake, there is an urgent need to reconsider the causes of and the remedies for poverty. Poverty and its reduction are closely linked to the natural-resources base. The

  12. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  13. Poverty, Academic Achievement, and Giftedness: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Corwith, Susan

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we review research on poverty, both poverty rates and the effects of poverty on academic achievement more generally and on the identification and services for low-income gifted children specifically. This review sets the stage for further discussion of the research findings on identification practices including the efficacy of…

  14. Rural Principal Attitudes toward Poverty and the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholson, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Yun and Weaver's (2010) Attitudes toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) of twenty-one items on a Likert-type scale to determine the poverty attitudes of 309 principals in a rural Appalachian state in the United States. The study compared the poverty attitudes from the ATP-SF scaled score as a dependent variable to the following…

  15. 75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice and... comments on the approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) presented in a report entitled ``Observations from the Interagency Technical Working Group on Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure,'' which...

  16. Monitoring Perceptions of the Causes of Poverty in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Yul Derek; Gouws, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how people perceive the causes of poverty. Literature revealed that there are three broad theoretical explanations of perceptions of the causes of poverty, namely individualistic explanations, where blame is placed squarely on the poor themselves; structural explanations, where poverty is blamed on external social and economic…

  17. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  18. Five Evils: Multidimensional Poverty and Race in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Richard; Rodrigue, Edward; Kneebone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is about a lack of money, but it's not only about that. As a lived experience, poverty is also characterized by ill health, insecurity, discomfort, isolation, and more. To put it another way: Poverty is multidimensional, and its dimensions often cluster together to intensify the negative effects of being poor. In this first of a two-part…

  19. Incidence, Depth and Severity of Children in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamonica, Enrique Ernesto; Minujin, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the first ever estimate of the number of children living poverty in developing countries was undertaken. The incidence of child poverty was estimated by establishing how many children suffer severe deprivation in at least one out of seven indicators which are internationally recognized as their rights as well as constitutive of poverty.…

  20. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  1. Impact of government poverty alleviation programmes on the socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite these programmes, poverty still exists among Nigerians especially the youth. This study therefore examines the impact of government poverty alleviation programmes on the youth. The population of the study comprised of all youths who have benefited from government poverty alleviation programmes. The Random ...

  2. Religion and feminization of poverty in Nigeria: a Christian perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty is a cankerworm which has eaten deep into the very fabric of the Nigeria society. Though poverty is a common denominator among the people of the average Nigerian society, women are the most vulnerable group. Therefore the concept, feminization of poverty seeks to describe a phenomenon in which women ...

  3. Formal-informal economy linkages: What implications for poverty in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings have implications for poverty analysis in South Africa. Policy which views poverty as being located outside the mainstream of the economy – in the so-called 'second' economy – is misleading. Instead, an integrated approach which views poverty as linked to and a product of the trajectory and growth patterns of ...

  4. Asymptotic representation theorems for poverty indices | Lo | Afrika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. We set general conditions under which the general poverty index, which summarizes all the available indices, is asymptotically represented with some empirical processes. This representation theorem offers a general key, in most directions, for the asymptotic of the bulk of poverty indices and issues in poverty ...

  5. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  6. The Relationships between School Poverty and Student Achievement in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvernail, David L.; Sloan, James E.; Paul, Chelsea R.; Johnson, Amy F.; Stump, Erika K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between school level poverty found in Maine schools and student academic performance. The evidence clearly shows that there is a relationship. As the percent of poverty increases in a school, student performance declines. But the poverty level alone does not explain the wide variations in…

  7. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Steven J.; Haider, L. Jamila; Engström, Gustav; Schlüter, Maja

    2017-01-01

    The poverty trap concept strongly influences current research and policy on poverty alleviation. Financial or technological inputs intended to “push” the rural poor out of a poverty trap have had many successes but have also failed unexpectedly with serious ecological and social consequences that can reinforce poverty. Resilience thinking can help to (i) understand how these failures emerge from the complex relationships between humans and the ecosystems on which they depend and (ii) navigate diverse poverty alleviation strategies, such as transformative change, that may instead be required. First, we review commonly observed or assumed social-ecological relationships in rural development contexts, focusing on economic, biophysical, and cultural aspects of poverty. Second, we develop a classification of poverty alleviation strategies using insights from resilience research on social-ecological change. Last, we use these advances to develop stylized, multidimensional poverty trap models. The models show that (i) interventions that ignore nature and culture can reinforce poverty (particularly in agrobiodiverse landscapes), (ii) transformative change can instead open new pathways for poverty alleviation, and (iii) asset inputs may be effective in other contexts (for example, where resource degradation and poverty are tightly interlinked). Our model-based approach and insights offer a systematic way to review the consequences of the causal mechanisms that characterize poverty traps in different agricultural contexts and identify appropriate strategies for rural development challenges. PMID:28508077

  8. Multidimensional poverty dynamics in Ethiopia: how do they differ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty can take many different forms, ranging widely over dimensions both monetary, such as consumption or income, and nonmonetary, such as health and education. One large class of nonmonetary measures of poverty is the multidimensional poverty index (MPI); recent studies document that people identified as poor ...

  9. Incidence Of Poverty In Nigeria: Causes And Consequences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the turn of 21st century, after nearly forty eight years of Independence, Nigeria is by all standard of measurement, a very poor country. Poverty is wide and deep in Nigeria. This paper therefore, examines the incidence of poverty in Nigeria, causes and consequences. Much of the problems which created poverty is ...

  10. ICT Pathways to Poverty Reduction: Empirical evidence from East ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    PO Box 8500, Ottawa, ON, K1G 3H9, Canada .... Changing food poverty and overall poverty incidence in Kenya. 102. 5.2 ... Analytical framework for assessing the impact of ICTs on growth/poverty reduction among MSEs. 135. 6.2 ... 210. 9.2. Population characteristics: Census 2001 and medium projections for 2011. 212.

  11. Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of rural tourism and community development has been made in general terms with less focus on poverty alleviation and more emphasis on economic modernisation. Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation has been emphasised in the contemporary tourism and poverty alleviation literature.

  12. the contributions of agricultural growth to poverty reduction in ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RahelYilma

    in poverty is estimated indirectly. In the second ... Currently it is estimated that close to half of the ... of land nor private investors can purchase land from rural dwellers. ..... (1995-2000) and extrapolating to 2020 provides a poverty incidence of 39.4. The ..... return in terms of poverty reduction from a growth in farm productivity.

  13. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  14. Formal Education, Women Employment and Poverty | Ankole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, more women than men live below poverty line in most countries as a result of their subordinate roles at the point of employment. It is therefore the submission of this paper that sustainable human development would be unrealizable if approximately half of the human-race – the women-folk – remain ignorant, ...

  15. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  16. The Missing Key to Eradicate Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    The European Parliament is placing land rights at the heart of the EU development policy. A recent report (EP, 2014) states that land tenure security and property rights provides an opportunity to improve and consolidate bases for development and poverty reduction in some of the poorest regions...

  17. Towards the End of Global Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Noort, J.A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Global poverty is still an ongoing problem, leading to human tragedies and various related problems. Rich nations become rich faster than the poor nations develop. As a result, despite large efforts in the development aid sector, inequality in the world has increased over the last decades and the

  18. Mental Retardation, Poverty and Community Based Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Helander

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A person with moderate mental retardation would, in a western country, be "diagnosed" early on in life. Consequently, such a child is likely to be sent for special education. Given the high level of job requirements, such a person is unlikely to be employed in the open market later in life. Mental retardation is one of the most frequent disabilities in most studies, mental retardation is found in about three percent of the population. Persons even with mild mental retardation have very large difficulties finding employment and are for this reason often deprived of opportunities for suitable and productive income generation this is why most stay poor. But disability does not only cause poverty poverty itself causes disability. This study follows an analysis, based on a review of the Swedish programme for mental retardation during the period 1930-2000. It is concluded that in Sweden a very large proportion of mild and moderate mental retardation has been eliminated though the combination of poverty alleviation with a community-based rehabilitation programme. For these situations a pro-active programme analysing and meeting the needs of the target groups should be useful as a means to achieve poverty alleviation.

  19. Poverty and the Power of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, John D.; Eschbach, Elizabeth

    According to the authors, the real conditions of poverty and homelessness in America remain obscure. The homeless, contrary to popular belief, are not homeless by choice. 25% of the homeless are employed full-time in low-wage jobs, 25% are war veterans of one kind or another, and 25% are emotionally disturbed. According to the Rand Corporation,…

  20. The New Poverty: Homeless Families in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Ralph da Costa

    This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…

  1. Academic Success of Adolescents in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    This study identified significant predictors of important academic results such as academic performance and school desertion by adolescent students living in poverty in both urban and rural settings. The results indicate the relative importance of individual, family, educational and social variables reported by the young people, and the…

  2. Poverty and mental health in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung

    2014-04-01

    Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  4. Age, Poverty, Homicide, and Gun Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Males

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional theories of “adolescent risk taking” have not been validated against recent research indicating that youthful traffic crash, violent crime, felony crime, and firearms mortality rates reflect young people’s low-socio-economic status (SES compared with older adults’, not young age. Aside from a small number of recent, conflicting studies, the literature gap on this key issue remains. The present study examines the 54,094 homicide deaths, including 41,123 gun homicides, victimizing California residents ages 15 to 69 during 1991 to 2012 by poverty status. Without controlling for poverty, homicide rates display the traditional age-curve peaking at 19, then declining. When poverty is controlled, the traditional age-curve persists only for high-poverty populations, in which young people are vastly over-represented, and homicide rates are elevated for all ages. This finding reiterates that “adolescent risk taking” may be an artifact of failing to control for age-divergent SES.

  5. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  6. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-01-01

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems “outside the system.” Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa. PMID:17942700

  7. Globalization and competitiveness: implications for poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper focuses on the interface between globalization and poverty reduction in Uganda, beginning with the advances in information technology that have transformed the globe into a virtual village. The paper presents the macroeconomic framework that has characterized the global economy and its distorted benefits to ...

  8. Linkages between Poverty and Environmental Degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conceptualizes environmental concerns of the poor so as to formulate appropriate policy measures for environmental awareness and sustainable development. It is limited to poverty -environment interrelationships through an overview of the perception of the poor about the environment and their behaviour to the ...

  9. Overcoming Poverty as a Collective Obligation: Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    (p.65). Nigerian Christians with their African mentality believe that wealth is desirable by all and ... themselves; or see with John Chrysostom, of nature becoming indignant at being turned ..... biblical texts on wealth and poverty when he says that a task before .... Nkwegu, E. (2008). ... Collins and Sons Ltd. Quoits, M. (1965).

  10. Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  11. Swaziland : Reducing Poverty Through Shared Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The people of Swaziland are its greatest resource. Yet, social and economic indicators of household welfare converge to confirm fundamental inequalities in access to incomes and assets, and the existence of significant poverty and deprivation. Furthermore, as the regional economic and social climate is transformed, the fragile gains of the past are being fast eroded. At this historic junct...

  12. Integrating Global Poverty into Mainstream Business Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Bruce; Harris-Boundy, Jason; Melhus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most of the products and services discussed in business curricula serve a small portion of humanity. But the great majority of economic growth over the next few decades is expected to occur in emerging and frontier markets. This emerging reality increases the urgency for including topics related to global poverty, unmet human needs, and emergence…

  13. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Ilze

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  14. Globalization, Trade and Poverty in Ghana

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, they find that trade liberalization in the manufacturing sector led to a fall .... can help policy makers design complementary pathways to enhance the benefits ... Jenkins, R. (2004), “Globalization, Production, Employment and Poverty: .... which imports could be exempted from duties and manufacturers could apply ...

  15. Biodiversity Management and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, the keeping of parks, game and forest reserves, are desirable in accordance with international conventions and initiatives, but these efforts are perceived by the rural dwellers as attempts to entrap their means of livelihood. This perception is aggravated by the chronic rural poverty in most parts of Africa. This paper

  16. Livelihood diversification and implications on poverty and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on livelihood diversification is based on an ongoing study under VicRes programme being undertaken in the Lake Victoria Basin, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. We examine how changing socio-economic and environmental conditions contribute to livelihood diversification, land-use changes, poverty ...

  17. Law's Poverty | Modiri | Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and violence. Such a formulation would make social structure, historical injustice and power central ...

  18. Poverty, Trauma, and Infant Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2009-01-01

    Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…

  19. Fight against fuel poverty. Levers, stakes and expectations of the fight against fuel poverty in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payen, Luc; Pamart, Isabelle; Lacroix, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    'Is in fuel poverty a person who feels in his particular housing difficulties have the necessary energy supply to the satisfaction of basic needs due to the inadequacy of resources or its habitat conditions'. The rising cost of energy commodities in the late 2000's, added to the poor thermal quality an important part of French homes, has led to the emergence of fuel poverty in the public debate. Legislative recognition of these situations with the law 'Grenelle II' (from which is extracted the definition above) marked a decisive step in the fight against this complex problem. Affecting nearly 5 million households in France, fuel poverty is a major challenge for societies wishing to successfully achieve their energy transition. In this new publication, ENEA reports on the main levers of the fight against fuel poverty, the obstacles encountered and the needs for new solutions

  20. Understanding the Link between Poverty and Food Insecurity among Children: Does the Definition of Poverty Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane; Garfinkel, Irv

    2014-01-02

    This paper examines the association between poverty and food insecurity among children, using two different definitions of poverty-the official poverty measure (OPM) and the new supplemental poverty measure (SPM) of the Census Bureau, which is based on a more inclusive definition of family resources and needs. Our analysis is based on data from the 2001-11 Current Population Survey and shows that food insecurity and very low food security among children decline as income-to-needs ratio increases. The point estimates show that the associations are stronger as measured by the new supplemental measure of income-to-needs ratio than when estimated through the official measure. Statistical tests reject the hypothesis that poor households' odds of experiencing low food security are the same whether the SPM or OPM measure is used; but the tests do not reject the hypothesis when very low food security is the outcome.

  1. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can AIDS stigma be reduced to poverty stigma? Exploring Zimbabwean children's representations of poverty and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Mupambireyi, Z; Madanhire, C; Robertson, L; Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective We use children's drawings to investigate social stigmatization of AIDS-affected and poverty-affected children by their peers, in the light of suggestions that the stigmatization of AIDS-affected children might derive more from the poverty experienced by these children than from their association with AIDS. Methods A qualitative study, in rural Zimbabwe, used draw-and-write techniques to elicit children's (10–12 years) representations of AIDS-affected children (n= 30) and poverty-affected children (n= 33) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Results Representations of children affected by AIDS and by poverty differed significantly. The main problems facing AIDS-affected children were said to be the psychosocial humiliations of AIDS stigma and children's distress about sick relatives. Contrastingly, poverty-affected children were depicted as suffering from physical and material neglect and deprivation. Children affected by AIDS were described as caregivers of parents whom illness prevented from working. This translated into admiration and respect for children's active contribution to household survival. Poverty-affected children were often portrayed as more passive victims of their guardians' inability or unwillingness to work or to prioritize their children's needs, with these children having fewer opportunities to exercise agency in response to their plight. Conclusions The nature of children's stigmatization of their AIDS-affected peers may often be quite distinct from poverty stigma, in relation to the nature of suffering (primarily psychosocial and material respectively), the opportunities for agency offered by each affliction, and the opportunities each condition offers for affected children to earn the respect of their peers and community. We conclude that the particular nature of AIDS stigma offers greater opportunities for stigma reduction than poverty stigma. PMID:21985490

  3. Kosovo : Poverty assessment, Volume 1. Accelerating Inclusive Growth to Reduce Widespread Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Kosovo is widespread and has remained persistent in the first half of this decade. The evidence suggests that poverty is higher among those who live in families that are large, have many unemployed members, and have low education levels. The poor are also geographically concentrated in rural areas and a few regions. The main message of this report is that the slow and volatile g...

  4. Can AIDS stigma be reduced to poverty stigma? Exploring Zimbabwean children's representations of poverty and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Mupambireyi, Z; Madanhire, C; Robertson, L; Nyamukapa, C A; Gregson, S

    2012-09-01

    We use children's drawings to investigate social stigmatization of AIDS-affected and poverty-affected children by their peers, in the light of suggestions that the stigmatization of AIDS-affected children might derive more from the poverty experienced by these children than from their association with AIDS. A qualitative study, in rural Zimbabwe, used draw-and-write techniques to elicit children's (10-12 years) representations of AIDS-affected children (n= 30) and poverty-affected children (n= 33) in 2009 and 2010 respectively. Representations of children affected by AIDS and by poverty differed significantly. The main problems facing AIDS-affected children were said to be the psychosocial humiliations of AIDS stigma and children's distress about sick relatives. Contrastingly, poverty-affected children were depicted as suffering from physical and material neglect and deprivation. Children affected by AIDS were described as caregivers of parents whom illness prevented from working. This translated into admiration and respect for children's active contribution to household survival. Poverty-affected children were often portrayed as more passive victims of their guardians' inability or unwillingness to work or to prioritize their children's needs, with these children having fewer opportunities to exercise agency in response to their plight. The nature of children's stigmatization of their AIDS-affected peers may often be quite distinct from poverty stigma, in relation to the nature of suffering (primarily psychosocial and material respectively), the opportunities for agency offered by each affliction, and the opportunities each condition offers for affected children to earn the respect of their peers and community. We conclude that the particular nature of AIDS stigma offers greater opportunities for stigma reduction than poverty stigma. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The ins and outs of poverty in advanced economies: poverty dynamics in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics—incidence, transitions, and persistence—can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high i...

  6. ON THE EMPIRICAL FINDING OF A HIGHER RISK OF POVERTY IN RURAL AREAS: IS RURAL RESIDENCE ENDOGENOUS TO POVERTY?

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Monica G.

    2004-01-01

    Includes: On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?:COMMENT, by Thomas A. Hirschl; On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?: REPLY, by Monica Fisher. Research shows people are more likely to be poor in rural versus urban America. Does this phenomenon partly reflect that people who choose rural residence have unmeasured attributes related to human impoveris...

  7. Poverty, Transportation Access, and Medication Nonadherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Caroline; Heaton, Pamela C; Kahn, Robert S; Luder, Heidi R; Frede, Stacey M; Beck, Andrew F

    2018-04-01

    Variability in primary medication nonadherence (PMN), or failure to fill a new prescription, influences disparities and widens equity gaps. This study sought to evaluate PMN across 1 metropolitan area and assess relationships with underlying zip code-level measures. This was a retrospective observational study using data extracted from 1 regional community pharmacy market-share leader (October 2016-April 2017). Data included patient age, sex, payer, medication type, and home zip code. This zip code was connected to US census measures enumerating poverty and vehicle access, which were treated as continuous variables and within quintiles. The prescription-level outcome was whether prescriptions were not filled within 30 days of reaching the pharmacy. The ecological-level outcome was PMN calculated for each zip code (numerator, unfilled prescriptions; denominator, received prescriptions). There were 213 719 prescriptions received by 54 included pharmacies; 12.2% were unfilled. Older children, boys, and those with public insurance were more likely to have prescriptions not filled. Prescriptions originating from the highest poverty quintile were significantly more likely to not be filled than those from the lowest poverty quintile (adjusted odds ratio 1.60; 95% confidence interval 1.52-1.69); a similar pattern was noted for vehicle access (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.68-1.87). At the ecological level, there were significant, graded relationships between PMN rates and poverty and vehicle access (both P < .0001); these gradients extended across all medication classes. Poverty and vehicle access are related to significant differences in prescription- and ecological-level PMN across 1 metropolitan area. Pharmacists and pharmacies can be key partners in population health efforts. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. The Effects of the Recession on Child Poverty: Poverty Statistics for 2008 and Growth in Need during 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly one in five children under age 18 lived in poor families in 2008, according to poverty statistics released by the Census Bureau in September 2009. Though high, this statistic does not capture the full impact of the economic downturn, which is expected to drive poverty even higher in 2009. However, updated poverty statistics will not be…

  9. The Promise of Economic-Integration: Examining the Relationships among School Poverty, Individual Poverty, and Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between school poverty status, family income status, and reasoning ability for the purpose of understanding the role of school poverty on reasoning skills. Cognitive ability scores of students attending mixed-poverty schools were compared to their counterparts attending institutions with low, high, and extreme…

  10. Exploring Differences in National and International Poverty Estimates: Is Uganda on Track to Halve Poverty by 2015?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores causes of differences in estimates of poverty incidence in Uganda since the early 1990s as measured by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank. While both sets of estimates from the two organisations show a declining trend in poverty incidence there are important differences in the levels of poverty, the speed of the…

  11. Adaptation to Poverty in Long-Run Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Clark , Andrew E.; D'Ambrosio , Conchita; Ghislandi , Simone

    2014-01-01

    I31, D60; We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on potential adaptation to poverty. We use panel data on almost 45,800 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2011 to show first that life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. We then reveal that there is little evidence of adaptation within a poverty spell: poverty starts bad and stays bad in terms of subjective well-being. We cannot identify a...

  12. Overpopulation and poverty in Africa: rethinking the traditional relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, B I

    1991-01-01

    This paper questions whether population growth should be held responsible for poverty in Africa or whether it simply intensifies the negative impacts of resource maldistribution. Current thinking on the population-poverty equation and the relationship between population growth and standards of living are explored. Further, central arguments of mainstream orthodox population analyses; parameters of resource exchange affecting population analysis; and two conceptual arguments relating to the association between population growth, resource distribution, and poverty are presented. It is concluded that no single factor is totally responsible for Africa's present poverty and that it is unrealistic to define overpopulation and poverty only in terms of population growth.

  13. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major cause of poverty is law enforcements that do not support fishermen and overfishing. While Lamongan more due to low fish prices and capital problems. While in Tuban fishermen due to limited infrastructure and lazy and extravagant lifestyle of the fishermen. These differences lead to different coping strategies so that later can form a concept model of poverty alleviation North Coast fishermen in East Java.

  14. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  15. Constructing Poverty Lines in Croatia Using Kakwani’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model for defining the poverty line as a possible candidate for the construction of a new official poverty line in Croatia. The model, based on Kakwani’s (2010 approach (nutrition-based anchor, uses consumer theory as the basis for defining food and non-food poverty lines. In Croatia, various alternative poverty indicators have been developed to define the official poverty line. To ensure international comparability and consistency, the poverty threshold expressed in local currency by applying the exchange rate of currencies’ purchasing power (PPP is expressed in international dollars. It is important to ensure implementation of redistributive policies, maximization of market efficiency, and increased social justice. All this policy goals and instruments heavily depend on efficient and precise poverty measurement methods.

  16. Understanding Structure of Poverty Dimensions in East Java: Bicluster Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Yuniarto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is still become a main problem for Indonesia, where recently, the view point of poverty is not just from income or consumption, but it’s defined multidimensionally. The understanding of the structure of multidimensional poverty is essential to government to develop policies for poverty reduction. This paper aims to describe the structure of poverty in East Java by using variables forming the dimensions of poverty and to investigate any clustering patterns in the region of East Java with considering the poverty variables using biclustering method. Biclustering is an unsupervised technique in data mining where we are grouping scalars from the two-dimensional matrix. Using bicluster analysis, we found two bicluster where each bicluster has different characteristics.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.4769

  17. Race-ethnicity and poverty after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, J S; Dismuke, C E; Acuna, J; Sligh-Conway, C; Walker, E; Washington, K; Reed, K S

    2014-02-01

    Secondary analysis of existing data. Our objective was to examine the relationship between race-ethnicity and poverty status after spinal cord injury (SCI). A large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States. Participants were 2043 adults with traumatic SCI in the US. Poverty status was measured using criteria from the US Census Bureau. Whereas only 14% of non-Hispanic White participants were below the poverty level, 41.3% of non-Hispanic Blacks were in poverty. Logistic regression with three different models identified several significant predictors of poverty, including marital status, years of education, level of education, age and employment status. Non-Hispanic Blacks had 2.75 greater odds of living in poverty after controlling for other factors, including education and employment. We may need to consider quality of education and employment to better understand the elevated risk of poverty among non-Hispanic Blacks in the US.

  18. Child poverty. Ways forward for the paediatrician: A comprehensive overview of poverty reduction strategies requiring paediatric support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suparna; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    The harmful effects of child poverty are well documented. Despite this, progress in poverty reduction in Canada has been slow. A significant gap exists between what is known about eradicating poverty and its implementation. Paediatricians can play an important role in bridging this gap by understanding and advancing child poverty reduction. Establishment of a comprehensive national poverty reduction plan is essential to improving progress. The present review identifies the key components of an effective poverty reduction strategy. These elements include effective poverty screening, promoting healthy child development and readiness to learn, ensuring food and housing security, providing extended health care coverage for the uninsured and using place-based solutions and team-level interventions. Specific economic interventions are also reviewed. Addressing the social determinants of health in these ways is crucial to narrowing disparities in wealth and health so that all children in Canada reach their full potential.

  19. Parasites and poverty: the case of schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Charles H

    2010-02-01

    Simultaneous and sequential transmission of multiple parasites, and their resultant overlapping chronic infections, are facts of life in many underdeveloped rural areas. These represent significant but often poorly measured health and economic burdens for affected populations. For example, the chronic inflammatory process associated with long-term schistosomiasis contributes to anaemia and undernutrition, which, in turn, can lead to growth stunting, poor school performance, poor work productivity, and continued poverty. To date, most national and international programs aimed at parasite control have not considered the varied economic and ecological factors underlying multi-parasite transmission, but some are beginning to provide a coordinated approach to control. In addition, interest is emerging in new studies for the re-evaluation and recalibration of the health burden of helminthic parasite infection. Their results should highlight the strong potential of integrated parasite control in efforts for poverty reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent pregnancy: intervention into the poverty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C L

    1974-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, irrespective of the marital status of the mother, seems to be a determining factor in the incidence of female headed households, divorce, excessive fertility, and poverty. In addition, the pregnant teenager is, obstetrically, a high risk patient, and her offspring, due to poor prenatal care and inadequate nutrition on the part of the mother, is likely to suffer in terms of physical and mental development. This in turn will lead to further poverty, which will continue the cycle. One way to interrupt the cycle may be by delaying the first birth to young adolescent girls. There are 3 stages at which prevention can take place: preventing intercourse, preventing conception, and terminating pregnancy. For the teenager, preventing conception seems the most feasible. Effforts to design family planning programs especially for teenager should be expanded. By this, 2 generation can benefit: the teenager herself and her potential offspring.

  1. Edentulism in high poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jordan; Bennett, Kevin; Brock-Martin, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To examine the differences in oral health status among residents of high-poverty counties, as compared to residents of other rural or urban counties, specifically on the prevalence of edentulism. We used the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 2006 Area Resource File (ARF). All analyses were conducted with SAS and SAS-callable SUDAAN, in order to account for weighting and the complex sample design. Characteristics significantly related to edentulism include: geographic location, gender, race, age, health status, employment, insurance, not having a usual source of care, education, marital status, presence of chronic disease, having an English interview, not deferring care due to cost, income, and dentist saturation within the county. Significant associations between high-poverty rural and other rural counties and edentulism were found, and other socioeconomic and health status indicators remain strong predictors of edentulism. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Is globalization reducing poverty and inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Robert Hunter

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years or so, India, China, and the rest of East Asia experienced fast economic growth and falls in the poverty rate, Latin America stagnated, and the former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa regressed. But what are the net trends? The neoliberal argument says that world poverty and income inequality fell over the past two decades for the first time in more than a century and a half, thanks to the rising density of economic integration across national borders. The evidence therefore confirms that globalization in the context of the world economic regime in place since the end of Bretton Woods generates more "mutual benefit" than "conflicting interests." This article questions the empirical basis of the neoliberal argument.

  3. Energy Poverty and Policy Coherence in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel; Michaelowa, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty is frequently mobilized as a normative argument in international negotiations. Typically, the concrete linkages between political propositions at international level and domestic policies remain ill-defined, and thus invite different stakeholders to make use of terms like “energy...... poverty” for their own purposes. In other words, “energy poverty” remains a contested concept that lends itself to social norm construction. Whether, under these conditions, national policies and their implementation then truly serve the interest of the poor is an open question. Indeed, critics at both...... the international and the national level suggest that political actors in India might hijack salient normative positions on energy poverty in order to advance their own agenda. To assess whether domestic politics are consistent with the pro-poor normative discourse at the international level, we examine (i...

  4. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  5. Different Impact Channels of Education on Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Zuluaga Díaz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes both the monetary and non-monetary effects of the education level of the head of the household on poverty. We propose that schooling returns should not be thought as a single number - usually the schooling coefficient in an income equation - but as a set of elements whose length depends on the number of identified poverty dimensions. The monetary analysis employs the Quantile Regression technique, very helpful especially when one is interested in extremes of the income distribution function. Our results show differences across quantiles of the returns. We also found interesting dissimilarities by gender and urban-rural location. Exploring the non-pecuniary returns, we found that the education of the head positively influences family health and housing conditions.

  6. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  7. Petroleum development offers way out of poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollet, P.

    1996-01-01

    The North African states of Algeria, Libya, Tunisia and Egypt are starting to explore the possibility of fuelling their economic development using their petroleum reserves which have not, as yet, been exploited. Poverty and Islamic extremism is widespread, leading to political difficulties domestically and a reluctance on the part of international oil companies to reinvest in the region. Despite these problems, growth in the local petroleum industry may yet offer a path to economic growth. (UK)

  8. Poverty and Social Exclusion in India : Women

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Mehta, Soumya Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    This brief describes the poverty and social exclusion of Women in India. The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in the status of women and girls, yet the cultural roots of gender inequality are still strong and affect a range of outcomes. The high salaries and independent lifestyles of women in urban India have captured public imagination. Yet progress has been very uneven and ...

  9. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Gupta

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that high and rising corruption increases income inequality and poverty by reducing economic growth, the progressivity of the tax system, the level and effectiveness of social spending, and the formation of human capital, and by perpetuating an unequal distribution of asset ownership and unequal access to education. These findings hold for countries with different growth experiences, at different stages of development, and using various indices of corruption. An import...

  10. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  12. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L.; Hammersmith, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social S...

  13. Rwanda; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    Rwanda’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS) covers the period 2008–12 and provides a medium-term framework for achieving the country’s long-term development aspirations as embodied in Rwanda Vision 2020, the seven-year Government of Rwanda (GoR) program, and the Millennium Development Goals. The economic cluster covers the macroeconomic and financial sector (energy, transport, information and communication technology (ICT) and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI),...

  14. Young Children in Deep Poverty. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekono, Mercedes; Jiang, Yang; Smith, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    A U.S. family of three living in deep poverty survives on an annual income below $9,276, or less than $9.00 a day per family member. The struggle to raise children on such a meager income is not a rare circumstance among U.S. families, especially those with young children. Currently, 11 percent of young children (0-9 years) live in households with…

  15. Breaking the Cycle of Poverty in Ethiopia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nancy Minogue

    group as the name might suggest, but the lowest tier of civil administration, equivalent to a village.) About 5 000 people live in the 25 square kilometres that comprise Yubdo. Legabato, making their homes in tukuls, one-room huts of mud walls and thatched roofs. “There is quite a lot of poverty at the top [of the slopes],” says ...

  16. Does urban poverty increase body fluctuating asymmetry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, Bariş

    2011-12-01

    Perturbations during development leave enduring signs on the adult body. Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a good bio-indicator of stress during ontogeny. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of urban poverty on the fluctuating asymmetry of young Turkish males. Young males from a lower socioeconomic group (N = 140, Mean age = 18.17 +/- 0.61) were selected from slum areas of Ankara, the capital of Turkey, where urban poverty is intense. An upper socioeconomic group, on the other hand, consisted of students from two private colleges and included children from some of the richest families in Turkey (N = 120, Mean age = 18.08 +/- 0.54). Eight anthropometric traits of all subjects were measured. Considering the seven measurements demonstrate ideal FA, the individuals living in poor areas of the city displayed higher FA. The discrepancy between the two groups was even greater for a measure of composite FA. In conclusion, poor living conditions in Ankara, where urban poverty is intense, adversely impact the developmental stability of young Turkish males.

  17. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  18. Global justice, poverty and maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor de María Cáceres M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Global justice is currently situated in an ambiance of tension and debate, facing a series of statements attempting to explain relationships among countries, based on the background of agreements already accomplished by supranational agencies. This network of relationships, not always fair nor equitable, has resulted in an increased accumulation of wealth in just a few hands and poverty in a growing number of people in poor countries and geographic areas with restrictions to access both to resources and to technological and scientific advances. Poverty, exclusion and inequalities limit all together the opportunities for development in these communities, with the outcome of serious consequences such as the deterioration in basic indicators of development. Maternal mortality rate (mm is considered a sentinel indicator since it belongs in most cases to premature deaths which would be avoidable through proper measures in education, health promotion and timely access to quality health services. The purpose of this essay is to defend the thesis that the lack of global justice has limited the scope of the goals related to poverty and mm reduction

  19. Female headship, feminization of poverty and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimenyi, M S; Mbaku, J M

    1995-07-01

    Female-headed households are at greater risk of slipping into poverty than male-headed households. Indeed, sex and marital status of the head of household are the most important determinants of a family's poverty status in the US. Divorce, separation, death of a husband, and out-of-wedlock births can lead to female headship. Transfer payments, especially the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program, are blamed for contributing to increased marital instability and out-of-wedlock births. The authors examined the role of welfare benefits in influencing female headship. Preliminary results using standard estimation procedures indicate that transfers do not significantly influence female headship. Standard estimation procedures are, however, erroneous because they ignore differences in propensities to establish mother-only households. Therefore, adjusting for differences in propensities to establish female-headed households, the level of welfare benefits is indeed an important factor in explaining the variation in the changes in the birth rates to unmarried women. The use of a weighted measure suggests that welfare benefits, by increasing female headship of women who otherwise have low propensities to be female heads, have played a significant role in the feminization of poverty.

  20. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  1. Access to energy and fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A first part addresses the issue of access to a modern and sustainable energy in developing countries, notably in rural areas of Africa and Asia. Some experiments are evoked like, for example, the financing and support of an Indonesian NGO for the construction of hydroelectric micro power plants. In this respect, decentralized solutions seem to be the most promising, but also the use of new technologies for lighting equipment using 3 energy sources (electric grid, solar energy, rechargeable battery). The Lighting Africa program is evoked. The second part addresses the issue of fuel poverty, notably in France but also in other European countries (data are provided which indicate the numbers of households unable to pay for a proper heating, or with bad quality housing). The authors outline that fuel poverty is a complex problem which requires both emergency measures and prevention programs on a medium and long term: improvement of energy efficiency in the housing sector in order to reduce consumption, implementation of new and innovating technologies (housing rehabilitation with local and green materials, R and D efforts, and development of smart meters). The economic and social dimensions of this problem of fuel poverty are outlined by members of associations

  2. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Leidig

    Full Text Available Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI. The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  3. A Prospective Study of the Impact of Current Poverty, History of Poverty, and Exiting Poverty on Accumulation of Disease Damage in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, Edward; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the effect of current poverty, number of years in poverty, and exiting poverty on disease damage accumulation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this study, 783 patients with SLE were followed up from 2003 to 2015 through annual structured interviews. Respondents were categorized in each year by whether they had a household income of ≤125% of the US federal poverty level. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the impact of poverty in 2009, number of years in poverty between 2003 and 2009, and permanent exits from poverty as of 2009 on the extent of disease damage (according to the Brief Index of Lupus Damage [BILD] score) or accumulation of a clinically meaningful increase in disease damage (defined as a minimum 2-point increase in the BILD damage score) by 2015. After adjustment for sociodemographic features, health care characteristics, and health behaviors, poverty in 2009 was associated with an increased level of accumulated disease damage in 2015 (mean difference in BILD damage score between poor and non-poor 0.62 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.25-0.98) and increased odds of a clinically important increase in damage (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, 95% CI 0.98-2.85). Being poor in every year between 2003 and 2009 was associated with greater damage (mean change in BILD score 2.45, 95% CI 1.88-3.01) than being poor for one-half or more of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.45, 95% CI 0.97-1.93), for fewer than one-half of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-1.88), or for none of those years (mean change in BILD score 1.34, 95% CI 1.20-1.49). Those exiting poverty permanently had similar increases in disease damage (mean change in BILD score 1.30, 95% CI 0.90-1.69) as those who were never in poverty (mean change in BILD score 1.36, 95% CI 1.23-1.50) but much less damage than those who remained in poverty (mean change in BILD score 1.98, 95% CI 1.59-2.38). The effects of current poverty

  4. Visitor's Computer Guidelines | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitor's Computer Guidelines Network Connection Request Instruments Instruments by Telescope IR Instruments Guidelines Library Facilities Outreach NOAO-S EPO Program team Art of Darkness Image Gallery EPO/CADIAS ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Astronomers » Visitor's Computer Guidelines Visitor's Computer

  5. Youth poverty and transition to adulthood in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Mencarini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing amount of research focussing on the transition to adulthood, a stage of the life cycle where young people face demanding life decisions, including completion of education, finding stable employment, and establishing their household and family. Whereas there is a well-developed literature on poverty among households in general, very little research has focused on poverty among young adults. Using the European Community Household Panel (ECHP we provide a detailed description of youth poverty in Europe. Across the European Union youth poverty varies greatly, being higher in Southern European countries, as well as in the 'liberal' regimes of the UK and Ireland. However, there are also large variations in the extent of youth poverty within countries, between what we might term "younger youth" (aged 16-19 and "older youth" aged (25-29. In the UK, poverty rates among "younger youth" are much higher than among "older youth", suggesting that poverty among young people is closely associated with child poverty. In the Scandinavian countries, poverty peaks dramatically in the early twenties, indicating that in these countries, poverty is associated with leaving home.

  6. Surveying the hidden attitudes of hospital nurses' towards poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenauer, James; Ludwick, Ruth; Baughman, Kristin; Fishbein, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    To explore the attitudes held by registered nurses about persons living in poverty. As a profession, nursing has strong commitment to advocating for the socioeconomically disadvantaged. The links among poverty and health disparities are well established and research demonstrates that attitudes of providers can influence how those in poverty use health services. Although nurses are the largest sector of healthcare providers globally, little research has been published on their attitudes towards patients they care for who live in poverty. Cross-sectional survey. Used a convenience sample of 117 registered nurses who completed the Attitudes Towards Poverty Short Form that contained three subscales. Regression analysis was used to examine the associations between the nurses' age, education, and years of experience, political views and financial security with their total score and subscale scores. Nurses were more likely to agree with stigmatising statements than statements that attributed poverty to personal deficiency or structural factors. In the multivariate analysis, years of experience were associated with more positive attitudes towards those living in poverty. Nurses with the most experience had less stigmatising beliefs about poverty and were more likely to endorse structural explanations. Those with a baccalaureate education were also more likely to endorse structural explanations for poverty. Gaining knowledge about attitudes towards and the factors influencing those attitudes, for example, education, are important in helping combat the disparities associated with poverty. Nurses have a duty to evaluate their individual attitudes and biases towards those living in poverty and how those attitudes and biases may influence daily practice. Assessing nurses' attitudes towards poverty may aid in better means of empowering nurses to seek solutions that will improve health conditions for those living in poverty. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nexus of Poverty, Energy Balance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years), 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%), having main occupation of family as business (55.3%), and highest per capita income group (57.1%) with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0%) in SC/ST category and least (65.7%) in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd's Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56), not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56), belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh Classification

  8. Nexus of poverty, energy balance and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C P Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of planning process in India, health planning was an integral component of socio-economic planning. Recommendations of several committees, policy documents and Millennium development goals were instrumental in development of impressive health infrastructure. Several anti-poverty and employment generation programmes were instituted to remove poverty. Spectacular achievements took place in terms of maternal and child health indicators and expectancy of life at birth. However, communicable diseases and undernutrition remain cause of serious concern and non-communicable diseases are imposing unprecedented challenge to planners and policy makers. Estimates of poverty based on different criteria point that it has remained a sustained problem in the country and emphasizes on revisiting anti-poverty programmes, economic policies and social reforms. Poverty affects purchasing power and thereby, food consumption. Energy intake data has inherent limitations. It must be assessed in terms of energy expenditure. Energy balance has been least explored area of research. The studies conducted in three different representative population group of Eastern Uttar Pradesh revealed that 69.63% rural adolescent girls (10-19 years, 79.9% rural reproductive age group females and 62.3% rural geriatric subjects were in negative energy balance. Negative energy balance was significantly less in adolescent girls belonging to high SES (51.37%, having main occupation of family as business (55.3%, and highest per capita income group (57.1% with respect to their corresponding sub-categories. In case of rural reproductive age groups, this was maximum (93.0% in SC/ST category and least (65.7% in upper caste group. In case of geriatric group, higher adjusted Odd′s Ratio for negative energy balance for subjects not cared by family members (AOR 23.43, CI 3.93-139.56, not kept money (AOR 5.27, CI 1.58-17.56, belonging to lower and upper middle SES by Udai Pareekh

  9. The microcredit as a strategy for poverty alleviation of women, ¿what poverty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis García Horta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized authors in the microfinance’s field affirm that providing microcredit to women is a strategy to improve their situation of poverty in which they live. This article talks about the experience of borrowers served by ProMujer in their Focal Center located in Ixmiquilpan, state of Hidalgo, Mexico. During the financial resources exercise, it was found that accredit women got to conciliate the productive subject with the reproductive one. Nevertheless, this situation took them to work double and even triple shifts of work were required and with those long days of work, they lost their availability of time for other tasks. The research reaffirms that microcredit help women to improve significantly their poverty situation or their patrimony, but analyzing this subject from another point of view, for example, thorough the wyes of the perspective of gender, women became poorer than before getting the microcredit, if it is considered poverty for capacities.

  10. The new hypertension guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Ralph H

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Assessing the extent and intensity of energy poverty using Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index: Empirical evidence from households in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadath, Anver C.; Acharya, Rajesh H.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have made a comprehensive assessment of the extent and various socio-economic implications of energy poverty in India. Amartya Sens's capability approach to development underpins the analysis of household-level data taken from the India Human Development Survey-II (IHDS-II), 2011-12 using the Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI). The overall results show that energy poverty is widespread in India and the existence of energy poverty also coincides with the other forms of deprivations such as income poverty and social backwardness. For example, Dalits (Lower Caste) and Adivasis (Tribal) are found to be extremely energy poor compared to the other social groups in India. The results also reveal that it is the responsibility of women to manage the domestic chores such as collection of firewood and making of dung cake in traditional Indian households. Inefficient use of such biomass fuels is found to cause health hazards. - Highlights: • Energy poverty in India is assessed based on Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI). • Energy poverty is widespread in India with large geographical variation across states. • Energy poverty coincides with socioeconomic backwardness of people. • Energy poverty is associated with health hazards like Asthma and Tuberculosis. • Access to energy may increase labor market participation of women.

  12. Guideline of guidelines: asymptomatic microscopic haematuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Brian J; Bass, Edward J; Mostafid, Hugh; Boorjian, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to review major organizational guidelines on the evaluation and management of asymptomatic microscopic haematuria (AMH). We reviewed the haematuria guidelines from: the American Urological Association; the consensus statement by the Canadian Urological Association, Canadian Urologic Oncology Group and Bladder Cancer Canada; the American College of Physicians; the Joint Consensus Statement of the Renal Association and British Association of Urological Surgeons; and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All guidelines reviewed recommend evaluation for AMH in the absence of potential benign aetiologies, with the evaluation including cystoscopy and upper urinary tract imaging. Existing guidelines vary in their definition of AMH (role of urine dipstick vs urine microscopy), the age threshold for recommending evaluation, and the optimal imaging method (computed tomography vs ultrasonography). Of the reviewed guidelines, none recommended the use of urine cytology or urine markers during the initial AMH evaluation. Patients should have ongoing follow-up after a negative initial AMH evaluation. Significant variation exists among current guidelines for AMH with respect to who should be evaluated and in what manner. Given the patient and health system implications of balancing appropriately focused and effective diagnostic evaluation, AMH represents a valuable future research opportunity. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Multidimensional poverty: an alternative measurement approach for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waglé, Udaya R

    2008-06-01

    International poverty research has increasingly underscored the need to use multidimensional approaches to measure poverty. Largely embraced in Europe and elsewhere, this has not had much impact on the way poverty is measured in the United States. In this paper, I use a comprehensive multidimensional framework including economic well-being, capability, and social inclusion to examine poverty in the US. Data from the 2004 General Social Survey support the interconnectedness among these poverty dimensions, indicating that the multidimensional framework utilizing a comprehensive set of information provides a compelling value added to poverty measurement. The suggested demographic characteristics of the various categories of the poor are somewhat similar between this approach and other traditional approaches. But the more comprehensive and accurate measurement outcomes from this approach help policymakers target resources at the specific groups.

  14. Escaping and Falling into Poverty in India Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Amit; Vanneman, Reeve; Desai, Sonalde; Dubey, Amaresh

    2017-05-01

    The study examines the dynamic nature of movements into and out of poverty over a period when poverty has fallen substantially in India. The analysis identifies people who escaped poverty and those who fell into it over the period 2005 to 2012. The analysis identifies people who escaped poverty and those who fell into it over the period 2005 to 2012. Using panel data from the India Human Development Survey for 2005 and 2012, we find that the risks of marginalized communities such as Dalits and Adivasis of falling into or remaining in poverty were higher than those for more privileged groups. Some, but not all of these higher risks are explained by educational, financial, and social disadvantages of these groups in 2005. Results from a logistic regression show that some factors that help people escape poverty differ from those that push people into it and that the strength of their effects varies.

  15. A poverty -adaptation -mitigation window within the Green Climate Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathy, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The stakes for poverty alleviation and the measures required to avoid unbridled climate change are inextricably linked: climate change will slow down and may even reverse trends in poverty reduction while trajectories consistent with a 2 deg. C limitation of climate warming require that strategies for poverty alleviation integrate the constraint of low carbon development. Until now, existing climate funds have failed in targeting poverty alleviation as a high priority strategy for adaptation or as a component of low carbon development. The article proposes the creation of a financing window within the Green Climate Fund focusing on synergies between poverty alleviation, adaptation and mitigation. This financial mechanism is based on indicators of satisfaction of basic needs. It could offer an answer to developing countries that consider poverty alleviation as their first priority

  16. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  17. [Historical succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural China.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Xian; Li, Ning-Xiu; Ren, Xiao-Hui

    2009-11-01

    There was considerable attention paid to the succour of poverty with widespread practice in China's history. Succour of poverty and medical assistance in rural areas were closely connected with famine relief carried out by the rulers. The mutual assistance of emotional and moral support long-term in rural communities is the most important form of medical assistance. A succour of poverty and medical assistance system in the modern sense should inherit and learn from the past consideration of poverty assistance and bring in the fine tradition of multiple forces to participate, in order to establish a succour of poverty and medical assistance system compatible with economic and social development. This is not only an important component of anti-poverty strategy in rural areas but also an inevitable requirement of historical development.

  18. Materia y Pobreza = Matter and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acumulación material es uno de los signos más identificables de la pobreza. El pobre vive apegado a la tierra, esa es su única posesión y a partir de ella construirá sus refugios, sus habitaciones, sus utensilios. Las construcciones de arcilla, de barro, moldeadas con gran abundancia de materia  se encuentran en los poblados primitivos, pero cualquier situación marcada por la extrema pobreza lo estará también por las acumulaciones de material. Resulta inimaginable una situación de pobreza que no implique la acumulación de materia y esto es particularmente evidente en las sociedades desarrolladas, donde un mendigo es reconocible por su montaña de ropas, calzado o enseres de todo tipo.Resulta, sin embargo, significativo que en los discursos de los ideólogos de la modernidad, la identificación de ésta con el advenimiento de una sociedad sin clases venga acompañada de una apelación a la pobreza, una nueva pobreza fría y sobria, propia de una habitación humana abierta y transparente, casi desnuda, e igualitaria para todos los hombres sin distinción de clases sociales. Así, la pobreza moderna estaría ligada al material, a los nuevos materiales, pero no es una condición impuesta, sino elegida, o al menos aceptada como inevitable por el nuevo hombre.La convivencia entre una pobreza de la acumulación material y una pobreza de ascetismo y renuncia es un hecho tanto en los discursos como en las obras de las vanguardias del siglo XX. La acumulación de materia informe y trabajada manualmente tiene lugar al mismo tiempo que la exhibición de la desnudez y la frialdad de los materiales producidos por la industria.  Y en ambos casos, se apela a la pobreza como última referencia para las obras que tratan de ser una expresión fiel de las aspiraciones de su época.Palabras clavemateria, pobreza, material, acumulación, modernidad, sociedadAbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor

  19. Can Maquila Booms Reduce Poverty? Evidence from Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael E.; Bussolo, Maurizio; Nunez, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and estimates the strength of the reduction in poverty linked to improved opportunities for women in the expanding maquila sector. A simulation exercise shows that, at a given point in time, poverty in Honduras would have been 1.5 percentage points higher had the maquila sector not existed. Of this increase in poverty, 0.35 percentage points is attributable to the wag...

  20. Exports, Gender Wage Gaps and Poverty in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoyos, Rafael E.; Bussolo, Maurizio; Núñez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies and estimates the reduction in poverty attributable to the improved opportunities that international trade integration offered to women in Honduras. The expansion of the export-oriented maquila sector has brought gender equality both in terms of employment and labour earnings. A simulation exercise shows that, at a given point in time, poverty in Honduras would have been 1.5 percentage points higher had the maquila sector not existed. Of this increase in poverty, 0.35 pe...