WorldWideScience

Sample records for hhs poverty guidelines

  1. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, State, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about...

  2. 77 FR 4034 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, state, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about...

  3. 78 FR 5182 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in prices... Federal, state, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about...

  4. 75 FR 3734 - 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary 2009 HHS Poverty Guidelines Extended Until March 1, 2010 AGENCY... Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines will remain in effect until updated 2010 poverty guidelines are... Federal, State, or local office that is responsible for that program. For information about...

  5. 75 FR 45628 - Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Delayed Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines for the Remainder of... delayed update of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines for the remainder of 2010, and until the 2011 poverty guidelines are published, which is expected to occur in...

  6. 45 CFR Appendix A to Part 1611 - Legal Services Corporation 2010 Poverty Guidelines *

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legal Services Corporation 2010 Poverty Guidelines... Corporation 2010 Poverty Guidelines * Legal Services Corporation 2010 Income Guidelines * Size of household 48...: 4,675 5,850 5,375 * The figures in this table represent 125% of the poverty guidelines by...

  7. Methodology for determining whether an increase in a state's child poverty rate is the result of the TANF program--Administration for Children and Families, HHS. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-23

    The Administration for Children and Families is proposing a methodology to determine the child poverty rate in each State. If a State experiences an increase in its child poverty rate of 5 percent or more as a result of its Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program, the State must submit and implement a corrective action plan. This requirement is a part of the new welfare reform block grant program enacted in 1996.

  8. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  9. Patricia Hartge Receives the HHS Career Achievement Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2012, Patricia Hartge, Sc.D., Deputy Director of DCEG’s Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, received the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Career Achievement Award at the HHS Honor Awards Ceremony.

  10. 42 CFR 93.413 - HHS compliance actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HHS compliance actions. 93.413 Section 93.413... Compliance Issues § 93.413 HHS compliance actions. (a) An institution's failure to comply with its assurance... requirements of this part, HHS may take some or all of the following compliance actions: (1) Issue a letter...

  11. 48 CFR 301.603-73 - Additional HHS training requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GS-1102s and GS-1105s are required to complete both HHS University's classroom-based and on-line... entering on duty (for new employees). Employees are required to take the HHS University on-line course as.... When the HHS Office on Disability (OD) so requires, all GS-1102s, GS-1105s and GS-1106s who award...

  12. Challenge Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IN the 1996 International Year for Eliminating Poverty while the world claims a war against poverty, a movement with the aim of helping mothers in poverty is being carried out in China. This movement is entitled "Happiness Project," with the intention of bringing better lives to China’s impoverished mothers. Among the 65 million people living in poverty in China more than 15 million of them are poor mothers.

  13. Poverty persistence and poverty dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Biewen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of the poverty that is measured in a single period is transitory rather than persistent. In most countries, only a portion of people who are currently poor are persistently poor. People who are persistently poor or who cycle into and out of poverty should be the main focus of anti-poverty policies. Understanding the characteristics of the persistently poor, and the circumstances and mechanisms associated with entry into and exit from poverty, can help to inform governments...

  14. 42 CFR 59a.17 - Other HHS regulations that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other HHS regulations that apply. 59a.17 Section 59a.17 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.17 Other HHS regulations that...

  15. Reducing Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are little different from any other world metropolis and belie the unimaginable degree of poverty in certain rural areas of China. Staff reporter Zhang Hua went to Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region to report on a poverty reduction project called "Love of the Earth, Mother's Water Tank" launched by the China Women's

  16. Understanding Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-01-01

    Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definition...

  17. Understanding Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerneck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies and strategies to fight global environmental degradation, gender inequality, and poverty are often inadequate, ineffective, or insufficient. In response, this article seeks potential synergies and leverage points between three significant interrelated discourses that are often treated separately—development, gender, and environment. Proceeding from a brief history of development thinking and poverty definitions, I describe indicators, strategies, and approaches to poverty reduction and gender equality. Second, I analyze how targeting, mainstreaming, and market-based initiatives all fail both to distinguish empirical from analytical gender and to incorporate environment and gender into development policy and action—despite their key role in meeting the normative goal of poverty reduction. Third, through a political-ecology lens, I suggest an integrated approach to poverty, inequality, and socioenvironmental challenges that arise at the intersections of development, gender, and environment, and for that, I draw examples from research on social and environmental change and action in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. 78 FR 56706 - HHS Retrospective Review 2013 Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... administration burdens; Achieve better results by modifying, streamlining, expanding, or eliminating rules when the costs or benefits are greater than originally anticipated; Eliminate rules that are outdated... existing regulations HHS should consider reviewing in order to streamline or eliminate...

  19. Law's Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M Modiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article adopts an analysis that explicitly politicises poverty and relates it to the concrete history of racialised capitalism and structural inequality that defined colonialism and apartheid and continues to persist and intensify in "post"-apartheid South Africa. Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and violence. Such a formulation would make social structure, historical injustice and power central and would also allow for poverty to be grasped beyond a purely distributive logic by bringing to light the non-distributive, non-economic dimensions of poverty. Comprehending poverty in this way, as not only a question of economic distribution and empowerment, but also one of ethical, moral and even ontological recognition necessitates an enquiry into the emancipatory force of rights. Given their centrality in political and social discourse and in legal scholarship on poverty, it is worth considering whether and to what extent rights can be utilised in the struggle against (racialised poverty.

  20. Law's Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Modiri, Joel M

    2015-01-01

    This article adopts an analysis that explicitly politicises poverty and relates it to the concrete history of racialised capitalism and structural inequality that defined colonialism and apartheid and continues to persist and intensify in "post"-apartheid South Africa. Rather than formulating racialised poverty in legalist, economist or managerial terms, it should rather be understood as a form of oppression that comprises exploitation, marginalisation, powerlessness, cultural imperialism and...

  1. Escaping Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ While the global economic crisis still threatens to trap tens of millions of people in extreme poverty, alleviation initiatives in China are gaining new momentum and increasing recognition from the international community. From lifting innumerable people out of poverty by satisfying basic needs of food, clothes and shelter during the past three decades, the Chinese Government's antipoverty drive is now to focus more on helping rural poor to start small businesses and guaranteeing access to public services and social welfare.

  2. Developing and Implementing Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Institutional Food Service123

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H.; Bowden, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability ...

  3. 45 CFR 1.1 - Location of HHS regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... located at Parts 1-1299 of Title 21. • Procurement (contract) regulations are located at Chapter 3 of Title 41. Each volume of the Code contains an index of its parts. (5 U.S.C. 301) ... titles of the Code of Federal Regulations: • Regulations having HHS-wide application or which the...

  4. 42 CFR 93.227 - Secretary or HHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Secretary or HHS. 93.227 Section 93.227 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  5. Urban Poverty in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...

  6. Poverty in American Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Rainwater, Lee

    1992-01-01

    This study proposes a social rather than an economic conception of poverty in the U.S., exploring the definition of poverty line from this perspective. Data from three sources is used to describe poverty rates in the U.S. in relation to changes over time, a cross national perspective, and variations in persistent poverty for race, sex and age.

  7. Measuring and Analyzing Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Acharya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an assessment of Nepalese poverty situation during 1977 - 1997 using a comparative static approach. Income and human poverty indices have been estimated using World Bank and UNDP methods, respectively. Moreover, it also makes exploratory analysis to study the causes and nature of Nepalese poverty. It concludes that Nepalese income poverty was drastically reduced during the period 1976/77 – 1984/85, but increased afterwards. However, human poverty has reduced in sustenance during the whole period. Poverty in Nepal is more pervasive, deep and uneven as compared to the rest of the South Asia. Comparing the income and human poverty indices, we conclude that income poverty is volatile as compared to the human poverty. Poverty in Nepal has some economic, demographic, and political origins; and more remote and occupational caste people are poorer as compared to the rest

  8. 76 FR 16724 - Child Nutrition Programs-Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... poverty guidelines and are stated by household size. The guidelines are used to determine eligibility for free and reduced price meals and free milk in accordance with applicable program rules. Definition of... reduced price meals were obtained by multiplying the year 2011 Federal income poverty guidelines by 1.30...

  9. Measuring and Analyzing Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya Acharya

    2004-01-01

    This paper makes an assessment of Nepalese poverty situation during 1977 - 1997 using a comparative static approach. Income and human poverty indices have been estimated using World Bank and UNDP methods, respectively. Moreover, it also makes exploratory analysis to study the causes and nature of Nepalese poverty. It concludes that Nepalese income poverty was drastically reduced during the period 1976/77 – 1984/85, but increased afterwards. However, human poverty has reduced in sustenance dur...

  10. There is poverty convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus; Klasen, Stephan; Wacker, Konstantin M.

    2016-01-01

    Martin Ravallion ("Why Don't We See Poverty Convergence?" American Economic Review, 102(1): 504-23; 2012) presents evidence against the existence of convergence in global poverty rates despite convergence in household mean income levels and the close linkage between income growth and poverty reduction. We show that this finding is driven by a specification that demands more than simple convergence in poverty headcount rates and assumes a growth elasticity of poverty reduction, which is well-k...

  11. Measuring Lifetime Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hoy; Buhong Zheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an axiomatic framework for measuring life time poverty over multiple periods. For an individual, we argue that lifetime poverty is influenced by both the snapshot poverty of each period and the poverty level of the "permanent" lifetime consumption; it is also influenced by how poverty spells are distributed over the life time. Two obvious candidates for aggregation are to aggregate over time and then across individuals, or vice versa. For a society, we consider a path-inde...

  12. Poverty's threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    In the debate on the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, delegates to the UN General Assembly asserted that problems generated by the impact of poverty on the environment could not be solved by restricting aid to developing countries unless those countries promised to cease damaging their environment. Rather, most delegates agreed, aid should include the resources which would enable those countries to achieve "sustainable development," i.e., development that does not destroy the environment and deplete natural resources. The United States countered with the opinion that what is needed is not a UN organized "sustainable development program," but rather a grassroots "sustainable development movement" in all countries. Several delegates pointed out that it was the affluent countries which played a large part in the destruction of the environment. The Present of the Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, pointed out, for example, that the greenhouse effect, generated by the burning of fossil fuels, would raise the sea level 2 meters, virtually submerging his country. Mrs. Brundtland pointed out that it was not morally acceptable to suggest that the poor remain poor to protect the environment. Governments at all levels, she said, must include environmental concerns in their decision making in all sectors of governmental functioning, e.g., finance, industry, energy, and agriculture.

  13. Individualization of poverty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2015-01-01

    that Beck’s thesis about the individualization and democratization of poverty is based on narrow income based definitions and that (possible) empirical verification depends on the definitions of poverty and approaches used to examine poverty. My analyses show that the dynamic perspective (using income......The German Sociologist Ulrich Beck is best known for his book “Risk Society” which has been discussed extensively; however Beck’s claims about modern poverty have not received the same attention among poverty researchers. The individualization perspective views poverty as a relatively transient...... phenomenon and the democratization perspective views the risk of poverty as spread equally in the population. Both perspectives challenge the mainstream tradition of class analysis, and therefore both view poverty as largely independent of traditional stratification factors. In this article, I argue...

  14. Ukraine Poverty Update

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Ukraine recorded one of the sharpest declines in poverty of any transition economy in recent years. The poverty rate, measured against an absolute poverty line, fell from a high of 32 percent in 2001 to 14 percent in 2004, and then again to 8 percent in 2005. This Update presents simulations of the direct influence of an increase in energy prices on the poverty rate. Using 2005 as a base p...

  15. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  16. Poverty in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina

    2005-01-01

    The note looks at poverty in Ecuador, assessing macroeconomic developments through its policies to maintain stability with fiscal discipline, and increase economic productivity and competitiveness, in particular, the 1998/99 crisis, the 2000 dollarization and their effect on poverty. From 1990 to 2001, national consumption-based poverty rose from 40 to 45 percent, and the number of poor pe...

  17. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP

  18. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and

  19. Adolescents and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  20. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics

  1. Poverty in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  2. Adolescents and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  3. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics

  4. Poverty in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The note looks at poverty in Ecuador, assessing macroeconomic developments through its policies to maintain stability with fiscal discipline, and increase economic productivity and competitiveness, in particular, the 1998/99 crisis, the 2000 dollarization and their effect on poverty. From 1990 to 2001, national consumption-based poverty rose from 40 to 45 percent, and the number of poor pe...

  5. Medicare depreciation; useful life guidelines--HCFA. Proposed rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-30

    We are proposing to amend Medicare regulations to clarify which useful life guidelines providers of health care services may use to determine the useful life of a depreciable asset for Medicare reimbursement purposes. Current regulations state that providers must utilize HHS useful life guidelines or, if none have been published by HHS, the American Hospital Association (AHA) useful life guidelines of 1973 or IRS guidelines. We are proposing to eliminate the reference to IRS guidelines because those previously acceptable for Medicare purposes are outdated and have been made obsolete by the IRS or by statutory change. We would also delete the specific reference to the 1973 AHA guidelines. In addition, we intend this amendment to clarify that certain tax legislation on accelerated depreciation, recently passed by Congress, does not apply to the Medicare program.

  6. The psychology of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the psychological experience of poor people and the pastoral responsibility to guide them towards poverty transition. A qualitative analysis of the narratives of three participants is compared to the enthralling history of Florcy Mabuza who in her book, Poverty mentality: The root of poverty, explains the dangers of a spiritual and emotional mindset that precipitates and feeds the plight of poverty. Using a literature study to interpret the narratives as well as a method of encoding, basic mindsets of poverty and factors that influence this mindset are identified. The study culminates in conclusions to encourage further research and pastoral involvement.

  7. Poverty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2009-01-01

    differentiation in the methods, measurement and results though most accept the concept of relative poverty (see for instance Peter Townsend 2006). We see qualitative and quantitative studies; studies based on the median income, studies based on poverty lines from minimum budget definitions and surveys including......Recently poverty has become an issue in Danish public debates and research after some quiet years with not much attention. The intention with this paper is to make a descriptive covering view of the Danish research on poverty since the year of 2000 until summer 2009. We see quite some...... questions on deprivation etc.. This paper will present all major studies of empirical poverty research and discuss strengths and inadequacies in the research of poverty and finally raise some perspectives from the current political and professional debates which question poverty research....

  8. 78 FR 17628 - Child Nutrition Programs; Income Eligibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... for Children (7 CFR Part 215). These eligibility guidelines are based on the Federal income poverty... reduced price meals and free milk in accordance with applicable program rules. Definition of Income In... price meals were obtained by multiplying the year 2013 Federal income poverty guidelines by 1.30 and 1...

  9. Poverty Eradication Dilemma: Understanding Poverty Dynamics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... dilemma using the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), an all-inclusive ... security, conflict resolution and disaster management; (iv) good .... modernization and industrialization even if it has meant forest, schools and.

  10. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  11. Poverty in Edwardian Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeley, Ian; Newell, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a newly discovered household budget data set for 1904. We use these data to estimate urban poverty among working families in the British Isles. Applying Bowley's poverty line, we estimate that at least 23 per cent of people in urban working households and 18 per cent of working households had income insufficient to meet minimum needs. This is well above Rowntree's estimate of primary poverty for York in 1899 and high in the range that Bowley found in northern towns in 1912–13. The skill gradient of poverty is steep; for instance, among labourers' households, the poverty rates are close to 50 per cent. Measures of the depth of poverty are relatively low in the data, suggesting that most poor male-headed working households were close to meeting Bowley's new standard.

  12. Poverty in Belize

    OpenAIRE

    Lomborg, Mette Sakham; Kamper, Anna Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this project is to examine why the population of people who lives in poverty has increased in Belize, and what the government of Belize is doing in order to defeat the poverty problem. It provides and analysis of Belize's National Poverty Elimination Strategy and Action Plan and the different programmes that are implemented in Belize in order to improve the livelihoods of the poor. The project do also examine the economy, natural disasters, crime and violence, educatio...

  13. Lifting Poverty with Willpower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    More than 1 billion people in the world today--the great majority of whom are women--live in absolute poverty....In order to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development, women and men must participate fully and equally in the formulation of macroeconomic and social policies and strategies for the eradication of poverty.--Extracts from Platform For Action of the 4th World Conference On Women

  14. The HHS-HCC Risk Adjustment Model for Individual and Small

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review includes three articles describing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk...

  15. 45 CFR 74.12 - Forms for applying for HHS financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Single Point of Contact (SPOC). The name and address of the SPOC for a particular State can be obtained from the HHS awarding agency or the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance. The SPOC shall advise...

  16. Poverty, social stress & mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, A; Jacob, K S

    2007-10-01

    While there is increasing evidence of an association between poor mental health and the experience of poverty and deprivation, the relationship is complex. We discuss the epidemiological data on mental illness among the different socio-economic groups, look at the cause -effect debate on poverty and mental illness and the nature of mental distress and disorders related to poverty. Issues related to individual versus area-based poverty, relative poverty and the impact of poverty on woman's and child mental health are presented. This review also addresses factors associated with poverty and the difficulties in the measurement of mental health and illness and levels/impact of poverty.

  17. 75 FR 76478 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs AGENCY: Substance Abuse... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing... drug testing results that seek approval by the Secretary must submit their qualifications and a sample...

  18. 75 FR 22809 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...: Final rule: Change in effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is changing the effective date of the Revisions to the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing... HUMAN SERVICES Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs AGENCY: Substance Abuse...

  19. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  20. Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  1. Rethinking Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In "Rethinking Education and Poverty," William G. Tierney brings together scholars from around the world to examine the complex relationship between poverty and education in the twenty first century. International in scope, this book assembles the best contemporary thinking about how education can mediate class and improve the lives of…

  2. Poverty Survey 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2011 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The trend in the poverty rate is described for the population as a whole and for t

  3. Poverty and Aspirations Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this behaviora

  4. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Poverty Survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Armoedesignalement 2013 In this joint publication, Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP present the most recent data on poverty in the Netherlands. The report describes the trend in the poverty rate for the Dutch population as a whole as

  7. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of

  8. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes

  9. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and tren

  10. Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  11. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  12. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes povert

  13. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and trend

  14. Poverty Monitor 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Henk-Jan Dirven; Stella Hoff; Ger Linden

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2003. The Poverty Monitor 2003 (Armoedemonitor 2003) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and trend

  15. high-poverty schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ditions, and serve as role models for the rest of the system (Taylor, 2006:73). Introduction ... Schools are identified as poor based on the relative poverty of the community, in ... The true impact of poverty on the provision of education is evident from ... overcome, and a happy and effective learning environment be created in a.

  16. Redrawing the Poverty Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new threshold means more than 100 million impoverished people will be eligible for government assistance as China continues to battle poverty The Chinese Government has decided to set the nation’s poverty line at an annual per-capita net income

  17. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  18. Poverty and Aspirations Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.; Ghosal, S.; Mani, A.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework to study the psychology of poverty and 'aspirations failure'. In our framework, the rich and the poor share the same preferences - and also a behavioral bias in setting aspirations. Greater downside risks imposed by poverty exacerbates the effects of this behaviora

  19. Measuring Poverty: A Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the author's rejoinder on commentaries of his article which illustrate the variety of perspectives with which people approach poverty measurement issues. Some of the comments highlight the theoretical concerns underpinning poverty measurement efforts, whereas others focus on empirical considerations. As a social scientist,…

  20. Poverty Survey 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos e.o.

    2014-01-01

    In this joint publication, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research¦SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS) present the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The development of the poverty rate is described for the Dutch population as a whole as well as for the main groups at risk

  1. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  2. Institutions and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  3. STUDI KOMPARASI KEMISKINAN DI INDONESIA: MULTIDIMENSIONAL POVERTY DAN MONETARY POVERTY

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryitmawan, Tegar Rismanuar

    2016-01-01

    Research on poverty has long been done by various methods and approaches. Approach to identifying the poor in general by calculating consumption expenditure or income reveneu. The calculation is then known as monetary poverty. Indonesia also use and implemented that approach. However, some experts believe that monetary poverty approach does not capture the whole cause of poverty because the indicator calculation not enough. Though poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon that involves not onl...

  4. Analysis of 1986 Poverty Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    Poverty data released by the U. S. Census Bureau indicates no significant progress toward reducing the poverty rate during a period of economic recovery. The 1986 poverty rate of 13.6 percent remains significantly higher than anytime in the 1970s. Minority group children represent the largest age group of the poverty population. The sluggish…

  5. Some Thoughts on Mexican Poverty Viewed from the Perspective of the World Population Plan of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serron, Luis A.

    The paper summarizes findings of a study of Mexican poverty (SO 010 522), and relates these findings to guidelines of the World Population Plan of Action. The study indicated that poverty in Mexico is based upon national and international economic, political, and social factors. Included among these factors are exploitation of labor, rapid…

  6. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  7. Growth and Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Leyaro, Vincent; Mahrt, Kristi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter considers the evolution of welfare of the Tanzanian population using a multi-dimensional approach. It also employs a detailed economy-wide model of the Tanzanian economy to explore growth and monetary poverty reduction scenarios from 2007 to 2015. This approach permits assessment...... of the coherence of observed trends in macroeconomic variables and projects consumption poverty outcomes to 2015. In the multi-dimensional approach, we find that real gains have been achieved. On monetary poverty, our model broadly reproduces key macroeconomic features of the past eight years. We find...... that published consumption poverty reductions for 2007 to 2011/12 from the most recent assessment fall within a reasonable to optimistic range. And, the simulations generate broader based growth across the income distribution compared with the recent assessment. Looking forward, the simulations from 2012 to 2105...

  8. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    Measuring poverty remains a complex and contentious issue. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty rates are higher, information bases typically weaker, and the underlying determinants of welfare relatively volatile. This paper employs recently collected data on household...... consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...... of the implications of these world commodity price changes for living standards of poor people. Second, a novel ‘backcasting’ approach using a computable general equilibrium model of Mozambique, linked to a poverty module is introduced. Third, the backcasting approach is also employed to rigorously examine...

  9. How we see poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Morduch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How we think about poverty is colored by how we measure it. For economists, that often means seeing poverty through quantities measured in large, representative surveys.  The surveys give a comprehensive view, but favor breadth over depth. Typical economic surveys are limited in their ability to tease out informal activity, and, while they capture yearly sums, they offer little about how the year was actually lived by families. Year-long financial diaries provide a complementary way of seeing poverty, with a focus on week by week choices and challenges. The result is a re-framing of poverty and its relationship to money, calling for greater attention to financial access and a broader notion of how finance matters.

  10. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  11. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  12. Developing and implementing health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Joel; Jones, Sonya; McPeak, Holly H; Bowden, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Health and sustainability guidelines for institutional food service are directed at improving dietary intake and increasing the ecological benefits of the food system. The development and implementation of institutional food service guidelines, such as the Health and Human Services (HHS) and General Services Administration (GSA) Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations (HHS/GSA Guidelines), have the potential to improve the health and sustainability of the food system. Institutional guidelines assist staff, managers, and vendors in aligning the food environment at food service venues with healthier and more sustainable choices and practices. Guideline specifics and their effective implementation depend on the size, culture, nature, and management structure of an institution and the individuals affected. They may be applied anywhere food is sold, served, or consumed. Changing institutional food service practice requires comprehensive analysis, engagement, and education of all relevant stakeholders including institutional management, members of the food supply chain, and customers. Current examples of food service guidelines presented here are the HHS and GSA Health and Sustainability Guidelines for Federal Concessions and Vending Operations, which translate evidence-based recommendations on health and sustainability into institutional food service practices and are currently being implemented at the federal level. Developing and implementing guidelines has the potential to improve long-term population health outcomes while simultaneously benefitting the food system. Nutritionists, public health practitioners, and researchers should consider working with institutions to develop, implement, and evaluate food service guidelines for health and sustainability.

  13. Alleviating energy poverty: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Garima

    2010-09-15

    Energy services play an important role in human welfare. India faces acute energy poverty indicating lack of access of clean energy fuels. Access to electricity is limited to 56% households in India and about 89% of rural households depend on polluting energy sources. Energy poverty impacts income poverty as poor find it difficult to acquire high priced cleaner fuels. It also adversely impacts the socio economic conditions of women. The paper highlights the linkage of energy poverty with income poverty and gender inequality. It analyses measures taken to alleviate energy poverty and recommends regulatory and policy measures as way forward.

  14. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  15. 78 FR 72321 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... c. Small group determination for risk adjustment d. Risk adjustment data validation e. HHS audits of... may audit State-operated reinsurance programs, contributing entities, and issuers of risk adjustment... to risk adjustment data validation, risk corridors data validation, and HHS's authority to...

  16. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  17. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  18. Old age and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Drenka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of demographic changes in Serbia is followed by discussions on the need to provide safety at old age and solve the problems of poverty and social exclusion of older citizens. In the current state there are no mechanisms that guarantee an adequate life standard at old age, the consequence of which is a high poverty rate, deteriorating health and limited access to social programs. The results of the Survey on life standard from 2002 and 2007 show that poverty among population in general and pensioners has decreased, while the poverty risk among people older than 65 has increased twice. The restrictive methods of the reforms cause a change in the relation between the pensions and the earnings, so that more and more pensioners receive below average, i.e. minimal pensions. Not all old people are covered by pension insurance so that a significant number (around 400.000 does not have a safe monthly income at all. The state program of financial aid is of modest size and does not provide help to all of the poor. Welfare aid decreases the risk of poverty, but it do not guarantee an adequate level of material security at old age. The low level of minimal and average pensions, the decline of participation in the average earnings and the strict criteria of the social security system have brought to awareness the necessity of 'social pensions' and various help and support programs for the elderly. .

  19. HIV, poverty and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing.

  20. Hookworm and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Human hookworm infection is the leading cause of anemia and undernutrition and the second most important parasitic infection of humans. Hookworm occurs almost exclusively in the setting of rural poverty in the developing countries of the tropics. The rural dependency reflects the precise soil and temperature requirements of the environmental life history stages of the parasite, whereas the relationship between hookworm and poverty is based on multiple factors, including inadequate sanitation, the absence of concrete floors in home dwellings, and lack of access to essential medicines. Also, hookworm not only occurs in the setting of poverty but also promotes poverty because of its health and educational effects in children, its adverse effect on pregnancy outcome, and its effect on worker productivity. Since the middle of the 20th century, poverty reduction and urbanization have successfully reduced the prevalence of hookworm in the world's industrialized nations and some middle-income countries. However, the control of hookworm in low-income countries still relies heavily on the frequent and periodic use of anthelminthic drugs either through deworming programs targeting school-aged children or through integrated control programs that simultaneously target the seven neglected tropical diseases, including hookworm. However, the high rates of hookworm reinfection and the possible emergence of drug resistance will ultimately require the development of new control tools--including the Human Hookworm Vaccine, one of several so-called antipoverty vaccines that could undergo development and testing over the next decade.

  1. 42 CFR 63.10 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other HHS regulations and policies that apply. 63.10 Section 63.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... number) to obtain copies of the policy.) “Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use...

  2. 42 CFR 66.112 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is subject to change, and interested persons should contact the Office of Science Policy, Office of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other HHS regulations and policies that apply. 66... regulations and policies that apply. Several other regulations and policies may apply to individuals and...

  3. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...

  4. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...

  5. Five Years of HHS Home Health Care Evaluations: Using Evaluation to Change National Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Paul R.; Smith, Nick L.; Grob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, American Evaluation Association member George Grob, now retired from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and currently President of the Center for Public Program Evaluation, made a testimony on Medicare home health care fraud and abuse before the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging. The occasion was to announce the…

  6. 75 FR 28023 - Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft HHS Strategic Framework on Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... care, professional, and educational organizations --Physicians, nurses, hospitals, and other health... Strategic Framework. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Monica L. Stevenson, (202) 401-6998 or MCC@hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Approximately 75 million Americans have multiple (2 or more)...

  7. 76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries: a report on recommendations of the Task Force... HUMAN SERVICES Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention... prevention and control across all age groups. Fluoride in drinking water as one of several available fluoride...

  8. FYI:Model Programs Serving Drug Exposed Children...HHS REPORT:"Crack Babies" Released.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Announces Health and Human Services (HHS) report on effects that babies who have been exposed to cocaine are having on child welfare system. Many babies are not identified at birth and may suffer future neurological, developmental, and emotional damage. Child welfare system is trying new approaches to handling children but is hampered by lack of…

  9. Optimization of the Fermentation Process of Actinomycete Strain Hhs.015T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxuan Wang

    2010-01-01

    inoculation volume of 15.8%. The antimicrobial activity was increased by 20% by optimizing the environmental parameters. The results obtained allow an efficient production of components with antimicrobial activity by strain Hhs.015T on a large scale at low costs.

  10. 42 CFR 65a.11 - Other HHS regulations and policies that apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... research for which PHS funding is sought 42 CFR part 52h—Scientific peer review of research grant... on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory animals,” Office for Protection from Research Risks, HIH... BASIC RESEARCH AND TRAINING GRANTS § 65a.11 Other HHS regulations and policies that apply. Several...

  11. Impacts of Policies on Poverty: The Definition of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Bellù, Lorenzo Giovanni; Liberati, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This module illustrates how poverty can be defined in the context of policy impact analysis. After reporting and discussing the definition of poverty as “the lack of, or the inability to achieve, a socially acceptable standard of living”, it discusses the mono-dimensional and multi-dimensional approaches to the definition of poverty. Furthermore, the module focuses on the absolute and the relative concept of poverty, also drawing some analogies and differences with the concept of food secu...

  12. Attitudes towards poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Derdziuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Poverty, perceived as a lack of basic consumer goods, gives rise to a whole range of outcomes which affect not only the material dimension of human existence, but also influence social relations and references to spiritual values. Attitudes which could be associated with involuntary and unacceptable poverty include: doubt in the Divine Providence, bitterness, jealousy and envy, blaming others, lack of gratitude and in perceiving good, laziness, lack of initiative, escalating demands, gluttony and greed as well as meanness. However, joy, peace, freedom and solidarity with the poor, as well as work and enterprise, are symptoms of evangelical attitudes of the poor in spirit. Attitudes to poverty point to a wide range of human behaviours towards possessions and in effect, reveal an individual’s sense of value.

  13. Poverty, health and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, S

    2007-09-01

    Poverty is an important influence on health and despite continuing economic growth, poverty and health inequalities persist. Current public policy aims to reduce the inequalities in the health, by focussing on the social factors influencing health, improving access to health and personal social services for those who are poor or socially excluded and by improving the information and research base in respect of the health status and service access for the poor and socially excluded groups. It is important that processes for target setting and evaluation involve people experiencing poverty, at all levels through consultative and participative structures and processes and in the roll-out of primary care teams. A number of projects throughout the country aim to address health inequalities using community development. These are essentially about widening participation in the development, planning and delivery of health services and ensuring that the community is actively involved in the decision making process about health services in their area.

  14. Joining together to combat poverty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-01-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around...

  15. Biofuels, poverty, and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Benfica, Rui; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of large-scale investments in biofuels for growth and income distribution. We find that biofuels investment enhances growth and poverty reduction despite some displacement of food crops by biofuels. Overall, the biofuel investment trajectory analyzed increases...... Mozambique's annual economic growth by 0.6 percentage points and reduces the incidence of poverty by about 6 percentage points over a 12-year phase-in period. Benefits depend on production technology. An outgrower approach to producing biofuels is more pro-poor, due to the greater use of unskilled labor...

  16. Poverty in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Dirk; Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with poverty within Israel. Against the background of the history of pre-state Israel and the developments after the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 the historical roots of Israeli poverty are analyzed. Thus the ‘socialist’-Zionist project, ethnic exclusion, religious and intra-Jewish ethnic lines of conflict as well as the Bedouins, Druzes and Israeli Arabs as ‘specific’ Israeli citizen are discussed. Despite the economic growth in Israel since 2003 ‘the major...

  17. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  18. Does Drug Use Cause Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Kaestner

    1998-01-01

    In this study, I examine the effect of drug use on poverty. The main objective of the paper is to provide descriptive empirical information about the relationship between drug use and poverty, and to explore, in a preliminary fashion, the question of whether drug use causes poverty. Toward this end, I present the results of both descriptive and multivariate analyses of the relationship between drug use and poverty for two national samples of young adults. One sample is drawn from the National...

  19. The Chronic Poverty Report 2005

    OpenAIRE

    The Chronic Poverty Research Centre, CPRC

    2005-01-01

    The report examines what chronic poverty is and why it matters, who the chronically poor are, where they live, what causes poverty to be persistent and what should be done about it. It argues that approaches to development policy must acknowledge the agency of the chronically poor themselves in overcoming their poverty. But they also need real commitment, matched by actions and resources, to support their efforts to attain their rights and overcome the obstacles that trap them in poverty.

  20. Poverty on the Cards 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut; Benedikt Goderis; Cok Vrooman

    2016-01-01

    Decline in poverty since 2014 According to SCP’s ‘modest but adequate’ poverty threshold, 7.6% of the Dutch population were living in poverty in 2014. That figure is expected to have fallen to 7% in 2016. If the promised measures to improve purchasing power are implemented, thi

  1. Poverty-related diseases (PRDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makoge, Valerie; Maat, Harro; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Cameroon, poverty-related diseases (PRDs) are a major public health concern. Research and policies addressing PRDs are based on a particular understanding of the interaction between poverty and disease, usually an association between poverty indicators and health indicators for a

  2. Rural Poverty Rate Edges Downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Although rural poverty began to decline, 1994-95, many rural households had incomes just above poverty. Rural minorities were especially disadvantaged; racial differences in educational attainment accounted for 20-33% of income gaps. One-quarter of rural children lived in poverty, most in single-parent households. Most rural poor families lived in…

  3. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  4. Trends in Child Poverty Using an Improved Measure of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Christopher; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Fox, Liana

    2016-04-01

    The official measure of poverty has been used to assess trends in children's poverty rates for many decades. But because of flaws in official poverty statistics, these basic trends have the potential to be misleading. We use an augmented Current Population Survey data set that calculates an improved measure of poverty to reexamine child poverty rates between 1967 and 2012. This measure, the Anchored Supplemental Poverty Measure, is based partially on the US Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics' new Supplemental Poverty Measure. We focus on 3 age groups of children, those aged 0 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years. Young children have the highest poverty rates, both historically and today. However, among all age groups, long-term poverty trends have been more favorable than official statistics would suggest. This is entirely due to the effect of counting resources from government policies and programs, which have reduced poverty rates substantially for children of all ages. However, despite this progress, considerable disparities in the risk of poverty continue to exist by education level and family structure.

  5. 78 FR 48170 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-12; HHS Computer Match No. 1307; SSA Computer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-12; HHS Computer Match No. 1307; SSA Computer... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching Program (CMP). SUMMARY: In accordance with the....Wesolowski@cms.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...

  6. Taxi, Jitneys and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Sandi

    1970-01-01

    Version of the paper given at The Transportation and Poverty Conference of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Argues for revival of jitneys (12-14 capacity motor vehicles, operating on fixed routes, fares zone-rated) to serve ghetto residents and provide employment, too. Taxi company competition also discussed. (KG)

  7. The neurology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce.

  8. Poverty, Work and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kotze, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    This contribution suggests that if we are serious about adult education in the context of poverty eradication we require some shifts away from neo-liberal assumptions and values. Women and/in the informal economy should become the central focus, and livelihood studies would better allow us to understand the complex daily struggle for food and the…

  9. Poverty and Political Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouda, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Frances Gouda examines the different rhetorical approaches to poverty, charity, and social welfare embraced by intellectuals and policy-makers in the Netherlands and France in the period 1815 - 1854. She explores the different discourses in Holland and France about the revolutionary threat implicit

  10. Explaining Poverty Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Mohammad Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    consumption in Mozambique to examine the evolution of consumption poverty with focus on the period 2002/03 to 2008/09. The paper contributes in four areas. First, the period in question was characterized by major movements in international commodity prices. Mozambique provides an illuminating case study...

  11. Producing Against Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ypeij, Annelou

    2000-01-01

    Producing against Poverty is an anthropological research on micro-entrepreneurs in Lima, Peru. It analyses the way micro-producers accumulate capital. The anthropological approach of the book starts with an analysis of the daily lives of the micro-producers. Its gender approach makes a comparison be

  12. Tackling Urban Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Despite fast development, many residents in Chinese cities struggle to find a decent life When talking about poverty in China, people tend to conjure up images of farmers struggling in remote mountain villages or in the arid lands of the far west. Yet behind their gleaming skyscrapers and

  13. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  14. Poverty and Political Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouda, Frances

    1995-01-01

    Frances Gouda examines the different rhetorical approaches to poverty, charity, and social welfare embraced by intellectuals and policy-makers in the Netherlands and France in the period 1815 - 1854. She explores the different discourses in Holland and France about the revolutionary threat implicit

  15. Grass Roots War on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Amsden, Alice H

    2012-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa’s failure to slay the dragon of poverty is due to a logical flaw in its policies: the remedies to reduce poverty don’t address the causes. Poverty is caused by unemployment, owing to a scarcity of jobs that pay above bare subsistence, but grass-roots poverty alleviation measures are exclusively designed to make job-seekers more capable although no jobs are available. The ‘appropriate’ technologies of the grass roots movement that dominates anti-poverty policies are ...

  16. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  17. Disability, poverty and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Disability is both a cause and consequence of poverty. Eliminating world poverty is unlikely to be achieved unless the rights and needs of people with disabilities are taken into account. According to the United Nations, one person in 20 has a disability. More than three out of four of these live in a developing country. More often than not they are among the poorest of the poor. Recent World Bank estimates suggest they may account for as many as one in five of the world's poorest. Disability limits access to education and employment, and leads to economic and social exclusion. Poor people with disabilities are caught in a vicious cycle of poverty and disability, each being both a cause and a consequence of the other. A large proportion of disability is preventable. Achieving the international development targets for economic, social and human development will undoubtedly reduce the levels of disability in many poor countries. However, general improvements in living conditions will not be enough. Specific steps are still required, not only for prevention, but also to ensure that people with disabilities are able to participate fully in the development process, obtain a fair share of the benefits, and claim their rights as full and equal members of society. An integrated approach is required, linking prevention and rehabilitation with empowerment strategies and changes in attitudes. This paper assesses the significance of disability as a key development issue, and its importance in relation to poverty, human rights, and the achievement of internationally agreed development targets. It also sets out ways in which development co-operation, including DFID's own work, can help incorporate the rights and needs of people with disabilities into the mainstream of poverty reduction work and the achievement of human rights.

  18. Poverty and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

    2008-05-01

    The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

  19. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important.

  20. On the psychology of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-05-23

    Poverty remains one of the most pressing problems facing the world; the mechanisms through which poverty arises and perpetuates itself, however, are not well understood. Here, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that poverty may have particular psychological consequences that can lead to economic behaviors that make it difficult to escape poverty. The evidence indicates that poverty causes stress and negative affective states which in turn may lead to short-sighted and risk-averse decision-making, possibly by limiting attention and favoring habitual behaviors at the expense of goal-directed ones. Together, these relationships may constitute a feedback loop that contributes to the perpetuation of poverty. We conclude by pointing toward specific gaps in our knowledge and outlining poverty alleviation programs that this mechanism suggests.

  1. Women in extreme poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  2. Poverty among Foster Children: Estimates Using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the Current Population Survey and the new Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) to provide estimates for poverty among foster children over the period 1992 to 2013. These are the first large-scale national estimates for foster children who are not included in official poverty statistics. Holding child and family demographics constant, foster children have a lower risk of poverty than other children. Analyzing income in detail suggests that foster care payments likely play an important role in reducing the risk of poverty in this group. In contrast, we find that children living with grandparents have a higher risk of poverty than other children, even after taking demographics into account. Our estimates suggest that this excess risk is likely linked to their lower likelihood of receiving foster care or other income supports. PMID:28659651

  3. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Poverty and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Juan Sanabria Landazábal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this essay there is argued that the notions ofpoverty, development, quality of life and, in general, all the concepts, variables and indicators used in the explanations and theories on this type, are different points of view from the observers' interests,of the same and only social phenomenon. Therefore,there are multiple works on poverty and development. However, an approximation from the perspective of complexity must bear in mind that the development may refer to the social structure as a whole, and to the actions that modify context of the system, just when it has been ordered through the science in order to explain the reality. Therefore,there is a clase relation between poverty and development. These are different ways to see the same phenomenon, which allow us to think about the life quality from a global sense.

  5. Social evils, poverty & health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all.

  6. Microfinance and Poverty Alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Augsburg, B.; Haas, R; Harmgart, H.; Meghir, C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We use an RCT to analyze the impact of microcredit on poverty reduction. The study population consists of loan applicants to a large microfinance institution in Bosnia and Herzegovina who would have been rejected through regular screening. Access to credit allowed borrowers to start and expand small-scale businesses. THe re is little evidence that this lead to net increases in household income. Households that already had a business and where the borrower had more education, ran dow...

  7. Microfinance, Poverty and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Britta Augsburg; Ralph de Haas; Heike Harmgart; Costas Meghir

    2012-01-01

    We use an RCT to analyze the impact of microcredit on poverty reduction, child and teenage labour supply, and education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study population consists of loan applicants that regular screening would have marginally rejected. Access to credit allowed borrowers to start and expand small-scale businesses. Households that already had a business and where the borrower had more education, ran down savings, presumably to complement the loan and achieve the minimum investmen...

  8. Vaccines against poverty

    OpenAIRE

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...

  9. [Inequality, poverty and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana

    2010-06-01

    National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.

  10. The importance of consecutive spells of poverty: a longitudinal poverty index

    OpenAIRE

    Mendola, Daria; Busetta, Annalisa; Milito, Anna Maria

    2009-01-01

    Traditional measures of poverty persistence, such as 'poverty rate' (i.e., the number of years spent in poverty upon the total number of observations) or the 'persistent-risk-of-poverty rate', do not devote enough attention to the sequence of poverty spells. In particular, they are insufficient in underlining the different effects associated with occasional single spells of poverty and the consecutive years of poverty. We propose a new index which measures the severity of poverty, taking into...

  11. Impact of Poverty on Black Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeocha, Peter A.

    1976-01-01

    Defines some dimensions of poverty, determines the scope and consequences of poverty in an affluent society to its black youths, reviews the existing strategies to combat poverty, examines a number of the major characteristics of poverty (as different from poverty in less affluent societies) and suggests other ways and means of alleviating and…

  12. Improving the Measurement of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Nathan; Waldfogel, Jane; Kaushal, Neeraj; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2011-03-01

    This study estimates 2007 national poverty rates using an approach largely conceptualized by a 1995 National Academy of Sciences panel and similar to the supplemental poverty measure that will soon be produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. The study uses poverty thresholds based on expenditures for shelter, food, clothing, and utilities, as well as a measure of family income that includes earnings, cash transfers, near-cash benefits, tax credits, and tax payments. The measure also accounts for child care, work, and out-of-pocket medical expenses; variation in regional cost of living; and mortgage-free homeownership. Under this method, the rate of poverty is estimated to be higher than the rate calculated in the traditional manner, rising from 12.4 percent in the official measure to 16 percent in the new measure; the rate of child poverty is more than 3 percentage points higher, and elderly poverty is nearly 7 points higher.

  13. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  14. Dynamics of poverty in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the persistence is a key feature of urban poverty. The paper also discusses household characteristics that are correlated with the inciden...

  15. Poverty - A Source of Conflict,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-25

    contend that poor coun- tries are likely to attack richer ones for the spoils of war, but rather that poverty is a breeding ground for instability. He...Studies Institute v POVERTY - A SOURCE OF CONFLICT The rich get richer; the poor get poorer. As this rule has applied to individuals, it has apparently...problems. These problems resulting from poverty create a dangerous threat to the stability of the world. This does not mean that poor countries will

  16. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  17. Rethinking the measures of poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sallila, Seppo; Hiilamo, Heikki; Sund, Reijo

    2004-01-01

    This study attempts to introduce a new method to measure relative income poverty. The aim is to find a solution which will combine information both on the depth of poverty and the quantity of the poor, i.e. the number of people living in poverty. Furthermore, a yardstick is sought which would be relatively simple and easy to understand, as these properties would facilitate the use of the new method in sociological poverty research and political decision making. The paper begins by discussing ...

  18. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  19. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  20. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  1. An International Inquiry: Stories of Poverty--Poverty Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffetelli Parker, Darlene; Craig, Cheryl J.

    2017-01-01

    This article features an international inquiry of two high-poverty urban schools, one Canadian and one American. The article examines poverty in terms of "small stories" that educators and students live and tell, often on the edges, unheard and unaccounted for in grand narratives. It also expands the story constellations approach to…

  2. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  3. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  4. Poverty and Development——Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全辉霞

    2008-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the developing countries have made remarkable progress, but they feel that rapid economic growth has failed to eliminate the widespread absolute poverty except China. In order to fight against poverty, Chinese government has adopted a few measures.

  5. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  6. Measuring Chronic Non-Income Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, Stephan; Günther, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    An increasing interest in poverty dynamics has lately also led to an extensive literature on the analysis of chronic poverty. Based on Amartya Sen?s groundbreaking work on capabilities and functionings static poverty measures have long used non-income indicators. In contrast, measures of poverty dynamics - including chronic poverty – have in general conceptualised poverty only in an income dimension. Hence, this paper first critically discusses the conceptual and empirical potentials and limi...

  7. Income and wealth poverty in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    In general, poverty measures are estimated by applying income information. However, only using income data for calculating relative poverty might lead to an incomplete view. For example, a household can be under a poverty threshold even if a household member owns real estate or equity. In this thesis, at risk of income poverty in Germany is estimated. In order to get a more complete picture of at risk of poverty, a multidimensional approach is applied. Not only at risk of income poverty, also...

  8. 77 FR 18865 - Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA); Lower Living Standard Income Level (LLSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... poverty line or 70 percent of the LLSIL. This issuance provides the Secretary's annual LLSIL for 2012 and references the current 2012 Health and Human Services ``Poverty Guidelines.'' DATES: This notice is effective... Health and Human Services Web site at http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/12poverty.shtml to find the...

  9. Poverty and Human Rights: New Direction in Poverty Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pihri Buhaerah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to support the argument that poverty is multidimensional and part of human rights concern. In doing so, this paper uses relevant literature review on poverty issues. This paper finds that the capability approach is a useful conceptual framework to link conventional approach with human rights and support the argument that poverty is multidimensional. Under this perspective, there are two prerequisites cases of non-fulfillment of human rights can be counted as poverty, namely (i the human rights involved must be those that correspond to the capabilities that are considered basic by a given society; and (ii inadequate command over economic resources must play a role in the causal chain leading to the non-fulfillment of human rights. Furthermore, there are three different ways in which human rights can be relevant to poverty: constitutive relevance, instrumental relevance, and constraint-based relevance.

  10. Protected areas and poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  11. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  12. Poverty alleviation project review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Braun_2003.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4851 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Braun_2003.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 www.csir.co.za CSIR Poverty Alleviation..., Carding, Roving, Yarn formation Manufacturing (SMME): Knitting / Weaving CASHMERE IS KING Stakeholder: Dept. of Science and Technology Funders of the Cashmere Project Role Players: Get the buy-in and determine roles of each • Department...

  13. Gender, poverty and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chhachhi (Amrita); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViews on poverty are deeply rooted in cultural frameworks about the human condition shaped by histories. In the debate on modernity, perspectives on poverty oscillate between: a) making the poor -- their "morals" and "culture" -- responsible for their own situation and b) positioning the

  14. Gender, poverty and social justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chhachhi (Amrita); T-D. Truong (Thanh-Dam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractViews on poverty are deeply rooted in cultural frameworks about the human condition shaped by histories. In the debate on modernity, perspectives on poverty oscillate between: a) making the poor -- their "morals" and "culture" -- responsible for their own situation and b) positioning the

  15. Nebraska's Families: Poverty Despite Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazere, Edward B.; Ostrom, Kristin Anderson

    The high poverty rate (13.8 percent) among Nebraska's children is cause for concern, since there is strong evidence that poverty can hinder development and adversely affect children's ability to become productive adults. It is commonly assumed that poor children live in families where parents could work but do not. Yet in Nebraska, of poor…

  16. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Patricio; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor; Noussair, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We study whether poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared t

  17. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity. PMID:28125621

  18. Exposure to Poverty and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Patricio S; Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor H; Noussair, Charles N

    2017-01-01

    We study whether exposure to poverty can induce affective states that decrease productivity. In a controlled laboratory setting, we find that subjects randomly assigned to a treatment, in which they view a video featuring individuals that live in extreme poverty, exhibit lower subsequent productivity compared to subjects assigned to a control treatment. Questionnaire responses, as well as facial recognition software, provide quantitative measures of the affective state evoked by the two treatments. Subjects exposed to images of poverty experience a more negative affective state than those in the control treatment. Further analysis shows that individuals in a more positive emotional state exhibit less of a treatment effect. Also, those who exhibit greater attentiveness upon viewing the poverty video are less productive. The results are consistent with the notion that exposure to poverty can induce a psychological state in individuals that adversely affects productivity.

  19. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  20. Poverty, sex and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the relative importance of economic factors (notably poverty) and sexual behavior in driving the AIDS epidemic. This paper draws on relevant research and cross-country regression analysis to argue that the impact of economic determinants is dwarfed by contextual factors within Africa. The regression analysis suggests that controlling for per capita income, calories per capita and the ratio of female to male participation rates (none of which were statistically significant): being a Southern African country increases expected HIV prevalence 8.3 times; being in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa 3 times; being a predominantly Protestant country 2.5 times; and being a predominantly Muslim country reduces expected HIV prevalence to 62% of the base case. Including the share of income going to the poor did not improve the model and was itself statistically insignificant. The analysis suggests that poverty may play a role in the HIV epidemic in some countries (and may well be a factor affecting the vulnerability of some people to HIV infection in all countries) but that its overall impact is dwarfed by social and behavioral factors.

  1. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  2. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  3. Energy poverty in rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Douglas F. [Senior Energy Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Khandker, Shahidur R. [Lead Economist, Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Samad, Hussain A. [Consultant, World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty. (author)

  4. Popular perceptions of poverty in Dutch society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, L.C.J.M.; van Oorschot, W.J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on poverty are mainly engaged with the definition and measurement of poverty, while the issue of what people consider reasons for living in need is often neglected. In this article we explore four types of poverty explanations based on a) the distinction between poverty as a matter of fate

  5. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  6. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS...

  7. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  8. Growth, poverty and chronic poverty in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from 15 Communities 1994-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hoddinott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines growth, poverty and chronic poverty in 15 Ethiopian villages between 1994 and 2004. Growth and poverty reduction in these communities was substantial; headcount poverty fell from 48 to 35 percent. However, there is also movement in and out of poverty over this period and a

  9. Growth, poverty and chronic poverty in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from 15 Communities 1994-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hoddinott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines growth, poverty and chronic poverty in 15 Ethiopian villages between 1994 and 2004. Growth and poverty reduction in these communities was substantial; headcount poverty fell from 48 to 35 percent. However, there is also movement in and out of poverty over this period and a signif

  10. Vaccines against poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  11. Inequality, Poverty, Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic connections of globalization, the roots of this phenomenon and its implications for presence. In the 70´, the economic bases of developed countries started changing. Since then the economic power of transnational corporations has risen. The TNCs change the international division of labor and divide the production cycle in an unprecedented manner. The economic sovereignty of countries weakens. All these factors influence the position of labor and consequently phenomena like unemployment, poverty and uncertainty. Since the 70´s the wage share, one of the most important macroeconomic indicators, has started sinking in developed contries. This means that a higher proportion of output goes to capital, i.e. to profits. Unemployment in developed countries has also changed its form since the 70´s – it has become structural and long-term one. Forms of precarious labor increase significantly and in the developed countries (especially obviously in the US the phenomenon of working poverty appears. Hand in hand with these phenomena goes the increase in inequality, of all developed countries again mostly in the US. The implications are not only social, such as the preservation of elite, i.e. the tendency towards oligarchization and decrease in social mobility. These implications are also connected with the debt phenomenon, which serves as a factor of discipline and system preservation, or respectively the postponement of weakened purchasing power of the lower and middle income classes. The rise in insecurity and the impossibility to identify oneself with the job has its political implications as well. In the context of reflecting the problem itself it takes form of various social protests (such as Occupy Wall Street, but also can be shown in the rise of various xenophobe and extreme right movements that destabilize the whole political system, including doubting the regime of democracy as such.

  12. Assessing poverty: some reflections on the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, B

    1995-11-01

    "This paper examines the quantitative poverty measurement literature. After describing the literature a number of issues in poverty research are discussed. It can be concluded that the framework for poverty assessments is not always fixed. Much has been written about the poverty line but the issue of updating it seems to have attracted less attention than deserved. Substantial advancements in poverty research have been gained by fuller reports on the extent of poverty through the use of poverty indices and because of increased availability of panel data."

  13. Peru : Opportunities for All, Peru Poverty Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Peru faces high levels of poverty and inequality. In 2004, over half of Peru's population was poor and about 20 percent were extremely poor. Following improvements during the 1990s, poverty increased in the wake of the 1998 economic crisis, while extreme poverty remained stable. Notwithstanding the economic recovery since 2001, with a strong positive impact in reducing extreme poverty, progress on poverty rates however, has been limited to rural areas. A main focus of this report is to explai...

  14. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    OpenAIRE

    Svein Jentoft; Paul Onyango; Mohammad Mahmudul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, sec...

  15. Effects of poverty on education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ronald Buck; Joe Deutsch

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effects of poverty on education. Many different aspects contribute to a community becoming impoverished such as deindustrialization, high unemployment rates, untreated mental health, and violent crimes...

  16. Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    Teshome Kebede and M. K. Sharma: Determinant of Poverty in Ethiopia. 114. 1. ... share of the population that is multidimensional poor, adjusted by the intensity ... nutrition, as well as clothing, housing and health care and education that can.

  17. Population growth, poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibirige, J S

    1997-07-01

    One of the most popular explanations for the many problems that face Africa is population growth. Africa's population has doubled since 1960. Africa has the highest fertility rate in the world and the rate of population growth is higher than in any other region. At the same time, Africa faces a social and economic situation that is viewed by many as alarming. Among the problems that devastate Africa is that of persistent poor health. Africa has lower life expectancy, higher mortality rates and is affected by more disease and illness conditions than any other region. Focusing on sub-Saharan Africa, this paper examines the relationship between population growth, poverty and poor health. While most analyses have focused on population growth as an original cause of poverty and underdevelopment, this paper argues that while both population growth and poor health play a significant role in exacerbating the problem of poverty, they are themselves primary consequences of poverty rather than its cause.

  18. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical ..... mansions, flats – whatever materials, technologies, skills, or functional ideas .... Although many people have an intuitive understanding of what the ...

  19. Poverty determinants in Isla Grande

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William Orlando Prieto Bustos

    2011-01-01

      This document contrasts the estimations of a nonlinear fixed effects model for determining poverty with a linear fixed event model for income generation for a sample of 136 persons using data panels for 2007 and 2009...

  20. Poverty Alleviation and Equity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle, Edwin; Reyes, Celia M.

    1998-01-01

    Recent Philippine data indicate that the needs of the poor, which are met unsatisfactorily, include productive employment, access to quality education, access to basic health services, potable water, sanitation facilities and electricity. This paper emphasizes that eradicating poverty entails effective poverty alleviation strategy as an integral part of the government programs. Strategies should be focused on broad-based economic growth for employment generation and livelihood opportunities. ...

  1. Joining together to combat poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development.

  2. [Medicine inspired by poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, H

    2000-05-13

    Since his arrival in Egypt in 1994 the author joined a number of archaeological expeditions as a surveyor and part-time physician. During this latter activity he came into contact with the beliefs and practices of the local workmen and those of the Ababda Bedouin in particular. Living a harsh life in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, their medicine seems to be inspired by poverty. Widely used for all internal disorders are 'kaya bil-naar': oval scars made with red-hot metal instruments. Another, less common, form of scarification is 'mi'ah-hed'asher', three parallel lines carved deeply into the cheek of the patient. 'Muhawy' is the bite of a snake into the earlobe of the patient, to prevent snake-bites. Another prophylactic is the 'higab', a small leather pouch containing a magical object or text. Therapies for less serious disorders include the use of herbs, spices and foodstuffs, often prepared in special ways. Externally, car fuel and axle grease are widely used. With the development of the Red Sea coast for tourism, the life of the Ababda Bedouin will change fundamentally. The above practices are likely to be replaced by Western medicine, probably a change for the better for these people.

  3. Clinical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of the Advancing practice series which is aimed at exploring practice issues in more depth, considering topics that are frequently encountered and facilitating the development of new insights. Elaine Uppal focuses on the importance of all midwives developing guideline writing skills to ensure that local, national and international midwifery/maternity guidelines are up to date, relevant and reflect midwifery knowledge alongside 'gold' standard evidence. The article aims to consider the development, use and critical appraisal of clinical guidelines. It will define and explain guidelines; discuss their development and dissemination; and consider issues relating to their use in practice. Techniques to critique and develop guidelines using the AGREE tool will be outlined in the form of practice challenges to be undertaken by the individual or in a group.

  4. 78 FR 39730 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-11; HHS Computer Match No. 1302

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-11; HHS Computer Match No. 1302 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of... establishment of a CMP that CMS intends to conduct with State-based Administering Entities (AEs). Under this...

  5. 78 FR 50419 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-10; HHS Computer Match No. 1310

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-10; HHS Computer Match No. 1310 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of... establishment of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), United...

  6. 78 FR 49524 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-08; HHS Computer Match No. 1309

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-08; HHS Computer Match No. 1309 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of... establishment of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), a Bureau of...

  7. 78 FR 49525 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-06; HHS Computer Match No. 1308

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-06; HHS Computer Match No. 1308 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of... establishment of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Veterans Health Administration (VHA),...

  8. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching... & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching... amended, this notice announces the renewal of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Purchased Care...

  9. Child poverty can be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  10. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of [(3)H]HS665, a novel, highly selective radioligand for the kappa opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Elena; Mallareddy, Jayapal Reddy; Tóth, Géza; Schmidhammer, Helmut; Spetea, Mariana

    2015-03-18

    Herein we report the radiolabeling and pharmacological investigation of a novel radioligand, the N-cyclobutylmethyl substituted diphenethylamine [(3)H]HS665, designed to bind selectively to the kappa opioid peptide (KOP) receptor, a target of therapeutic interest for the treatment of a variety of human disorders (i.e., pain, affective disorders, drug addiction, and psychotic disorders). HS665 was prepared in tritium-labeled form by a dehalotritiated method resulting in a specific activity of 30.65 Ci/mmol. Radioligand binding studies were performed to establish binding properties of [(3)H]HS665 to the recombinant human KOP receptor in membranes from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing human KOP receptors (CHOhKOP) and to the native neuronal KOP receptor in guinea pig brain membranes. Binding of [(3)H]HS665 was specific and saturable in both tissue preparations. A single population of high affinity binding sites was labeled by [(3)H]HS665 in membranes from CHOhKOP cells and guinea pig brain with similar equilibrium dissociation constants, Kd, 0.45 and 0.64 nM, respectively. Average receptor density of [(3)H]HS665 recognition sites were 5564 and 154 fmol/mg protein in CHOhKOP cells and guinea pig brain, respectively. This study shows that the new radioligand distinguishes and labels KOP receptors specifically in neuronal and cellular systems expressing KOP receptors, making this molecule a valuable tool in probing structural and functional mechanisms governing ligand-KOP receptor interactions in both a recombinant and native in vitro setting.

  11. The Africanization of poverty: a retrospective on "Make Poverty History".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the British campaign coalition Make Poverty History represented Africa throughout 2005. Focusing particularly on the G8 Gleneagles summit, Make Poverty History (MPH) asserted a series of justice claims which had no geographical reference. Nevertheless, as a result of internal tensions within the coalition, and especially as a result of the ways in which MPH interacted with other political agencies as the summit approached, MPH's messages became increasingly interpolated by references to Africa as a result of the emergence of government, media, and celebrity involvement. The result of this was that global poverty increasingly became an African issue. As 2005 became the "Year of Africa," the justice messages that constituted MPH were largely effaced by the more familiar imperial legacy which represents Africa as a place of indigence in need of outside assistance.

  12. [An end to poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  13. German Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Gia P; Leifeld, Ludger

    2016-10-01

    Because of its frequency, diverticular disease is a burden on health care systems. Only few formal guidelines covering all aspects of the disease exist. Here, some selected statements from the German guidelines are given. The guidelines include significant recommendations for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. Both diagnosis and management depend definitely on clear definitions of the situation of an individual patient. Therefore, a new classification is proposed that is based on earlier suggestions. An internationally established classification would not only enable better patient care but could also lead to studies with comparable results.

  14. Summary guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Painuly, J.P.; Turkson, J.; Meyer, H.J.; Markandya, A.

    1999-09-01

    This document is a summary version of the methodological guidelines for climate change mitigation assessment developed as part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) project Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations; Methodological Guidelines. The objectives of this project have been to develop a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can use in the construction of national climate change mitigation policies and in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC. The methodological framework developed in the Methodological Guidelines covers key economic concepts, scenario building, modelling tools and common assumptions. It was used by several country studies included in the project. (au) 13 refs.

  15. Indicators System for Poverty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.

  16. Metadata Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides guidelines on metadata and metadata requirements for ServCat documents. Information on metadata is followed by an instructional flowchart and...

  17. The Dynamics and Persistence of Poverty: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Devicienti; Valentina Gualtieri

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the dynamics and persistence of poverty in Italy during the nineties, using the ECHP, 1994-2001. Various definitions of poverty are analyzed in parallel, income poverty, subjective poverty and a multidimensional index of life-style deprivation. For each poverty definition, the hazard rates of leaving poverty and re-entering into it are estimated and combined to compute a measure of poverty persistence that takes account of individuals’ repeated spells in poverty. The esti...

  18. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  19. Towards Sustainable Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    resources is concerned, disparities in access to health and education, macro- economic ... measuring the level of poverty based on people's ability to have access to ... meaning of poverty still tends towards lack and below average and poor.

  20. Poverty Could Make Lupus Even Worse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165745.html Poverty Could Make Lupus Even Worse Second study saw ... 19, 2017 FRIDAY, May 19, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Poverty and race are tied to the health of ...

  1. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction in China and ... the same poverty background and socio economic history makes it proper for ... Using questionnaire and secondary data for statistical analysis and growth ...

  2. Poverty measurement for a binational population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Alves Pena

    2013-01-01

      Traditional poverty measures are inappropriate for migrant populations. Frequently cited poverty thresholds are calculated under assumptions that individuals and their families face only one set of prices annually...

  3. Poverty's Impact on A Child's Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162949.html Poverty's Impact on a Child's Mental Health Poor kids ... Jan. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Growing up in poverty exposes children to greater levels of stress, which ...

  4. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  5. Energy and poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghir, J. [The World Bank Group, Washington DC (United States)

    2004-05-01

    The energy community has its work cut out for it: 1.6 billion people lack access to electricity, and 2.4 billion still rely on traditional biomass fuels. This deprivation in energy has enormous impacts on the lives of poor people. Strong links between the energy sector and poverty reduction (through income, health, education, gender, and the environment) underscore the importance of the energy sector in social and economic development. They also point to the importance of the energy sector working closely with other sectors in tackling energy deprivation. If it does so, the world's poor people can look forward to enjoying the same benefits of modern energy as its affluent people do. Even so, ending energy deprivation will not be easy. It calls for tough public policy choices and sustained commitment. And the energy business is such that these choices require a delicate balancing act: provide enough subsidies and financing to make modern energy accessible to the poor, yet avoid distorting energy markets by favoring one fuel over another or stifling the markets through counterproductive pricing and subsidy policies. How best to design and implement policies for expanding access to energy is a question requiring close attention to the lessons from experience. But experience already points to some good choices. It shows the importance of removing institutional and regulatory barriers, designing subsidies carefully, ensuring local involvement in the design and delivery of energy services, and protecting the poor during reforms. These policies are not enough to end energy deprivation, but they are certainly necessary for doing so. Moreover, no one way of applying these policies will work under all the widely varying social and economic conditions around the world. Recognizing this, the World Bank is pioneering some of the most innovative research in this area. Where it sees appropriate opportunities, it remains open to providing investment and adjustment lending. It

  6. Social capital formation : a poverty reducing strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2002-01-01

    From the symposium: Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which role for the Civil Society Organizations and the State? - on 28 June 2000 in Geneva The title of the symposium is "Social Capital Formation in Poverty Reduction: Which Role for Civil Society Organizations and the State?". The emphasis here is on poverty and whether poverty reduction can be obtained through a strategy of increased social capital. The emphasis is not on social development in general or the b...

  7. Poverty in China seen from outer space

    OpenAIRE

    Almås, Ingvild; Johnsen, Åshild Auglænd; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of poverty are highly sensitive to price and income measures across time and space. This paper offers a complementary approach to traditional poverty measurement that ensures comparability: we use nighttime light as a proxy for poverty measurement. We measure the percentage of populated areas in China with no nighttime light, and the percentage of the population living in these areas.Between 1992 and 2005, both measures reveal a steady decrease in poverty in China. From 2005 to 2010...

  8. Looking at women's poverty in poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Baysu, Gülseli

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes the internal dynamics of women’s poverty, and how women experience and cope with poverty in poor households. It mainly deals with two points, one regarding the conceptualization of women’s poverty as content and context, and the other regarding the method of investigation. As for the former, women’s poverty is defined as unequal access to resources (social as well as material), responsibilities (particularly the one...

  9. Guinea-Bissau; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (NPRSP) for Guinea-Bissau. The paper discusses the phenomenon of poverty, its dimensions, extent, and distribution by category and region. It provides a background analysis of developments in poverty based on the diagnostic of past economic policies. The paper presents the priority goals in the fight against poverty by articulating a long-term and medium-term vision as well as strategic actions. The operational s...

  10. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  11. Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in

  12. Reducing Poverty on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Dodson, Blanca

    2006-01-01

    Development practitioners have been working for half a century to help pull millions of people out of poverty, disease, and fear. However, the challenge of poverty remains enormous. The disparity in levels of income, health, and education across countries grows greater, even as levels of absolute poverty decline. Many countries have made great achievements, but the lack of capacity to collect ...

  13. Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

  14. Poverty Dynamics: the case of the Maldives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. de Kruijk (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPoverty dynamics research leads to a better understanding of poverty than point-in-time studies. We have executed a comprehensive longitudinal poverty study based on 3 large-scale household surveys carried out on all 200 inhabited islands in the Maldives. The first wave was conducted in

  15. The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

  16. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyun Zhao; Zhilan Feng; Carlos Castillo-Chavez

    2014-01-01

    Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  17. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  18. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  19. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  20. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  1. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  2. What do the World Bank's poverty assessments teach us about poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, L.C.; Pyatt, G.; White, H.

    1999-01-01

    Metadata only record As part of the World Bank's poverty reduction strategy, Poverty Assessments have been carried out for a number of countries which analyse who the poor are, the causes of poverty and poverty reduction policies. This article reviews what can be learnt from the twenty-five Assessments prepared for countries in sub-Saharan Africa up to 1996. Whilst other factors are acknowledged in identifying the poor, the Assessments over-emphasize income-poverty defined against an inevi...

  3. Growing out of poverty: trends and patterns of urban poverty in China 1988–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Simon; Song, Lina; Xia, Qingjie

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates trends in absolute poverty in urban China from 1988 to 2002 using the Chinese Household Income Project (CHIP) surveys. Poverty incidence curves are plotted, showing that poverty has fallen markedly during the period regardless of the exact location of the poverty line. Income inequality rose from 1988 to 1995 but has been fairly constant thereafter. Models of the determination of income and poverty reveal widening differentials by education, sex and party membership. Inco...

  4. Optimal multi-dimensional poverty lines: The state of poverty in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Jamal R. M.

    2017-09-01

    Poverty estimation based on calories intake is unrealistic. The established concept of multidimensional poverty has methodological weaknesses in the treatment of different dimensions and there is disagreement in methods of combining them into a single poverty line. This paper introduces a methodology to estimate optimal multidimensional poverty lines and uses the Iraqi household socio-economic survey data of 2012 to demonstrate the idea. The optimal poverty line for Iraq is found to be 170.5 Thousand Iraqi Dinars (TID).

  5. Contrasting the Levels of Poverty against the Burden of Poverty: An Indian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Udaya S Mishra; Deepak Singhania

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of levels of poverty across contexts and circumstances overlook the composition and characteristics of the domain of non-poor. But implications of poverty in terms of compromised welfare as well as its potential for alleviation do depend on the structure and composition of the non-poor. On this premise, this note empirically illustrates a contrast between the levels and burden of poverty for Indian states. It finds that burden of poverty is not linear with levels of poverty implyi...

  6. Nursing students' beliefs about poverty and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, Linda I; Sword, Wendy; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Rideout, Elizabeth

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines baccalaureate nursing students' beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health, and the factors that influence these beliefs. The relationship between poverty and health is well established, and poverty remains a persistent problem in many industrialized nations. Nurses' understanding of how poverty influences health will affect how they interact with individual clients as well as the strategies they employ to address poverty-related issues. No studies have examined nursing students' understandings of how poverty influences health and the factors that influence that understanding. A cross-sectional survey of a random sample (n = 740) of basic baccalaureate nursing students was conducted in three Canadian universities in 2000. Students completed a 59-item questionnaire eliciting data on demographic variables, personal and educational exposure to poverty, beliefs about the relationship between poverty and health (myth, drift, behavioural, structural), and attitudes to poverty. Students were most likely to adhere to a structural explanation of the relationship between poverty and health. Very little of the variance in myth and drift explanations was accounted for by course or personal exposure, programme level, age, and attitudes toward poverty. Greater course exposure and more positive attitudes toward the poor predicted support for the structural explanation. Support for the behavioural explanation was influenced by attitudes toward the poor and, to a lesser extent, by course exposure, age, and programme level. Students would benefit from greater exposure to poverty through coursework that emphasizes the structural factors contributing to poverty and its negative health consequences. Classroom experience should be complemented with clinical placements that provide students with opportunities to interact with families living in poverty and to work collaboratively with others to address the causes and consequences of poverty at community

  7. How Poverty Affects Classroom Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    "Poverty" is an uncomfortable word. Teachers are often unsure what to expect from kids from low-income households and what to do differently as a result. Well-known author and educator Eric Jensen points to seven differences that show up in school between low- and middle-income children. By understanding what they are and how to address…

  8. Informal export barriers and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido G.

    2004-01-01

    The author investigates the poverty impacts of informal export barriers like transport costs, cumbersome customs practices, costly regulations, and bribes. He models these informal barriers as export taxes that distort the efficient allocation of resources. In low-income agricultural economies, this distortion lowers wages and household agricultural income, thereby leading to higher pover...

  9. Poverty among Elderly in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  10. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  11. Dietary guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling

    2015-01-01

    Dietary guidelines are issued regularly in most developed countries. In almost all cases they are concerned solely with the nutritional aspects of food and eating and are based on an understanding of food exclusively as a source of nutrients. In recent years, however, a growing number of proposals...... in a number of countries have addressed the issue of making dietary guidelines that integrate health and sustainability, but in all cases they have been met with different kinds of resistance. This article reviews the development towards an integrated understanding of health and sustainability in relation...... and the role of expert cultures for the elaboration and communication of messages about health and sustainability. Finally, the article briefly points to some answers to the complexity of issues surrounding the creation of dietary guidelines...

  12. The Evolution of Elderly Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Milligan

    2007-01-01

    The drop in income poverty among the elderly in Canada over the last generation has been well-documented. In this paper, I extend the calculation of head-count measures of poverty to all currently available microdata, spanning the years 1973 to 2003. I then generate consumption poverty measures spanning 1969 to 2004 and compare to the income poverty results. For both income and consumption, I implement a relative poverty measure that uses the wellbeing of working age families as a benchmark f...

  13. Understanding energy poverty - Case study: Tajikistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robic, Slavica; Olshanskaya, Marina; Vrbensky, Rastislav; Morvaj, Zoran

    2010-09-15

    Access and affordability to energy services determine the state of energy poverty; however, there is no widely applicable definition of energy poverty and no universal set of measures for its eradication exists. This paper offers a new definition and possible solution for decrease, and eventually eradication, of energy poverty for the specific case of Tajikistan. As eradication of energy poverty needs to go in hand with nature preservation and economic development, authors provide possible approach to decrease of energy poverty in Tajikistan while simultaneously preserving nature and boosting the local economy.

  14. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... the multi-dimensionality of childhood poverty in Ethiopia....

  15. Mainstreaming Children into National Poverty Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    The purpose of this paper is to assess how the needs of children are incorporated into Ethiopia¿s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP)¿known as the Ethiopian Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Programme 2002-2005 (SDRDP) ¿and to develop policy recommendations for the second PRSP based...... on a comparative content analysis with other countries¿ PRSPs. The paper begins by identifying the key ingredients of a child-centred PRSP, including: consideration of childhood poverty in the document¿s poverty analysis; spaces for consultation with children; childspecific policies and programmes as well as child...... the multi-dimensionality of childhood poverty in Ethiopia....

  16. Levels of poverty and the poverty gap in rural Limpopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Mears

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to obtain a better understanding of the income and expenditure patterns of selected deep rural villages. This is done by measuring the level of poverty and/or the poverty gap of 132 households in Limpopo, one of the poorest provinces in South Africa. Problem investigated: The Millennium Declaration symbolises the commitment to end extreme poverty, but limited data is available for rural areas to inform policy decisions. The relative income shares for individuals, households and percentile groups within a population provide the best information on poverty for policy formulation. The nature and size distribution of income are therefore central to analysing the poverty problem within low-income areas. The survey area is one of the poorest areas in South Africa, and shows what data is needed to measure and understand the extent of poverty. Design/Method/Approach: A representative sample of 132 households was drawn, which represents 6,9 percent of the estimated 1900 households in selected villages of rural Limpopo. A total of 740 household members were represented in the survey, with an average of 5,6 members per household. Originality/Value: Although this is a relatively small sample, it generated much-needed data on this very poor area of South Africa. Detailed empirical data on the income and expenditure patterns is not available, especially for rural areas. The socio-economic data from this research supported an important health project of the Water and Health Research Unit (WHRU of the University of Johannesburg. The article also lays the foundation for further research in this field of study, facilitating engagement with a number of related debates such as those about satisfaction of life, vulnerability to poverty, the geography of deprivation and the mapping of poverty. Conclusion: The main finding is that the government provides for many needs of the poor, especially in the deep rural areas. Only

  17. Last word: prisoners of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of poverty and living conditions among the poor in developing countries. The world is divided into the haves and the have nots. The have nots include 1.6 billion who are worse off than they were 15 years ago. 70 countries have 1997 levels of income that are under their income in the 1960s or 1970s. The economic declines in the developing world are "longer and deeper" than the Great Depression of the 1930s. 1.3 billion people live on less than $1. a day, and 3.3 billion live on around $2. a day ($750 per year). This level of poverty occurs in a world where total global income increased during 1960-93 by 6 times to $23 trillion, and average world per capita income tripled. However, 60% of world population live in poverty. The income gap has widened between rich and poor. "The effects of poverty are mediated through low social cohesion, marginalization of poor people, and lack of social participation." The serious health problems of poor people are the result of lack of clean water, decent housing, sanitation, and basic services and the result of despair, anger, fear, worry about debts, job and housing insecurity, and feelings of failure and social alienation. Richard Wilkerson found in a new study that the decline in social cohesion in Eastern Europe and chronic stress may impact on health as seriously as dangerous housing and working conditions among the poor. Polarization, increased inequality, and poverty breed alienation, despair, and crime and challenge principles of justice. Globalization must apply not just to trade and communication but also to social and environmental issues. The global rich with 78% of the global gross domestic product spend only an average of 0.29% of national income on official development aid. Effectiveness in achieving balanced social conditions worldwide will depend on the amount of foreign aid and the actions of recipient countries to strengthen their institutions.

  18. Freedom and poverty in the fishery commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein Jentoft

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In fisheries, alleviating poverty sometimes requires strategies that are inherently in conflict. When aiming to develop a fishery as a means to reduce poverty, its common pool resource basis might be undermined, resulting in greater poverty. But poverty in fisheries is also linked to, or a part of deeper social issues and processes, for instance, the marginalization and exclusion of certain communities. Poverty also has many factors— income, health, literacy, gender, power, security, etc.—all of which make poverty alleviation a particularly “wicked problem” that would require a broad process of political, social and institutional reform. In other words, poverty alleviation is not only an issue of sustainable resource management but also one of societal governance. Drawing from research in small-scale fisheries communities in Nicaragua, Tanzania, and Bangladesh, this paper describes how fishing people cope with poverty. The paper discusses what the governance implications are for alleviating poverty at individual, household and community levels, and argue that both the definition of poverty and poverty alleviation in small-scale fisheries must be rooted in real life experiences.

  19. The effects of poverty on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, J; Duncan, G J

    1997-01-01

    Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health, achievement, and behavior, few measure the effects of the timing, depth, and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and schooling) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty and child outcomes. This article focuses on a recent set of studies that explore the relationship between poverty and child outcomes in depth. By and large, this research supports the conclusion that family income has selective but, in some instances, quite substantial effects on child and adolescent well-being. Family income appears to be more strongly related to children's ability and achievement than to their emotional outcomes. Children who live in extreme poverty or who live below the poverty line for multiple years appear, all other things being equal, to suffer the worst outcomes. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for certain child outcomes. Children who experience poverty during their preschool and early school years have lower rates of school completion than children and adolescents who experience poverty only in later years. Although more research is needed on the significance of the timing of poverty on child outcomes, findings to date suggest that interventions during early childhood may be most important in reducing poverty's impact on children.

  20. REDUCING POVERTY AS A DRIVER OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odoardi Iacopo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is ten years after Lisbon and in the year dedicated to poverty alleviation that this paper is written in order to investigate the implications of the decisions regarding poverty reduction taken by the EU. We present a simple comparison of the risks of poverty in European countries in 2000 and 2008, before and after transfers, and our finding is a positive effect of the policies towards poverty alleviation, even if the risk of poverty is increasing. By studying the correlation between percentage of people that fall below the poverty line and GDP per capita, we do not observe a whole diverse situation in Europe, with only few minor differences between rich and poor countries. We also discuss the importance of alternative approaches in estimating poverty, by means of a multidimensional method which considers a multitude of aspects in the quality of life.

  1. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  2. A Regional Look at Poverty in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Engin Duran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose of this study is to investigate the evolution, geographical distribution and convergence of poverty rates across Turkish  regions over 2006-2013. We use dataset  from TURKSTAT where the povertyrate is calculated using the median-income. Methodologically, Moran’s I tests, Conditional Kernel-Density and Markov Transition Probability Matrices are used. Our analyses indicate three results. First, at national-level, number of people living under poverty and poverty rate have declined. This decline was  observed in Western regions while increase was observed in less developed Eastern regions. Second , poverty rates follow geographically correlated pattern. Third, regional poverty rates do not tend to converge eachother.Keywords: Regional Poverty Rates, Relative Poverty, Spatial Moran’s I Test,Conditional Kernel Density Estimations,Markov Transition Probability MatricesJEL Classification Codes: I32, R12, R52, I30

  3. Spatial determinants of poverty in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwi, Paul O; Ndeng'e, Godfrey; Kristjanson, Patti; Arunga, Mike; Notenbaert, An; Omolo, Abisalom; Henninger, Norbert; Benson, Todd; Kariuki, Patrick; Owuor, John

    2007-10-23

    This article investigates the link between poverty incidence and geographical conditions within rural locations in Kenya. Evidence from poverty maps for Kenya and other developing countries suggests that poverty and income distribution are not homogenous. We use spatial regression techniques to explore the effects of geographic factors on poverty. Slope, soil type, distance/travel time to public resources, elevation, type of land use, and demographic variables prove to be significant in explaining spatial patterns of poverty. However, differential influence of these and other factors at the location level shows that provinces in Kenya are highly heterogeneous; hence different spatial factors are important in explaining welfare levels in different areas within provinces, suggesting that targeted propoor policies are needed. Policy simulations are conducted to explore the impact of various interventions on location-level poverty levels. Investments in roads and improvements in soil fertility are shown to potentially reduce poverty rates, with differential impacts in different regions.

  4. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS in an 18-month old-child presenting as malignant hypertension: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorou Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of hyponatremia and renovascular hypertension is called hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS. Malignant hypertension as a presentation has been reported in adults with HHS but is rare in children. Case presentation An eighteen month-old male presented with drowsiness, sudden onset status epilepticus and blood pressure of 210/160. The electrolytes on admission revealed sodium of 120 mEq/L and potassium of 2.1 mEq/L. The peripheral renin activity (PRA was 172 ng/ml/min (normal 3–11 ng/ml/min and serum aldosterone level was 91 ng/dl (normal 4 to 16 ng/dl. Patient underwent angioplasty with no success, followed by surgical correction. Two years since the diagnosis, the blood pressure is controlled with labetolol and amlodipine (at less than sixth of the pre-operative dosages. The PRA is 2.4 ng/ml/min and aldosterone 15.5 ng/dl. The child not only had three renal arteries on left but all of them were stenosed which to best of our knowledge has not been described. Conclusion As uncommon as HHS with malignant hypertension may be in adults it is under-reported in children and purpose of the case report is to raise its awareness.

  5. Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among high-poverty populations: evidence from the Harlem Household Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A

    2006-08-01

    Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.

  6. Poverty is Not Just an Indicator: The Relationship Between Income, Poverty, and Child Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudry, Ajay; Wimer, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review the evidence on the effects of poverty and low income on children's development and well-being. We argue that poverty is an important indicator of societal and child well-being, but that poverty is more than just an indicator. Poverty and low income are causally related to worse child development outcomes, particularly cognitive developmental and educational outcomes. Mechanisms through which poverty affects these outcomes include material hardship, family stress, parental and cognitive inputs, and the developmental context to which children are exposed. The timing, duration, and community context of poverty also appear to matter for children's outcomes-with early experiences of poverty, longer durations of poverty, and higher concentrations of poverty in the community leading to worse child outcomes.

  7. GRADE guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyatt, Gordon H; Thorlund, Kristian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2013-01-01

    and absolute effects, presenting the ratio of the means of intervention and control groups, and presenting the results in minimally important difference units. We outline the merits and limitations of each alternative and provide guidance for meta-analysts and guideline developers....

  8. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  9. Poverty and inequality issues in Albania: trends and determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Myftaraj (Tomori) Elena

    2010-01-01

    Poverty and inequality are complex and widespread phenomena. Poverty is an indicator and the main factor of inequality, so reduction of poverty is one of the biggest challenges for economic and social consolidation of a country. There are different concepts of poverty, in this paper we are focused on the concept of absolute poverty. The main objective of this paper is to conduct an analysis on the trends of poverty and inequality indicators, as well as an analysis on the reduction of poverty ...

  10. Dynamics of Economic Well-Being: Poverty 1996-1999. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John

    This report examines patterns of poverty using seven different measures: average monthly poverty, episodic poverty, chronic poverty, annual poverty, poverty spells, poverty entry rates, and poverty exit rates. Data come from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and reflect the dynamics of poverty from 1996-1999.…

  11. Do we understand the linkages between economic growth, poverty targets and poverty reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Jensen, Stig Eduard Breitenstein

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate on poverty trends in Africa, looking at the argument for a correspondence between economic growth and poverty reduction. It questions whether a link between economic growth and poverty reduction can be established. We first look at the general picture...... economic growth and poverty reduction; second, that collection and interpretation of poverty data could be biased, with the World Bank, for instance, having an interest in showing improvements in poverty reduction in Africa; and, finally, that the paucity of data needs, at the very least, to be recognised...

  12. Poverty and health in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmert, U; Mielck, A; Shea, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between poverty and several health-related characteristics in West Germany was investigated. Data were derived from the National and Regional Health Surveys conducted in West Germany from 1984 to 1992. 25,544 males and 25,719 females with German nationality aged 25-69 years were examined. Poverty was defined as a household income of 50% less than the mean for West Germany. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between poverty and four health variables: individual health behavior, subjective assessment of health status, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and self-reported prevalence of lifetime chronic diseases. 10.2% of males and 12.8% of females were classified as being below the poverty line. For most but not all health parameters, less favourable results were found for the segment of the population with a household income below the poverty line. The most striking poverty-related differences were observed for lack of regular sport activities, subjective health satisfaction, obesity and myocardial infarction/stroke. Significantly lower prevalence rates for study subjects below the poverty line were observed for hypercholesterolemia in females only. Allergic disorders were the only chronic diseases reported significantly less often in males and females below the poverty line. Poverty has strong effects on individual health status and the prevalence of chronic diseases. Due to the rising unemployment rates in Germany in the last years it is very likely that the strong negative consequences of poverty for health are increasing.

  13. Young child poverty in the United States: Analyzing trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs using the Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pac, Jessica; Nam, JaeHyun; Waldfogel, Jane; Wimer, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Between 1968 and 2013, the poverty rate of young children age 0 to 5 years fell by nearly one third, in large part because of the role played by anti-poverty programs. However, young children in the U.S. still face a much higher rate of poverty than do older children in the U.S. They also continue to have a much higher poverty rate than do young children in other developed countries around the world. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of trends in poverty and the role of anti-poverty programs in addressing poverty among young children, using an improved measure of poverty, the Supplemental Poverty Measure. We examine changes over time and the current status, both for young children overall and for key subgroups (by child age, and by child race/ethnicity). Our findings can be summarized in three key points. First, poverty among all young children age 0–5 years has fallen since the beginning of our time series; but absent the safety net, today’s poverty rate among young children would be identical to or higher than it was in 1968. Second, the safety net plays an increasing role in reducing the poverty of young children, especially among Black non-Hispanic children, whose poverty rate would otherwise be 20.8 percentage points higher in 2013. Third, the composition of support has changed from virtually all cash transfers in 1968, to about one third each of cash, credit and in-kind transfers today. PMID:28659652

  14. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities.

  15. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  16. Methodological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsnaes, K.; Callaway, J.M.; Meyer, H.J.

    1999-04-01

    The guideline document establishes a general overview of the main components of climate change mitigation assessment. This includes an outline of key economic concepts, scenario structure, common assumptions, modelling tools and country study assumptions. The guidelines are supported by Handbook Reports that contain more detailed specifications of calculation standards, input assumptions and available tools. The major objectives of the project have been provided a methodology, an implementing framework and a reporting system which countries can follow in meeting their future reporting obligations under the FCCC and for GEF enabling activities. The project builds upon the methodology development and application in the UNEP National Abatement Coasting Studies (UNEP, 1994a). The various elements provide countries with a road map for conducting climate change mitigation studies and submitting national reports as required by the FCCC. (au) 121 refs.

  17. Jogging Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Jogging guidelines are set forth under the following headings: a) What Is Jogging; c) Why One Should Jog; c) How To Begin; d) What To Wear (with the emphasis on proper shoes); e) When and Where To Jog; and f) How To Jog. A 16-week basic program, outlined for inactive adults, recommends for each week the number of days to exercise, the distance,…

  18. Poverty, income and ill health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T K

    1999-01-01

    The article presents an outline of the relationship between poverty, low income, and poor health conditions. A table shows the differences between central Asia and Western Europe in terms of maternal and child health indicators. Various studies also show that the more polarized the income, the worse the population's health status. Countries with higher per capita gross national product (GNP) tend to have lower infant and maternal mortality. Countries who have achieved low mortality rate despite their low levels of per capita GNP, attribute the result to non-health factors such as the spread of education and the drive to provide access to other basic needs, in addition to low cost health services. It is believed that people from deprived backgrounds are more susceptible to diseases, malnutrition, and despair. This may be due to cutbacks in expenditure on food and lower utilization of health services by the socially deprived. Furthermore, poverty is a major cause of death and misery of children and women both in developed and developing countries. It accounts for the social injustices done to women and undermines the physical, social, intellectual and emotional development of children. New patterns of health care service delivery are being developed by the WHO to improve the state of poverty-stricken countries. The article concludes with sound recommendations for both local and national levels.

  19. Effects of poverty on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Buck

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effects of poverty on education. Many different aspects contribute to a community becoming impoverished such as deindustrialization, high unemployment rates, untreated mental health, and violent crimes. Impoverished communities rural and urban face many issues. These issues include dilapidated housing, lack of access to professional services, and most importantly inferior education. The education is inferior for a number of reasons; students are showing up to school with numerous problems that the teachers are unable to account for through instruction. The school facilities face structural inadequacies which have been proven to have an effect on the quality of instruction. The teachers in the schools, while qualified, are often times not supported by school administration. School administrators are busy with their own issues in determining what areas to allocate their limited budget. Poverty is a vast and complex issue that plagues communities in a seemingly endless cycle. However, working together to find effective ways of solving issues caused by poverty, the future can become a brighter for American youth growing up in poor communities.

  20. On the Robustness of Poverty Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Nhate, Virgulino; Silva, Patricia Castro Da

    Monitoring of poverty requires timely household budget data. However, such data are not available as frequently as needed for policy purposes. Recently, statistical methods have emerged to predict poverty overtime by combining detailed household consumption and expenditure data with more frequent...... data collected from other surveys. In this paper we compare poverty predictions for Mozambique using different source data to test the robustness of the predicted poverty statistics. A critical element in this exercise of predicting poverty overtime is the stability of the parameters that determine...... household consumption. We find that the assumption of stable consumption determinants does not hold for Mozambique during the time period examined. We also examine what drives the resulting predicted poverty statistics. The paper then considers the policy implications of these findings for Mozambique...

  1. Education for the Eradication of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Oriahi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the possible education for the eradication of poverty in Nigeria. It defines poverty as a state pf shortage or deficiency of meeting basic needs. Majors causes of poverty are overpopulation, illiteracy, unemployment, environmental degradation and government insensitive to the welfare of the people. Effects of poverty include homelessness, malnutrition and starvation, illness, crime, violence and antisocial behaviour like Internet Fraud (Yahoo business and Advance Fee Fraud Populace (419. Some poverty eradication strategies highlighted include: (i Organisation of international workshops on eradication of poverty, (ii Respect for human rights, (iii Quality basic education for girls (iv Meaningful contributions by NGOs, (v Provision of jobs for the people. Some recommendations are made for the way forward.

  2. Anti-Poverty Strategies for the UK: Poverty and Crime Review

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, CS; Kingston, S

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature about how and why poverty and crime influence one another, and the benefits to crime reduction of reducing poverty, looks at the implications for practical policies and strategies.

  3. Multidimensional Poverty and Health Status as a Predictor of Chronic Income Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage.

  4. Poverty among the Indigenous Peoples of Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Jamieson

    1999-01-01

    This report is part of a larger project undertaken by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) designed to obtain information which will assist the planning of poverty alleviation programs in a number of countries in Latin America. The specific aim of this report is to identify the conditions of poverty experienced by indigenous peoples in Nicaragua, to outline as far as possible the structural causes of this poverty, and to recommend measures which might be taken to alleviate it.

  5. Small Area Estimation of Poverty Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Villa Juan-Albacea, Zita

    2009-01-01

    In response to high demands for lower level poverty estimates, the National Statistical Coordination Board releases provincial estimates, in addition to the national and regional, starting with the 1997 FIES. However, estimates of the coefficients of variation (CV) of several provincial estimates indicate that the resulting poverty measures are not reliable. Making a decision based on unreliable poverty statistics is very risky especially if the decision to be made relates to the welfare of p...

  6. Cultural diversity and anti-poverty policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michèle; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between culture and behaviour. In fact, we suggest that cultural differences may be positively employed in comprehensive anti-poverty strategies.

  7. Trading Out of Poverty: Some Major Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikić, Mia

    2000-01-01

    What are the ways in which trade (trade liberalisation) may have impact on poverty? This paper looks at some of the findings of the analytical literature on trade-poverty linkages that operate through the impact of trade on income distribution, and through the impact of trade on economic growth. This paper further asks the question whether trade effects on poverty depend on a particular type of trade liberalisation. In particular, it exposes the weaknesses of non-reciprocal trade liberalisati...

  8. Biodiversity conservation and the eradication of poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Aveling, Ros; Brockington, Dan; Dickson, Barney; Elliott, Jo; Hutton, Jon; Roe, Dilys; Vira, Bhaskar; Wolmer, William

    2004-11-12

    It is widely accepted that biodiversity loss and poverty are linked problems and that conservation and poverty reduction should be tackled together. However, success with integrated strategies is elusive. There is sharp debate about the social impacts of conservation programs and the success of community-based approaches to conservation. Clear conceptual frameworks are needed if policies in these two areas are to be combined. We review the links between poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation and present a conceptual typology of these relationships.

  9. Rural poverty and export farming in Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on rural poverty and the dualistic nature of agrarian structures (dualistic farming) in Guatemala - examines level and trend of rural poverty through indicators such as household income, housing, illiteracy and nutrition; notes paradox of high rate of agricultural development and severe poverty in rural areas; analyses nature of agrarian system leading to internal migration of peasant farmers and aspects of rural employment; focuses on high economic growth and l...

  10. The dynamics of poverty and crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and crime are two maladies that plague metropolitan areas. The economic theory of crime demonstrates a direct correlation between poverty and crime. The model considered in this study seeks to examine the dynamics of the poverty-crime system through stability analysis of a system of ordinary differential equations in order to identify cost-effective strategies to combat crime in metropolises.

  11. POVERTY AND LAND POLICY IN CAMBODIA

    OpenAIRE

    Engvall, Anders; Kokko, Ari

    2007-01-01

    Slow agricultural development has restrained economic growth and poverty alleviation in Cambodia. The country's volatile history has left a legacy of weak tenure security and large areas of underutilized land. This study estimates the impact of access to land on poverty in a logistic regression framework using household survey data. Increased access to land is shown to significantly lower the risk of household poverty. Tenure security, land improvements and irrigation strengthens this effect....

  12. Does Inequality Matter for Poverty Reduction? Evidence from Pakistan’s Poverty Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the linkages between poverty, growth and inequality in the context of Pakistan. Time series macro data are used for the period 1979 to 2002. Consistent poverty and inequality measures are interpolated to facilitate the estimation of poverty elasticity with respect to growth and inequality in a multivariate regression framework. The paper also attempts to find out macroeconomic and structural correlates of inequality. The empirical findings—high poverty elasticity with respe...

  13. Poverty, the Underclass, and Immigration: Another Look at the Debate on Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The current popular debate on poverty focuses on the underclass. Poverty is considered, in this context, a problem of unskilled, uneducated individuals or of groups ofpeople whose lifestyles mire them in poverty. In this article, the author argues that the focus on the underclass, and subsequent use of individually and culturally focused explanations for poverty, skew our understanding of the problem and divert our attention from appropriate policy responses. Using evidence from four differen...

  14. Azerbaijan Republic; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews Azerbaijan’s State Program on Poverty Reduction and Economic Development 2003–2005 (SPPRED). The Poverty Reduction Program in Azerbaijan has attracted an extensive and high degree of interest, matching its complexity and scope. The main objective of the SPPRED is to define and measure poverty in Azerbaijan using a variety of indicators, identify the causes of poverty, and develop a strategy to address these causes. The role of a participatory dimension in the SPPRED is ...

  15. PARADOX OF POVERTY IN VILLAGE Ubud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sudipa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research raises poverty as a social reality in the middle of the sparkling tourism in Ubud Village . This study focused on the discussion : ( 1 why is there poverty , ( 2 what efforts the government and other agencies to reduce poverty , and ( 3 how the effects of poverty are emerging . This study used qualitative methods . Data obtained through observation , interviews , and documentation . The results showed , poverty in the village of Ubud , which is caused by external factors such as government policy reference data, which is not clear , the lack of proper diagnosis , addressing poverty is not integrated and overlapping , and the failure of tourism development policies . External factors supported internal factors , namely the economic constraints , resources , and socio-cultural pressures , lifestyle , consumer behavior , asset ownership , land , and the cost of customs and rituals . Government efforts made ??through the program financially and non- financially poverty reduction through policy or regulation , mentoring , and training . NGOs make efforts to non - financially as a companion , mediator , facilitator and prepare sosial.Dampak mapping poverty in the village of Ubud is to reduce public confidence in the government , social conflict , and economic conflicts . The impact on tourism is tourism failing to provide social welfare . The impact for the community is resulting in social inequality , conflict , rising crime , and the inheritance of poverty

  16. Causal Attributions for Poverty in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Vázquez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes attributional differences about causes of poverty in the less developed countries, among Nicaraguan ("actors" and Spanish ("observers" undergraduates. A self–applied questionnaire was used. It included socio–demographic questions and an adaptation of the "Causes of Third World Poverty Questionnaire" (CTWPQ. Results show agreement between Spanish and Nicaraguan in attributions about the main causes of poverty in the less developed countries, although there are differences about the perception of the incidence of the different causes in that situation. Nicaraguan students consider, as causes of poverty, more dispositional attributes about the population in those countries.

  17. Measuring Poverty in order to Eradicate It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Damon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the UN established its Millennium Development Goals, with the notable aim of halving extreme poverty by 2015. That same year, the European Union launched its Lisbon strategy, containing an injunction to “make a decisive impact on the eradication of poverty by 2010”. Since 2007, France has set a national target of reducing poverty by one third over five years. These proactive policies call, in all three cases, for technical elucidation to define and describe poverty. Each of the three scales – French, European and international – has its own approaches and methods of quantification. And yet their similarities are more significant than their differences.

  18. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  19. The Poverty Challenge: How Individual Decision-Making Behavior Influences Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2005-01-01

    What drives poverty? We propose a research approach to study poverty by focusing on individual decision-making behavior in which the interaction between individual's innovativeness and time preference rate is crucial to begin understanding poverty. This approach enables policy makers to formulate

  20. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  1. Poverty dynamics in Germany: Evidence on the relationship between persistent poverty and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Katja; Roosen, Jutta; Jensen, Helen H

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have found poverty to be related to lower levels of health due to poor health behavior such as unhealthy eating, smoking or less physical activity. Longer periods of poverty seem to be especially harmful for individual health behavior. Studies have shown that poverty has a dynamic character. Moreover, poverty is increasingly regarded as being a multidimensional construct and one that considers more aspects than income alone. Against this background this paper analyzes the relationship between health behavior and persistent spells of income poverty as well as a combined poverty indicator using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2000-2010). Next to cross-sectional logistic regression models we estimate fixed-effects models to analyze the effect of persistent poverty on dietary behavior, tobacco consumption, and physical activity. Cross-sectional results suggest that persistent poverty is related to poor health behavior, particularly regarding tobacco consumption and physical activity. Results also show that multidimensional and dynamic aspects of poverty matter. Complementary panel analyses reveal negative effects for the combined poverty indicator only for dietary behavior in the total sample. However, by analyzing the sample by gender we identify further effects of persistent poverty on health behavior. The analyses show that not only do individuals in poverty but also those in precarious situations show health-damaging behavior more often.

  2. The Poverty Challenge: How Individual Decision-Making Behavior Influences Poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2005-01-01

    What drives poverty? We propose a research approach to study poverty by focusing on individual decision-making behavior in which the interaction between individual's innovativeness and time preference rate is crucial to begin understanding poverty. This approach enables policy makers to formulate ef

  3. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  4. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  5. Author Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-01-01

    AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH) accepts only online submission of manuscript(s) by using Open Journal software (OJS) at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH)? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly ...

  6. Water poverty and rural development: Evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matshe, I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available link between household water and economic poverty of rural households, with households’ total monthly income used as an indicator of economic poverty. An adaptation of a comprehensive water poverty index, which considers water access, quality, use...

  7. The role of the health sector in addressing poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D L

    2001-01-01

    To explore Canadian health sector initiatives addressing poverty. Information about 224 health sector initiatives addressing poverty was collected from Health Canada, provincial/territorial health ministries, and health regions. Health Canada, 12 provincial/territorial health ministries, and at least one third of health regions have been undertaking poverty-related initiatives. Almost two thirds (64.7%) of initiatives focused on the consequences of poverty. Much less frequent were initiatives that aim to: raise awareness about poverty; prevent people from becoming poor; enhance skills and education of people in poverty; and alter social and economic conditions contributing to poverty. While strategies that focus on the consequences of poverty likely enhance the health of Canadians in poverty, these strategies do little to reduce poverty rates. Efforts to improve the health of both individual Canadians in poverty and society as a whole will be limited until the health sector uses more strategies that challenge fundamental structural conditions contributing to poverty.

  8. Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty alleviation with economic growth strategy: Prospects and challenges in ... by making a choice between growth-promoting policies and poverty-focused ... poverty through a broadly-based growth process with an explicit orientation to ...

  9. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S

    2016-02-01

    China's economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households.

  10. Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis using a balanced panel from rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    China’s economic reforms starting in the late 1970s have resulted in rapid economic growth, with annual growth in gross domestic product averaging greater than 10 percent per year for more than thirty years. Accompanying this rapid growth in national accounts have been rapid and widespread reductions in poverty. With these reductions in poverty, however, there has often been observed an increase in income inequality, both between as well as within rural and urban sectors. This rising income gap challenges the notion that economic reforms in China have been as successful as the poverty statistics would suggest. In this paper, we suggest that an alternative view would be to consider the effects of these reforms on changing the chronic nature of poverty and reducing household vulnerability to poverty. Using a balanced panel from rural China from 1991 through 2006, we find that most poverty among our sample has shifted from being chronic in nature to being transient, with households either shifting into a state of being non-poor moving in and out of poverty. Among our sample, vulnerability to poverty has been declining over time, but the declines are not uniform over time or space. We decompose household vulnerability status into two proximate causes: low expected income and high income variability, finding vulnerability increasingly due to income variability. Additionally, we demonstrate that vulnerable households have very different characteristics than non-vulnerable households. PMID:26855470

  11. The Dynamics and Persistence of Poverty: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Devicienti; Valentina Gualtieri; Mariacristina Rossi

    2010-01-01

    This article studies the dynamics and persistence of poverty in Italy during the nineties (1994-2001). Two definitions of poverty are analyzed: income poverty and a multidimensional index of life-style deprivation. For both definitions, poverty exit and re-entry rates are estimated and combined to compute measures of poverty persistence over multiple spells. A picture of high poverty turnover emerges according to either definition. Multi-spell hazard rate models have been estimated to assess ...

  12. Poverty and development thinking:synthesis or uneasy compromise?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how the concept of poverty has waxed and waned within development thought and how these fluctuations have shaped development policy and action towards, or away from, direct goals of poverty reduction or eradication. It provides an overview of poverty in social thought; examines the contestations over how poverty analysis is positioned in development theory; charts the conceptual contestations around poverty; presents a brief history of poverty in development thoug...

  13. Determinants Of Poverty During Transition: Household Survey Evidence From Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Brück, Tilman; Danzer, Alexander M.; Muravyev, Alexander; Weißhaar, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the incidence, the severity and the determinants of household poverty in Ukraine during transition using two comparable surveys from 1996 and 2004. We measure poverty using income and consumption and contrast the effects of various poverty lines. Poverty in both periods follows some of the determinants commonly identified in the literature, including greater poverty among households with children and with less education. We also identify specific features of poverty in tran...

  14. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  15. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  16. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  17. The Poverty Burden: A Measure of the Difficulty of Ending Extreme Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin; Renuka Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an extension of the commonly used poverty gap measure that may be used to address the question of whether the elimination of poverty is a feasible objective, given sufficient political commitment. The resources potentially available to address poverty may be measured by the total amount by which the incomes of the non-poor exceed the same poverty line. The ratio of the poverty gap to the resources potentially available is equal to the proportional tax rate on income...

  18. Halving poverty in South Africa: Growth and distributional aspects ; distributional implications of halving poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tregenna, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Declaration commits to halving extreme poverty between 2000 and 2015. The South African government has set a goal of halving poverty by 2014, although the meaning of this goal has not yet been defined. This article specifies government's stated target of halving poverty by 2014 in terms of specific measures of the poverty gap and poverty headcount ratio, using income and expenditure survey microdata. With the poverty line as defined here, approximately half the S...

  19. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  20. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharama, Motilal

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line) is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that…

  1. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  2. Alternative weighting structures for multidimensional poverty assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Han, Wei; Miniaci, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    A multidimensional poverty assessment requires a weighting scheme to aggregate the well-being dimensions considered. We use Alkire and Foster’s (2011a) framework to discuss the channels through which a change of the weighting structure affects the outcomes of the analysis in terms of overall poverty

  3. Poverty, Education and Work: Some Introductory Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostino, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that poverty must be understood within a human rights approach, moving beyond a narrow economic definition. Recognising the multidimensional character of poverty also leads to acknowledge that there are no universal answers. Solutions must be culturally determined and this poses one of the major challenges for adult education…

  4. Computing poverty measures with survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Van Kerm

    2009-01-01

    I discuss estimation of poverty measures from household survey data in Stata and show how to derive analytic standard errors that take into account survey design features. Where needed, standard errors are adjusted for the estimation of the poverty line as a fraction of the mean or median income. The linearization approach based on influence functions is generally applicable to many estimators.

  5. The Private Sector and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) is to create opportunities for people to escape poverty and improve their lives. There is a subjective dimension to poverty which relates to peoples’ perceptions and translates into such basic human concerns as self-confidence, motivation, and hope. Successful development projects tap into this dimension and enhance the meaning peo...

  6. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming

    This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…

  7. Multidimensional Poverty and Child Survival in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations) and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. Objectives and Methodology Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. Results The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. Conclusion Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population. PMID:22046384

  8. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  9. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  10. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  11. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  12. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  13. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  14. Human Development, Inequality and Poverty: empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Seth; Antonio Villar

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a discussion on the empirical findings surrounding the design of human development, inequality and poverty measures. We focus on the United Nations Development Program approach to those issues, in particular regarding the human development index and the multidimensional poverty index.

  15. Poverty - The road ahead. A theological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. J. Meiring

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of the Church in combating poverty in South Africa. After a brief discussion of Biblical perspectives on poverty, an overview of the involvement of the Church throughout history, especially during the second half of the 20th century, is given.

  16. On Capability Approach, Poverty and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojiu Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of development is to face up with the challenge of the issue of poverty, which directly is associated with the ultimate goal of social, political and economic development. If the poverty has not been properly handled, development will be inefficient and unsustainable. This paper briefly indicates the main idea of Amartya Sen’s capability approach, then utilizing the approach to analyze poverty and the bottleneck in dealing such issues. It illustrates the inter-relationship of capability, poverty and corruption, and demonstrates that corruption is both the cause and the consequence of poverty and the failure of capability. When there corruption comes, the essential power to alleviate and eliminate poverty such as political accountability, transparency, engagement and openness are all spoiled and even wiped off. Political accountability, transparence, engagement are of great importance to both anti-corruption and poverty and promotion of capability. Economic aid for the poor and needy should be reinforced by fostering and promoting the capability of the poor and needy, so that the purpose of eliminating poverty and corruption could be achieved.

  17. Dynamics of Poverty and Wellbeing in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    Understanding change is critical to policy formulation. Who benefits, who ... The papers cover changes in consumption poverty, multi-dimensional poverty, food security .... The first two papers in this special issue examine cross-sectional trends and panel dynamics of .... Rather than using NFEs to supplement periods of low ...

  18. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  19. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  20. Impact of poverty on women's health.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Women's health is determined not only by biology but also by social context. While the health of both men and women is adversely affected by poverty, a higher proportion of women suffer from its effects because of increasing "feminization of poverty." The extent of this phenomenon, its multiple roots, and the role physicians could play in addressing it are discussed.

  1. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  2. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  3. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  4. Alternative weighting structures for multidimensional poverty assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavapozzi, Danilo; Han, Wei; Miniaci, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    A multidimensional poverty assessment requires a weighting scheme to aggregate the well-being dimensions considered. We use Alkire and Foster’s (2011a) framework to discuss the channels through which a change of the weighting structure affects the outcomes of the analysis in terms of overall poverty

  5. Multidimensional poverty and child survival in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Mohanty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though the concept of multidimensional poverty has been acknowledged cutting across the disciplines (among economists, public health professionals, development thinkers, social scientists, policy makers and international organizations and included in the development agenda, its measurement and application are still limited. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY: Using unit data from the National Family and Health Survey 3, India, this paper measures poverty in multidimensional space and examine the linkages of multidimensional poverty with child survival. The multidimensional poverty is measured in the dimension of knowledge, health and wealth and the child survival is measured with respect to infant mortality and under-five mortality. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and the life table methods are used in the analyses. RESULTS: The estimates of multidimensional poverty are robust and the inter-state differentials are large. While infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate are disproportionately higher among the abject poor compared to the non-poor, there are no significant differences in child survival among educationally, economically and health poor at the national level. State pattern in child survival among the education, economical and health poor are mixed. CONCLUSION: Use of multidimensional poverty measures help to identify abject poor who are unlikely to come out of poverty trap. The child survival is significantly lower among abject poor compared to moderate poor and non-poor. We urge to popularize the concept of multiple deprivations in research and program so as to reduce poverty and inequality in the population.

  6. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  7. TOURISM AND POVERTY IN BADUNG REGENCY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Patera

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and poverty’s phenomenon had already been known since the birth of human civilization. In the 1980s poverty became a serious concern of practitioners and scholars in various part of the world, including Indonesia. Poverty is not only understood in understanding as an abstract concept, but also as a reality of economic injustice and inability to meet basic human needs in some rich countries but also in many developing countries in the world. The problem of poverty is a fundamental and tourism is one of the many ways to solve this. The objective of this paper is to study the role of tourism to poverty alleviation including: 1 to analyze the influence of tourism development toward economic performance; 2 to analyze the effect of economic performance on poverty eradication; 3 to analyze the influence of tourism on poverty alleviation; 4 to formulate a strategy to increase tourism's role in poverty alleviation in Badung Regency. This study uses quantitative approach supported by secondary data and qualitative approach using primary data obtained through observation, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Research was conducted in South Badung Regency in the most developed tourism growth and considered the richest district among all regencies in Bali Regencies. Various attempts have been made to alleviate poverty, however have not been able to resolve poverty problems. The grand theory of this study refers to Neoliberalism Theory, supported by Social Democratic Theory and Empowerment Theory. Neoliberalism emphasizes that poverty as an individual problem and prosperity can only be achieved by achievement of economic growth through free market mechanism. According to Social Democratic Theory the emergence of poverty came from outside of the community itself. While the emphasis on the Empowerment Theory is in improving the ability of individual or communities to become indepedence on economic, social welfare and political right. Data

  8. Have agricultural economists neglected poverty issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesenhusen, W C

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural economists concerned with development issues devote effort to researching agriculture's inputs to produce a surplus and transfer it to nonagriculture, to provide markets for urban-based industry, to maintain a labor reservoir, to assist in capital formation, and to accumulate foreign exchange. Little attention is focused on broader and more sweeping economic problems. Discussion is directed toward answering some questions about why agricultural economists neglect rural poverty. Also, attention is given to why the extent of rural poverty imperils development, in what location should poverty be addressed, what are the issues in the agricultural growth and inequality debate as it affects rural poverty, and whether there are any new or promising ways to combat rural poverty. The extent of poverty is measured by the World Bank as 20% of world population, or 1 billion people, Rural poverty accounts for 60% of the hungry poor in Latin America, 80% in Asia, and 90% in Africa. 11 items are used to define the rural poor, such as a heterogeneous population of primarily small-scale farmers, the landless, nomads, pastoralists, and fisherfolk. 5 reasons are given why economists avoid rural poverty, including the difficulty in modeling the complex problems of rural poverty and the political considerations of free market vs. socialist economies. Other reasons involve land reform which reduces labor needs and a commitment to commercial farming rather than small-scale, labor-intensive farming; the rural agricultural poor's contributions to development are underrated. East Asian countries have been successful in linking growth, distribution, and amelioration of poverty among the peasantry. Environmental degradation may be encouraged by inequalities and unequal access to resources. The example is given of Brazil which has promoted migration to cities due to commercialization of rural agriculture and created urban poverty instead of dealing directly with rural poverty by

  9. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  10. On measuring energy poverty in Indian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachauri, S.; Mueller, A.; Kemmler, A.; Spreng, D. [Swiss Federal institutes of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The relationship between energy and poverty is obvious and goes both ways. Recognizing this, this paper provides a short overview of different approaches to measuring energy poverty. It then presents a novel two-dimensional measure of energy poverty and energy distribution that combines the elements of access to different energy types and quantity of energy consumed. An assessment of the extent of energy poverty and changes in energy distribution pattern are analyzed by applying this measure to Indian household survey data for 1983-2000. The analysis shows a significant reduction in the level of energy poverty and a rapidly developing subcontinent. The new measure is a good complement to conventional monetary measures and is general enough to be applied to other developing countries. (author)

  11. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  12. Poverty and people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure to a range of environmental and psychosocial hazards. Second, families supporting a child with intellectual disabilities and adults with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of experiencing poverty due to the financial and social impact of caring and the exclusion of people with intellectual disabilities from the workforce. It is likely that the association between poverty and intellectual disabilities accounts in part for the health and social inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disabilities and their families. Implications for policy and practice are discussed in relation to the funding of services for people with intellectual disabilities and preventative approaches to addressing the health and social inequalities experienced by people with intellectual disabilities and their families.

  13. Elderly poverty alleviation through living with family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, M S; Speare, A

    1995-11-01

    "We estimate here the extent of United States elderly poverty alleviation through living with family. These estimates are motivated by public-policy concern about the well-being of the elderly, and by the relevance of the process for fertility under the old-age-security hypothesis. An inter-temporal poverty-measurement model is estimated with 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation income and wealth data. Without extended-family co-residence, and assuming no bequests, poverty rates would increase 42% over observed rates. Female elderly account for almost all the alleviated poverty. As a population, their impoverishment with age is effectively prevented by co-residence. Proportionately more black than white elderly are beneficiaries of poverty alleviation through living with family, but white elderly are more likely to be beneficiaries if at risk."

  14. Poverty linked with population says Chinese delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In April 1996, at the senior officials' segment of the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Vice Foreign Minister from China told participants that excessive population growth along with many other adverse factors strongly hampers further sustained development of Asia-Pacific countries. Other adverse factors include environmental degradation, ecological imbalance, over-exploitation of resources, and an uncertain economic environment. Widespread poverty exists in the Asia-Pacific region. 730 million people, 25% of the region's population, live in poverty. This poor population makes up about 66% of the world's poor. Even though most poor people live in rural areas, urban poverty is expanding along with rapid urbanization. China has 65 million people living below the poverty line. The Chinese official endorsed ESCAP's work in poverty and population. The official backs the value of information activities.

  15. Poverty, from orthodox to heterodox

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Dini; Victor Lippit

    2009-01-01

    Based on some methodological issues this paper tries to compare the following approaches: Neoliberal Monetary and Capability, Social Exclusion, Participatory and Marxian Social Structure of Accumulation (SSA) in terms of their level of analysis, their definition of poverty and their recommended policy action to tackle poverty. The main conclusion of paper is that there is a consensus among capability, social exclusion, participatory and SS...

  16. Poverty, from orthodox to heterodox

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Dini; Victor Lippit

    2009-01-01

    Based on some methodological issues this paper tries to compare the following approaches: Neoliberal Monetary and Capability, Social Exclusion, Participatory and Marxian Social Structure of Accumulation (SSA) in terms of their level of analysis, their definition of poverty and their recommended policy action to tackle poverty. The main conclusion of paper is that there is a consensus among capability, social exclusion, participatory and SS...

  17. Poverty and Social Transfers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Šuæur

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Various aspects of poverty in Croatia are still insufficiently well researched. Not only is there no knowledge about how long Croatian citizens remain poor, but there are also some disagreements about the actual number of the poor and the choice of the national poverty line. Nor has there been any precise evaluation of the effects of the individual anti-poverty policy measures. The objective of this paper was to analyse the basic indicators of the scope and distribution of poverty, the risk groups and the structure of the population of the poor and to investigate the role of social transfers in the reduction of poverty. The paper consists of four parts and an introduction. In Part 1 there is an analysis of the trends in the numbers of the poor in Croatia at the beginning of the millennium and the profile of poverty. The second part deals with the policy for the reduction or elimination of poverty, while in Part 3 the author deals with the problem of selecting the official poverty line and the role of the minimum income in Croatia. Part 4 contains the conclusions. Using the official EU poverty line, a comparative analysis shows that the rates of relative poverty in Croatia do not deviate greatly from the EU mean, although Croatia does have a somewhat higher rate of poverty than most of the countries in the Union. Most at risk of falling below the poverty line are the elderly, the retired and the unemployed, single-person households, single-parent families and families with three or more children. The total system of social transfers is not less effective than the transfer systems of most of the countries of the EU. If we exclude old age and survivor pensions from the social transfers, in fact, Croatia has the most effective social transfers of any of the countries observed. However, on the other hand, the poverty rate reduction due to old age and survivor pensions is one of the lowest in the countriescompared.

  18. Cigarette smoking and poverty in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli; Rao, Keqin; Hu, Teh-Wei; Sun, Qi; Mao, Zhenzhong

    2006-12-01

    Drawing on the 1998 China national health services survey data, this study estimated the poverty impact of two smoking-related expenses: excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and direct spending on cigarettes. The excessive medical spending attributable to smoking is estimated using a regression model of medical expenditure with smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, never smoker) as part of the explanatory variables, controlling for people's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The poverty impact is measured by the changes in the poverty head count, after smoking-related expenses are subtracted from income. We found that the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking may have caused the poverty rate to increase by 1.5% for the urban population and by 0.7% for the rural population. To a greater magnitude, the poverty headcount in urban and rural areas increased by 6.4% and 1.9%, respectively, due to the direct household spending on cigarettes. Combined, the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and consumption spending on cigarettes are estimated to be responsible for impoverishing 30.5 million urban residents and 23.7 million rural residents in China. Smoking related expenses pushed a significant proportion of low-income families into poverty in China. Therefore, reducing the smoking rate appears to be not only a public health strategy, but also a poverty reduction strategy.

  19. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  20. Poverty and death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R A; Eaker, E D; Barker, N D; Teutsch, S M; Sosniak, W A; Krieger, N

    1996-01-01

    The authors conducted a survival analysis to determine the effect of poverty on mortality in a national sample of blacks and whites, 25 to 74 years of age (the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-1) and NHANES-1 Epidemiologic Follow up Study). They estimated the proportion of mortality associated with poverty during 1971-1984 and in 1991 by calculating population attributable risk and assessed confounding by major known risk factors (e.g., smoking, cholesterol levels, and physical inactivity). In 1973, 6.0 percent of U.S. mortality among black and white persons 25 to 74 years of age was attributable to poverty; in 1991, the proportion was 5.9 percent. In 1991, rates of mortality attributable to poverty were lowest for white women, 2.2 times as high for white men, 8.6 times as high for black men, and 3.6 times as high for black women. Adjustment for all these potential confounders combined had little effect on the hazard ratio among men, but reduced the effect of poverty on mortality among women by 42 percent. The proportion of mortality attributable to poverty among U.S. black and white adults has changed only minimally in recent decades. The effect of poverty on mortality must be largely explained by conditions other than commonly recognized risk factors.

  1. At-Risk-of-Poverty Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táňa Dvornáková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC is a survey on households’ living conditions. The main aim of the survey is to get long-term comparable data on social and economic situation of households. Data collected in the survey are used mainly in connection with the evaluation of income poverty and determinationof at-risk-of-poverty rate. This article deals with the calculation of the at risk-of-poverty threshold based on data from EU-SILC 2009. The main task is to compare two approaches to the computation of at riskof-poverty threshold. The first approach is based on the calculation of the threshold for each country separately,while the second one is based on the calculation of the threshold for all states together. The introduction summarizes common attributes in the calculation of the at-risk-of-poverty threshold, such as disposable household income, equivalised household income. Further, different approaches to both calculations are introduced andadvantages and disadvantages of these approaches are stated. Finally, the at-risk-of-poverty rate calculation is described and comparison of the at-risk-of-poverty rates based on these two different approaches is made.

  2. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  3. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...... domestic goods. Households prefer the traded good which they substitute towards as their incomes increase, thus exposing themselves to world market price swings. Price transmission from international to domestic markets therefore increases with per capita income but also with income inequality. Model...... using a Bayesian simulation methodology. Three main findings emerge from the analysis. Firstly, it seems that domestic rather than global or regional shocks are the main drivers of domestic food prices in all regions. Secondly, global factors have gained importance since 2005. Food inflation...

  4. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire.

  5. Poverty, Policy and Price Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian

    This thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in which different aspects of the relationship between international commodity markets and domestic food markets are explored. What motivates the analysis is the recent surge in international commodity prices and the controversy over the poverty...... using a Bayesian simulation methodology. Three main findings emerge from the analysis. Firstly, it seems that domestic rather than global or regional shocks are the main drivers of domestic food prices in all regions. Secondly, global factors have gained importance since 2005. Food inflation...... on the international commodity markets. The fourth paper argues that subsidy programmes can have a destabilizing effect on a country’s inflation in times of surging commodity prices if these lead to chronic public deficits. In the empirical analysis we compare the recent inflation experiences of Egypt, which has...

  6. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  7. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  8. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  9. Child Poverty Was Lower at End of 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    Poverty rates increased in the early 1990s, but between 1994 and 1999 the metro child poverty rate declined 6 percentage points and the nonmetro rate declined 4 percent. In 1999, the poverty rate for nonmetro Black children was about double that of nonmetro White children, but the Black-White gap in poverty narrowed between 1985 and 1999. (TD)

  10. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  11. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  12. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  13. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises,…

  14. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  15. How countries become rich and reduce poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    For the sake of less developed countries, it is time to adjust the discussion of international development assistance on poverty reduction. This article attempts to do so by reviewing new and old literature explaining why some countries are rich and others are poor. History has repeatedly shown...... that building up capabilities in manufacturing and improving the productivity of agriculture are the keys to wealth creation and long-term sustained poverty reduction. Furthermore, industrialisation and increased agricultural productivity are interdependent processes. Discussion about ending world poverty needs...

  16. Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing...... the discursive level with developments on the policy and operational level reveals that the poverty or social agenda has grown incrementally from the late 1960s even in times when neoliberalism dominated world politics and economy. The article goes beyond such an organisational analysis in critically assessing...

  17. Living in poverty in America today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J; Feit, Marvin D

    2005-01-01

    No statistician, social scientist or tarot card reader is needed to attest that the gap between the rich and poor in America is increasing. Further, most Americans don't care that much about it. There are also more rich people today living in the U.S. and there are more people living in poverty. Between 2000 and 2002, the number of Americans living in poverty increased by nearly 3 million to 34.6 million. Of these, 12% (or about one half a million persons) are living extreme poverty and many are children, with 16.7% likely to be poor (National Association of Social Workers, 2003).

  18. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.

  19. Rural poverty reduction through centrally sponsored schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N C

    2007-10-01

    This paper discusses the evolving profile of poverty in India and reviews the national performance of selected anti-poverty programmes between 1997-1998 and 2005. For each programme, it outlines the budgetary allocation principle used for the States and districts and analyzes budgetary performance over the period. The main objective is to explore the extent to which the anti-poverty programmes are reaching their target groups effectively. Finally, it identifies the specific factors responsible for under-performance and provides a set of recommendations for policy makers and programme implementers which could help improve the outcomes of the schemes.

  20. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  1. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  2. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  3. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  4. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  5. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  6. Vulnerability Indicators Are More Accurate in Assessing Poverty Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭劲光

    2007-01-01

    Poverty is a complex social phenomenon that every country has to contend with at some point in time. Based on an analysis of poverty in China’s rural areas, this article assesses the present poverty alleviation measures from a new perspective. With the goal of better understanding the nature of poverty, new approaches focusing on the vulnerability to poverty are considered. Through a re-examination of the current situation and the underlying reasons for poverty in light of structural and cultural factors, this article attempts to provide new policy suggestions for dealing with poverty.

  7. Emerging Urban Poverty and Effects of the Dibao Program on Alleviating Poverty in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyan Wang

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the current urban poverty situation, examines the factors affecting the probability of a household being in poverty and investigates how the urban minimum living standard guarantee (dibao) program helps poor people to get out of poverty.The targeting efficiency of the urban dibao program is discussed. The present study finds that the poverty rate of households with unemployed workers is much higher than that of households without unemployed workers. The urban dibao program is helpful in reducing poverty rates, but it does not reduce poverty rates too much. The government should place emphasis on helping laid-off and unemployed workers to become reemployed. The most urgent problem for the dibao program is improving the efficiency of targeting.

  8. Influence of a poverty simulation on nursing student attitudes toward poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Joanne; Sideras, Stephanie; Gubrud-Howe, Paula; Voss, Heather; Mathews, Launa Rae

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to determine a poverty simulation's influence on nursing students' attitudes toward poverty. Five cohorts of baccalaureate nursing students participated in the study; two cohorts (experimental group, n = 103) participated in the simulation and three did not (control group, n = 75). The Attitudes Towards Poverty Short Form was administered before the simulation and 6 weeks later; higher scores indicated more positive attitudes toward poverty. Experimental group pretest scores were higher. Higher pretest global scores were negatively correlated with religious affiliation (Spearman's rho = -0.294, p = 0.000) and positively correlated with prior poverty exposure (Spearman's rho = 0.284, p = 0.000) and liberal political views (Spearman's rho = 0.444, p = 0.000). Controlling for pretest differences, posttest mean scores for the experimental group (78.73) were significantly higher (p = 0.007). The poverty simulation is an engaging learning experience providing an opportunity for students to gain sensitivity in working with this population.

  9. IWRM and poverty reduction in Malawi: A socio-economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Msosa, Hendrina K.

    Like most other countries in the SADC region, Malawi has swiftly endorsed the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. In the water sector, these principles are reflected in the National Water Policy (2004) and in the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) (2002) which emphasize three key aspects. First, the articulation of a vision and policy objectives that address development and management of water for productive purposes, conservation and poverty reduction. Second, the recognition of international and regional conventions and agreements on water resources to which Malawi is a signatory, thereby promoting global partnership for development. Third, the provision of mechanisms for monitoring, assessment and development related to watershed management, conservation and the mitigation of floods and droughts. Both the Malawi Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper and the National Water Policy seek to reduce poverty by increasing access to water for domestic and productive purposes. In particular, the MPRSP will focus on constructing and rehabilitating water facilities, extend water supply capacity, promote community-based management and improve water resources conservation and management. In this paper, we examine the challenges of implementing these goals against the background of various institutional reforms in the water sector. We argue that although Malawi has come up with very clear strategies and guidelines for promoting MDGs, a combination of human and financial resources, bedevil the successful implementation of these ideas. In addition, the strategies do not articulate water as a medium for poverty alleviation in a holistic manner. The paper further demonstrates ways in which the promotion of IWRM can facilitate in reducing poverty.

  10. Rural and Urban Poverty Calls for Equal Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏后凯; 邬晓霞

    2007-01-01

    During recent years, along with the deepening of reform and opening up to the outside world, China’s poverty problem has gradually changed from a problem of rural poverty to the co-existence of rural and urban poverty. In this article, the authors review the existing poverty standards and overall poverty situation in China, and assess the performance of the state’s current anti-poverty policies. In view of the main problems in existing anti-poverty policies, the authors suggest the coordinated development of urban and rural areas. Through establishing unified poverty standards, monitoring systems and anti-poverty policies, equal emphasis will be given to poverty alleviation in both areas. And the social security and employment systems in both urban and rural areas will be coordinated.

  11. Zambia Poverty Assessment : Stagnant Poverty and Inequality in a Natural Resource-Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    As in many countries throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and around the developing world, poverty in Zambia is overwhelmingly a rural phenomenon. In 2010 the moderate poverty rate in rural areas was 74 percent, more than double the urban poverty rate of 35 percent. The economic growth continued throughout the decade, reaching an impressive annual average of 5.7 percent, and by 2011 the World Ban...

  12. Understanding the Link between Poverty and Food Insecurity among Children: Does the Definition of Poverty Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Wight, Vanessa; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane; Garfinkel, Irv

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the association between poverty and food insecurity among children, using two different definitions of poverty—the official poverty measure (OPM) and the new supplemental poverty measure (SPM) of the Census Bureau, which is based on a more inclusive definition of family resources and needs. Our analysis is based on data from the 2001–11 Current Population Survey and shows that food insecurity and very low food security among children decline as income-to-needs ratio increa...

  13. A Modern Framework for Measuring Poverty and Basic Economic Security

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Fremstad

    2010-01-01

    This report details how the dominant framework for understanding and measuring poverty in the United States has become a conservative one. The current U.S. approach to measuring poverty views poverty only in terms of having an extremely low level of annual income, and utilizes poverty thresholds that are adjusted only for inflation rather than for changes in overall living standards. As a result, the official poverty measure has effectively defined deprivation down over the last four decades,...

  14. Impact of Mental Poverty on Rural Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lan-xiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the definition of mental poverty and the status quo of mental poverty in China's rural areas. Mental poverty in China's rural areas embodies the following aspects: the sense of parochialism is serious; the small farmer consciousness is strong; there is misgiving about identity. This paper analyses the reason of Mental poverty influencing farmers' behavior model and rural economic development. Mental poverty influences the farmers' changing current situation; Mental pover...

  15. Relative or Absolute Poverty Lines - A New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David

    1999-01-01

    When measuring poverty over time analysts must choose the value of the income elasticity of the poverty line, which essentially determines whether an absolute or relative poverty line is being used. The choice of this parameter is ultimately a value judgement but this paper suggests an approach which has some empirical basis. Borrowing from the life-style and deprivation approach to poverty various dimensions of poverty and deprivation are identified and the income elasticity of these items i...

  16. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati; Mu'minatus Sholichah

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major...

  17. The multidimensional measurement of poverty: a fuzzy set approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Costa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By using fuzzy set theory a multidimensional analysis of poverty of Italian households is performed on the basis of SHIW data. A set of composite indicators is constructed in order to analyze different dimensions of poverty. For each indicator is calculated an unidimensional poverty ratio, thus allowing a comparison among indicators on the dimensions of poverty. Finally, a multidimensional poverty ratio is obtained.

  18. Polarization of the Poor: Multivariate Relative Poverty Measurement Sans Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon Anderson

    2009-01-01

    A major impediment to poverty evaluation in multivariate environments are the difficulties associated with formulating poverty frontiers. This paper proposes a new multivariate polarization measure which, in appropriate circumstances, works as a multivariate poverty measure which does not require computation of a poverty frontier. As a poverty measure it has the intuitive appeal of reflecting the degree to which societies poor and non-poor are polarized. (The measure would also have considera...

  19. Constructing Official Poverty Lines for Countries in Transition – Beyond the Poverty Line (2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new model for defining the poverty line using the Kakwani (2010 approach and developing a possible candidate for the construction of a new official poverty line. The model uses consumer theory to construct both food and non-food poverty thresholds and ensures that the poverty line is consistent across regions. Namely, it is of great importance to review a new unique measure for transition countries because there is a lack of statistics and research in these countries because their governments denied the existence of poverty during the socialist years. The methodology developed in this paper is used to illustrate the construction of a poverty threshold and poverty rates in Croatia, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Latvia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Slovenia and Russia for the period 2000-2010. The focus on poverty in transition countries was placed in the former Soviet bloc; for that reason, the benchmark country used to illustrate the methodology for the above period was Russia. Because there are considerable differences in the methods used for poverty estimates, as well as insufficient and incomplete statistics, proposal for a new unique measure would serve as a “tool” for the prompt application of adequate social policies for transition countries.

  20. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  1. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  2. Poverty, education, race, and pregnancy outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, Jr, John M; Kaczor, Diane T

    2004-01-01

    .... We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression...

  3. The Panacea for Poverty Reduction in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Okoye, K. R. E. - Vocational Education Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe. University ... Poverty among Nigerian people has been noted to be devastating to the extent ... public health expenditure should be directed towards diseases of the poor,.

  4. Government Expenditure on Growth Strategies and Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth strategies in Tanzania have not helped to reduce income poverty .... in poor health, nutrition, and education can lower economic productivity and thereby lead directly and ... poor people in growth process, (Hicks, 1979; Marshall, 1988).

  5. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  6. A Stylistic Analysis of What Is Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽娟

    2015-01-01

    #%The paper examines the stylistic features of the passage What Is Poverty in the points of diction,syntax and rhetorical devices to reach the conclusion that the appropriate style serves the successful expression of the theme.

  7. POVERTY, GROWTH AND INEQUALITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiga Housseima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the position of some developing countries in relation to different theories about the relationship between poverty, growth and inequality. We conducted an econometric analysis through a study using panel data from 52 developing countries over the period 1990-2005, to determine the main sources of poverty reduction and show the interdependence between poverty, inequality and growth by using a system of simultaneous equations. This method is rarely applied econometric panel data and especially in the case studies on poverty. Our results indicate that the state investment in social sectors such as education and health and improving the living conditions of the rural population can promote economic growth and reducing inequality. Therefore, the Kuznets hypothesis is based on a relationship between economic growths to income inequality is most appropriate.

  8. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  9. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods....... This has led to the following question being asked: Are forests and environmental resources able to help poor households escape poverty? Empirically, answering this question is important if the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction, contributing to the first Millennium Development Goal......, is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing...

  10. World Bank Development Policies and Poverty Alleviation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-07-10

    Jul 10, 2007 ... The median annual growth rate of real GDP per capita in Africa also fell .... The increases in the prices of petroleum products induce inflation conse- .... tive justice, SAP has resulted in increasing poverty and higher unemploy-.

  11. Environmental resources and poverty in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen

    Over the last two decades, the burgeoning empirical evidence on the importance of forests and environmental resources to rural livelihoods in developing countries has attracted the attention of policy makers aiming to develop and implement strategies for reducing poverty and improving livelihoods....... This has led to the following question being asked: Are forests and environmental resources able to help poor households escape poverty? Empirically, answering this question is important if the role of forests in poverty prevention and reduction, contributing to the first Millennium Development Goal......, is to be sustainably realized. However, most datasets on rural livelihoods do not accurately account for environmental income and therefore cannot answer this question. The Poverty Environment Network (PEN) project was initiated specifically to address this issue in the assessment of rural livelihoods in developing...

  12. Poverty, livelihoods and the conservation of nature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bouma, JA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the linkages between poverty, livelihoods and nature in four biodiversity hotspots in South Africa. To involve communities in protected area management, biodiversity conservation can be improved and negative livelihood impacts...

  13. Poverty – a major economical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assistent Professor Somogyi János

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. Yet there is plenty offood in the world for everyone. The problem is that hungry people are trapped in severe poverty. They lackthe money to buy enough food to nourish them. Being constantly malnourished, they become weaker and oftensick. This makes them increasingly less able to work, which then makes them even poorer and hungrier.This downward spiral often continues until death for them and their families.Why is this? How is to blame? Poor people for their own predicament? Have they been lazy, madepoor decisions, and been solely responsible for their plight? What about their governments? Have theypursued policies that actually harm successful development? Such causes of poverty and inequality are nodoubt real. But deeper and more global causes of poverty are often less discussed. This article explores variouspoverty problems in more depth.

  14. Overcoming Poverty as a Collective Obligation: Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    resources, the deprived, the marginalized, and the under-developed. Here we must recall ... (violence, enslavement, robbery, murder); or agree with St. Ambrose ..... Poverty in its relative or absolute terms has remained a serious problem in ...

  15. Values underpinning poverty programs for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heclo, H H

    1997-01-01

    Values create a framework through which the American public gives meaning to particular concepts and events. To better understand the values underlying public support for poverty programs for children, this article examines public attitudes toward children, poverty, and government. Although Americans continue to view helping children as a top policy priority, there is ambivalence with regard to poor children because of their inevitable connection to poor adults and the public's expectation that adults be self-sufficient. Rather than choosing between extreme ideological views of the causes of poverty and the ideal role of government in curbing poverty, the American public takes an integrative perspective that both values individual initiative and supports opportunities for all Americans. Favored are government programs fitted to the practical needs of everyday life. Such programs should support personal efforts but not assume responsibility for individual or particular group outcomes.

  16. [Migration and urban poverty in the Northeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, R

    1983-01-01

    Migration and poverty in Northeast Brazil are studied using data from a survey conducted in 1974-1975 in the barrios of three cities. Information on employment and living conditions of migrants is compared with data for the native population.

  17. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  18. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  19. Rural people's perception of poverty in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Björn; Ximing YUE

    2006-01-01

    Subjective Poverty Line methodology is applied to rural China 2002 using a sample from 22 provinces. Respondents were asked two questions: one on amount of food necessary and another on amount of cash necessary for their households. The respondent's perception of how much cash is needed varies profoundly and positively by income in the county where the respondent lives. The findings provide an argument for increasing the official poverty line for China as average household income increases. P...

  20. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  1. Minimum wages, globalization and poverty in Honduras

    OpenAIRE

    Gindling, T. H.; Terrell, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    To be competitive in the global economy, some argue that Latin American countries need to reduce or eliminate labour market regulations such as minimum wage legislation because they constrain job creation and hence increase poverty. On the other hand, minimum wage increases can have a direct positive impact on family income and may therefore help to reduce poverty. We take advantage of a complex minimum wage system in a poor country that has been exposed to the forces of globalization to test...

  2. Migration, remittances and poverty in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Etudes & documents; We analyse the influence of the recent wave of migration on the incidence of poverty among stayers in Ecuador. We draw our data from a survey that provides detailed information on migrants. The analysis reveals a significant negative effect of migration on poverty among migrant households. This effect is substantially smaller than the one that we find focusing on recipient households. We explore the factors that account for this divergence. Our analysis entails that the ex...

  3. 75 FR 30839 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2010-03, HHS Computer Match No. 1003, SSA Computer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2010-03, HHS Computer Match No. 1003, SSA Computer Match No. 1048, IRS Project No. 241 AGENCY: Department... renewal of an existing computer matching program (CMP) that has an expiration date of June 30, 2010...

  4. 45 CFR Appendix B to Part 5b - Routine Uses Applicable to More Than One System of Records Maintained by HHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine Uses Applicable to More Than One System of Records Maintained by HHS B Appendix B to Part 5b Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... or the Civil Rights Commission, issue a subpoena to the Department for records in this system...

  5. 78 FR 42080 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-07; HHS Computer Match No. 1303; DoD-DMDC Match...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013... Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching Program... announces the establishment of a CMP that CMS plans to conduct with the Department of Defense (DoD),...

  6. 78 FR 48169 - Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-02; HHS Computer Match No. 1306; DoD-DMDC Match...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Services Privacy Act of 1974; CMS Computer Match No. 2013-02; HHS Computer Match No. 1306; DoD-DMDC Match... Services (CMS). ACTION: Notice of Computer Matching Program (CMP). SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, this notice establishes a CMP that CMS plans to...

  7. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector.

  8. [Poverty, social exclusion, social capital and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey Calero, Juan

    2004-01-01

    Social capital is the social structure which facilitates the actions of individuals, stimulates production and allows for success. Poverty maintains basic needs unmet (food, health, autonomy) over time and unvoluntarily. Social exclusion does not allow individuals to participate in society. The following dimensions are assessed: financial poverty, social inclusion, employment, health and education. Social participation, work integration, empowerment, self-esteem, and personal achievement should be promoted. In Europe 15% of people is exposed to poverty; in Spain corresponding figures are 13.4%, while for the elderly reached 21%. Extreme poverty affects 6.2% population and severe poverty 14.2%. Women and those living in Andalusia, Canary Islands and Extremadura are particularly affected, health inequality are for elderly, immigration, gender, social class, and should be reduced 10% for 2010. The Gini indez measures the income distribution; in the European Union (EU) it is 0.29 while in Spain is 0.33. Poverty and health are inversely correlated, health care expenditure in Spain is 7.5% og GDP. Life expectancy in U.E. is 75.5 years for men and 81.6 years for women, while in Spain it is 78 and 83.1 respectively. Infant mortality in EU is 4.5/1000, 4.1 per thousand in Spain. Lastly, the number of children per women in EU is 1.47 and in Spain 1.3.

  9. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  10. Poverty, tobacco, and health: an Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majra, J P; Gur, A

    2009-06-01

    Poverty and health have a two-way relationship. Poverty increases the vulnerability of people to disease, and sickness affects their income leading to poverty. Tobacco has been identified as a major avoidable cause of illness and premature death. In India, more than half of men and one-tenth of women use one or more forms of tobacco. Tobacco-use shows a clear and continual increase with decreasing wealth quintiles. Poor smokers, who are at a greater risk of illness, are also at a greater risk of not being treated or of falling into greater poverty if they seek treatment. Poor people spend money on tobacco that could be spent on food, shelter, education, and healthcare. These decisions can entrench families in an ongoing cycle of poverty and ill-health. The direct and indirect costs of tobacco-use are immense for national economy. This has positioned control of tobacco relevant in India's per suite to achieve the goals of poverty eradication and health for all.

  11. The economics of poverty in poor countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, P

    1998-01-01

    This paper, which examines recently studied links between 1) poverty, high fertility, and undernourishment and 2) environmental degradation and civic disconnection in developing countries, opens by reviewing the limitations of orthodox discussions of economic institutions and property rights and the orthodox dichotomy that has located the cause of poverty in the suppression of markets. The introduction also notes that much of the analysis in this paper is based on data from sub-Saharan Africa and India. The next section of the paper summarizes evidence on the magnitude and extent of world poverty. Section 3 exposes the connection between undernourishment and a person's capacity to work as one of the pathways to the poverty trap. Sections 4 and 5 consider the dependence of impoverished rural populations on common-property resources and how the conventional process of economic growth can break down this system and make certain sections of the population especially vulnerable to economic shocks. The next two sections explore the possibility that links between poverty, high fertility, and environmental degradation may constitute another pathway to the poverty trap. The eighth section reviews the methodology of using net national product (which includes resource depletion and environmental deterioration) as an evaluation criterion and argues that mainstream development economists may have neglected environmental and population problems because they have been relying on the wrong economic indices. The final section concludes that a number of policies must be used to improve options for people.

  12. 20 CFR 30.318 - Can the FAB consider objections to HHS's reconstruction of a radiation dose or to the guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... at 42 CFR part 82, is binding on the FAB. The FAB reviewer may determine, however, that objections... CFR part 81, is also binding on the FAB (see § 30.213). However, since OWCP applies this methodology... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the FAB consider objections to...

  13. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  14. Income Distribution Dependence of Poverty Measure: A Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, A K; Chattopadhyay, Amit K; Mallick, Sushanta K

    2005-01-01

    With a new deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the `global' mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  15. Poverty in Eritrea: challenges and implications for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rena, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    Poverty, one of the world's most serious problems, is particularly severe in Africa. Eritrea is a 16-year-old nation that gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993. The country's economy was doing relatively well between 1993 and 1997. Eritrea was then exposed to numerous challenges such as drought, famines and recurrent war. As a result, poverty has become more rampant in a country where over 66 per cent of people live below the poverty line. Some families live on remittances. The government has taken some poverty alleviation measures. However, it has not mitigated poverty due to a lack of resources and a poorly implemented poverty alleviation programme. This article attempts to explore the incidence of poverty. It also provides details of poverty surveys that have been conducted since independence. It discusses various poverty challenges and provides some policy implications for development.

  16. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  17. The Effects of Poverty Simulation, an Experiential Learning Modality, on Students' Understanding of Life in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandsburger, Etty; Duncan-Daston, Rana; Akerson, Emily; Dillon, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the impact of the Poverty Simulation Project, an experiential learning modality, on students' understanding of life in poverty. A total of 101 students representing 5 undergraduate majors in the College of Health and Human Services completed measures of critical thinking, understanding of others, and the active learning…

  18. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  19. Chinese Adolescents' Explanations of Poverty: The Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS), constructed to assess how Chinese people explain poverty, covers four areas of explanations: personal problems, lack of opportunities, exploitation, and bad fate. Chinese secondary school students were administered the CPCPS. Four subscales were abstracted from their responses and found to be…

  20. Kentucky Child Poverty, 2000: One in Four Children Is Poor. Census Brief: Child Poverty in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graycarek, Rick; Hoye, Kathleen

    This census brief examines changes in the child poverty rate during the 1990s for the state of Kentucky. The brief notes that more than one in four children in Kentucky is living in poverty, with nearly half of Kentucky's children living in families that are not financially self-sufficient. The majority of poor children live in urban areas, most…

  1. Poverty Occurrence Characteristics of Ancient Towns and Villages in Shanxi Province and Poverty Reduction Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the questionnaire of 10 sample ancient towns and villages in Shanxi Province,we analyze the poverty occurrence characteristics of ancient towns and villages in Shanxi Province: the poverty incidence in ancient towns and villages is high,with the slow pace of poverty re- duction; the regional characteristics of poverty is prominent; there are conspicuous differences in income between residents living in old houses and residents not living in old houses; poverty reduction shows vulnerability and instability. Then we put forward countermeasures for poverty reduction of ancient towns and villages in Shanxi Province as follows: first,improving the targeting mechanism of poverty in ancient towns and villages; second,speeding up the development of agricultural industrialization in ancient towns and villages; third,advancing internal " urbanization" of ancient towns and villages and new countryside construction; fourth,strengthening infrastructure building in ancient towns and villages; fifth,providing fair and efficient allocation of resources,and reducing regional differences; sixth,promoting the ability of residents in ancient towns and villages to cope with poverty reduction vulnerability.

  2. Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboela, Bruce Lubinda

    2005-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utilization of World Bank loans and grants to alleviate debt under the bank's programs of action for poverty reduction in highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). This article argues that structural transformation is a prerequisite for poverty…

  3. Women should design poverty alleviation programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This news article presents the view that women must be involved in the design of poverty eradication programs at all levels. The Deputy Executive Director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) urged the "feminization of policy." The International Conference on Population and Development established some new directions on poverty eradication. The UNFPA is prepared to collaborate with all parties within the UN system and with nongovernmental groups, which tend to be in closer touch at the grassroots level. UNFPA's Economic and Social Council meetings in July 1996 addressed the issue of women's participation in policy development. The representative of Pakistan urged that the various UN programs for eradicating poverty be guided by the Declaration and Plan of Action adopted at the 1995 World Summit on Social Development. It was further pointed out that declining resources are an obstacle to program action. The Organization for Economic Development experienced the lowest level in 20 years in Development Assistance. The representative of the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the representative of the World Health Organization (WHO) emphasized that poverty is the main cause of child mortality: 20,000 children under 5 years of age die every day from preventable diseases, and there are 100 million child laborers. The UNICEF spokesperson emphasized that universal access to basic social services is central to the eradication of poverty. The evidence suggests that social development has advanced in those countries that have invested in children. The Chinese representative stressed that improvement in quality of life, women's status, and the environment should follow poverty eradication. The WHO representative recommended that programs target the "hard core" poor and respond to seasonal and geographic variations in poverty. IPPF was in the best position to do this and to secure sustainable development through effective citizen participation.

  4. Dimensions of Rural Poverty in Bihar: A Village Level Study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; KUMAR, Abhay; Meena, M.S.; Jha, A. K.; Kumar, Anjani

    2012-01-01

    The measures of poverty involves a) the specification of the threshold income level below which a person is considered poor (the poverty line) and b) construction of an index to measure the intensity and severity of poverty suffered by those whose income is below the poverty line. Sen(1976) has proposed several criteria that a poverty measure must satisfy to be able to assess the changes in social welfare whereas Foster et al (1984) proposed a class of poverty measures that are additively dec...

  5. Living in poverty and its effects on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Sally

    2006-07-01

    Poverty has been identified as the greatest threat to health. Generally speaking, poor people are sick more often than wealthier people, and poor people die younger due to poorer economic, social, political and physical conditions. The article explains the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty, before going on to explore various reasons why people living in relative poverty are more susceptible to ill health than their wealthier counterparts. The article delves into how poverty contributes to ill health by the effects of low income and poor health behaviours, with cigarette smoking being identified as the health behaviour with the largest negative impact on people living in relative poverty.

  6. The World Bank and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, M; Shakow, A

    1982-06-01

    During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population.

  7. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  8. Urban poverty and infant mortality rate disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between high poverty and infant mortality rates (IMRs) varied across race- and ethnic-specific populations in large urban areas. Data were drawn from 1990 Census and 1992-1994 Vital Statistics for selected U.S. metropolitan areas. High-poverty areas were defined as neighborhoods in which > or = 40% of the families had incomes below the federal poverty threshold. Bivariate models showed that high poverty was a significant predictor of IMR for each group; however, multivariate analyses demonstrate that maternal health and regional factors explained most of the variance in the group-specific models of IMR. Additional analysis revealed that high poverty was significantly associated with minority-white IMR disparities, and country of origin is an important consideration for ethnic birth outcomes. Findings from this study provide a glimpse into the complexity associated with infant mortality in metropolitan areas because they suggest that the factors associated with infant mortality in urban areas vary by race and ethnicity.

  9. Experiences and support needs of poverty-stricken people living with HIV in the Potchefstroom district in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitsma, Anita T; Koen, Magdalena P; Pienaar, Abel J; Minnie, Catharina S

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address the lack of support for poverty-stricken people living with HIV that was identified in the Potchefstroom district in the North-West Province in South Africa. A qualitative phenomenological design was used to explore the experience, identify the support needs, and formulate guidelines for effective support for poverty-stricken people living with HIV. A total of 25 in-depth interviews guided by two central questions resulted in the following themes: facilitative and impeding experiences of poverty-stricken people living with HIV, basic needs, psychosocial needs, cultural-spiritual needs, and self-actualization needs. The experience of poverty-stricken people living with HIV in the Potchefstroom district is closely related to their support needs. To address these needs holistically and to enhance the quality of life of poverty-stricken people living with HIV, the needs should first be addressed individually. Following that, the collective needs can be addressed by a support system.

  10. Screening for Social Determinants of Health Among Children and Families Living in Poverty: A Guide for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Esther K; Siegel, Benjamin S; Garg, Arvin; Conroy, Kathleen; Gross, Rachel S; Long, Dayna A; Lewis, Gena; Osman, Cynthia J; Jo Messito, Mary; Wade, Roy; Shonna Yin, H; Cox, Joanne; Fierman, Arthur H

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 20% of all children in the United States live in poverty, which exists in rural, urban, and suburban areas. Thus, all child health clinicians need to be familiar with the effects of poverty on health and to understand associated, preventable, and modifiable social factors that impact health. Social determinants of health are identifiable root causes of medical problems. For children living in poverty, social determinants of health for which clinicians may play a role include the following: child maltreatment, child care and education, family financial support, physical environment, family social support, intimate partner violence, maternal depression and family mental illness, household substance abuse, firearm exposure, and parental health literacy. Children, particularly those living in poverty, exposed to adverse childhood experiences are susceptible to toxic stress and a variety of child and adult health problems, including developmental delay, asthma and heart disease. Despite the detrimental effects of social determinants on health, few child health clinicians routinely address the unmet social and psychosocial factors impacting children and their families during routine primary care visits. Clinicians need tools to screen for social determinants of health and to be familiar with available local and national resources to address these issues. These guidelines provide an overview of social determinants of health impacting children living in poverty and provide clinicians with practical screening tools and resources. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Characteristics,Cause of Formation and Countermeasures of Migrant Workers’ Poverty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The migrant worker is the special group in the process of Chinese economic and social transition.The migrant workers’ poverty has the characteristics as follows:transferability,marginality,intervention,aggregation,development,circulatory cumulativeness and intergenerational transmission of poverty.The migrant workers’ poverty includes capital poverty,right poverty and sustainability poverty.The capital poverty and right poverty hamper migrant workers’ survival,development and farmer’s citizenship,while the sustainability poverty is the root cause of poverty.Only by system reconstruction,endowment of capital and restoration of ability can the migrant workers get rid of the mire of poverty.

  12. Application of experimental poverty measures to the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau recently released new, experimental measures of poverty based on a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel's recommendations. This article examines the effects of the experimental measures on poverty rates among persons aged 65 or older in order to help inform policy debate. Policymakers and analysts use poverty rates to measure the successes and failures of existing programs and to create and defend new policy initiatives. The Census Bureau computes the official rates of poverty using poverty thresholds and definitions of countable income that have changed little since the official poverty measure was adopted in 1965. Amid growing concerns about the adequacy of the official poverty measure, a NAS panel undertook a study of the concepts, methodology, and data needed to measure poverty. The panel concluded in its 1995 report that the current measure no longer provides an accurate picture of relative rates of poverty for different groups in the population or of changes in poverty over time. The panel recommended changes in establishing the poverty thresholds, defining family resources, and obtaining the required data. The Census Bureau report shows how estimated levels of poverty would differ from the official level as specific recommendations of the NAS panel are implemented individually and how estimated trends would differ when many recommendations are implemented simultaneously. It computes nonstandardized and standardized poverty rates. (The latter constrains the overall poverty rate under the experimental measures to match the official rate.) This article reports poverty rates that have not been standardized and provides considerably more detail than the Census report about the effects of the experimental measures on poverty among the aged. It examines the effects of changing the poverty thresholds and the items included or excluded from the definition of available resources. It also explores the effects of the experimental measures on

  13. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  14. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  15. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  16. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motilal SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that the term poor should cover all those who cannot cope with survival, security, and enabling needs. If one were to apply this comprehensive definition of poverty, the poor certainly account for more than 900 million in this region. The poor experience shortfalls in economic welfare; gaps in access to good quality education and health care; deficiencies in the provision of physical infrastructure; and political barriers that stifle personal initiative and self-development. They are unable to participate in governance, which is necessary for a healthy democracy and peaceful development. The poverty encourages corruption, anti-social activities like drugs, smuggling, prostitution, and all sorts of deviant behavior. Poverty is considered an unacceptable human condition Moreover, despite the vast advances that are being made in the spheres of science and technology, information and communication technology(ICT , medicine, capital mobility, etc., income disparities are ever widening, both within countries and nations – world's rich and poor nations. The trends in poverty reduction have recently worsened. The population growth in the developing countries is also adding to absolute number of poor. Overcoming poverty therefore remains the single most important challenge facing those involved in the development activities. It has been recognized by all multilateral and bilateral donors involved in development assistance that expected outcomes could not be achieved in the area of poverty reduction. Poverty constrains implementation of development initiatives because the poor (the beneficiaries are not able to

  17. The boundaries of poverty in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Uribe Mallarino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an analytical perspective on poverty with a multidimensional approach, not only as an aggregate of variables and indicators, but also using a probing strategy that considers the way in which it is perceived between the groups receiving programs to alleviate poverty or use subsidized public services, and those without. Based on tools for quantitative and qualitative analysis applied to data collected on a sample of residents of Bogota, the authors analyze how the boundaries of sense on poverty are related to both objective and subjective factors related to being or not users of these programs, socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as political participation, degree of association and use of mechanisms to enforce civil rights.

  18. Climate change through a poverty lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Rozenberg, Julie

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of the economic impact of climate change typically considers regional or national economies and assesses its impact on macroeconomic aggregates such as gross domestic product. These studies therefore do not investigate the distributional impacts of climate change within countries or the impacts on poverty. This Perspective aims to close this gap and provide an assessment of climate change impacts at the household level to investigate the consequences of climate change for poverty and for poor people. It does so by combining assessments of the physical impacts of climate change in various sectors with household surveys. In particular, it highlights how rapid and inclusive development can reduce the future impact of climate change on poverty.

  19. Poverty in America: trends and new patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hare, W P

    1985-06-01

    Poverty trends in the US between 1959-83, as revealed by census data, are described, 1984 government expenditures on social programs are delineated, contrasting explanations put forth to explain the increase in poverty between 1978-83 are critically examined, and some practical suggestions for reducing poverty levels are made. Between 1959-73, the absolute number and the proportion of individuals below the poverty line decreased respectively from 39.5-23.0 million and from 22.4%-11.1%. Between 1973-78, poverty rates fluctuated somewhat. Between 1978-83, the absolute number and proportion of poor increased respectively from 24.5-35.3 million and from 11.4%-15.2%. Between 1978-83, the depth of poverty also increased. The proportion of families with incomes below US$5000 increased from 3.9%-5.7%, and the median income for poor families declined. Some experts, such as Charles Murray, attribute the increase in poverty to federal poverty programs. Murray maintains that poverty programs undermine the work ethic and encourage the creation of female headed households. Others, including Michael Harrington, attribute the increase in poverty to structural changes in the economy and to changes in the composition of the population. Harrington maintains that the decline in the number of manufacturing jobs, the lack of employment opportunities for unskilled workers, and the entry of the baby boom generation into the working age population makes it increasingly difficult for young males, and especially for black males, to find jobs offering financial security. The present analysis provided more support for the latter explanation than for the former explanation. Numerous studies indicate that there is considerable movement in and out of poverty and that most individuals are poor because they cannot find jobs. The American public has a mistaken impression about the amount of money expended by the government to provide assistance to the poor. The bulk of the government's social

  20. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis......, agglomerative hierarchical and the k-means cluster analysis were employed to determine the four livelihood clusters and to assign households to the identified livelihood strategies. Households’ environmental dependency, poverty and asset holding were compared across the strategies, and the determinants...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  1. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  2. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  3. [Relationships between health, development and poverty reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthélemy, Jean-Claude

    2008-12-01

    This article starts with the observation of a non-linear relationship between health progress and economic development. This relationship is interpreted as resulting from a bidirectional interaction between these two variables, which may lead a country to a poverty trap or, alternatively, to a virtuous circle of economic take-off. Emerging countries have pulled out of poverty after having made progress in health and education. African countries still lag behind in this respect, and their backwardness has been worsened by the HIV/AIDS crisis. This analysis contributes to justifying the current emphasis on aid policies to the health sector in Africa. However, improving health conditions, and escaping the poverty trap, cannot be done just by increasing health budgets. More emphasis should be put on necessary reforms to improve efficiency and equity in health policies.

  4. Multidimensional poverty dynamics in Ethiopia: how do they differ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidimensional poverty dynamics in Ethiopia: how do they differ from ... such as consumption or income, and nonmonetary, such as health and education. ... poverty index (MPI); recent studies document that people identified as poor in one ...

  5. 283 Poverty Alleviation Programmes and Economic Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    population in high poverty margin/region among the whole sectors studied. The study also ... social indicators such as income, education, health care, portable water, access to ... Poverty measurements attempt to identify those who are poor.

  6. Biblical principles towards a pastoral strategy for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblical principles towards a pastoral strategy for poverty alleviation amongst the ... The church in Uganda must now become involved in the process of mutual ... eradicating material poverty is not simply a matter of making more and better ...

  7. Childhood Poverty May Predict Heart Failure in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166878.html Childhood Poverty May Predict Heart Failure in Adulthood Income inequalities ... the Lifelong Health and Aging unit, added that poverty "has shown to be consistently related to cardiovascular ...

  8. 6. Characterization and Local Perceptions of Poverty Among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Success in reducing poverty has however remained elusive ..... processes on which planning, implementation and .... poverty and health systems in the WHO ... United Nations, (2007) Agro-industrial supply chain management: Concepts and.

  9. Global Poverty : Scraping distributional data from the World Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moatsos, M.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of measuring global poverty consistently is addressed using a family of bare bones consumption baskets (BBB). This methodology pinpoints equivalent levels of welfare, both internationally and intertemporally. Naturally, in calculating poverty rates the household consumption distributions

  10. Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabogunje, Akin L.

    2002-01-01

    Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

  11. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and poverty dynamics. Poverty incidence and dynamics models including environmental income perform better than those without. Rural poverty studies based on welfare measures excluding environmental income may thus be inaccurate for environmental reliant communities.......Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...

  12. A robust poverty profile for Brazil using multiple data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Francisco H. G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a poverty profile for Brazil, based on three different sources of household data for 1996. We use PPV consumption data to estimate poverty and indigence lines. ''Contagem'' data is used to allow for an unprecedented refinement of the country's poverty map. Poverty measures and shares are also presented for a wide range of population subgroups, based on the PNAD 1996, with new adjustments for imputed rents and spatial differences in cost of living. Robustness of the profile is verified with respect to different poverty lines, spatial price deflators, and equivalence scales. Overall poverty incidence ranges from 23% with respect to an indigence line to 45% with respect to a more generous poverty line. More importantly, however, poverty is found to vary significantly across regions and city sizes, with rural areas, small and medium towns and the metropolitan peripheries of the North and Northeast regions being poorest.

  13. The Dynamics of Poverty and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Naschold (2005) and FDRE (2012) and the implications of the consumption patterns depicted by the graphic illustrations in this paper. .... of poverty reduction which will assist in designing and implementing area- specific poverty reduction ...

  14. Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Paula

    2002-07-01

    People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women (especially in single parent families). Beyond these groups, there are the children, the ethnic minorities and the homeless. Substance abusers, the unemployed, and ex-prisoners are also strongly affected by situations of social exclusion and poverty. Although poverty has been an important issue on the political agenda in Portugal, it shows a worrying tendency to resist traditional Social Security interventions. In the late 1990s, however, welfare coverage rates appear to have risen. To what extent can poverty cause a worsening of health status? Is there any sustainable positive association between welfare and improved health status? How, to whom and when should actions to improve the health status of the disadvantaged be addressed, without subverting the health status of the rest of the population. It is also necessary to reveal the consequences of poor health to individuals, families and communities in terms of income, social empowerment and the ability to fulfil other needs. Finally, reflection on the role and effectiveness of traditional social security models is necessary, in order to improve the impact and adequacy of its interventions. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about disadvantage, the current health situation of the most vulnerable groups in Portuguese society-those affected by poverty, deprivation and social exclusion-and to detect the constraints on access to health and health care.

  15. Integration of family planning with poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P

    1996-12-01

    The Chinese Communist Central Committee and the State Council aim to solve food and clothing problems among impoverished rural people by the year 2000. This goal was a priority on the agenda of the recent October 1996 National Conference on Poverty Alleviation and Development and the 1996 National Conference of the State Family Planning Commission. Poverty is attributed to rapid population growth and underdevelopment. Poverty is concentrated in parts of 18 large provinces. These provinces are characterized by Family Planning Minister Peng as having high birth rates, early marriage and childbearing, unplanned births, and multiple births. Overpopulation is tied to overconsumption, depletion of resources, deforestation, soil erosion, pollution, shortages of water, decreases in shares of cultivated land, degraded grasslands, and general destruction of the environment. Illiteracy in poor areas is over 20%, compared to the national average of 15%. Mortality and morbidity are higher. Family planning is harder to enforce in poor areas. Pilot programs in Sichuan and Guizhou provinces are promoting integration of family planning with poverty alleviation. Several conferences have addressed the integrated program strategies. Experience has shown that poverty alleviation occurs by controlled population growth and improved quality of life. Departments should "consolidate" their development efforts under Communist Party leadership at all levels. Approaches should emphasize self-reliance and public mobilization. The emphasis should be on women's participation in development. Women's income should be increased. Family planning networks at the grassroots level need to be strengthened simultaneously with increased poverty alleviation and development. The government strategy is to strengthen leadership, mobilize the public, and implement integrated programs.

  16. Chinese adolescents' explanations of poverty: the Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2002-01-01

    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS), constructed to assess how Chinese people explain poverty, covers four categories of explanations: personal problems of poor people, lack of opportunities to escape from the poverty cycle, exploitation of poor people, and bad fate. Chinese secondary school students (N = 1,519) were administered the CPCPS. Four factors were abstracted from their responses (Personal Problems, Lack of Opportunity, Exploitation, and Fate) and these factors (i.e., subscales) could reliably be reproduced in different subsamples. The four subscales were also found to be internally consistent and there was some support for their construct validity.

  17. Poverty and Agriculture in the Philippines: Trends in Income Poverty and Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuga, Aubrey D.; Reyes, Celia M.; Asis, Ronina D.; Datu, Maria Blesila G.

    2012-01-01

    Poverty incidence in the Philippines is rising based on the national official data released by the National Statistical Coordination Board. Poverty incidence among population rose from 24.9 percent in 2003 to 26.4 percent in 2006 and then inched up further to 26.5 percent in 2009. This is in reverse of the downward trend and is a major deviation from the path toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The disparities across the regions remain wide both in terms of poverty and inequali...

  18. Age at first childbirth and later poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Myers, D E; Morrison, D R; Nord, C W; Brown, B; Edmonston, B

    1993-01-01

    A linear structural equation model is used in this research study in order to estimate the simultaneous effects of age at first birth on a woman's subsequent socioeconomic conditions and related outcomes after the age of 27 years. Estimation was accomplished with a variant of Amemiya's principle and a feasible generalized least squares estimator. Analysis involved examination of the bivariate relationship between age at first birth and poverty at age 27 years for Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites, followed by structural equation models for each racial group and then analysis of the total and indirect effects of age at first birth on poverty. Poverty is measured as the ratio of family income to the poverty threshold. Findings indicate that the association between early childbearing and poverty at the age of 27 years is very strong. Young women with educated parents and women with reading materials in their home before the age of 14 years achieved more schooling. When these effects were controlled, being raised by both parents and having more siblings were only associated with more schooling among Whites. Rural Blacks and Whites completed more schooling than rural Hispanics. Blacks in poor states had lower educational attainment. Age at first birth was only significant among Hispanics. First birth was delayed by 1.26 years among Blacks, 0.88 years among Whites, and 0.98 years among Hispanics for having an additional year of schooling. Delaying marriage had the strongest effect among Whites. Delayed childbearing among Blacks was predicted by having fewer siblings, being raised by both parents, and later menstruation. Earlier White childbearing was associated with women from larger families and women with larger ideal family sizes. Hispanic women raised by both parents was associated with delayed childbearing. Findings confirm that age at first birth was associated for all racial groups with poverty. Age at first birth affected educational attainment of Hispanics and age

  19. Estimation of Poverty in Small Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Bikauskaite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative techniques of poverty estimation is needed to better implement, monitor and determine national areas where support is most required. The problem of small area estimation (SAE is the production of reliable estimates in areas with small samples. The precision of estimates in strata deteriorates (i.e. the precision decreases when the standard deviation increases, if the sample size is smaller. In these cases traditional direct estimators may be not precise and therefore pointless. Currently there are many indirect methods for SAE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze several diff erent types of techniques which produce small area estimates of poverty.

  20. Women and poverty: a demographic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J B

    1987-01-01

    In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty, much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies.

  1. Multidimensional Poverty Measurement in Pakistan: Time Series Trends and Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Taseer Salahuddin; Asad Zaman

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally poverty has been understood only as ‘lack of income’. However, with the passage of time it was realised that poverty is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon. Mahboob-ul-Haq (1973) and Sen (1975) argued that development is about enlarging human capabilities, rather than only acquisition of wealth. The purpose of this research is to argue that poverty being multidimensional in nature, cannot be properly measured by unidimensional (income or calorie based) poverty measures. Th...

  2. Income and Poverty across SMSAs: A Two-Stage Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Two popular explanations of urban poverty are the "welfare-disincentive" and "urban-deindustrialization" theories. Using cross-sectional Census data, we develop a two-stage model to predict an SMSAs median family income and poverty rate. The model allows the city's welfare level and industrial structure to affect its median family income and poverty rate directly. It also allows welfare and industrial structure to affect income and poverty indirectly, through their effects on family structure...

  3. Consumption and Income Poverty over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Meyer; Sullivan, James X.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the relationship between the business cycle and poverty for the period from 1960 to 2008 using income data from the Current Population Survey and consumption data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey. This new evidence on the relationship between macroeconomic conditions and poverty is of particular interest given recent changes in anti-poverty policies that have placed greater emphasis on participation in the labor market and in-kind transfers. We look beyond official poverty, exa...

  4. Poverty and life cycle effects: A nonparametric analysis for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stich, Andreas

    1996-01-01

    Most empirical studies on poverty consider the extent of poverty either for the entire society or for separate groups like elderly people.However, these papers do not show what the situation looks like for persons of a certain age. In this paper poverty measures depending on age are derived using the joint density of income and age. The density is nonparametrically estimated by weighted Gaussian kernel density estimation. Applying the conditional density of income to several poverty measures ...

  5. The poverty-inequality relationship in Malawi: A multidimensional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mussa, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the linkage between poverty and inequality by investigating the poverty impacts of changes in within and between inequalities in Malawi. We recognize the multidimensional nature of both poverty and inequality by focusing on monetary (consumption) and non monetary (health and education) dimensions of well being. Two questions are answered namely; what is the contribution of within-group inequalities (vertical inequalities) to total poverty? And what is the contribution of b...

  6. Why engendering PRSPs reduces poverty, and the case of Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Zuckerman, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    To achieve the poverty reduction goal, HIPC countries need to mainstream gender considerations into their PRSPs (poverty reduction strategy papers). Mounting worldwide evidence that greater gender equality correlates with high economic growth and less poverty means that to succeed, poverty reduction strategies must invest in reducing gender disparities. An analysis of completed PRSPs demonstrates that so far the PRSP engendering track record has been disappointing. This paper discusses why PR...

  7. How should we measure global poverty in a changing world?

    OpenAIRE

    Osberg, Lars; Xu, Kuan

    2006-01-01

    Before effective anti-poverty policy can be designed and implemented, the extent, trend and distribution of poverty must be identified. In this sense, poverty measurement is a crucial intermediate step in public policymaking and development planning. This paper asks whether the estimated proportion of the world’s population with income below US$1 (adjusted according to purchasing power parity) per day is a good measure of trends in global poverty. We argue that the answer depends on two impor...

  8. From Low Income, High Poverty to High-Income, No Poverty? An Optimistic View of the Long-Run Evolution of Poverty in Indonesia By International Poverty Lines, 1984–2030

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Sumner; Peter Edward

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia has achieved well-documented and drastic improvements in average incomes and in the reduction of poverty. Much research has discussed this progress. This paper adds to the literature with a new perspective. We discuss poverty in Indonesia using the international poverty lines ($1.25, $2 and we add $10/day). We generate historic estimates of poverty and make projections based on various growth and inequality trends. We find that Indonesia has the potential to attain high-income count...

  9. Poverty and Inequality Nexus: Illustrations with Nigerian Data

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkrim Araar; Awoyemi Taiwo Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to explore the link between poverty and inequality. In developing countries, there is a general consensus that high inequality can dampen significantly the impact of economic performance on poverty. In this paper, we propose a new theoretical framework that links poverty and inequality. We also show between and within group inequalities, as well as inequality in income sources, can contribute to total poverty. The methodology of the paper is illustrated using the...

  10. Multi-dimensional Intertemporal Poverty in Rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Jing You; Sangui Wang; Laurence Roope

    2014-01-01

    We analyse intertemporal poverty in two important dimensions - income and nutrition - in less developed northwest China during 2000-2004. A generalised recursive selection model is proposed which enables simultaneous estimation of the causes of intertemporal poverty within and between dimensions. Improvement in agricultural production is crucial for reducing both dimensions of intertemporal poverty. We find evidence suggestive of intertemporal income-nutrition poverty traps. Higher labour pro...

  11. The Poverty Impacts of Global Commodity Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Keeney, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the poverty impacts of global merchandise trade reform by looking at a wide range of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Overall, we find that trade reform tends to reduce poverty primarily through the inclusion of agricultural components. The majority of our developing country sample experiences small poverty increases from non-agricultural reforms. We explore the relative poverty-friendliness of agricultural trade reforms in detail, examining the diff...

  12. Benin; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper-Annual Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) on Benin analyzes poverty trends and economic policies. The gap between the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) poverty line and trends recorded in Benin is still considerable, especially in terms of the depth and gravity of poverty. Progress on good governance and institutional capacity building was uneven. To achieve the overall and sectoral targets set by the PRSP, additional funds must be mobilized for implementing the final phase. It will als...

  13. The World Shares Chinese Experience of Poverty Alleviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Rengui

    2015-01-01

    As the 2nd China Poverty Alleviation Day and the 23rd International Day for the Eradication of Poverty is approaching,Chinese President Xi Jinping delivered a keynote speech at the 2015 Global Poverty Reduction and Development Forum in Beijing on October 16th and elaborated Chinese Government’s resolute measures on comprehensively promoting poverty alleviation campaign in the process of building a moderately prosperous society in an all suspects,showing China’s

  14. The Effects of the Colombian Trade Liberalization on Urban Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We examine whether the Colombian trade reform can explain any of Colombia's decline in urban poverty between 1984 and 1995. Our approach focuses on short- and medium- run channels through which trade reform could affect poverty. Despite the chronological coincidence of the poverty reduction with the trade reforms over this period, we do not observe any evidence of a link between poverty and tariff reductions operating through the labor income channel. Our descriptive analysis suggests that al...

  15. THE ROLE OF ZAKAH AND BINARY ECONOMICS IN POVERTY REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Muniaty Aisyah

    2015-01-01

    Poverty reduction remains the most important challenge for every countries. Zakah, as an Islamic faith-based institution, is a strategic tool for combating poverty.  This study aims to identify the role of zakah and compare its principles with an overview of the characteristics and practices within binary economics which also provides a systemic solution for poverty. The study shows that zakah has an essential role to  the economic growth and poverty reduction in Muslim community, as well as,...

  16. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  17. NEIGHBORHOOD POVERTY AND NONMARITAL FERTILITY: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DIMENSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced this risk. The effect of local neighborhood poverty was especially pronounced when surrounding neighborhoods were economically advantaged. Measuring e...

  18. Evolving Approaches to the Study of Childhood Poverty and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Emily; Liu, Ran; Alvarado-Urbina, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have conceptualised poverty in multiple ways, with measurement approaches that seek to identify absolute, relative, subjective, and multi-dimensional poverty. The concept of poverty is central in the comparative education field, but has been empirically elusive in many large, international educational surveys: these studies have…

  19. The Relationship of Child Poverty to School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a global issue that affects around half the children in the world; it is inextricably bound to the poverty experienced by their parents and families and has been identified by the United Nations as a human rights issue. Child poverty can be a barrier to children and young people accessing school education or achieving any form of…

  20. Education, Cognitive Development, and Poverty: Implications for School Finance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a growing problem that adversely affects both future society and the poor children themselves. This paper's purpose is to investigate the intergenerational links between education and poverty. Israel serves as an interesting case study because it has exhibited an incremental trend in child poverty between 1980 and 2010 (from 5% to…