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Sample records for hhp-treated whey protein

  1. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fraction de Lactosérum, Fraction de Petit-Lait, Goat Milk Whey, Goat Whey, Isolat de Protéine de Lactosérum, Isolat ... Lactosérum de Lait de Chèvre, MBP, Milk Protein, Milk Protein Isolate, Mineral Whey Concentrate, Proteínas del Suero de la Leche, Protéine ...

  2. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved body and texture of lowfat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S-Y; Swanson, B G; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2008-04-01

    Previous research demonstrated that application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), particularly at 300 MPa for 15 min, can enhance foaming properties of whey protein concentrate (WPC). The purpose of this research was to determine the practical impact of HHP-treated WPC on the body and texture of lowfat ice cream. Washington State University (WSU)-WPC was produced by ultrafiltration of fresh separated whey received from the WSU creamery. Commercial whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35) powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU-WPC (8.23%). Three batches of lowfat ice cream mix were produced to contain WSU-WPC without HHP, WSU-WPC with HHP (300 MPa for 15 min), and WPC 35 without HHP. All lowfat ice cream mixes contained 10% WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Overrun and foam stability of ice cream mixes were determined after whipping for 15 min. Ice creams were produced using standard ice cream ingredients and processing. The hardness of ice creams was determined with a TA-XT2 texture analyzer. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 52 volunteers. The ice cream mix containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited the greatest overrun and foam stability, confirming the effect of HHP on foaming properties of whey proteins in a complex system. Ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC exhibited significantly greater hardness than ice cream produced with untreated WSU-WPC or WPC 35. Panelists were able to distinguish between ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU-WPC and ice cream containing untreated WPC 35. Improvements of overrun and foam stability were observed when HHP-treated whey protein was used at a concentration as low as 10% (wt/wt) in ice cream mix. The impact of HHP on the functional properties of whey proteins was more pronounced than the impact on sensory properties.

  3. Short communication: low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, J M; Lim, S-Y; Powers, J R; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine flavor binding of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a real food system. Fresh Washington State University (WSU, Pullman) WPC, produced by ultrafiltration of separated Cheddar cheese whey, was treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Commercial WPC 35 powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU WPC (8.23%). Six batches of low-fat ice cream were produced: A) HHP-treated WSU WPC without diacetyl; B) and E) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added before HHP; C) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added after HHP; D) untreated WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl; and F) untreated commercial WPC 35 with 2 mg/L of diacetyl. The solution of WSU WPC or commercial WPC 35 contributed 10% to the mix formulation. Ice creams were produced by using standard ice cream ingredients and processes. Low-fat ice creams containing HHP-treated WSU WPC and untreated WSU WPC were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 50 untrained panelists in 2 sessions on 2 different days. The headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography analysis revealed that ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU WPC had almost 3 times the concentration of diacetyl compared with ice cream containing untreated WSU WPC at d 1 of storage. However, diacetyl was not detected in ice creams after 14 d of storage. Eighty percent of panelists were able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated WSU WPC with and without diacetyl, confirming panelists' ability to detect diacetyl. However, panelists were not able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated and HHP-treated WSU WPC with diacetyl. These results show that WPC diacetyl-binding properties were not enhanced by 300-MPa HHP treatment for 15 min, indicating that HHP may not be suitable for such applications.

  4. Therapeutic applications of whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Keri

    2004-06-01

    Whey, a protein complex derived from milk, is being touted as a functional food with a number of health benefits. The biological components of whey, including lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide, and immunoglobulins, demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. In addition, whey has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and chelating agent. The primary mechanism by which whey is thought to exert its effects is by intracellular conversion of the amino acid cysteine to glutathione, a potent intracellular antioxidant. A number of clinical trials have successfully been performed using whey in the treatment of cancer, HIV, hepatitis B, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and as an antimicrobial agent. Whey protein has also exhibited benefit in the arena of exercise performance and enhancement.

  5. High hydrostatic pressure modification of whey protein concentrate for improved functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S-Y; Swanson, B G; Clark, S

    2008-04-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has many applications in the food industry. Previous research demonstrated that treatment of whey proteins with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can enhance solubility and foaming properties of whey proteins. The objective of this study was to use HHP to improve functional properties of fresh WPC, compared with functional properties of reconstituted commercial whey protein concentrate 35 (WPC 35) powder. Fluid whey was ultrafiltered to concentrate proteins and reconstituted to equivalent total solids (8.23%) as reconstituted commercial WPC 35 powder. Solutions of WPC were treated with 300 and 400 MPa (0- and 15-min holding time) and 600 MPa (0-min holding time) pressure. After HHP, the solubility of the WPC was determined at both pH 4.6 and 7.0 using UDY and BioRad protein assay methods. Overrun and foam stability were determined after protein dispersions were whipped for 15 min. The protein solubility was greater at pH 7.0 than at pH 4.6, but there were no significant differences at different HHP treatment conditions. The maintenance of protein solubility after HHP indicates that HHP-treated WPC might be appropriate for applications to food systems. Untreated WPC exhibited the smallest overrun percentage, whereas the largest percentage for overrun and foam stability was obtained for WPC treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Additionally, HHP-WPC treated at 300 MPa for 15 min acquired larger overrun than commercial WPC 35. The HHP treatment of 300 MPa for 0 min did not improve foam stability of WPC. However, WPC treated at 300 or 400 MPa for 15 min and 600 MPa for 0 min exhibited significantly greater foam stability than commercial WPC 35. The HHP treatment was beneficial to enhance overrun and foam stability of WPC, showing promise for ice cream and whipping cream applications.

  6. Health issues of whey proteins: 3. gut health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of whey protein to promote gut health. The high digestibility and specific amino acid composition of whey protein, as present in whey powder, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, explain why ingestion of whey protein will exert this beneficial effect.

  7. Health issues of whey proteins: 3. gut health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of whey protein to promote gut health. The high digestibility and specific amino acid composition of whey protein, as present in whey powder, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, explain why ingestion of whey protein will exert this beneficial effect.

  8. Functionality of whey protein isolates and hydrolyzed whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Herceg; Vesna Lelas; Greta Krešić; Anet Režek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine functional properties: solubility, dispersibility, viscosity, emulsifiying, foaming and rheological properties of hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP) and whey protein isolate (WPI). Particle size analysis and specific area of HWP and WPI were performed by «Mie – theory» of «light scatering» using «Malvern Mastersizer X». The results of this analysis have shown that HWP had higher particle size and specific area than WPI.By examing functional properties, it has...

  9. Health issues of whey proteins: 3. Gut health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of whey protein to promote gut health. The high digestibility and specific amino acid composition of whey protei, as present in whey powder, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, explain why ingestion of whey protein will exert this beneficial effect.

  10. Health issues of whey proteins: 3. Gut health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential of whey protein to promote gut health. The high digestibility and specific amino acid composition of whey protei, as present in whey powder, whey protein concentrate and whey protein isolate, explain why ingestion of whey protein will exert this beneficial effect. Th

  11. Protein concentrate production by whey ultrafiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid Vicente, A.; Madrid Vicente, R.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes an installation and process in which whey is ultrafiltered to give whey protein concentrate and deproteinized whey, both of which are then concentrated by evaporation and spray dried. Diagrams show the ultrafiltration plant and the complete processing line, including a line for bagging and pelletizing the dried protein concentrate (400 bags of 25 kg/hour). The Romicon fibre membranes can be cleaned by pumping the ultrafiltered liquid in the reverse direction and by closing the outlet for discharge of the deproteinized whey. The deproteinized whey powder can be used for animal feeding.

  12. RHEOLOGY OF EXTRUDED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein isolate (WPI), a high-quality protein used to fortify a number of foods, may be texturized with a twin-screw extruder. Since extrusion of food is commonly performed above 70°C, which causes whey protein to denature, cold extrusion below 70°C was investigated to determine the effects on...

  13. Functionality of whey protein isolates and hydrolyzed whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine functional properties: solubility, dispersibility, viscosity, emulsifiying, foaming and rheological properties of hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP and whey protein isolate (WPI. Particle size analysis and specific area of HWP and WPI were performed by «Mie – theory» of «light scatering» using «Malvern Mastersizer X». The results of this analysis have shown that HWP had higher particle size and specific area than WPI.By examing functional properties, it has been established that HWP has higher solubility, dispersibility, emulsifiying properties as well as foam stability (FSI and MFS compared to WPI. Rheological properties of protein suspensions were determined in 10, 15, and 18 % suspension of proteins (HWP and WPI by rotational viscosimeter, Brookfiel DV-III at 25°C. Apparent viscosity at 200 s-1 was calculated, using Newtonian law. On the basis of measured shear rate and shear stress, using least squere method, rheological parameters, flow behavior indeks (n and consistency coefficient (k were determined according to the Ostwald de Waele model. The highest viscosity was observed in 18% HWP model system while the least viscosity was found in a model system prepared with 10% WPI.

  14. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fractionation techniques, it is possible to produce various whey - protein based products. The most important products based on the whey proteins are whey protein concentrates (WPC and whey protein isolates (WPI. The aim of this paper was to give comprehensive review of nutritional and functional properties of the most common used whey proteins (whey protein concentrate - WPC and whey protein isolate - WPI in the food industry.

  15. Casein - whey protein interactions in heated milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasbinder, Astrid Jolanda

    2003-01-01

    Heating of milk is an essential step in the processing of various dairy products, like for example yoghurt. A major consequence of the heat treatment is the denaturation of whey proteins, which either associate with the casein micelle or form soluble whey protein aggregates. By combination of enzyma

  16. 21 CFR 184.1979c - Whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from milk that has been pasteurized, or the whey protein concentrate shall be subjected to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Whey protein concentrate. 184.1979c Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979c Whey protein concentrate. (a) Whey...

  17. Separation of whey proteins for chromatography liquid

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham D. Giraldo Zuñiga; Edwin E.García Rojas; Jane S. R. Coimbra; Wilmer E. Luera Peña

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and compares three chromatographic methods for the analysis and quantification of most abundant proteins in cheese whey, -lactalbumin and -lactoglobulin. The methods were: Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography, anion Exchange chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The reverse- phase liquid chromatography led to a better separation of whey proteins than size-exclusion chromatography and anion exchange chromatography, this method offered an excel...

  18. Protein-peptide interactions in mixtures of whey peptides and whey proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of several conditions on the amounts and compositions of aggregates formed in mixtures of whey protein hydrolysate, made with Bacillus licheniformis protease, and whey protein isolate were investigated using response surface methodology. Next, the peptides present in the aggregates were

  19. Emulsifying properties of tribomechanically treated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins are used in a wide range of food products because of their high nutritional value and the ability to contribute to the unique functional properties of the final products. The functional properties of whey proteins are affected not only by the whey origin, season dependent variations of protein and non-protein components amount, but also by the conditions of processes involved in their isolation, purification and modification (temperature, pH, pressure, chemicals. In this research, tribomechanical micronization (TM was used as a technique that could be useful in modification of some functional properties of whey proteins. Therefore, two different commercial powdered whey protein isolates (WPI were used for analysis. Surface hydrophobicity and emulsifying properties (emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were determined before and after TM treatment. The results obtained showed increases in surface hydrophobicity of WPI after TM treatment indicating that TM could induce changes of protein conformation and increase exposure of the previously buried hydrophobic regions. Emulsions prepared with tribomechanically treated WPI showed higher emulsion activity and better emulsion stability. The results obtained suggest that TM can be useful and fast process technique for improvement of functional properties of WPI.

  20. Intakes of whey protein hydrolysate and whole whey proteins are discriminated by LC-MS metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Rasmussen, Jakob Ewald; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein improves fasting lipids and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. Whey hydrolysate was recently shown to be more active than whole protein but the differences in metabolite profiles after intake remain unknown. This study discriminates plasma profiles after intake...... of four different whey protein fractions and establishes new hypotheses for the observed effects. Obese, non-diabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, cross-over meal study. Subjects ingested a high-fat meal containing whey isolate (WI), whey concentrate hydrolysate (WH), α......-lactalbumin or caseinoglycomacropeptide as the protein source. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analysed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. Plasma concentrations of ten amino acids (AAs) were different between the meals. The plasma levels of AAs and AA derivatives were generally directly related to the AA composition...

  1. Stiffening in gels containing whey protein isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Veen, van der E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Gels made only from whey protein isolate (WPI) stiffened over the first few days of storage, after which the textural properties remained nearly constant. However, protein gels containing WPI microparticles, at the same total protein content, stiffened over a longer period than those without micropa

  2. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...

  3. Nutritional and functional properties of whey proteins concentrate and isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Herceg; Anet Režek

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein fractions represent 18 - 20 % of total milk nitrogen content. Nutritional value in addition to diverse physico - chemical and functional properties make whey proteins highly suitable for application in foodstuffs. In the most cases, whey proteins are used because of their functional properties. Whey proteins possess favourable functional characteristics such as gelling, water binding, emulsification and foaming ability. Due to application of new process techniques (membrane fract...

  4. The functional properties, modification and utilization of whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Venter

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein has an excellent nutritional value and exhibits a functional potential. In comparison with certain other food proteins, the whey protein content of essential amino acids is extremely favourable for human consumption. Depending on the heat-treatment history thereof, soluble whey proteins with utilizable functional properties, apart from high biological value, true digestibility, protein efficiency ratio and nett protein utilization, can be recovered. Various technological and chemical recovery processes have been designed. Chemically and enzymatically modified whey protein is manufactured to obtain technological and functional advantages. The important functional properties of whey proteins, namely hydration, gelation, emulsifying and foaming properties, are reviewed.

  5. Cheese whey protein recovery by ultrafiltration through transglutaminase (TG) catalysis whey protein cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Qiong, Wang; Lan-Wei, Zhang; Xue, Han; Yi, Lu

    2017-01-15

    In whey ultrafiltration (UF) production, two main problems are whey protein recovery and membrane fouling. In this study, membrane coupling protein transglutaminase (TG) catalysis protein cross-linking was investigated under different conditions to find out the best treatment. We found that the optimal conditions for protein recovery involved catalyzing whey protein cross-linking with TG (40U/g whey proteins) at 40°C for 60min at pH 5.0. Under these conditions, the recovery rate was increased 15-20%, lactose rejection rate was decreased by 10%, and relative permeate flux was increase 30-40% compared to the sample without enzyme treatment (control). It was noticeable that the total resistance and cake resistance were decreased after enzyme catalysis. This was mainly due to the increased particle size and decreased zeta potential. Therefore, membrane coupling enzyme catalysis protein cross-linking is a potential means for further use.

  6. The influence of whey protein concentrate on growth and survival of probiotic bacteria in whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the influence of whey protein concentrate addition (WPC on growth and activity of probiotic species Lactobacilus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in sweet reconstituted whey and their survival during 28 days of fermented whey cold storage (4 °C. The fermentation of whey at 37º C with and without 1.5 and 3% of WPC addition has been observed. Fermentation of whey with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 to which 3% WPC was added, was about an hour shorter (∼ 14 hours compared to the fermentation of whey without WPC addition (∼ 15 hours. The viable cells count of Lactobacilus acidophilus La-5 was better in whey with 3% of WPC addition (Δlog CFU/mL = 2.1 compared to whey without WPC addition (Δlog CFU/mL = 1.7 . Addition of whey protein concentrate did not influence significantly on growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in whey, and also it did not influence the survival of both probiotic species during 28 days of cool storage (at 4 °C. Whey enriched with WPC had slightly higher titratable acidity during fermentation and storage compared to whey without WPC addition.

  7. Advances in extrusion for texturized whey proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy proteins like whey proteins play an important role in human nutrition because of their characteristic structure and associated numerous benefits such as ease of digestion, in- vivo assimilation, creating new or maintaining the muscle mass and the unique ability of boosting immune functions. W...

  8. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  9. Addition of whey protein to fresh cheese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael Arce-Méndez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been conducted in order to assess the effect of adding whey protein (WP to fresh cheese. The yield, proximal chemical composition, tryptophan content,and texture and consumer sensorial acceptance were obtained. The study was conducted at a cheese factory located in San Carlos, Costa Rica, in 2011. The protein obtained from whey was added during the cheese manufacturing process, before adding the microbial rennet; and four enrichment levels were evaluated, including one control. The supplemented cheese showed an acceptance rating between 6.8 and 7.1. Products with 75 and 120 g of added whey protein per kilogram of milk showed no significant differences versus non-supplemented cheese, while the preference towards the cheese with 150 g WP/kg was less than that of the control (p<0.05. A cluster analysis revealed the existence of two consumer groups: one, accounting for 65% of the members of the panel, whose preference was unaffected by the protein supplemented; and, the other group where the added protein affected their liking negatively. Adding whey protein to the cheese resulted in a significant increase in yield and in the protein-to-water ratio, as well as a reduction in fat content (p<0.05. Nevertheless, there were structural changes in the cheese that caused the reduction of certain texture properties, generating changes in their sensory properties that reduced the preference of a representative group of consumers towards the product.

  10. The influence of whey protein concentrate on growth and survival of probiotic bacteria in whey

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić; Bojan Matijević; Irena Jeličić

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the influence of whey protein concentrate addition (WPC) on growth and activity of probiotic species Lactobacilus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in sweet reconstituted whey and their survival during 28 days of fermented whey cold storage (4 °C). The fermentation of whey at 37º C with and without 1.5 and 3% of WPC addition has been observed. Fermentation of whey with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 to which 3% WPC was added, was about an...

  11. Evaluation of biological and biochemical quality of whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Fabiano Kenji; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; Paula, Heberth de; Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso dos; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio

    2010-12-01

    Nutritional and biochemical properties of noncommercial whey protein have been described since 1950. However, comparisons between commercial whey protein for human consumption and casein are rarely found. The aim of this study was to compare biological quality of a commercial whey protein with casein and its effect on biochemical parameters of rats. Thirty-two weanling Fisher rats were divided into three groups and given the following diets: casein group, standard diet (AOAC); whey protein group, modified AOAC diet with whey protein instead of casein; and casein:whey group, modified AOAC diet with 70%:30% casein:whey. A protein-free group was used for determination of endogenous nitrogen losses. Net protein ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and true digestibility were determined, and blood was collected for biochemical analysis. When compared with casein, whey protein showed significant differences for all biological parameters evaluated, as well as for albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, and glucose concentrations. Replacing 30% of casein with whey protein did not affect these parameters. A positive relation among whey protein, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and paraoxonase activity was found. Hepatic or renal dysfunctions were not observed. In conclusion, in comparison with casein, commercial whey protein had higher values of biological parameters, and biochemical evaluation revealed it improved glycemic homeostasis, lipid status, and paraoxonase activity in rats.

  12. Electrokinetic characterization of whey protein separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Kristian; Stougård, Anders; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    Cross flow filtration of whey protein has been performed on 3 different membranes. The rejections have been determined by HPLC analysis of the feed and permeate. The pure membranes as well as the fouled membranes have been characterized by measurements of the streaming potential along the membrane...

  13. Characterization of whey protein emulsion films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida C. M. P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stearic acid was incorporated into whey protein through emulsification to produce films. Whey protein films were prepared by dispersing 6.5% protein in distilled water. Glycerol was the plasticizer agent. Stearic acid was added at different levels (0.0 to 1.0% and the films were analyzed at different pHs (5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 9.0. The emulsion films were evaluated for mechanical properties, water vapor permeability and protein solubility. It was observed that water vapor permeability and protein solubility values for the film decreased with increasing fatty acid content in the film, but the mechanical properties also decreased.

  14. Impact of Ovine Whey Protein Concentrates and Clarification By-Products on the Yield and Quality of Whey Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D. Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of whey protein concentrates and clarification by-products obtained from ovine cheese whey and deproteinized whey (Sorelho on the yield and quality of the whey cheese (Requeijão have been evaluated. Whey protein concentrates were obtained by ultrafiltration of skimmed whey and Sorelho. The clarification by-products were obtained after the treatment of the skimmed whey and Sorelho by thermocalcic precipitation and microfiltration with two membranes (0.20 and 0.65 μm pore size. Next, the liophilization of the corresponding retentates was carried out. Each powder was added in three different mass ratios: 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %. The addition of the powders caused higher yields of the whey cheese – mainly the one with the additional whey powder – but it did not affect the strength of the products. The retention of water and other components of whey and milk in the whey cheese was influenced by the protein composition of the powders. In relation to colour parameters, the whey cheese manufactured with ultrafiltration and microfiltration retentate powders showed lower values of ligthness than the control whey cheese – mainly the whey cheese with 1.5 % of added powders. The microstructure constituted of small aggregates in the whey cheese manufactured with ultrafiltration and 0.20-μm microfiltration retentate powders and also by large, smooth structures in the other whey cheeses, especially in batches with added Sorelho powders.

  15. Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Muditha; Kelly, Alan L; Vasiljevic, Todor

    2010-06-09

    Subjecting whey proteins to high-pressure shearing with or without heating, commonly termed microparticulation, results in novel ingredients with modulated functionalities. Gelling properties of microparticulated whey proteins (MWP) were specifically assessed in this study. MWP powders were produced from commercial cheese whey retentate, standardized to 10% (w/w) protein, and subjected to microfluidization (MFZ) at 140 MPa either with or without prior heat-induced denaturation, followed by spray-drying. Gels were created from aqueous MWP dispersions either by heating at 90 degrees C for 20 min or by allowing gels to form at ambient temperature through addition of glucano-delta-lactone and/or NaCl. MWP powders produced from unheated WP dispersions created firm gels upon heating, whereas those produced from denatured WP gave only cold-set gels. Covalent and noncovalent protein-protein interactions were involved during both heat- and cold-induced gelation. Hydrophobic interactions were more pronounced during aggregation of bovine serum albumin. In conclusion, microparticulation of WP resulted in heat- and cold-set gels with different molecular and physical characteristics from those of untreated controls.

  16. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pwhey protein isolate has an

  17. Whey protein concentrate market enhancement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, L.

    1982-09-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was studied to see whether or not there was sufficient depth in the marketplace to accommodate increased WPC production in the event more whey was converted into alcohol. It was concluded that the current market for WPC is still immature and ample room exists in the marketplace to produce and dispose of WPC. In addition, WPC literature was reviewed so as to evaluate the current state of the art producing WPC. Considerable evidence suggests that more product formulation work is needed to move WPC into the general marketplace. Concurrent to the market and ltierature study WPC was incorporated into select categories of foods where finished goods were enhanced by having WPC incorporated in their formulations. Formulations were produced to demonstrate the fact that products such as ice cream, breedings and batters for fish sticks, and orange juice can be enhanced by using WPC.

  18. Production of an exopolysaccharide-containing whey protein concentrate by fermentation of whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briczinski, E P; Roberts, R F

    2002-12-01

    Using whey as a fermentation medium presents the opportunity to create value-added products. Conditions were developed to partially hydrolyze whey proteins and then ferment partially hydrolyzed whey with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus RR (RR; an EPS-producing bacterium). In preliminary experiments, pasteurized Cheddar cheese whey was treated with Flavourzyme to partially hydrolyze the protein (2 to 13% hydrolyzed). Fermentation (2 L, 38 degrees C, pH 5.0) with RR resulted in EPS levels ranging from 95 to 110 mg of EPS per liter of hydrolyzed whey. There were no significant differences in the amount of EPS produced during fermentations of whey hydrolyzed to varying degrees. Since a high level of hydrolysis was not necessary for increased EPS production, a low level of hydrolysis (2 to 4%) was selected for future work. In scale up experiments, whey was separated and pasteurized, then treated with Flavourzyme to hydrolyze 2 to 4% of the protein. Following protease inactivation, 60 L of partially hydrolyzed whey was fermented at 38 degrees C and pH 5.0. After fermentation, the broth was pasteurized, and bacterial cells were removed using a Sharples continuous centrifuge. The whey was then ultrafiltered and diafiltered to remove lactose and salts, freeze-dried, and milled to a powder. Unfermented hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed whey controls were processed in the same manner. The EPS-WPC ingredients contained approximately 72% protein and 6% EPS, but they exhibited low protein solubility (65%, pH 7.0; 58%, pH 3.0).

  19. Concentrated whey protein particle dispersions: Heat stability and rheological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Shi, J.; Linden, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work heat stability and rheological properties of concentrated whey protein particle dispersions in different dispersing media are studied. Whey protein particles (protein content ~20% w/v) having an average size of a few microns were formed using a combination of two-step emulsification and

  20. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  1. Whey protein: The "whey" forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, Linda E; Wu, Tongzhi; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K

    2015-10-25

    A cost-effective nutritional approach to improve postprandial glycaemia is attractive considering the rising burden of diabetes throughout the world. Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating postprandial glycaemic excursions. The function of the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, particularly during the postprandial period, and this review will discuss the mechanisms by which whey protein slows gastric emptying and stimulates release of gut peptides, including the incretins. Whey protein is also a rich source of amino acids, and these can directly stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin, which contributes to the reduction in postprandial glycaemia. Appetite is suppressed with consumption of whey, due to its effects on the gut-brain axis and the hypothalamus. These properties of whey protein suggest its potential in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, the optimal dose and timing of whey protein ingestion are yet to be defined, and studies are required to examine the long-term benefits of whey consumption for overall glycaemic control.

  2. Cheese whey: A potential resource to transform into bioprotein, functional/nutritional proteins and bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Jay Shankar Singh; Yan, Song; Pilli, Sridhar; Kumar, Lalit; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2015-11-01

    The byproduct of cheese-producing industries, cheese whey, is considered as an environmental pollutant due to its high BOD and COD concentrations. The high organic load of whey arises from the presence of residual milk nutrients. As demand for milk-derived products is increasing, it leads to increased production of whey, which poses a serious management problem. To overcome this problem, various technological approaches have been employed to convert whey into value-added products. These technological advancements have enhanced whey utilization and about 50% of the total produced whey is now transformed into value-added products such as whey powder, whey protein, whey permeate, bioethanol, biopolymers, hydrogen, methane, electricity bioprotein (single cell protein) and probiotics. Among various value-added products, the transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is attractive and demanding. The main important factor which is attractive for transformation of whey into proteinaceous products is the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory status of whey. Whey and whey permeate are biotransformed into proteinaceous feed and food-grade bioprotein/single cell protein through fermentation. On the other hand, whey can be directly processed to obtain whey protein concentrate, whey protein isolate, and individual whey proteins. Further, whey proteins are also transformed into bioactive peptides via enzymatic or fermentation processes. The proteinaceous products have applications as functional, nutritional and therapeutic commodities. Whey characteristics, and its transformation processes for proteinaceous products such as bioproteins, functional/nutritional protein and bioactive peptides are covered in this review.

  3. Whey protein particles modulate mechanical properties of gels at high protein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Berg, van den L.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the influence of dense whey protein particles on the mechanical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) gels at high protein concentrations (16–22% (w/w)). Incorporation of dense whey protein particles in the gel, while keeping the total protein concentration constant, leads to a co

  4. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk

  5. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  6. Cheese from Ultrafiltered Milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, C.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the

  7. Acne and whey protein supplementation among bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonart, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Accumulative evidence supports the role of nutritional factors in acne. I report here 5 healthy male adult patients developing acne after the consumption of whey protein, a favorite supplement of those engaged in bodybuilding. These observations are in line with biochemical and epidemiological data supporting the effects of milk and dairy products as enhancers of insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling and acne aggravation. Further prospective studies are required to determine the possible role of dietary supplements in the fitness and bodybuilding environment.

  8. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  9. Beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Cássia Gomes Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to develop and characterize beverages formulated with whey protein and added lutein. Beverages formulated with 0.5 (F1, 2.0 (F2, 4.0 (F3 and 6.0% w/v (F4 whey protein were physicochemically and microbiologically characterized, and sensory evaluated. The physicochemical analyses indicated that the protein content significantly changed (P0.05 with increased protein content. The F2 formulation showed the highest sensory acceptance. Beverages offer a promising alternative to whey use and enhance the value of the product by the addition of lutein.

  10. Protein oleogels from heat-set whey protein aggregates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Auke; Wesseling, Anne; Linden, van der Erik; Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    In this research we use heat-set whey protein aggregates (diameter ∼ 200 nm) as novel building blocks for structure formation in liquid oil to form oleogels. To transfer the aggregates to the oil phase, a solvent exchange procedure to sunflower oil was applied using acetone as an intermediate solven

  11. Interactions between whey proteins and salivary proteins as related to astringency of whey protein beverages at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, A; Streicher, C; Singh, H

    2011-12-01

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent at low pH. In the present study, the interactions between model whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin and lactoferrin) and human saliva in the pH range from 7 to 2 were investigated using particle size, turbidity, and ζ-potential measurements and sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE. The correlation between the sensory results of astringency and the physicochemical data was discussed. Strong interactions between β-lactoglobulin and salivary proteins led to an increase in the particle size and turbidity of mixtures of both unheated and heated β-lactoglobulin and human saliva at pH ∼3.4. However, the large particle size and high turbidity that occurred at pH 2.0 were the result of aggregation of human salivary proteins. The intense astringency in whey protein beverages may result from these increases in particle size and turbidity at these pH values and from the aggregation and precipitation of human salivary proteins alone at pH proteins in the interaction is a key factor in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages. At any pH, the increases in particle size and turbidity were much smaller in mixtures of lactoferrin and saliva, which suggests that aggregation and precipitation may not be the only mechanism linked to the perception of astringency in whey protein. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Whey protein versus whey protein hydrolyzate for the protection of azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate induced colonic tumors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaallah, Wafi; Yilmaz, Ayşe Mine; Erdoğan, Nusret; Yalçin, A Suha; Aktan, A Ozdemir

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that whey protein has many useful effects including its anti-cancer effect. In this study we have compared the protective effect of dietary whey protein with whey protein hydrolyzate against azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate induced colon cancer in rats. We used a rat model of the colon cancer induced by administration of azoxymethane followed by repeated dextran sodium sulfate ingestion which causes multiple tumor development. Colon tissues were analyzed histologically in addition to biochemical analyses performed by measuring lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and glutathione levels in both of colon and liver tissues of rats after sacrification. Macroscopic and microscopic tumors were identified in all groups that received azoxymethane followed by repeated dextran sodium sulfate. Group fed with whey protein hydrolyzate showed significantly less macroscopic and microscopic tumor development compared with group fed with whey protein. The protocol applied to generate an appropriate model of colon cancer was successful. Whey protein hydrolyzate was found to be more effective in preventing colon tumor development compared with whey protein.

  13. Cheese from ultrafiltered milk : whey proteins and chymosin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Buijsse, C.A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of (semi-)hard cheese from ultrafiltered milk (UF-cheese) enables the partial incorporation of whey proteins in the cheese, thereby increasing its yield. The transfer of whey proteins in curd from (UF-)milk was studied in relation to the degree of ultrafiltration of the milk and the degree of syneresis of the curd. In UF-cheese manufacture (from 5x concentrated UF-retentates, concentrated further by syneresis) approximately one-third of the whey protein fraction was e...

  14. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    structure of the final dairy products. UHPH treatment provides the possibility of inducing structural changes in proteins by a purely physical and mechanical method without addition of enzymes or other ingredients. Throughout the studies of this thesis different methods of analysis have been used...... relaxation times and expelled serum was found. However, it was possible to differentiate samples with different ratios of casein and whey protein and differentiate between native and denaturated whey protein. The sensitivity of the method to differentiate between whey proteins in different states native...... or denaturated could be used in other dairy applications with higher content of whey proteins. The use of UHPH treatment seems to be a promising unit operation to change structure and bind water in dairy based products. The UHPH treatment could be applied to partial parts of the milk and concentrate...

  15. Whey protein stories - an experiment in writing a multidisciplinary biography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tenna; Bechschøft, Rasmus L.; Giacalone, Davide

    2016-01-01

    contributes to the field of food studies with a multidisciplinary biography of whey protein - including its sensory qualities and challenges, insights into its cultural history, its nutritional value and effects on the human body and an analysis of how it is perceived by people who consume it. The biography......This is an experimental, dual-purpose article about whey protein and how to conduct interdisciplinary analyses and writings. On the one hand, this article is a multidisciplinary commodity biography, which consists of five descriptions of whey protein written by the five different research groups...... thereby expands upon existing understandings of whey protein while discussing the usefulness of employing the commodity biography format in interdisciplinary writing. Moreover, the article contributes to the field of interdisciplinary research by providing a practical example of a joint publication...

  16. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve......-destructive methods for this purpose. A significant changed structure was observed in skim milk depleted or partly depleted for whey protein, acidified and UHPH treated. Some of the properties of the UHPH treated skim milk depleted from whey protein observed in this study support the idea, that UHPH treatment has...... this. LF-NMR relaxation were utilised to obtain information about the water mobility (relaxation time), in diluted skim milk systems depleted from whey protein. Obtained results indicate that measuring relaxation times with LF-NMR could be difficult to utilize, since no clear relationship between...

  17. The effects of whey protein on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The health consequences of obesity are more dangerous when associated with the metabolic syndrome and its components. Studies show that whey protein and its bioactive components can promote greater benefits compared to other protein sources such as egg and casein. The aim of this paper is to review the effects of whey protein on cardiometabolic risk factors. Using PubMed as the database, a review was conducted to identify current scientific literature on whey protein and the components of the metabolic syndrome published between 1970 and 2012. Consumption of whey protein seems to play an anti-obesity and muscle-protective role during dieting by increasing thermogenesis and maintaining lean mass. In addition, whey protein has been shown to improve glucose levels and insulin response, promote a reduction in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, and improve lipid profile. The collective view of current scientific literature indicates that the consumption of whey protein may have beneficial effects on some symptoms of the metabolic syndrome as well as a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P flavor characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Preparation and characterization of whey protein hydrolysates: applications in industrial whey bioconversion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, A; Ugalde, U; Rodriguez, I; Serra, J L

    1993-05-01

    A whey protein hydrolysate was prepared by incubation of reconstituted whey or a whey protein concentrate with Alcalase 0.6L. The proteolytic degradation of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin initially resulted in 6-kDa and, later, 2.5-kDa degradation products, quickly followed by the appearance of multiple peptides of 1 kDa or smaller. The hydrolysate showed a steady increase in solubility and a biphasic change in foaming characteristics with decreasing peptide size. At the highest degree of hydrolysis achieved (22%), the majority of the peptides were smaller than 1 kDa and could be efficiently assimilated by the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus growing in a defined medium.

  20. Effect of bleaching whey on sensory and functional properties of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, S; Campbell, R; Wojciechowski, K L; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2012-06-01

    Whey is a highly functional food that has found widespread use in a variety of food and beverage applications. A large amount of the whey proteins produced in the United States is derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Color from annatto is undesirable in whey and must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare 2 commercially approved bleaching agents, benzoyl peroxide (BP) and hydrogen peroxide (HP), and their effects on the flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Colored and uncolored liquid wheys were bleached with BP or HP, and then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried; WPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored Cheddar whey were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. The WPC80 were then assessed by sensory, instrumental, functionality, color, and proximate analysis techniques. The HP-bleached WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (specifically hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-octen-3-one) and had higher fatty and cardboard flavors compared with the other unbleached and BP-bleached WPC80. The WPC80 bleached with BP had lower norbixin concentrations compared with WPC80 bleached with HP. The WPC powders differed in Hunter color values (L, a, b), with bleached powders being more white, less red, and less yellow than unbleached powders. Bleaching with BP under the conditions used in this study resulted in larger reductions in yellowness of the powders made from whey with annatto color than did bleaching with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that whey bleached with HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10 min of heating at 90°C at pH 4.6 and pH 7 than the no-bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Overall, HP bleaching caused more lipid oxidation products and subsequent off-flavors compared with BP bleaching. However, heat stability of WPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control or BP

  1. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  2. Characterization of flavor of whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, Pattarin P; Miracle, R Evan; Drake, Maryanne

    2010-05-26

    Twenty-two whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) obtained from 8 major global manufacturers were characterized by instrumental analysis and descriptive sensory analysis. Proximate analysis, size exclusion chromatography, and two different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) analytical methods were also conducted. WPH were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel, and volatile compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). Eleven representative WPH were selected, and 15 aroma active compounds were quantified by GC-MS via the generation of external standard curves. Potato/brothy, malty, and animal flavors and bitter taste were key distinguishing sensory attributes of WPH. Correlations between bitter taste intensity, degree of hydrolysis (using both methods), and concentration of different molecular weight peptides were documented, with high DH samples having high bitter taste intensity and a high concentration of low molecular weight peptides and vice versa. The four aroma-active compounds out of 40 detected by GC-O present at the highest concentration and with consistently high odor activity values in WPH were Strecker derived products, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), 3-methyl butanal, 2-methyl butanal, and methional. Orthonasal thresholds of WPH were lower (p applications.

  3. Functionalization of whey proteins by reactive supercritical fluid extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanitta Ruttarattanamongkol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein, a by-product from cheese-making, is often used in a variety of food formulations due to its unsurpassednutritional quality and inherent functional properties. However, the possibilities for the improvement and upgrading of wheyprotein utilization still need to be explored. Reactive supercritical fluid extrusion (SCFX is a novel technique that has beenrecently reported to successfully functionalize commercially available whey proteins into a product with enhanced functionalproperties. The specific goal of this review is to provide fundamental understanding of the reinforcement mechanism andprocessing of protein functionalization by reactive SCFX process. The superimposed extrusion variables and their interactionmechanism affect the physico-chemical properties of whey proteins. By understanding the structure, functional properties andprocessing relationships of such materials, the rational design criteria for novel functionalized proteins could be developedand effectively utilized in food systems.

  4. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology.

  5. Rheological properties of whey proteins concentrate before and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Herceg

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocolloids are long-chain polymers, used in food production at small quantities (from 0,05 to 5 % to achieve appropriate rheological properties, prevent syneresis, increase the viscosity and stability of foodstuffs and for crystallization process control. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of tribomechanical micronization of powdered whey protein concentrate on the rheological properties of whey proteins model systems as well as the influence of severalcarboxymethylcellulose hydrocolloids addition in such systems.Measurements were done using rotational viscosimeter, Brookfield DV-III at temperature 20 oC. The rheological parameters were determined by powerlaw model. The results of investigation have shown that all investigated systems are non-Newtonian. Depending on the pretreatment of whey proteins and the mass fractions of hydrocolloids they exhibited pseudoplastic or dilatant properties.Particle size analysis was performed using Fritsch – laser particle sizer “analysette 22”. The operation of tribomechanical micronization caused the decreasing of particle size and incrasing specific area of whey proteins. Tribomechanical treatment of whey proteins had significant influence on the rheological parameters and the type of flowing.

  6. Whey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A brief discussion of the composition of whey and its nutritional potential is followed by consideration of the less well- known areas of research in whey technology. These include the utilization of whole whey and problems of whey taint; use of lactose, by modification to lactitol, in breadmaking or as a binder for powders such as iron oxide fines in the steel industry; food uses of whey proteins e.g. in cheese, breadmaking and 'prudent diet' foods; pharmaceutical uses of whey protein concentrates as a source of lactoperoxidase; and technological research on membrane processes and ion-exchange fractionation of whey proteins.

  7. BIOACTIVE PEPTIDES OF THE COW MILK WHEY PROTEINS (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Iukalo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Data on the biological functions of milk whey proteins, which are implemented at the level of their proteolytic degradation products — bioactive peptides have been reviewed. The main functions of these proteins is to provide the amino acid nutrition of mammals in the early stages of development, as well as the transport of fatty acids, retinol, involved in the synthesis of lactose, ions of calcium and iron, immune protection, antimicrobial action, etc. However, in recent years, it has been found that milk proteins like casein are precursors of biologically active peptides. Аngiotensin — converting enzyme, opioid peptides which are opiate receptor agonists, anti–microbial peptides, peptides with immunomodulatory and hypocholesterolemic action, and peptides affecting motility have been found among the products of proteolytic degradation of ?-lactoglobulin, ?-laktoalbumin, lactoferrin and milk whey albumin. Also data on the possible participation of peptides from milk whey proteins in the implementation of the biological functions of both the assimilation of calcium, antioxidant effect, the regulation of appetite, anticarcinogenic are provided. The authors assume that the phenomenon of bioactive peptides formation could be considered as an additional function of natural food proteins, which gives advantages to the mammals and has a positive effect on their development in the postnatal period. Ways of bioactive peptides formation, their resistance to action of proteolytic enzymes, the ability to cross into the bloodstream and have biological effects have been also discussed. Up to date, only a few products with bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins are obtained. Further studies of their structure, mechanism of action, ways of formation and methods of isolation are required for their wider use. Formation of functional products based on bioactive peptides from milk whey proteins will allow efficient use of milk whey, which is often a

  8. Enzyme-induced aggregation of whey proteins with Bacillus licheniformis protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins are commonly used as ingredient in food. In relation with the gelation properties of whey proteins, this thesis deals with understanding the mechanism of peptide-induced aggregation of whey protein hydrolysates made with Bacillus licheniformis protease (BLP). The results show that BLP

  9. Interaction of milk whey protein with common phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Yu, Dandan; Sun, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Ding, Qingbo; Liu, Ruihai; Ren, Fazheng

    2014-01-01

    Phenolics-rich foods such as fruit juices and coffee are often consumed with milk. In this study, the interactions of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and coumalic acid) were examined. Fluorescence, CD, and FTIR spectroscopies were used to analyze the binding modes, binding constants, and the effects of complexation on the conformation of whey protein. The results showed that binding constants of each whey protein-phenolic acid interaction ranged from 4 × 105 to 7 × 106 M-n and the number of binding sites n ranged from 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.54 ± 0.34. Because of these interactions, the conformation of whey protein was altered, with a significant reduction in the amount of α-helix and an increase in the amounts of β-sheet and turn structures.

  10. Whey-protein / polysaccharide coacervates : structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinbreck, Fanny Chantal Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    This thesis studied the interactions between food ingredients under acidic conditions (like in yoghurt or in soft drinks for instance). In the chapters 2, 3, and 4, the author investigated the conditions under which a complex was formed between positively charged whey proteins (proteins derived from

  11. New insights on the formation of colloidal whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Snoeren, J.P.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the formation and properties of whey protein particle suspensions having different particle sizes and different abilities to form S–S bridges. Simple shear flow was used to control the protein particles size. The ability to form S–S bridges was steered by blocking the reactive t

  12. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Robin A McGregor; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Sally D. Poppitt; David Cameron-Smith

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biops...

  13. Clinical Potential of Hyperbaric Pressure-Treated Whey Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolomini, André F; Kubow, Stan; Lands, Larry C

    2015-06-19

    Whey protein (WP) from cow's milk is a rich source of essential and branched chain amino acids. Whey protein isolates (WPI) has been demonstrated to support muscle accretion, antioxidant activity, and immune modulation. However, whey is not readily digestible due to its tight conformational structure. Treatment of WPI with hyperbaric pressure results in protein unfolding. This enhances protein digestion, and results in an altered spectrum of released peptides, and greater release of essential and branched chain amino acids. Pressurized whey protein isolates (pWPI), through a series of cell culture, animal models and clinical studies, have been demonstrated to enhance muscle accretion, reduce inflammation, improve immunity, and decrease fatigue. It is also conceivable that pWPI would be more accessible to digestive enzymes, which would allow for a more rapid proteolysis of the proteins and an increased or altered release of small bioactive peptides. The altered profile of peptides released from WP digestion could thus play a role in the modulation of the immune response and tissue glutathione (GSH) concentrations. The research to date presents potentially interesting applications for the development of new functional foods based on hyperbaric treatment of WPI to produce products with more potent nutritional and nutraceutical properties.

  14. Clinical Potential of Hyperbaric Pressure-Treated Whey Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. Piccolomini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein (WP from cow’s milk is a rich source of essential and branched chain amino acids. Whey protein isolates (WPI has been demonstrated to support muscle accretion, antioxidant activity, and immune modulation. However, whey is not readily digestible due to its tight conformational structure. Treatment of WPI with hyperbaric pressure results in protein unfolding. This enhances protein digestion, and results in an altered spectrum of released peptides, and greater release of essential and branched chain amino acids. Pressurized whey protein isolates (pWPI, through a series of cell culture, animal models and clinical studies, have been demonstrated to enhance muscle accretion, reduce inflammation, improve immunity, and decrease fatigue. It is also conceivable that pWPI would be more accessible to digestive enzymes, which would allow for a more rapid proteolysis of the proteins and an increased or altered release of small bioactive peptides. The altered profile of peptides released from WP digestion could thus play a role in the modulation of the immune response and tissue glutathione (GSH concentrations. The research to date presents potentially interesting applications for the development of new functional foods based on hyperbaric treatment of WPI to produce products with more potent nutritional and nutraceutical properties.

  15. Designing Whey Protein-Polysaccharide Particles for Colloidal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Ty; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between whey proteins and polysaccharides, in particular the formation of food-grade soluble complexes, are of interest because of potential functional and health benefits. A specific application that has not received much attention is the use of complexes for enhanced colloidal stability of protein sols, such as protein-containing beverages. In beverages, the primary goal is the formation of complexes that remain dispersed after thermal processing and extended storage. This review highlights recent progress in the area of forming whey protein-polysaccharide soluble complexes that would be appropriate for beverage applications. Research in this area indicates that soluble complexes can be formed and stabilized that are reasonably small in size and possess a large surface charge that would predict colloidal stability. Selection of specific proteins and polysaccharides can be tailored to desired conditions. The principal challenges involve overcoming restrictions on protein concentration and ensuring that protein remains bioavailable.

  16. Whey protein stories - An experiment in writing a multidisciplinary biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tenna; Bechshoeft, Rasmus L; Giacalone, Davide; Otto, Marie Haulund; Castro-Mejía, Josue; Bin Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan; Reitelseder, Søren; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    2016-12-01

    This is an experimental, dual-purpose article about whey protein and how to conduct interdisciplinary analyses and writings. On the one hand, this article is a multidisciplinary commodity biography, which consists of five descriptions of whey protein written by the five different research groups involved in the interdisciplinary research project CALM(Counteracting Age-related loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass). On the other hand, it is a meta-analysis, which aims to uncover and highlight examples of how the five descriptions contribute to each other with insights into the contextualisation of knowledge, contrasts between the descriptions and the new dimensions they bring to established fields of interest. The meta-analysis also contains a discussion of interdisciplinary study objects and the usefulness of the multidisciplinary commodity biography as a format for interdisciplinary publications. The article contributes to the field of food studies with a multidisciplinary biography of whey protein - including its sensory qualities and challenges, insights into its cultural history, its nutritional value and effects on the human body and an analysis of how it is perceived by people who consume it. The biography thereby expands upon existing understandings of whey protein while discussing the usefulness of employing the commodity biography format in interdisciplinary writing. Moreover, the article contributes to the field of interdisciplinary research by providing a practical example of a joint publication and reflections upon the existence, interaction and possibilities of monodisciplinary knowledge structures within interdisciplinary studies and publications.

  17. Whey protein concentrate storage at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy processors are finding new export markets for whey protein concentrate (WPC), a byproduct of cheesemaking, but they need to know if full-sized bags of this powder will withstand high temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels during unrefrigerated storage under tropical conditions. To answ...

  18. Effect of Stirring and Seeding on Whey Protein Fibril Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Venema, P.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of stirring and seeding on the formation of fibrils in whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied. More fibrils of a similar length are formed when WPI is stirred during heating at pH 2 and 80 C compared to samples that were heated at rest. Addition of seeds did not show an addition

  19. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  20. Kinetics of sucrose crystallization in whey protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaran, Kirsten L; Krochta, John M

    2006-09-20

    The kinetics of sucrose crystallization in whey protein isolate (WPI) films was studied at 25 degrees C in four different relative humidity environments: 23, 33, 44, and 53%. The effects of protein matrix, crystallization inhibitors, and storage environment on the rate constants of sucrose crystallization were determined using the Avrami model of crystallization. It was found that a cross-linked, denatured whey protein (WP) matrix more effectively hindered sucrose crystallization than a protein matrix of native WP. The crystallization inhibitors tested were lactose, raffinose, modified starch (Purity 69), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (Plasdone C15). Raffinose and modified starch were determined to be the more effective inhibitors of sucrose crystallization. At lower relative humidities (23, 33, and 44%), the cross-linked protein matrix played a more important role in sucrose crystallization than the inhibitors. As relative humidity increased (53%), the crystallization inhibitors were more central to controlling sucrose crystallization in WPI films.

  1. Effects of Hydrolysed Whey Proteins on the Techno-Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein-Based Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Noller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure whey protein isolate (WPI-based cast films are very brittle due to its strong formation of protein cross-linking of disulphide bonding, hydrogen bonding as well as hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. However, this strong cross-linking is the reason for its final barrier performance. To overcome film brittleness of whey protein layers, plasticisers like glycerol are used. It reduces intermolecular interactions, increases the mobility of polymer chains and thus film flexibility can be achieved. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI in whey protein isolate-based cast films on their techno-functional properties. Due to the fact, that the addition of glycerol is necessary but at the same time increases the free volume in the film leading to higher oxygen and water vapour permeability, the glycerol concentration was kept constant. Cast films with different ratios of hydrolysed and not hydrolysed WPI were produced. They were characterised in order to determine the influence of the lower molecular weight caused by the addition of hydrolysed WPI on the techno-functional properties. This study showed that increasing hydrolysed WPI concentrations significantly change the mechanical properties while maintaining the oxygen and water vapour permeability. The tensile and elastic film properties decreased significantly by reducing the average molecular weight whereas the yellowish coloration and the surface tension considerably increased. This study provided new data which put researchers and material developers in a position to tailor the characteristics of whey protein based films according to their intended application and further processing.

  2. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is

  3. THE OBTAINING OF MICROPARTICULATE FROM CONCENTRATE OF WHEY PROTEIN

    OpenAIRE

    Дідух, Г. В.

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the problem of reducing calorie food rations and materials scientific studies the feasibility of using a modified whey protein concentrate as a microparticulate as fat in the production of culinary products are presented. This  problem is achieved under conditions of severe mechanical shear on production equipment - dispersant at a temperature higher than the temperature of denaturation of serum proteins. The possibility of obtaining microparticulate, and technological schem...

  4. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Brnčić; Sven Karlović; Tomislav Bosiljkov; Branko Tripalo; Damir Ježek; Ivana Cugelj; Valentina Obradović

    2008-01-01

    Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is ...

  5. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is “snack” food. Snack food is made with twin corotating screw extruders, in which raw materials are submitted to high temperatures and short time, with intensive expansion and rapid pressure drop. For the production of this category of food products, basic ingredients like corn, wheat, rye and rice, with the maximum of 9 % of proteins, are used. With the development of extrusion technology, special attention is focused on the enrichment of extruded products with different types of proteins, including proteins. In this paper, review of the newest research and achievements in embedding various types of whey concentrates in snack food will be represented. This category of food products for direct consummation is constantly increasing, and addition of whey protein concentrate adds better nutritional value and increased functionality.

  6. Proteomics in quality control: Whey protein-based supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Bruno Carius; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Lourenço, Daniela C; Fasciotti, Maíra

    2016-09-16

    The growing consumption of nutritional supplements might represent a problem, given the concern about the quality of these supplements. One of the most used supplements is whey protein (WP); because of its popularity, it has been a target of adulteration with substitute products, such as cheaper proteins with lower biological value. To investigate this type of adulteration, this study used shotgun proteomics analyses by MS(E) (multiplexed, low- and high-collision energy, data-independent acquisition) of WP-based supplements. Seventeen WP-based supplement samples were evaluated. Chicken, maize, rice, potato, soybean, and wheat proteins were considered as probable sources of bovine whey adulteration. Collectively, 523 proteins were identified across all 16 samples and replicates, with 94% of peptides inside a normal distribution within 10ppm of maximum error. In 10 of the 16 samples analyzed, only proteins from bovine whey could be detected, while in the other samples several other protein sources were detected in high concentrations, especially soybean, wheat, and rice. These results point out a probable adulteration and/or sample contamination during manufacturing that could only be detected using this proteomic approach. The present work shows how shotgun proteomics can be used to provide reliable answers in quality control matters, especially focusing on Whey Protein nutritional supplements which are a very popular subject in food and nutrition. In order to achieve an appropriate methodology, careful evaluation was performed applying extremely rigorous quality criteria, established for the proteomic analysis. These criteria and the methodological approach used in this work might serve as a guide for other authors seeking to use proteomics in quality control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The behaviour of whey protein isolate in protecting Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khem, Sarim; Small, Darryl M; May, Bee K

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that whey protein isolates (WPI), can be utilised to encapsulate and protect bioactive substances, including lactic acid bacteria, due to their physicochemical properties. However, little is known about what happens in the immediate vicinity of the cells. This study examined the protective behaviour of WPI for two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, A17 and B21, during spray drying. B21 was found to be more hydrophobic than A17 and required 50% of the amount of WPI to provide comparably high survival (∼ 90%). We hypothesise that WPI protects the hydrophobic bacteria by initial attachment to the unfolded whey protein due to hydrophobic interactions followed by adhesion to the proteins, resulting in cells being embedded within the walls of the capsules. The encapsulated strains had a moisture content of approximately 5.5% and during storage trials at 20 °C retained viability for at least eight weeks.

  8. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pprotein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P

  9. Investigation of The Bubble Foam Separation Technique To Extract Protein From Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matouq

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of proteins from whey; namely α- Lactoglobulin and β-Lactalbumin was obtained using the bubble foam column technique. Two types of whey were conducted in this study; yogurt whey and cheese whey. The effect of gas flow-rate and the height of the whey (liquid holdup inside the column were studied at room temperature and at constant pH of whey. Whey used here obtained from local dairy factory as waste, and was used to investigate the performance ability of bubble column to extract very low concentration portion from waste. Enrichment ratio showed that the possibility of extracting protein from whey was high. Results showed that enrichment ration was higher for yogurt whey from that of cheese whey. The results also showed that the efficiency of separation of these proteins increased with decreasing both the air flow-rate, and wheys volume inside the column. The maximum amount of protein obtained at air flow-rate = 0.2 Liter/ min at experimental condition.

  10. Microparticulation of whey protein: related factors affecting the solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieske, B; Konrad, G

    1994-10-01

    Solubility of Simplesse 100, the only whey-based fat substitute, was found to be good, considering the fact that technology for preparation of Simplesse 100 is a sequence of thermal steps. To characterize this phenomen, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-100, Sephacryl S-1000 and SDS-PAGE were used, supported by high-speed separation, UV studies and analytical procedures. Results show that the unusual solubility characteristic of microparticulated whey protein is related to two molecular effects: (1) optimal defolding of protein molecules and (2) stabilization of the defolded status by carbohydrate. Both effects were considered to favour non-covalent bonds, which contribute to the outstanding physico-functional and nutritive properties of microparticles.

  11. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  12. Intragastric gelation of whey protein-pectin alters the digestibility of whey protein during in vitro pepsin digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of pectin on in vitro digestion of whey protein. Digestion of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and pectin solutions (WPI-pectin) as influenced by pectin concentration and pH was studied under simulated gastric conditions. Electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, colorimetric measurements, and gel microstructures were used to study the digestion pattern. At low pectin concentration (0.25% w/w), pectin did not significantly influence the degradation of whey protein. Increasing the pectin concentration to 1% led to extensive intragastric gelation immediately after mixing with simulated gastric fluid. The microstructure of intragastric gel from WPI-pectin at pH 6.0 showed a more interconnected and denser gel network than that at pH 7.0. More protein and pectin were involved in the gelation at pH 6.0 than pH 7.0. The digesta of samples at pH 6.0 was mainly composed of peptides, while that at pH 7.0 mostly consisted of aggregates and crosslinked peptides. This study suggests that WPI-pectin at high biopolymer ratio formed intragastric gel in simulated gastric models, which could delay protein digestion and potentially slow gastric emptying and promote satiety.

  13. Whey: technologies for coproducts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Pinheiro Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article was to present the principles of whey processability. In order to reach these objectives, the article presents the whey proteins, the membrane filtration process and the spray drying technology. The main technologies for use whey are presented: whey protein beverages, whey powder, whey protein concentrate powder, whey protein isolate powder and powders of whey protein fractions.

  14. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H

    2014-01-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD...... or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training – irrespective of contraction mode....

  15. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates ob

  16. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.; Alting, A.C.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and ß-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, ¿-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates

  17. Whey protein mucoadhesive properties for oral drug delivery: Mucin-whey protein interaction and mucoadhesive bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsein, Hassana; Garrait, Ghislain; Beyssac, Eric; Hoffart, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    Whey protein is a natural polymer recently used as an excipient in buccoadhesive tablets but its mucoadhesive properties were barely studied. In this work, we characterize mucoadhesion of whey protein in order to determine the mechanisms and optimal conditions for use as excipient in oral drug delivery. Thus, native and denatured whey protein (NWP and DWP) were investigated and the effect of concentration and pH were also studied. Many methods of characterization were selected to allow the study of chemical and physical interactions with mucin and then the results were bound with an ex vivo experiments. Turbidity of WP-mucin mixture increased at acidic pH 1.2 till 4.5 indicating interaction with mucin but not at pH 6.8. No interaction with mucin was also found by ITC method at pH 6.8 for native and denatured whey protein used at 1% (w/w). Forces of bioadhesion evaluated by viscosity measurements were the best for high concentrated (10.8%) DWP solutions at pH 6.8 and were low at pH 1.2 for NWP and DWP solutions. Addition of chemical blockers indicated that hydrogen bondings and disulfide bridges were the main mechanisms of interactions with mucin. Reticulation of DWP with calcium ions to obtain microparticles (MP) did not influence the ability of interaction with mucin as shown by FTIR analysis. These results correlated with ex vivo study on rat tissue demonstrating important adhesion (75%) of WP MP on the intestine and null on the stomach after 2h of deposit.

  18. Authentication of Whey Protein Powders by Portable Mid-Infrared Spectrometers Combined with Pattern Recognition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tan, Siow Ying; Mutilangi, William; Aykas, Didem P; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple and rapid method to differentiate whey protein types (WPC, WPI, and WPH) used for beverage manufacturing by combining the spectral signature collected from portable mid-infrared spectrometers and pattern recognition analysis. Whey protein powders from different suppliers are produced using a large number of processing and compositional variables, resulting in variation in composition, concentration, protein structure, and thus functionality. Whey protein powders including whey protein isolates, whey protein concentrates and whey protein hydrolysates were obtained from different suppliers and their spectra collected using portable mid-infrared spectrometers (single and triple reflection) by pressing the powder onto an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) diamond crystal with a pressure clamp. Spectra were analyzed by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) generating a classification model showing the ability to differentiate whey protein types by forming tight clusters with interclass distance values of >3, considered to be significantly different from each other. The major bands centered at 1640 and 1580 cm(-1) were responsible for separation and were associated with differences in amide I and amide II vibrations of proteins, respectively. Another important band in whey protein clustering was associated with carboxylate vibrations of acidic amino acids (∼1570 cm(-1)). The use of a portable mid-IR spectrometer combined with pattern recognition analysis showed potential for discriminating whey protein ingredients that can help to streamline the analytical procedure so that it is more applicable for field-based screening of ingredients. A rapid, simple and accurate method was developed to authenticate commercial whey protein products by using portable mid-infrared spectrometers combined with chemometrics, which could help ensure the functionality of whey protein ingredients in food applications. © 2015

  19. Heat-induced whey protein isolate fibrils: Conversion, hydrolysis, and disulphide bond formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.; Vasbinder, A.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2007-01-01

    Fibril formation of individual pure whey proteins and whey protein isolate (WPI) was studied. The heat-induced conversion of WPI monomers into fibrils at pH 2 and low ionic strength increased with heating time and protein concentration. Previous studies, using a precipitation method, size-exclusion

  20. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  1. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  2. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J. Mitchell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8 or whey protein (n = 8 while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001 to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810. FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  3. Formation and properties of whey protein fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes-Nijboer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Protein fibrils are threadlike aggregates that are about one molecule thick and more than thousand molecules long. Due to their threadlike structure they could potentially be used to form meat-like structures. Protein fibrils can be produced from milk protein and plant protein, opening opportunities

  4. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  5. Whey Protein Hydrolysate but not Whole Whey Protein Protects Against 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-Induced Mammary Tumors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Martin J; Hakkak, Reza; Korourian, Soheila; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of intact and processed bovine milk proteins on development of chemically induced mammary tumors in female rats were compared. AIN-93G diets were made with 20% casein (CAS), casein hydrolysate (CASH), intact whey protein (IWP), or whey protein hydrolysate (WPH). Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed the diets starting at Gestational Day 4. Offspring were fed the same diet. At 50 days, female offspring (44-49/group) were gavaged with sesame oil containing 80 mg/kg of the mammary carcinogen dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) and euthanized 62 days posttreatment. Rats fed WPH had an adenocarcinoma incidence of 17% compared to the rats fed CAS, CASH, and IWP diets (34%, 33%, and 36% respectively) (P whey protein is required for this diet to be effective in reducing DMBA-induced mammary tumors. The bioactive compounds produced during whey protein processing and mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of WPH are yet to be identified.

  6. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.

  7. Barrier, mechanical and optical properties of whey protein concentrate films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Machado Azevedo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey is recognized as a valuable source of high quality protein and, when processed as protein concentrate, may be used in the production of biodegradable films. The objective of the study was to develop films of whey protein concentrate 80% (WPC at concentrations of 6, 8, 10 and 12% and evaluate the influence of this factor in the barrier, mechanical and optical properties of the films. Treatments showed moisture content with a mean value of 22.10% ± 0.76and high solubility values between 56.67 to 62.42%. Thus, there is little or no influence of varying the concentration of WPC in these properties and high hydrophilicity of the films. With increasing concentration of WPC, increases the water vapor permeability of the films (7.42 x 10-13 to 3.49 x 10-12 g.m-1.s-1.Pa-1. The treatment at the concentration of 6% of WPC showed a higher modulus of elasticity (287.90 ± 41.79 MPa. Thegreater rigidity in films with higher concentrations is possibly due to the greater number of bonds between molecules of the polymeric matrix. The films have the same puncture resistance. The increased concentration of WPC promotes resistance to the action of a localized force. In general, films of whey protein concentrate in the tested concentrations exhibited slightly yellowish color and transparency, and can be used in food packaging that requiring intermediate permeability to water vapor, to keep moisture and texture desired.

  8. Buffalo cheese whey proteins, identification of a 24 kda protein and characterization of their hydrolysates: in vitro gastrointestinal digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana C Bassan; Goulart,Antonio J.; Nasser, Ana L. M.; Bezerra, Thaís M. S. [UNESP; Garrido, Saulo S.; Rustiguel, Cynthia B.; Guimarães, Luis H. S.; Rubens Monti

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase...

  9. Whey protein precipitating moderate to severe acne flares in 5 teenaged athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    2012-08-01

    Acne vulgaris has been linked to milk ingestion, both whole and skim milk. The milk fraction that promotes acne is unknown. Five case reports are presented of male patients aged 14 to 18 years who experienced onset of acne shortly after initiation of whey protein supplementation; 3 teenagers used the supplement for muscle building in football training and the other 2 for attempting to gain weight. All 5 patients had poor response to acne treatment regimens of oral antibiotics, topical retinoids, and benzoyl peroxide. Lesions fully cleared in 4 patients after discontinuation of whey protein supplementation, but 1 patient's acne flared after reinitiation of the whey protein supplement. Two patients did not immediately discontinue whey protein supplementation; 1 of them cleared after he discontinued whey protein during his second course of isotretinoin and 1 was lost to follow-up. Among these patients, at least 6 different brands of whey protein supplementation had been used, including whey protein shakes and reconstituted powders. Whey protein may be the fraction of dairy products that promote acne formation. Larger studies are needed to determine the mechanism of comedogenesis.

  10. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide – process modeling and cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 55% ...

  11. Ca2+-Induced Cold Set Gelation of Whey Protein Isolate Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.; Hendrickx, H.; Sagis, L.M.C.; Linden, van der E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe the rheological behaviour of Ca2+-induced cold-set gels of whey protein mixtures. Coldset gels are important applications for products with a low thermal stability. In previous work [1], we determined the state diagram for whey protein mixtures that were heated for 10 h at

  12. Effect of whey protein on the In Vivo Release of Aldehydes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burger, J.J.; Claassen, N.E.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Retention of aldehydes by whey proteins in solutions buffered at a range of pH values was studied under static and dynamic headspace conditions and in vivo in exhaled air. Static headspace measurements showed a clear increase in retention in the presence of whey proteins for aldehydes with longer ca

  13. Amino acid absorption and subsequent muscle protein accretion following graded intakes of whey protein in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Bart; Groen, Bart; de Lange, Anneke; Gijsen, Annemie P; Zorenc, Antoine H; Senden, Joan M G; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-04-15

    Whey protein ingestion has been shown to effectively stimulate postprandial muscle protein accretion in older adults. However, the impact of the amount of whey protein ingested on protein digestion and absorption kinetics, whole body protein balance, and postprandial muscle protein accretion remains to be established. We aimed to fill this gap by including 33 healthy, older men (73 ± 2 yr) who were randomly assigned to ingest 10, 20, or 35 g of intrinsically l-[1-¹³C]phenylalanine-labeled whey protein (n = 11/treatment). Ingestion of labeled whey protein was combined with continuous intravenous l-[ring-²H₅]phenylalanine and l-[ring-²H₂]tyrosine infusion to assess the metabolic fate of whey protein-derived amino acids. Dietary protein digestion and absorption rapidly increased following ingestion of 10, 20, and 35 g whey protein, with the lowest and highest (peak) values observed following 10 and 35 g, respectively (P whey protein results in greater amino acid absorption and subsequent stimulation of de novo muscle protein synthesis compared with the ingestion of 10 or 20 g whey protein in healthy, older men.

  14. Whey protein inhibits iron overload-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmi; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Yoon, Yoh-Chang; Park, Eunju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein on oxidative stress in rats that were subjected to oxidative stress induced by iron overload. Thirty male rats were assigned to 3 groups: the control group (regular [50 mg/kg diet] dose of iron+20% casein), iron overload group (high [2,000 mg/kg] dose of iron+20% casein, IO), and whey protein group (high dose of iron+10% casein+10% whey protein, IO+whey). After 6 wk, the IO group showed a reduction in the plasma total radical trapping antioxidant parameter and the activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and an increase in lipid peroxidation (determined from the proportion of conjugated dienes). However, whey protein ameliorated the oxidative changes induced by iron overload. The concentration of erythrocyte glutathione was significantly higher in the IO+whey group than in the IO group. In addition, whey protein supplementation fully inhibited iron overload-induced DNA damage in leukocytes and colonocytes. A highly significant positive correlation was observed between plasma iron levels and DNA damage in leukocytes and colonocytes. These results show the antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects of whey protein in an in vivo model of iron overload-induced oxidative stress.

  15. In vitro bioactive properties of intact and enzymatically hydrolysed whey protein: targeting the enteroinsular axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power-Grant, O; Bruen, C; Brennan, L; Giblin, L; Jakeman, P; FitzGerald, R J

    2015-03-01

    Enzymatically hydrolysed milk proteins have a variety of biofunctional effects some of which may be beneficial in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercially available intact and hydrolysed whey protein ingredients (DH 32, DH 45) on markers of the enteroinsular axis (glucagon like peptide-1 secretion, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, insulin secretion and antioxidant activity) before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). A whey protein hydrolysate, DH32, significantly enhanced (P whey protein hydrolysates inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity, yielding half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.1 ± 0.1 mg mL(-1) for the DH 32 and DH 45, samples respectively, and were significantly more potent than the intact whey (P whey protein significantly enhanced (P whey, as measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). This antioxidant activity was maintained (DH 32, P > 0.05) or enhanced (DH 45, P whey stimulated GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells compared to vehicle control (P whey proteins and peptides can act through multiple targets within the enteroinsular axis and as such may have glucoregulatory potential.

  16. Whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake but not homocysteine plasma concentration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Comparotto, Hugo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.

  17. Impact of protein pre-treatment conditions on the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein cold-set gel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Jong, G.A.H. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility for iron fortification of food using protein gel particles in which iron is entrapped using cold-set gelation. The aim is to optimize the iron encapsulation efficiency of whey protein by giving the whey protein different heat treatment prior to gelation with i

  18. Sensory properties of meal replacement bars and beverages made from whey and soy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, J L; Yates, M D; Drake, M A

    2007-08-01

    Whey and soy proteins have a variety of applications. Previous work has documented flavors of rehydrated whey and soy proteins. It is necessary to understand what flavors whey and soy proteins contribute to product applications to optimize protein performance in desired applications. This research was conducted to characterize sensory properties of meal replacement products containing whey and soy proteins. Flavor and texture lexicons were developed for meal replacement bars and beverages. Commercial peanut butter-flavored meal replacement bars and vanilla meal replacement shakes were evaluated by an experienced, trained descriptive panel (n= 9). Prototypes of bars and beverages were developed with 3 levels of whey and soy protein and subsequently evaluated. Consumer acceptance testing (n= 85) was conducted on the prototype bars and beverages. Protein type as well as product-specific formulation contributed differences in flavor and texture of commercial bars and beverages (P whey protein were characterized by sweet aromatic and vanillin flavor notes while the texture was characterized by adhesiveness and cohesiveness. Prototype bars made with soy protein were characterized by nutty flavor while the texture was characterized by tooth-pack and denseness. Whey protein contributed to sweet aromatic and vanillin flavors in prototype beverages while soy protein contributed cereal/grainy flavors. Consumer acceptance scores were higher for prototype bars and beverages containing whey protein or a mixture of whey/soy protein than for products made with soy protein alone (P < 0.05). These results will aid researchers and product developers in optimizing sensory quality in meal replacement products.

  19. The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

    2011-03-01

    The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

  20. Mechanisms of Nutrition Bar Hardening: Effect of Hydrolyzed Whey Protein and Carbohydrate Source

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Shaun P

    2008-01-01

    The influence of increasing hydrolyzed protein content on the microstructure and hardness of high protein nutrition bars was investigated to determine the mechanism of hardening during storage. Bars with various hydrolyzed protein levels were manufactured using differing ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% (wt. /wt.) of partially hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (HWPI) to an intact (non-hydrolyzed) whey protein isolate (WPI) which made up approximately 38% of the total bar composition. High fructo...

  1. Peptide Analysis and the Bioactivity of Whey Protein Hydrolysates from Cheese Whey with Several Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Kim, Myeong Hee; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was identifying a suitable food grade enzymes to hydrolyze whey protein concentrates (WPCs), to give the highest bioactivity. WPCs from ultrafiltration retentate were adjusted to 35% protein (WPC-35) and hydrolyzed by enzymes, alcalase, α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, protease M, protease S, and trypsin at different hydrolysis times (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h). These 36 types of hydrolysates were analyzed for their prominent peptides β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-La), to identify the proteolytic activity of each enzyme. Protease S showed the highest proteolytic activity and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of IC50, 0.099 mg/mL (91.55%) while trypsin showed the weakest effect. Antihypertensive and antioxidative peptides associated with β-Lg hydrolysates were identified in WPC-35 hydrolysates (WPH-35) that hydrolyzed by the enzymes, trypsin and protease S. WPH-35 treated with protease S in 0.5 h, responded positively to usage as a bioactive component in different applications of pharmaceutical or related industries.

  2. Peptide Analysis and the Bioactivity of Whey Protein Hydrolysates from Cheese Whey with Several Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Kim, Myeong Hee; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was identifying a suitable food grade enzymes to hydrolyze whey protein concentrates (WPCs), to give the highest bioactivity. WPCs from ultrafiltration retentate were adjusted to 35% protein (WPC-35) and hydrolyzed by enzymes, alcalase, α-chymotrypsin, pepsin, protease M, protease S, and trypsin at different hydrolysis times (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h). These 36 types of hydrolysates were analyzed for their prominent peptides β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and α-lactalbumin (α-La), to identify the proteolytic activity of each enzyme. Protease S showed the highest proteolytic activity and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of IC50, 0.099 mg/mL (91.55%) while trypsin showed the weakest effect. Antihypertensive and antioxidative peptides associated with β-Lg hydrolysates were identified in WPC-35 hydrolysates (WPH-35) that hydrolyzed by the enzymes, trypsin and protease S. WPH-35 treated with protease S in 0.5 h, responded positively to usage as a bioactive component in different applications of pharmaceutical or related industries.

  3. Pasting and extrusion properties of mixed carbohydrates and whey protein isolate matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed systems of whey protein isolate (WPI) or texturized WPI (tWPI) and different starches may form weak or strong gel pastes or rigid matrices depending on interactions. The paste viscoelasticity of starches from amioca, barley, corn starch, Hylon VII, plantain, and pea starch, mixed with whey pro...

  4. Effect of whey protein and glycomacropeptide on measures of satiety in normal-weight adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungchunlam, Sylvia M S; Henare, Sharon J; Ganesh, Siva; Moughan, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Protein is the most satiating macronutrient and dairy whey protein is thought to be more satiating than other protein sources. The purported satiating effect of whey protein may be attributable to the presence of glycomacropeptide (GMP). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of GMP in the satiating effect of whey protein. Isoenergetic (~1600 kJ) preload drinks contained GMP isolate (86% GMP, "GMP"), whey protein isolate (WPI) with 21% naturally occurring GMP, WPI with 2% naturally present GMP, or maltodextrin carbohydrate ("carbohydrate"). Satiety was assessed in 22 normal-weight adult women by determining the consumption of a test meal provided ad libitum 120 min following ingestion of a preload drink, and also by using visual analogue scales (VAS) for rating feelings of hunger, desire to eat, prospective consumption and fullness (appetite). The ad libitum test meal intake was significantly different between the preload drinks (p = 0.0003), with food intake following ingestion of both WPI preload drinks (regardless of the amount of GMP) being ~18% lower compared with the beverages enriched with carbohydrate or GMP alone. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the VAS-rated feelings of appetite among the four preload drinks. GMP alone did not reduce subsequent food intake compared with a drink enriched with carbohydrate, but whey protein had a greater satiating effect than carbohydrate. The presence of GMP in whey does not appear to be the cause of the observed effect of whey protein on satiety.

  5. Physical properties, molecular structures and protein quality of texturized whey protein isolate: effect of extrusion temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion is a powerful food processing operation, which utilizes high temperature and high shear force to produce a product with unique physical and chemical characteristics. Texturization of whey protein isolate (WPI) through extrusion for the production of protein fortified snack foods has provid...

  6. Biochemical and metabolic mechanisms by which dietary whey protein may combat obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Daniela; Froy, Oren

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of milk and dairy products has been associated with reduced risk of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease. Milk contains two primary sources of protein, casein (80%) and whey (20%). Recently, the beneficial physiological effects of whey protein on the control of food intake and glucose metabolism have been reported. Studies have shown an insulinotropic and glucose-lowering properties of whey protein in healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. Whey protein seems to induce these effects via bioactive peptides and amino acids generated during its gastrointestinal digestion. These amino acids and peptides stimulate the release of several gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin, peptide YY and the incretins gastric inhibitory peptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 that potentiate insulin secretion from β-cells and are associated with regulation of food intake. The bioactive peptides generated from whey protein may also serve as endogenous inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) in the proximal gut, preventing incretin degradation. Indeed, recently, DPP-4 inhibitors were identified in whey protein hydrolysates. This review will focus on the emerging properties of whey protein and its potential clinical application for obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

  7. Properties of Cast Films Made from Different Ratios of Whey Protein Isolate, Hydrolysed Whey Protein Isolate and Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein isolate (WPI-based cast films are very brittle, due to several chain interactions caused by a large amount of different functional groups. In order to overcome film brittleness, plasticizers, like glycerol, are commonly used. As a result of adding plasticizers, the free volume between the polymer chains increases, leading to higher permeability values. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of partially substituting glycerol by hydrolysed whey protein isolate (h-WPI in WPI-based cast films on their mechanical, optical and barrier properties. As recently published by the author, it is proven that increasing the h-WPI content in WPI-based films at constant glycerol concentrations significantly increases film flexibility, while maintaining the barrier properties. The present study considered these facts in order to increase the barrier performance, while maintaining film flexibility. Therefore glycerol was partially replaced by h-WPI in WPI-based cast films. The results clearly indicate that partially replacing glycerol by h-WPI reduces the oxygen permeability and the water vapor transmission rate, while the mechanical properties did not change significantly. Thus, film flexibility was maintained, even though the plasticizer concentration was decreased.

  8. Protein denaturation and functional properties of Lenient Steam Injection heat treated whey protein concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Jonatan Ahrens; Kaufmann, Niels; Wiking, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was heat treated by use of the novel heat treatment method of Lenient Steam Injection (LSI) to elucidate new functional properties in relation to heat-induced gelation of heat treated WPC. Denaturation was measured by both DSC and FPLC, and the results of the two...... methods were highly correlated. Temperatures of up to 90 °C were applicable using LSI, whereas only 68 °C could be reached by plate heat exchange before coagulation/fouling. Denaturation of whey proteins increased with increasing heat treatment temperature up to a degree of 30–35% denaturation at 90 °C...

  9. The effect of natural whey proteins on mechanisms of blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Car

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Whey is a rich natural source of peptides and amino acids. It has been reported in numerous studies that biological active peptides isolated from cow’s milk whey may affect blood pressure regulation. Studies on animals and humans have shown that α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin obtained from enzymatically hydrolysed whey inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, while lactorphins lower blood pressure by normalizing endothelial function or by opioid receptors dependent mechanism. Whey proteins or their bioactive fragments decrease total cholesterol, LDL fraction and triglycerides, thus reducing the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of whey proteins on the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation.

  10. Synergistic enhancement in the co-gelation of salt-soluble pea proteins and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Douglas; Vasanthan, Thava; Ozimek, Lech

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigated the enhancement of thermal gelation properties when salt-soluble pea proteins were co-gelated with whey proteins in NaCl solutions, using different blend ratios, total protein concentrations, pH, and salt concentrations. Results showed that the thermal co-gelation of pea/whey proteins blended in ratio of 2:8 in NaCl solutions showed synergistic enhancement in storage modulus, gel hardness, paste viscosity and minimum gelation concentrations. The highest synergistic enhancement was observed at pH 6.0 as compared with pH 4.0 and 8.0, and at the lower total protein concentration of 10% as compared with 16% and 22% (w/v), as well as in lower NaCl concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% as compared with 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 3.0% (w/v). The least gelation concentrations were also lower in the different pea/whey protein blend ratios than in pure pea or whey proteins, when dissolved in 1.0% or 2.5% (w/v) NaCl aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cheese whey-induced high-cell-density production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Peter

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of lactose-rich concentrates from dairy processes for the induction of recombinant gene's expression has not received much attention although they are interesting low cost substrates for production of recombinant enzymes. Applicability of dairy waste for induction of recombinant genes in Escherichia coli was studied. Clones expressing Lactobacillus phage muramidase and Lactobacillus alcohol dehydrogenase were used for the experiments. Results Shake flask cultivations in mineral salt medium showed that cheese whey or deproteinised whey induced gene expression as efficiently as IPTG (isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside or pure lactose. Addition of yeast extract or proteolytically degraded whey proteins did not improve the recombinant protein yield. In contrast, addition of yeast extract to the well-balanced mineral salt medium decreased the product yield. Feeding with glycerol provided sufficient amount of easily assimilable carbon source during the induction period without preventing lactose intake and induction by lactose. High-cell-density fed-batch cultivations showed that product yields comparable to IPTG-induction can be achieved by feeding bacteria with a mixture of glycerol and concentrated whey permeate during the induction. Conclusion Whey and concentrated whey permeate can be applied as an alternative inducer in recombinant high-cell-density fed-batch fermentations. The yield of the recombinant product was comparable to fermentations induced by IPTG. In low-cell-density shake flask experiments the yield was higher with whey or whey permeate than with IPTG.

  12. Cheese whey-induced high-cell-density production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Mikko I; Vasala, Antti; Neubauer, Peter; Alatossava, Tapani

    2003-04-09

    BACKGROUND: Use of lactose-rich concentrates from dairy processes for the induction of recombinant gene's expression has not received much attention although they are interesting low cost substrates for production of recombinant enzymes. Applicability of dairy waste for induction of recombinant genes in Escherichia coli was studied. Clones expressing Lactobacillus phage muramidase and Lactobacillus alcohol dehydrogenase were used for the experiments. RESULTS: Shake flask cultivations in mineral salt medium showed that cheese whey or deproteinised whey induced gene expression as efficiently as IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside) or pure lactose. Addition of yeast extract or proteolytically degraded whey proteins did not improve the recombinant protein yield. In contrast, addition of yeast extract to the well-balanced mineral salt medium decreased the product yield. Feeding with glycerol provided sufficient amount of easily assimilable carbon source during the induction period without preventing lactose intake and induction by lactose. High-cell-density fed-batch cultivations showed that product yields comparable to IPTG-induction can be achieved by feeding bacteria with a mixture of glycerol and concentrated whey permeate during the induction. CONCLUSION: Whey and concentrated whey permeate can be applied as an alternative inducer in recombinant high-cell-density fed-batch fermentations. The yield of the recombinant product was comparable to fermentations induced by IPTG. In low-cell-density shake flask experiments the yield was higher with whey or whey permeate than with IPTG.

  13. Whey protein: The “whey” forward for treatment of type 2 diabetes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda; E; Mignone; Tongzhi; Wu; Michael; Horowitz; Christopher; K; Rayner

    2015-01-01

    A cost-effective nutritional approach to improve postprandial glycaemia is attractive considering the rising burden of diabetes throughout the world. Whey protein, a by-product of the cheese-making process, can be used to manipulate gut function in order to slow gastric emptying and stimulate incretin hormone secretion, thereby attenuating postprandial glycaemic excursions. The function of the gastrointestinal tract plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis, particularly during the postprandial period, and this review will discuss the mechanisms by which whey protein slows gastric emptying and stimulates release of gut peptides, including the incretins. Whey protein is also a rich source of amino acids, and these can directly stimulate beta cells to secrete insulin, which contributes to the reduction in postprandial glycaemia. Appetite is suppressed with consumption of whey, due to its effects on the gut-brain axis and the hypothalamus. These properties of whey protein suggest its potential in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, the optimal dose and timing of whey protein ingestion are yet to be defined, and studies are required to examine the long-term benefits of whey consumption for overall glycaemic control.

  14. Antioxidant effects of whey protein on muscle C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasioti, Efthalia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Priftis, Alexandros; Aivazidis, Stefanos; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Hayes, A Wallace; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, the in vitro scavenging activity of sheep whey protein against free radicals, as well as its reducing power were determined and compared with that of beef protein, soy protein and cow whey protein. Moreover, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein from tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced oxidative stress in muscle C2C12 cells were determined by assessing oxidative stress markers by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. The results showed that sheep whey protein scavenged DPPH, ABTS(+) and OH radicals with IC50 values of 3.1, 4.1 and 1.8 mg of protein/ml. Moreover, the reducing power activity assessed with potassium ferricyanide of sheep whey protein was 1.3mg/ml. As regards to the antioxidant effects in muscle cell line, sheep whey protein at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12 and 6.24 mg of protein/ml increased GSH levels up to 138%, lowered TBARS levels up to 25% and decreased ROS levels up to 41.4%.

  15. [The Interaction of Oil Microcapsule Wall Materials between Whey Protein and Acacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qian; Li, De-jun; Tu, Zong-cai

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between whey protein and acacia which were used as wall material was studied on the formation of the oils microcapsules by the FTIR Spectroscopy and Computer Aided Analysis. The results indicated that whey protein changed obviously in amide A and amide I by high pressured homogenization and spray-drying. The amide A moved from 3 406.5 cm(-1) to 3 425.4 cm(-1) which was possibly due to covalent cross-linking between whey protein and acacia. Furthermore the amide I moved from 1 648.6 cm(-1) to 1 654.7 cm(-1) for intramolecular hydrogen bonding of protein had been weaken. After Gaussian fitting on amide I , it was found that the content of secondary structure of α-helix content and β-folding in whey protein reduced from 19.55% to 17.50% and from 30.59% to 25.63%, respectively. This suggests that protein intramolecular hydrogen bonding force was abated, resulting in abating the rigid structure of the protein molecules and enhancing of the toughness structure. The protein molecules showed some flexibility. The result of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that whey protein--gum Arabic complexes produced covalent products in larger molecular weight. During the spray-drying process, covalent cross-linking produced between whey protein and gum Arabic which improved emulsifying activity of the complex whey protein and gum Arabic produced covalent cross-linking and improved the complex emulsifying activity. Observing the surface structure of the fish oil microcapsule by SEM, the compound of whey protein and acacia as wall material was proved better toughness, less micropore, and more compact structure.

  16. Using state diagrams for predicting colloidal stability of whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Ty B; Ward, Loren; Foegeding, E Allen

    2015-05-06

    A method for evaluating aspects of colloidal stability of whey protein beverages after thermal treatment was established. Three state diagrams for beverages (pH 3-7) were developed representing protein solubility, turbidity, and macroscopic state after two ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) treatments. Key transitions of stability in the state diagrams were explored using electrophoresis and chromatography to determine aggregation propensities of β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, and glycomacropeptide. The state diagrams present an overlapping view of high colloidal stability at pH 3 accompanied by high solubility of individual whey proteins. At pH 5, beverages were characterized by poor solubility, high turbidity, and aggregation/gelation of whey proteins with the exception of glycomacropeptide. Stability increased at pH 6, due to increased solubility of α-lactalbumin. The results indicate that combinations of state diagrams can be used to identify key regions of stability for whey protein containing beverages.

  17. Acne located on the trunk, whey protein supplementation: Is there any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Cevirgen Cemil, Bengu; Emiroglu, Nazan; Gulsel Bahali, Anil; Onsun, Nahide

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding. This is the first observation which specified the location of acneiform lesions among bodybuilders. In our opinion, a trendy and common health problem is beginning among adolescents in the gyms. PMID:28326292

  18. Acne located on the trunk, whey protein supplementation: Is there any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein is a source of protein that was isolated from milk. Whey proteins are composed of higher levels of essential amino acids. The role of diet in acne etiology has been investigated for several years. It was established that milk and milk products can trigger acneiform lesions, and recent evidence supports the role of whey protein supplements in acne. Herein, we report 6 healthy male adolescent patients developing acne located only to the trunk after the consumption of whey protein supplements for faster bodybuilding. This is the first observation which specified the location of acneiform lesions among bodybuilders. In our opinion, a trendy and common health problem is beginning among adolescents in the gyms.

  19. Internal quality of eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alleoni Ana Cláudia Carraro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional properties of foods can be preserved when they are coated with edible films, since both the loss of moisture and the transport of O2 and CO2 are reduced. The objectives of this work were: to compare weight loss, Haugh units, and albumen pH between fresh eggs and eggs coated with whey protein concentrate (WPC, under six storage periods (3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 28 days, at 25°C. During the entire storage period, regardless of whether the eggs were coated or not, the Haugh unit values and the weight loss decreased, and differences between values from the first to the last period were lower for coated eggs. Albumen pH increased. The Haugh unit values for coated eggs were similar to those found in literature references when the same storage period was considered.

  20. Effect of stirring and seeding on whey protein fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolder, Suzanne G; Sagis, Leonard M C; Venema, Paul; van der Linden, Erik

    2007-07-11

    The effect of stirring and seeding on the formation of fibrils in whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied. More fibrils of a similar length are formed when WPI is stirred during heating at pH 2 and 80 degrees C compared to samples that were heated at rest. Addition of seeds did not show an additional effect compared to samples that were stirred. We propose a model for fibril formation, including an activation, nucleation, growth, and termination step. The activation and nucleation steps are the rate-determining steps. Fibril growth is relatively fast but terminates after prolonged heating. Two processes that possibly induce termination of fibril growth are hydrolysis of nonassembled monomers and inactivation of the growth ends of the fibrils. Stirring may break up immature fibrils, thus producing more active fibrils. Stirring also seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibril formation, resulting in an increase of the number of fibrils formed.

  1. Identification of bitter peptides in whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2014-06-25

    Bitterness of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) can negatively affect product quality and limit utilization in food and pharmaceutical applications. Four main bitter peptides were identified in a commercial WPH by means of sensory-guided fractionation techniques that included ultrafiltration and offline two-dimensional reverse phase chromatography. LC-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed the amino acid sequences of the bitter peptides were YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN that originated from α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, serum albumin, and β-casein, respectively. Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis reported the concentrations of YGLF, IPAVF, LLF, and YPFPGPIPN to be 0.66, 0.58, 1.33, and 2.64 g/kg powder, respectively. Taste recombination analysis of an aqueous model consisting of all four peptides was reported to explain 88% of the bitterness intensity of the 10% WPH solution.

  2. Microencapsulation of oils using whey protein/gum Arabic coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbreck, F; Minor, M; de Kruif, C G

    2004-09-01

    Microencapsulating sunflower oil, lemon and orange oil flavour was investigated using complex coacervation of whey protein/gum arabic (WP/GA). At pH 3.0-4.5, WP and GA formed electrostatic complexes that could be successfully used for microencapsulation purposes. The formation of a smooth biopolymer shell around the oil droplets was achieved at a specific pH (close to 4.0) and the payload of oil (i.e. amount of oil in the capsule) was higher than 80%. Small droplets were easier to encapsulate within a coacervate matrix than large ones, which were present in a typical shell/core structure. The stability of the emulsion made of oil droplets covered with coacervates was strongly pH-dependent. At pH 4.0, the creaming rate of the emulsion was much higher than at other pH values. This phenomenon was investigated by carrying out zeta potential measurements on the mixtures. It seemed that, at this specific pH, the zeta potential was close to zero, highlighting the presence of neutral coacervate at the oil/water interface. The influence of pH on the capsule formation was in accordance with previous results on coacervation of whey proteins and gum arabic, i.e. WP/GA coacervates were formed in the same pH window with and without oil and the pH where the encapsulation seemed to be optimum corresponded to the pH at which the coacervate was the most viscous. Finally, to illustrate the applicability of these new coacervates, the release of flavoured capsules incorporated within Gouda cheese showed that large capsules gave stronger release and the covalently cross-linked capsules showed the lowest release, probably because of a tough dense biopolymer wall which was difficult to break by chewing.

  3. Comprehensive peptidomic and glycomic evaluation reveals that sweet whey permeate from colostrum is a source of milk protein-derived peptides and oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallas, D.C.; Weinborn, V.; Moura Bell, de J.M.L.N.; Wang, M.; Parker, E.A.; Guerrero, A.; Hettinga, K.A.; Lebrilla, C.B.; German, J.B.; Barile, D.

    2014-01-01

    Whey permeate is a co-product obtained when cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration membrane to concentrate whey proteins. Whey proteins are retained by the membrane, whereas the low-molecular weight compounds such as lactose, salts, oligosaccharides and peptides pass through the membrane y

  4. Effects of polyols on the stability of whey proteins in intermediate-moisture food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhou, Peng; Tran, Amy; Labuza, Ted P

    2009-03-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of polyols on the stability of whey proteins in an intermediate-moisture food model system and to elucidate the effect of polyols on the hardening of whey protein-based bars during storage. Four major polyols, glycerol, propylene glycol, maltitol, and sorbitol, were evaluated in model systems, which contained whey protein isolate, polyols, and water. The results showed that glycerol was the most effective polyol in lowering water activity and provided the soft texture of intermediate-moisture foods, followed by sorbitol and maltitol. These three polyols stabilized the native structure of whey proteins, provided a desired texture, and slowed the hardening of the model systems. Propylene glycol should not be used in whey protein-based high-protein intermediate-moisture foods because it caused changes in protein conformation and stability as observed by differential scanning calorimeter and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and resulted in aggregation of whey proteins and hardening of the bar texture during storage, causing loss in product quality.

  5. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  6. The Reasearch on the Anti-Fatigue Effect of Whey Protein Powder in Basketball Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronghui, Sun

    2015-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of whey protein powder on hematological indexes of players majoring in physical education in the basketball training, the authors divided the players randomly into a control group and a nutrition group. Athletes complete the 30 minutes quantitative exercise using cycle ergometer respectively before the trial and after one month trial. Then we exsanguinated immediately after exercise, extracted heparin and measured hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume and other hematological indices. The results showed that after taking whey protein powder, the HB, RBC, HCT of nutrition group was significantly higher that the control group. This suggests that in high-intensity training, taking whey protein powder can cause changes of HB, RBC and HCT in human body, meanwhile MCV essentially the same. So whey protein powder can improve exercise capacity, and has anti-fatigue effect.

  7. Effect of ultrasound on the physical and functional properties of reconstituted whey protein powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisu, Bogdan; Lee, Judy; Chandrapala, Jayani; Bhaskaracharya, Raman; Palmer, Martin; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2011-05-01

    Aqueous solutions of reconstituted whey protein- concentrate (WPC) & isolate (WPI) powders were sonicated at 20 kHz in a batch process for 1-60 min. Sonication at 20 kHz increased the clarity of WPC solutions largely due to the reduction in the size of the suspended insoluble aggregates. The gel strength of these solutions when heated at 80°C for 20 min also increased with sonication, while gelation time and gel syneresis were reduced. These improvements in gel strength were observed across a range of initial pH values, suggesting that the mechanism for gel promotion is different from the well known effects of pH. Examining the microstructure of the whey protein gels indicated a compact network of densely packed whey protein aggregates arising from ultrasound treatment. Comparable changes were not observed with whey protein isolate solutions, which may reflect the absence of larger aggregates in the initial solution or differences in composition.

  8. Whey Protein Delays Gastric Emptying and Suppresses Plasma Fatty Acids and Their Metabolites Compared to Casein, Gluten, and Fish Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Whey protein has been demonstrated to improve fasting lipid and insulin response in overweight and obese individuals. To establish new hypotheses for this effect and to investigate the impact of stomach emptying, we compared plasma profiles after intake of whey isolate (WI), casein, gluten (GLU...

  9. The composition and functional properties of whey protein concentrates produced from buttermilk are comparable with those of whey protein concentrates produced from skimmed milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanborg, Sigrid; Johansen, Anne-Grethe; Abrahamsen, Roger K; Skeie, Siv B

    2015-09-01

    The demand for whey protein is increasing in the food industry. Traditionally, whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates are produced from cheese whey. At present, microfiltration (MF) enables the utilization of whey from skim milk (SM) through milk protein fractionation. This study demonstrates that buttermilk (BM) can be a potential source for the production of a WPC with a comparable composition and functional properties to a WPC obtained by MF of SM. Through the production of WPC powder and a casein- and phospholipid (PL)-rich fraction by the MF of BM, sweet BM may be used in a more optimal and economical way. Sweet cream BM from industrial churning was skimmed before MF with 0.2-µm ceramic membranes at 55 to 58°C. The fractionations of BM and SM were performed under the same conditions using the same process, and the whey protein fractions from BM and SM were concentrated by ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The ultrafiltration and diafiltration was performed at 50°C using pasteurized tap water and a membrane with a 20-kDa cut-off to retain as little lactose as possible in the final WPC powders. The ultrafiltrates were subsequently spray dried, and their functional properties and chemical compositions were compared. The amounts of whey protein and PL in the WPC powder from BM (BMWPC) were comparable to the amounts found in the WPC from SM (SMWPC); however, the composition of the PL classes differed. The BMWPC contained less total protein, casein, and lactose compared with SMWPC, as well as higher contents of fat and citric acid. No difference in protein solubility was observed at pH values of 4.6 and 7.0, and the overrun was the same for BMWPC and SMWPC; however, the BMWPC made less stable foam than SMWPC.

  10. Effect of whey protein on plasma amino acids in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting; Cai, Donglian; Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Zhen, Hui; Wu, Peiying

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein on plasma amino acid levels in a mouse model of type II diabetes, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition and content of amino acids in the whey proteins were analyzed using HPLC. Type I and type II diabetic mouse models were prepared using streptozotocin (STZ) and normal mice were used as a control. The ICR mice in each group were then randomly divided into four subgroups, to which 0, 10, 20 and 40% whey protein, respectively, was administered for four weeks. Changes in the plasma amino acid levels were observed in each group. The proportions of leucine, isoleucine and valine in the whey proteins were 14.40, 5.93 and 5.32% of the total amino acids, respectively, that is, the branched-chain amino acid content was 25.65%. The levels of branched-chain amino acids increased in the plasma of the normal and model mice following the administration of whey proteins by gavage and the amino acid levels increased as the concentration of the administered protein increased. In addition, the branched-chain amino acid levels in the blood of the model mice were higher than those in the normal mice. The levels of plasma amino acids in diabetic mice increased following gavage with whey protein, which is rich in branched-chain amino acids.

  11. Comparative proteomic changes of differentially expressed whey proteins in clinical mastitis and healthy yak cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Ding, X Z; Wan, Y L; Liu, Y M; Du, G Z

    2014-08-28

    Under the traditional grazing system on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the amount of milk in domesticated yak (Bos grunniens) with clinical mastitis decreases and the milk composition is altered. To understand the mechanisms of mammary gland secreted milk and disease infection, changes in the protein composition of milk during clinical mastitis were investigated using a proteomic approach. Milk whey from yak with clinical mastitis was compared to whey from healthy animals with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using a mass spectrometer. Thirteen protein spots were identified to be four differentially expressed proteins. Increases in the concentrations of proteins of blood serum origin, including lactoferrin, were identified in mastitic whey compared to normal whey, while concentrations of the major whey proteins, casocidin-I, a-lactalbumin, and b-lactoglobulin, were downregulated in mastitic whey. These results indicated significant differences in protein expression between healthy yaks and those with clinical mastitis, and they may provide valuable information for finding new regulation markers and potential protein targets for the treatment of mastitis.

  12. Production of whey protein cold-set hydrogels through application of moderate electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rui M.; Ramos, Óscar L.; Teixeira, J. A; A.A. Vicente; Pereira,Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    ISBN 978-989-98541-5-4 Whey, a liquid by-product from dairy industry is now recognized as a functional food due to the presence of bioactive and highly nutritional components, such as globular whey proteins. Denaturation and aggregation kinetic behavior of these proteins is of particular relevance when properly engineered and controlled, as it results in the production of novel micro and nano-systems with many potential uses in food compositions. Application of moderate electric fields (ME...

  13. WHEY PROTEIN-BASED WATER RESISTANT AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE ADHESIVES FOR PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyan Zhao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Whey protein is a renewable and environmentally safe biomaterial, a by-product of cheese production. It can be utilized for non-food applications for value-added products. The substances glyoxal (GO, glutaraldehyde (GA, polymeric methylene biphenyl diisocyanate (p-MDI, urea-formaldehyde (UF resin, and phenol-formaldehyde oligomer (PFO that contain reactive groups were applied together with whey protein as modifier in order to increase crosslinking density and molecular weight for improving the bond strength and water resistance of whey protein. A water-resistant and environmentally safe whey protein-based wood adhesive for plywood was developed by evaluating the effects of these modifiers on the bond strength, bond durability, and free formaldehyde emission of the resulting plywood panels. Results of FTIR and SEM analyses and bond evaluation indicated that GO, GA, and p-MDI were not suitable to modify whey proteins due to their high reactivity with whey proteins, causing phase separation. UF resin was not a good modifier for whey proteins because of either its poor water-resistance or higher emission of hazardous formaldehyde. Whey protein adhesives modified with PFO had a dry shear bond strength of 1.98 MPa and a 28h-boiling-dry-boiling wet shear strength of 1.73 MPa, which were both much higher than the required values for structural use according to standard JIS K6806-2003, while its formaldehyde emission was 0.067mg/L, much lower than the required value for green plywood according to standard JIS A5908.

  14. Formulation, characterisation and topical application of oil powders from whey protein stabilised emulsions / Magdalena Kotze

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The available literature indicates that to date, few research has been performed on oil powders for topical delivery. The aim of this project was to investigate the release characteristics of oil powder formulations, as well as their dermal and transdermal delivery properties. Whey protein-stabilised emulsions were used to develop oil powders. Whey protein was used alone, or in combination with chitosan or carrageenan. Nine oil powders, with salicylic acid as the active ingredient, were fo...

  15. High-Level Production of Heterologous Protein by Engineered Yeasts Grown in Cottage Cheese Whey

    OpenAIRE

    Maullu, Carlo; Lampis, Giorgio; Desogus, Alessandra; Ingianni, Angela; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pompei, Raffaello

    1999-01-01

    Cottage cheese whey is a cheese industry by-product still rich in proteins and lactose. Its recycling is seldom cost-effective. In this work we show that the lactose-utilizing yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, engineered for production of recombinant human lysozyme, can be grown in cottage cheese whey, resulting in high-level production of the heterologous protein (125 μg/ml).

  16. Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Varotto, A; De Marchi, M

    2014-11-01

    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd.

  17. Role of protein concentration and protein-saliva interactions in the astringency of whey proteins at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M; Vardhanabhuti, B; Luck, P; Drake, M A; Osborne, J; Foegeding, E A

    2010-05-01

    Whey protein beverages are adjusted to pH pH level is also associated with increased astringency. The goal of this investigation was to determine the effects of protein concentration on astringency and interactions between whey and salivary proteins. Whey protein beverages containing 0.25 to 13% (wt/wt) beta-lactoglobulin and 0.017% (wt/wt) sucralose at pH 2.6 to 4.2 were examined using descriptive sensory analysis. Controls were similar pH phosphate buffers at phosphate concentrations equivalent to the amount of phosphoric acid required to adjust the pH of the protein solution. Changes in astringency with protein concentration depended on pH. At pH 3.5, astringency significantly increased with protein concentration from 0.25 to 4% (wt/wt) and then remained constant from 4 to 13% (wt/wt). Conversely, at pH 2.6, astringency decreased with an increase in protein concentration [0.5-10% (wt/wt)]. This suggests a complex relationship that includes pH and buffering capacity of the beverages. Furthermore, saliva flow rates increased with increasing protein concentrations, showing that the physiological conditions in the mouth change with protein concentration. Maximum turbidity of whey protein-saliva mixtures was observed between pH 4.6 and 5.2. Both sensory evaluation and in vitro study of interactions between beta-LG and saliva indicate that astringency of whey proteins is a complex process determined by the extent of aggregation occurring in the mouth, which depends on the whey protein beverage pH and buffering capacity in addition to saliva flow rate. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential role of the binding of whey proteins to human buccal cells on the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Aiqian; Zheng, Tao; Ye, Jack Z; Singh, Harjinder

    2012-07-16

    Whey protein beverages have been shown to be astringent, which means that they are not appealing to consumers. The exact mechanism of astringency in whey protein beverages is yet to be fully elucidated. In this preliminary study, the binding between β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), lactoferrin (LF) and human oral epithelial cells (HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells) at pH 3.5 and pH 7.4 was assayed as a function of protein concentration using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The binding of β-LG and LF to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was dependent on protein type, protein concentration, pH and time. The intensity of the binding to HSC-2 and NO-1-N-1 cells was much greater for LF than for β-LG and was protein concentration dependent, which was consistent with the in vivo astringency perception of LF and β-LG. The findings demonstrated that the binding interaction between whey proteins and human oral epithelial cells may play an important role in the perception of astringency in whey protein beverages.

  19. Functionality of whey proteins covalently modified by allyl isothiocyanate. Part 1 physicochemical and antibacterial properties of native and modified whey proteins at pH 2 to 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppler, Julia Katharina; Martin, Dierk; Garamus, Vasil M.; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Nipoti, Elia; Coenye, Tom; Schwarz, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) (∼75% β-lactoglobulin (β-LG)) is frequently used in foods as a natural emulsifying agent. However, at an acidic pH value, its emulsification capacity is greatly reduced. The covalent attachment of natural electrophilic hydrophobic molecules to WPI proteins is a

  20. Functionality of whey proteins covalently modified by allyl isothiocyanate. Part 1 physicochemical and antibacterial properties of native and modified whey proteins at pH 2 to 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppler, Julia Katharina; Martin, Dierk; Garamus, Vasil M.; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Nipoti, Elia; Coenye, Tom; Schwarz, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) (∼75% β-lactoglobulin (β-LG)) is frequently used in foods as a natural emulsifying agent. However, at an acidic pH value, its emulsification capacity is greatly reduced. The covalent attachment of natural electrophilic hydrophobic molecules to WPI proteins is a promisin

  1. Application of an acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus to reduce antigenicity of bovine milk whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, P L Nilantha; Tachibana, Shinjiro; Toyama, Hirohide; Taira, Toki; Suganuma, Toshihiko; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Yasuda, Masaaki

    2011-09-01

    An acid proteinase from Monascus purpureus No. 3403, MpuAP, was previously purified and some characterized in our laboratory (Agric Biol Chem 48:1637-1639, 1984). However, further information about this enzyme is lacking. In this study, we investigated MpuAP's comprehensive substrate specificity, storage stability, and prospects for reducing antigenicity of whey proteins for application in the food industry. MpuAP hydrolyzed primarily five peptide bonds, Gln(4)-His(5), His(10)-Leu(11), Ala(14)-Leu(15), Gly(23)-Phe(24) and Phe(24)-Phe(25) in the oxidized insulin B-chain. The lyophilized form of the enzyme was well preserved at 30-40°C for 7 days without stabilizers. To investigate the possibility of reducing the antigenicity of the milk whey protein, enzymatic hydrolysates of the whey protein were evaluated by inhibition ELISA. Out of the three main components of whey protein, casein and α-lactalbumin were efficiently degraded by MpuAP. The sequential reaction of MpuAP and trypsin against the whey protein successfully degraded casein, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin with the highest degree of hydrolysis. As a result, the hydrolysates obtained by using the MpuAP-trypsin combination showed the lowest antigenicity compared with the single application of pepsin, trypsin or pepsin-trypsin combination. Therefore, the overall result suggested that the storage-stable MpuAP and trypsin combination will be a productive approach for making hypoallergic bovine milk whey protein hydrolysates.

  2. Studies on formulation of whey protein enriched concentrated tomato juice beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Avneet; Chauhan, Anil K; Kumar, Jitendra

    2015-02-01

    Whey protein components derived from cheese whey and heat and acid coagulated Indian products (paneer, chhana, chakka) possess valuable functional and nutritional properties. Tomato products rich in lycopene are reported to be anticarcinogenic and antioxidative. The main objective of this study was to formulate a whey protein enriched tomato juice concentrate for use as beverage by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM) engaging the Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The ingredients range used for this formulation comprised of Whey Protein Concentrate (WPC) 4-8 g, Cane sugar 10-20 g and Guar gum (stabilizer) 0.75-1.25 g in 100 g of concentrated tomato juice. The most preferred reconstituted beverage was obtained from the formulation developed with WPC 4.98 g, sugar 15.71 g and Guar gum 0.93 g added to 100 g tomato juice concentrate.

  3. COMPARATIVE PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN FROM FISH PROTEIN ISOLATE WASTAGE AND ULTRA FILTERED CHEESE WHEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Haghighi-Manesh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fish protein isolate wastage and ultra filtered cheese whey were used as substrates for fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus to produce single cell protein, under batch and aerobic condition in which pH and temperature were adjusted to 4.5 and 35°C. The produced biomass was analyzed for protein content in different periods of time during fermentation. About 82% and 75% of total protein was produced in the first 18 h of 96 h fermentation of ultra filtered cheese whey and protein isolate wastage respectively, which can be an indication of the exponential phase of the yeast growth. The results of biomass yield measurements during 96 h process also confirm this finding. Moreover, since ultra filtered cheese whey was higher in single cell protein yield, solubility, water holding capacity, water absorption and power of biological and chemical oxygen demand reduction, and also was lower in foam overrun and stability than fish protein isolate wastage, it was selected as the suitable substrate for single cell protein production.

  4. Antioxidant Effects of Sheep Whey Protein on Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia Kerasioti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS may cause endothelial dysfunction and consequently vascular disease. In the present study, the possible protective effects of sheep whey protein (SWP from tert-butyl hydroperoxide- (tBHP- induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells (EA.hy926 were assessed using oxidative stress biomarkers. These oxidative stress biomarkers were glutathione (GSH and ROS levels determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, protein carbonyls (CARB, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG were determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SWP at 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, and 6.24 mg of protein mL−1 increased GSH up to 141%, while it decreased GSSG to 46.7%, ROS to 58.5%, TBARS to 52.5%, and CARB to 49.0%. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that SWP protected endothelial cells from oxidative stress. Thus, SWP may be used for developing food supplements or biofunctional foods to attenuate vascular disturbances associated with oxidative stress.

  5. Investigation of whey protein concentration by ultrafiltration elements designed for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukučka Miroslav Đ.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Suitability of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (UFM commercial designed for water treatment have been investigated for separation of protein (PR from sweet whey. Ultrafiltration (UF of whey originated from dairy has been realized by self-made pilot plant which has been in service about one year. Influence of two whey temperatures (9 oC and 30 oC on efficiency of protein concentration has been examined. Application of investigated UF elements has given whey protein concentrate (WPC with 5 to 6 times excess amount of protein content in regard to starting one. In the same time the prevalent content of lactose has been removed to permeate. Better results have been occurred during the cold whey filtration. Besides the fact that molecular weight cut-off (MWCO of investigated membranes were 50-100 kDa, results showed very successful concentrating of whey proteins of dominantly lower molar weights than 50-100 kDa. Investigated membranes are beneficial for design and construction of UF plants for exploitation in small dairies.

  6. Quantification of whey proteins by reversed phase-HPLC and effectiveness of mid-infrared spectroscopy for their rapid prediction in sweet whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, Alba; De Marchi, Massimo; Masi, Antonio; Cassandro, Martino

    2016-01-01

    In the dairy industry, membrane filtration is used to reduce the amount of whey waste and, simultaneously, to recover whey proteins (WP). The composition of WP can strongly affect the filtration treatment of whey, and rapid determination of WP fractions would be of interest for dairy producers to monitor WP recovery. This study aimed to develop mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) prediction models for the rapid quantification of protein in sweet whey, using a validated rapid reversed phase (RP)-HPLC as a reference method. Quantified WP included α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) A and B, bovine serum albumin, caseinomacropeptides, and proteose peptone. Validation of RP-HPLC was performed by calculating the relative standard deviation (RSD) in repeatability and reproducibility tests for WP retention time and peak areas. Samples of liquid whey (n=187) were analyzed by RP-HPLC and scanned through MIRS to collect spectral information (900 to 4,000 cm(-1)); statistical analysis was carried out through partial least squares regression and random cross-validation procedure. Retention times in RP-HPLC method were stable (RSD between 0.03 and 0.80%), whereas the RSD of peak area (from 0.25 to 8.48%) was affected by WP relative abundance. Higher coefficients of determination in validation for MIRS model were obtained for protein fractions present in whey in large amounts, such as β-LG (0.58), total identified WP (0.58), and α-LA (0.56). Results of this study suggest that MIRS is an easy method for rapid quantification of detail protein in sweet whey, even if better resolution was achieved with the method based on RP-HPLC. The prediction of WP in sweet whey by MIRS might be used for screening and for classifying sweet whey according to its total and individual WP contents.

  7. Roles of charge interactions on astringency of whey proteins at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhanabhuti, B; Kelly, M A; Luck, P J; Drake, M A; Foegeding, E A

    2010-05-01

    Whey proteins are a major ingredient in sports drink and functional beverages. At low pH, whey proteins are astringent, which may be undesirable in some applications. Understanding the astringency mechanism of whey proteins at low pH could lead to developing ways to minimize the astringency. This study compared the astringency of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) at low pH with phosphate buffer controls having the same amount of phosphate and at similar pH. Results showed that beta-LG samples were more astringent than phosphate buffers, indicating that astringency was not caused by acid alone and that proteins contribute to astringency. When comparing among various whey protein isolates (WPI) and lactoferrin at pH 3.5, 4.5, and 7.0, lactoferrin was astringent at pH 7.0 where no acid was added. In contrast, astringency of all WPI decreased at pH 7.0. This can be explained by lactoferrin remaining positively charged at pH 7.0 and able to interact with negatively charged saliva proteins, whereas the negatively charged WPI would not interact. Charge interactions were further supported by beta-LG or lactoferrin and salivary proteins precipitating when mixed at conditions where beta-LG, lactoferrin, or saliva themselves did not precipitate. It can be concluded that interactions between positively charged whey proteins and salivary proteins play a role in astringency of proteins at low pH.

  8. Protein characterization of pasteurized milk, cheese whey and their mixtures by using the CEM SprintTM analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Moura de Paiva; Virgílio de Carvalho dos Anjos; Maria José Valenzuela Bell; Marco Antônio Moreira Furtado

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the protein analyzer SprintTM was assessed regarding its capacity of predicting addition of whey in milk. This type of practice is relatively common in dairy plants, since whey, as it is a protein component, may be added with little loss of milk protein content. Besides,its incorrect elimination contributes to environmental pollution. Mixtures of milk and whey were prepared in different levels of addition and two methods of milk partition were tested. The results indicated that ...

  9. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate using subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Ashley D; Morawicki, Rubén O; Hager, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) is used in the food industry for protein enrichment and modification of functional properties. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of subcritical water hydrolysis (SWH) on WPI and to determine the temperature and reaction time effects on the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the production of peptides and free amino acids (AAs). Effects of temperature (150 to 320 °C) and time (0 to 20 min) were initially studied with a central composite rotatable design followed by a completely randomized factorial design with temperature (250 and 300 °C) and time (0 to 50 min) as factors. SWH was conducted in an electrically heated, 100-mL batch, high pressure vessel. The DH was determined by a spectrophotometric method after derivatization. The peptide molecular weights (MWs) were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and AAs were quantified by high-performance liquid chromotography. An interaction of temperature and time significantly affected the DH and AA concentration. As the DH increased, the accumulation of lower MW peptides also increased following SWH (and above 10% DH, the majority of peptides were hydrolyzed by subcritical water, and with adjustment of treatment parameters there is reasonable control of the end-products.

  10. Tribomechanical micronization and activation of whey protein concentrate and zeolite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Z Herceg; V Lelas; M Brnčić; B Tripalo; D Ježek

    2004-02-01

    Tribomechanics is a part of physics that is concerned with the study of phenomena that appear during milling under dynamic conditions. Tribomechanical micronization and activation (TMA) of whey protein concentrates (WPC) and zeolites (type clinoptilolite) were carried out. Samples of powdered WPC and zeolite were treated with the laboratory TMA equipment. The treatment was carried out at two various rotor speeds: 16,000 and 22,000 r.p.m. at ambient temperature. Analyses of the particle size and distribution as well as the specific area and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on the powdered WPC and zeolite, before and after the TMA treatment. Suspensions of the WPC and zeolite were treated with ultrasound, just before determining the particle size distribution, at 50 kHz. The results showed that tribomechanical treatment causes significant decrease in particle size, change in particle size distribution and increase in specific area of WPC and zeolite. These changes of the treated materials depend on the type of the material, the level of inserting particles, the planned angle of the impact, internal rubbing and the planned number of impacts. The effects found became stronger as the rotor speed of the TMA equipment increased (16,000 to 22,000 rpm). Ultrasonic treatment of suspension of tribomechanically treated WPC resulted infurther breakdown of partly damaged protein globules as proved with the statistic analyses. No further changes in their granulometric composition were caused by ultrasonic treatment of a suspension of tribomechanically treated zeolite.

  11. The Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    extension resistance training than did a carbohydrate placebo (22%). Protein and branched chain amino acids ( BCAA ) supplementation may also improve... BCAAs scored better on both mood levels and 2 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited, Public Affairs Case File No. 09-189, 27 April 2009...supplemented subjects with whey and casein (WC), whey and BCAAs (WBC), or placebo (P) over 10 weeks of resistance training (RT). They observed a significant

  12. Preventive Effects of Chitosan Coacervate Whey Protein on Body Composition and Immunometabolic Aspect in Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza; Aline Boveto Santamarina; Aline Alves de Santana; Fábio Santos de Lira; Rachel de Laquila; Mayara Franzoi Moreno; Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro; Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento; Bruno Rodrigues; Elisa Esposito; Lila Missae Oyama

    2014-01-01

    Functional foods containing bioactive compounds of whey may play an important role in prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospects of the biotechnological process of coacervation of whey proteins (CWP) in chitosan and test its antiobesogenic potential. Methods. CWP (100 mg·kg·day) was administered in mice with diet-induced obesity for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups: control normocaloric diet gavage with water (C) or coacervate...

  13. Comparison of the aggregation behavior of soy and bovine whey protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Bas J H; Alting, Arno C; Gruppen, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Soy-derived proteins (soy protein isolate, glycinin, and beta-conglycinin) and bovine whey-derived proteins (whey protein isolate, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) were hydrolyzed using subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, trypsin, bromelain, and papain. The (in)solubility of the hydrolysates obtained was studied as a function of pH. At neutral pH, all soy-derived protein hydrolysates, particularly those from glycinin, obtained by hydrolysis with subtilisin Carlsberg, chymotrypsin, bromelain, and papain showed a stronger aggregation compared to the non-hydrolyzed ones. This increase in aggregation was not observed upon hydrolysis by trypsin. None of the whey-derived protein hydrolysates exhibited an increase in aggregation at neutral pH. The high abundance of theoretical cleavage sites in the hydrophobic regions of glycinin probably explains the stronger exposure of hydrophobic groups than for the other proteins, which is suggested to be the driving force in the aggregate formation.

  14. Relation between gelation conditions and the physical properties of whey protein particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Dilek; Venema, Paul; de Vries, Renko; van Aelst, Adriaan; van der Linden, Erik

    2012-04-24

    Whey protein particles have several applications in modulating food structure and for encapsulation, but there is a lack of methods to prepare particles with a very high internal protein content. In this study whey protein particles with high internal protein content were prepared through emulsification and heat gelation of 25% (w/w) whey protein isolate solution at different pH (6.8 or 5.5) and NaCl concentrations (50, 200, or 400 mM). Particles formed at pH 6.8 were spherical, whereas those formed at pH 5.5 were irregular and had a cauliflower-like appearance. Both particles had an average size of few micrometers, and the particles formed at pH 5.5 had higher protein content (∼39% w/v) than the particles formed at pH 6.8 (∼18% w/v). Similarly, particle morphology and protein density were also affected by initial NaCl concentration: particles formed at 50 mM NaCl (pH 6.8) were spherical, whereas particles formed at either 200 mM NaCl (pH 6.7) or 400 mM NaCl (pH 6.6) were irregular and protein density of the particles increased with increasing initial NaCl concentration. Whey protein particles formed at pH 5.5 showed an excellent heat stability: viscosity of the suspensions containing approximately 30% of protein particles formed at pH 5.5 did not show any change after heating at 90 °C for 30 min while the viscosity of suspensions containing protein particles prepared at other conditions increased after heating. In summary, whey protein particles with varying microstructure, shape, internal protein density, and heat stability can be formed by using heat-induced gelation of whey protein isolate at different gelling conditions.

  15. Effects of different fractions of whey protein on postprandial lipid and hormone responses in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L S; Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Exacerbated postprandial lipid responses are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Dietary proteins influence postprandial lipemia differently, and whey protein has a preferential lipid-lowering effect. We compared the effects of different whey protein fractions...... in the incremental area under the curve over the 480-min period.Conclusions:A supplement of four different whey protein fractions to a fat-rich meal had similar effects on postprandial triglyceride responses in type 2 diabetic subjects. Whey isolate and whey hydrolysate caused a higher insulin response...... on postprandial lipid and hormone responses added to a high-fat meal in type 2 diabetic subjects.Subjects/Methods:A total of 12 type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four isocaloric test meals in randomized order. The test meals contained 100¿g of butter and 45¿g of carbohydrate in combination with 45¿g of whey...

  16. Whey fermentation by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria: evolution of carbohydrates and protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescuma, Micaela; Hébert, Elvira María; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2008-05-01

    Whey, a by-product of the cheese industry usually disposed as waste, is a source of biological and functional valuable proteins. The aim of this work was to evaluate the potentiality of three lactic acid bacteria strains to design a starter culture for developing functional whey-based drinks. Fermentations were performed at 37 and 42 degrees C for 24h in reconstituted whey powder (RW). Carbohydrates, organic acids and amino acids concentrations during fermentation were evaluated by RP-HPLC. Proteolytic activity was measured by the o-phthaldialdehyde test and hydrolysis of whey proteins was analyzed by Tricine SDS-PAGE. The studied strains grew well (2-3log cfu/ml) independently of the temperature used. Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 804 consumed 12% of the initial lactose concentration and produced the highest amount of lactic acid (45 mmol/l) at 24h. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 454 was the most proteolytic (91 microg Leu/ml) strain and released the branched chain amino acids Leu and Val. In contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 and S. thermophilus CRL 804 consumed most of the amino acids present in whey. The studied strains were able to degrade the major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin being degraded in a greater extent (2.2-3.4-fold) than beta-lactoglobulin. Two starter cultures were evaluated for their metabolic and proteolytic activities in RW. Both cultures acidified and reduced the lactose content in whey in a greater extent than the strains alone. The amino acid release was higher (86 microg/ml) for the starter SLb (strains CRL 804+CRL 454) than for SLa (strains CRL 804+CRL 636, 37 microg/ml). Regarding alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin degradation, no differences were observed as compared to the values obtained with the single cultures. The starter culture SLb showed high potential to be used for developing fermented whey-based beverages.

  17. Physical properties of whey protein--hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blend edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, L P; Krochta, J M

    2008-11-01

    The formations of glycerol (Gly)-plasticized whey protein isolate (WPI)-hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) films, blended using different combinations and at different conditions, were investigated. The resulting WPI: Gly-HPMC films were analyzed for mechanical properties, oxygen permeability (OP), and water solubility. Differences due to HPMC quantity and blend method were determined via SAS software. While WPI: Gly and HPMC films were transparent, blend films were translucent, indicating some degree of immiscibility and/or WPI-HPMC aggregated domains in the blend films. WPI: Gly-HPMC films were stronger than WPI: Gly films and more flexible and stretchable than HPMC films, with films becoming stiffer, stronger, and less stretchable as the concentration of HPMC increased. However, WPI: Gly-HPMC blended films maintained the same low OP of WPI: Gly films, significantly lower than the OP of HPMC films. Comparison of mechanical properties and OP of films made by heat-denaturing WPI before and after blending with HPMC did not indicate any difference in degree of cross-linking between the methods, while solubility data indicated otherwise. Overall, while adding HPMC to WPI: Gly films had a large effect on the flexibility, strength, stretchability, and water solubility of the film polymeric network, results indicated that HPMC had no effect on OP through the polymer network. WPI-HPMC blend films had a desirable combination of mechanical and oxygen barrier properties, reflecting the combination of hydrogen-bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and disulfide bond cross-linking in the blended polymer network.

  18. A whey protein supplement decreases post-prandial glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Alexandra L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incidence of diabetes, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with high glycemic load diets. Identifying food components that decrease post-prandial glycemia may be beneficial for developing low glycemic foods and supplements. This study explores the glycemic impact of adding escalating doses of a glycemic index lowering peptide fraction (GILP from whey to a glucose drink. Methods Ten healthy subjects (3M, 7F, 44.4 ± 9.3 years, BMI 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 participated in an acute randomised controlled study. Zero, 5, 10 and 20 g of protein from GILP were added to a 50 g glucose drink. The control (0 g of GILP meal was repeated 2 times. Capillary blood samples were taken fasting (0 min and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after the start of the meal and analyzed for blood glucose concentration. Results Increasing doses of GILP decreased the incremental areas under the curve in a dose dependant manner (Pearson's r = 0.48, p = 0.002. The incremental areas (iAUC under the glucose curve for the 0, 5, 10, and 20 g of protein from GILP were 231 ± 23, 212 ± 23, 196 ± 23, and 138 ± 13 mmol.min/L respectively. The iAUC of the 20 g GILP was significantly different from control, 5 g GILP and 10 g GILP (p Conclusion Addition of GILP to a oral glucose bolus reduces blood glucose iAUC in a dose dependent manner and averages 4.6 ± 1.4 mmol.min/L per gram of GILP. These data are consistent with previous research on the effect of protein on the glycemic response of a meal.

  19. Emerging trends in nutraceutical applications of whey protein and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2015-11-01

    The looming food insecurity demands the utilization of nutrient-rich residues from food industries as value-added products. Whey, a dairy industry waste has been characterized to be excellent nourishment with an array of bioactive components. Whey protein comprises 20 % of total milk protein and it is rich in branched and essential amino acids, functional peptides, antioxidants and immunoglobulins. It confers benefits against a wide range of metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular complications, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, cancer and phenylketonuria. The protein has been validated to boost recovery from resistance exercise-injuries, stimulate gut physiology and protect skin against detrimental radiations. Apart from health invigoration, whey protein has proved its suitability as fat replacer and emulsifier. Further, its edible and antimicrobial packaging potential renders its highly desirable in food as well as pharmaceutical sectors. Considering the enormous nutraceutical worth of whey protein, this review emphasizes on its established and emerging biological roles. Present and future scopes in food processing and dietary supplement formulation are discussed. Associated hurdles are identified and how technical advancement might augment its applications are explored. This review is expected to provide valuable insight on whey protein-fortified functional foods, associated technical hurdles and scopes of improvement.

  20. Use of whey protein soluble aggregates for thermal stability-a hypothesis paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kelsey N; Zhong, Qixin; Foegeding, Edward A

    2013-08-01

    Forming whey proteins into soluble aggregates is a modification shown to improve or expand the applications in foaming, emulsification, gelation, film-formation, and encapsulation. Whey protein soluble aggregates are defined as aggregates that are intermediates between monomer proteins and an insoluble gel network or precipitate. The conditions under which whey proteins denature and aggregate have been extensively studied and can be used as guiding principles of producing soluble aggregates. These conditions are reviewed for pH, ion type and concentration, cosolutes, and protein concentration, along with heating temperature and duration. Combinations of these conditions can be used to design soluble aggregates with desired physicochemical properties including surface charge, surface hydrophobicity, size, and shape. These properties in turn can be used to obtain target macroscopic properties, such as viscosity, clarity, and stability, of the final product. A proposed approach to designing soluble aggregates with improved thermal stability for beverage applications is presented.

  1. Rheological and structural characterization of agar/whey proteins insoluble complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Cristina M R; Souza, Hiléia K S; Magalhães, Natália F; Andrade, Cristina T; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar

    2014-09-22

    Complex coacervation between whey proteins and carboxylated or highly sulphated polysaccharides has been widely studied. The aim of this work was to characterise a slightly sulphated polysaccharide (agar) and whey protein insoluble complexes in terms of yield, composition and physicochemical properties as well as to study their rheological behaviour for better understanding their structure. Unlike other sulphated polysaccharides, complexation of agar and whey protein at pH 3 in the absence of a buffering agent resulted in a coacervate that was a gel at 20°C with rheological properties and structure similar to those of simple agar gels, reinforced by proteins electrostatically aggregated to the agar network. The behaviour towards heat treatment was similar to that of agar alone, with a high thermal hysteresis and almost full reversibility. In the presence of citrate buffer, the result was a "flocculated solid", with low water content (75-81%), whose properties were governed by protein behaviour.

  2. Effects of Glucides on Thermal Denaturation and Coagulation of Whey Proteins Studied by Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongo Antoine, Etou; Abena, A. A.; Gbeassor, M.; Chaveron, H.

    The thermal coagulation of whey proteins concentrates was inhibited by various glucides. The disaccharides, saccharose and lactose, were most effective and the amino sugar, glucosamine, least effective in this respect. Ultraviolet absorption and light-scattering measurements on thermal denaturation and coagulation of both unfractionated and individual whey proteins (α-lactalbumin, ß-lactoglobulin and bovine serum albumin) showed that saccharose promotes the denaturation of these proteins but inhibits their subsequent coagulation. These results are interpreted in terms of the effect of saccharose on the hydrophobic interactions between solvent and protein.

  3. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Michaela C; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is an integral body tissue playing key roles in strength, performance, physical function, and metabolic regulation. It is essential for athletes to ensure that they have optimal amounts of muscle mass to ensure peak performance in their given sport. However, the role of maintaining muscle mass during weight loss and as we age is an emerging concept, having implications in chronic disease prevention, functional capacity, and quality of life. Higher-protein diets have been shown to: (1) promote gains in muscle mass, especially when paired with resistance training; (2) spare muscle mass loss during caloric restriction; and (3) attenuate the natural loss of muscle mass that accompanies aging. Protein quality is important to the gain and maintenance of muscle mass. Protein quality is a function of protein digestibility, amino acid content, and the resulting amino acid availability to support metabolic function. Whey protein is one of the highest-quality proteins given its amino acid content (high essential, branched-chain, and leucine amino acid content) and rapid digestibility. Consumption of whey protein has a robust ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. In fact, whey protein has been found to stimulate muscle protein synthesis to a greater degree than other proteins such as casein and soy. This review examines the existing data supporting the role for protein consumption, with an emphasis on whey protein, in the regulation of muscle mass and body composition in response to resistance training, caloric restriction, and aging.

  4. Mixing whey and soy proteins: Consequences for the gel mechanical response and water holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jose, J.; Pouvreau, L.A.M.; Martin, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    To design food products based on mixtures of proteins from animal and plant sources, understanding of how the structural and mechanical properties of mixed protein systems can benefit from selectively mixing is essential. Heat-induced gels were prepared from mixtures of whey proteins (WP) and soy pr

  5. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemistry of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions was monitored to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. WPC34 (34.9 g protein/100 g) and WPC80 (76.8 g protein/100 g) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and...

  6. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80. °C for 15. min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI protein

  7. Heat-Induced Aggregation of Whey Proteins in Aqueous Solutions below Their Isoelectric Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornacchia, L.; Forquenot de la Fortelle, C.; Venema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Processing beverages containing high concentrations of globular proteins represents a technological challenge due to their instability during heating caused by protein aggregation and gelation. Aggregation of whey protein mixtures was investigated in aqueous model systems at pH 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 at

  8. Reducing the stiffness of concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) gels by using WPI microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Moerkens, A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated protein gels were prepared using native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI based microparticles. WPI microparticles were produced by making gel pieces from a concentrated WPI suspension (40% w/w), which were dried and milled. The protein within the microparticles was denatured and the

  9. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, Sune; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...... to 337 mg g-1 with a dissociation constant of 0.042 µM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment......) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (Ig). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (=0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e.g. lactoperoxidase was purified 28...

  10. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...... to 337 mg g(-1) with a dissociation constant of 0.042 muM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment......) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (1g). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (less than or equal to0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e...

  11. Effects of feeding whey protein on growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in Japanese Black calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yasumatsuya, Keiko; Kasai, Koji; Yamanaka, Kengo; Sakase, Mitsuhiro; NISHINO, Osamu; Akaike, Masaru; Mandokoro, Koki; Nagase, Tatsuo; Kume, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Data from 63 Japanese Black calves were collected to clarify the effects of feeding whey protein on the growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in calves. Dietary treatments in milk replacers were 1) 26% CP as in skim milk (control), 2) 26% CP as whey and skim milk and 3) 26% CP as whey. Diets were offered from 3 to 63 days of age in calves. Feeding whey protein had no effects on growth rate, fecal consistency and fecal water in calves. Compared with 2 days of age, fecal IgA concentration in ca...

  12. Effects of feeding whey protein on growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in Japanese Black calves

    OpenAIRE

    Yasumatsuya, Keiko; Kasai, Koji; Yamanaka, Kengo; SAKASE, Mitsuhiro; NISHINO, Osamu; Akaike, Masaru; Mandokoro, Koki; Nagase, Tatsuo; KUME, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Data from 63 Japanese Black calves were collected to clarify the effects of feeding whey protein on the growth rate and mucosal IgA induction in calves. Dietary treatments in milk replacers were 1) 26% CP as in skim milk (control), 2) 26% CP as whey and skim milk and 3) 26% CP as whey. Diets were offered from 3 to 63 days of age in calves. Feeding whey protein had no effects on growth rate, fecal consistency and fecal water in calves. Compared with 2 days of age, fecal IgA concentration in ca...

  13. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2015-09-01

    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  14. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure–high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein–sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated

  15. Binding between bixin and whey protein at pH 7.4 studied by spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhong, Qixin

    2012-02-22

    Bixin is the major coloring component of annatto used in manufacturing colored cheeses, but its presence in liquid whey causes undesirable quality of the recovered whey protein ingredients. The objective of this work was to study molecular binding between bixin and three major whey proteins (β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and bovine serum albumin) at pH 7.4 using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and circular dichroism. These complementary techniques illustrated that the binding is a spontaneous complexation process mainly driven by hydrophobic interactions. The complexation is favored at a lower temperature and a higher ionic strength. At a lower temperature, the binding is entropy-driven, while it changes to an enthalpy-driven process at higher temperatures. The binding also increases the percentage of unordered secondary structures of proteins. Findings from this work can be used to develop whey protein recovery processes for minimizing residual annatto content in whey protein ingredients.

  16. Antioxidant activities of buttermilk proteins, whey proteins, and their enzymatic hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Valérie; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Pouliot, Yves

    2013-01-16

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacities (ORAC) and metal chelating capacities (MCC) of protein concentrates prepared from buttermilk and cheese whey by ultrafiltration were compared with those of skim milk protein. Samples were also heat-denatured and hydrolyzed by pepsin for 2 h followed by trypsin for 3 h. The highest MCC was obtained for hydrolyzed skim milk protein. ORAC values ranged from 554.4 to 1319.6 μmol Trolox equivalents/g protein, with the highest value obtained for hydrolyzed buttermilk protein. Liquid-phase isoelectric focusing (IEF) of this hydrolysate yielded peptide fractions with lower ORAC values. LC-MS analysis of the hydrolyzed skim milk and buttermilk proteins and IEF fractions of the latter showed that peptides derived from milk fat globule membrane proteins, primarily butyrophilin, could be responsible for the superior antioxidant activity of buttermilk. These results suggest overall that hydrolyzed buttermilk protein could be used as a source of natural antioxidants.

  17. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  18. The influence of applied heat treatments on whey protein denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetahagić Safet

    2002-01-01

    . Distribution of nitrogen matter from milk 8%+3%DWP heat treated at 85ºC/10 min, 90ºC/10 min and 95ºC/10 min to sera samples were 9.64%, 8.66% and 8.67%, respectively. Whey protein denaturation increased with increasing of the temperature of the applied heat treatment. Denaturation was the most significant for milk sample 11%.

  19. Preparation of gluten-free bread using a meso-structured whey protein particle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for making gluten-free bread using mesoscopically structured whey protein. The use of the meso-structured protein is based on the hypothesis that the gluten structure present in a developed wheat dough features a particle structure on a mesoscopic length scale

  20. Effects of Ionic Strength on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Diluted and Concentrated Whey Protein Isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1–30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With inc

  1. Effects of Ionic Strength on the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Diluted and Concentrated Whey Protein Isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butré, C.I.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1–30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With

  2. Preparation of gluten-free bread using a meso-structured whey protein particle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Goot, van der A.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for making gluten-free bread using mesoscopically structured whey protein. The use of the meso-structured protein is based on the hypothesis that the gluten structure present in a developed wheat dough features a particle structure on a mesoscopic length scale (1

  3. Production of extruded barley, cassava, corn and quinoa enriched with whey proteins and cashew pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-formulated snacks can play a positive role in enhancing health by providing essential nutrients, such as increased protein and fiber, that mitigate metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Adding whey protein concentrate (WPC80) and cashew pulp (CP) to corn meal, a major ingredient in extru...

  4. Recovery of Whey Proteins and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lactose Derived from Casein Whey Using a Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bipasha; Bhattacharjee, Sangita; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-09-01

    In this study, ultrafiltration (UF) of pretreated casein whey was carried out in a cross-flow module fitted with 5 kDa molecular weight cut-off polyethersulfone membrane to recover whey proteins in the retentate and lactose in the permeate. Effects of processing conditions, like transmembrane pressure and pH on permeate flux and rejection were investigated and reported. The polarised layer resistance was found to increase with time during UF even in this high shear device. The lactose concentration in the permeate was measured using dinitro salicylic acid method. Enzymatic kinetic study for lactose hydrolysis was carried out at three different temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 °C using β-galactosidase enzyme. The glucose formed during lactose hydrolysis was analyzed using glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose solution was found to follow Michaelis-Menten model and the model parameters were estimated by Lineweaver-Burk plot. The hydrolysis rate was found to be maximum (with Vmax = 5.5091 mmol/L/min) at 30 °C.

  5. Design of whey protein nanostructures for incorporation and release of nutraceutical compounds in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Oscar L; Pereira, Ricardo N; Martins, Artur; Rodrigues, Rui; Fuciños, Clara; Teixeira, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Malcata, F Xavier; Vicente, António A

    2017-05-03

    Whey proteins are widely used as nutritional and functional ingredients in formulated foods because they are relatively inexpensive, generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient, and possess important biological, physical, and chemical functionalities. Denaturation and aggregation behavior of these proteins is of particular relevance toward manufacture of novel nanostructures with a number of potential uses. When these processes are properly engineered and controlled, whey proteins may be formed into nanohydrogels, nanofibrils, or nanotubes and be used as carrier of bioactive compounds. This review intends to discuss the latest understandings of nanoscale phenomena of whey protein denaturation and aggregation that may contribute for the design of protein nanostructures. Whey protein aggregation and gelation pathways under different processing and environmental conditions such as microwave heating, high voltage, and moderate electrical fields, high pressure, temperature, pH, and ionic strength were critically assessed. Moreover, several potential applications of nanohydrogels, nanofibrils, and nanotubes for controlled release of nutraceutical compounds (e.g. probiotics, vitamins, antioxidants, and peptides) were also included. Controlling the size of protein networks at nanoscale through application of different processing and environmental conditions can open perspectives for development of nanostructures with new or improved functionalities for incorporation and release of nutraceuticals in food matrices.

  6. The balance between caseins and whey proteins in cow's milk determines its allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Villoslada, F; Olivares, M; Xaus, J

    2005-05-01

    Cow's milk allergy is quite common in the first years of human life. Protein composition plays an important role in this pathology, particularly the casein/whey protein ratio. It is known that milks from different species have different sensitization capacities although their protein sources are quite similar. Thus, the objective of this work was to compare the allergenicity of native cow's milk and milk with a modified ratio of casein and whey proteins in a murine model of atopy. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were orally sensitized to native cow's milk or modified cow's milk with a casein/whey protein ratio of 40:60. During the sensitization period, the number of mice suffering from diarrhea was significantly higher in the native cow's milk-sensitized group than in the modified milk-sensitized group. Once mice were killed, plasma histamine levels were shown to be significantly higher in native cow's milk-sensitized mice. In addition, cow's milk proteins induced a higher lymphocyte sensitization in the native milk-sensitized mice, with a significant increase in the specific proliferation ratio of these cells. These results suggest that the balance between caseins and whey proteins plays an important role in the sensitization capacity of cow's milk, and its modification might be a way to reduce the allergenicity of cow's milk.

  7. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, K J; Reitelseder, S; Petersen, S G;

    2011-01-01

    before exercise (CasPre), caseinate intake immediately after exercise (CasPost), whey intake immediately after exercise (Whey), or intake of a non-caloric control drink (Control). Muscle myofibrillar and collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured by a primed continuous infusion of L-[1...... protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake......-(13) C]leucine using labeled proteins during a 6-h recovery period. No differences were observed in muscle myofibrillar and collagen FSR with Whey (0.09 ± 0.01%/h) compared with CasPost (0.09 ± 0.003%/h), and it did not differ between CasPre (0.10 ± 0.01%/h) and CasPost. MPS does not differ with whey...

  8. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by whey and caseinate ingestion after resistance exercise in elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren; Petersen, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    protein synthesis (MPS) to intakes of whey and caseinate after heavy resistance exercise in healthy elderly individuals, and, furthermore, to compare the timing effect of caseinate intake. Twenty-four elderly men and women (mean ± SEM; 68 ± 1 years) were randomized to one of four groups: caseinate intake...... before exercise (CasPre), caseinate intake immediately after exercise (CasPost), whey intake immediately after exercise (Whey), or intake of a non-caloric control drink (Control). Muscle myofibrillar and collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) were measured by a primed continuous infusion of L-[1......-(13) C]leucine using labeled proteins during a 6-h recovery period. No differences were observed in muscle myofibrillar and collagen FSR with Whey (0.09 ± 0.01%/h) compared with CasPost (0.09 ± 0.003%/h), and it did not differ between CasPre (0.10 ± 0.01%/h) and CasPost. MPS does not differ with whey...

  9. Composition and structure of whey protein/gum arabic coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbreck, F; Tromp, R H; de Kruif, C G

    2004-01-01

    Complex coacervation in whey protein/gum arabic (WP/GA) mixtures was studied as a function of three main key parameters: pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps)(ini), and ionic strength. Previous studies had already revealed under which conditions a coacervate phase was obtained. This study is aimed at understanding how these parameters influence the phase separation kinetics, the coacervate composition, and the internal coacervate structure. At a defined (Pr:Ps)(ini), an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found (pH(opt)), at which the strength of electrostatic interaction was maximum. For (Pr:Ps)(ini) = 2:1, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate volume was the largest at pH(opt) = 4.0. The composition of the coacervate phase was determined after 48 h of phase separation and revealed that, at pH(opt), the coacervate phase was the most concentrated. Varying the (Pr:Ps)(ini) shifted the pH(opt) to higher values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was increased and to lower values when (Pr:Ps)(ini) was decreased. This phenomenon was due to the level of charge compensation of the WP/GA complexes. Finally, the structure of the coacervate phase was studied with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). SAXS data confirmed that at pH(opt) the coacervate phase was dense and structured. Model calculations revealed that the structure factor of WP induced a peak at Q = 0.7 nm(-1), illustrating that the coacervate phase was more structured, inducing the stronger correlation length of WP molecules. When the pH was changed to more acidic values, the correlation peak faded away, due to a more open structure of the coacervate. A shoulder in the scattering pattern of the coacervates was visible at small Q. This peak was attributed to the presence of residual charges on the GA. The peak intensity was reduced when the strength of interaction was increased, highlighting a greater charge compensation of the polyelectrolyte. Finally, increasing the ionic

  10. Dietary whey protein decreases food intake and body fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J; Losso, Jack N; Raggio, Anne M; Shen, Li; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T; Blackman, Marc R; Martin, Roy J

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary whey protein on food intake, body fat, and body weight gain in rats. Adult (11-12 week) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three dietary treatment groups for a 10-week study: control. Whey protein (HP-W), or high-protein content control (HP-S). Albumin was used as the basic protein source for all three diets. HP-W and HP-S diets contained an additional 24% (wt/wt) whey or isoflavone-free soy protein, respectively. Food intake, body weight, body fat, respiratory quotient (RQ), plasma cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and leptin were measured during and/or at the end of the study. The results showed that body fat and body weight gain were lower (P food intake measured over the 10-week study period was lower in the HP-W vs. control and HP-S groups (P fat accumulation and body weight gain, the mechanism(s) involved appear to be different. HP-S fed rats exhibit increased fat oxidation, whereas HP-W fed rats show decreased food intake and increased fat oxidation, which may contribute to the effects of whey protein on body fat.

  11. Predictive response surface model for heat-induced rheological changes and aggregation of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro A; Emond, Charles; Gomaa, Ahmed; Remondetto, Gabriel E; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-02-01

    Whey proteins are now far more than a by-product of cheese processing. In the last 2 decades, food manufacturers have developed them as ingredients, with the dairy industry remaining as a major user. For many applications, whey proteins are modified (denatured) to alter their structure and functional properties. The objective of this research was to study the influence of 85 to 100 °C, with protein concentration of 8% to 12%, and treatment times of 5 to 30 min, while measuring rheological properties (storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity) and aggregation (intermolecular beta-sheet formation) in dispersions of whey protein concentrate (WPC). A Box-Behnken Response Surface Methodology modeled the heat denaturation of liquid sweet WPC at 3 variables and 3 levels. The model revealed a very significant fit for viscoelastic properties, and a lesser fit for protein aggregation, at temperatures not previously studied. An exponential increase of rheological parameters was governed by protein concentration and temperature, while a modest linear relationship of aggregation was governed by temperature. Models such as these can serve as valuable guides to the ingredient and dairy industries to develop target products, as whey is a major ingredient in many functional foods.

  12. Diffusivity of whey protein and gum arabic in their coacervates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbreck, Fanny; Rollema, Harry S; Tromp, R Hans; de Kruif, Cornelis G

    2004-07-20

    Structural properties of whey protein (WP)/gum arabic (GA) coacervates were investigated by measuring the diffusivity of WP and GA in their coacervate phase as a function of pH by means of three different complementary techniques. The combination of these measurements revealed new insights into the structure of coacervates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measured the self-diffusion coefficient of the GA in the coacervate phase prepared at various pH values. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was measured using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The WP and GA were covalently labeled with two different dyes. The time of fluorescence recovery, related to the inverse of the diffusion coefficient, was evaluated from the measurements, and the diffusivity of the WP and GA on a long time scale could be individually estimated at each pH value. Diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) combined with transmission measurement was carried out in the coacervate phase, and the diffusion coefficient, corresponding to the averaged diffusion of all particles that scattered in the system, was calculated as a function of pH. Independently of the technique used, the results showed that the diffusion of the WP and GA within the coacervate phase was reduced as compared to a diluted biopolymer mixture. NMR, DWS, and FRAP measurements gave similar results, indicating that the biopolymers moved the slowest in the coacervate matrix at pH 4.0-4.2. It is assumed that the diffusion of the WP and GA is reduced because of a higher electrostatic interaction between the biopolymers. Furthermore, FRAP results showed that in the coacervate phase WP molecules diffused 10 times faster than GA molecules. This result is very relevant because it shows that WP and GA move independently in the liquid coacervate phase. Finally, DWS measurements revealed that the coacervate phase rearranged with time, as evidenced by a decrease of the diffusion coefficient and a loss of the turbidity of the sample

  13. Enrichment and purification of casein glycomacropeptide from whey protein isolate using supercritical carbon dioxide processing and membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein concentrates (WPC) and isolates (WPI), which are dried, concentrated forms of cheese whey, are comprised mainly of beta–lactoglobulin (beta-LG), a–lactalbumin (a-LA), and glycomacropeptide (GLY), and are added to foods to boost their nutritional and functional properties. In previous st...

  14. Fractionation of sheep cheese whey by a scalable method to sequentially isolate bioactive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbrow, Jodi; Bekhit, Alaa El-din A; Carne, Alan

    2016-07-15

    This study reports a procedure for the simultaneous purification of glyco(caseino)macropeptide, immunoglobulin, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin from sheep cheese sweet whey, an under-utilized by-product of cheese manufacture generated by an emerging sheep dairy industry in New Zealand. These proteins have recognized value in the nutrition, biomedical and health-promoting supplements industries. A sequential fractionation procedure using economical anion and cation exchange chromatography on HiTrap resins was evaluated. The whey protein fractionation is performed under mild conditions, requires only the adjustment of pH between ion exchange chromatography steps, does not require buffer exchange and uses minimal amounts of chemicals. The purity of the whey protein fractions generated were analyzed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography and the identity of the proteins was confirmed by mass spectrometry. This scalable procedure demonstrates that several proteins of recognized value can be fractionated in reasonable yield and purity from sheep cheese whey in one streamlined process.

  15. Protein characterization of pasteurized milk, cheese whey and their mixtures by using the CEM SprintTM analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Moura Paiva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the protein analyzer SprintTM was assessed regarding its capacity of predicting addition of whey in milk. This type of practice is relatively common in dairy plants, since whey, as it is a protein component, may be added with little loss of milk protein content. Besides,its incorrect elimination contributes to environmental pollution. Mixtures of milk and whey were prepared in different levels of addition and two methods of milk partition were tested. The results indicated that the concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCA from the selected method was not suitable for the present purpose while the chosen method using glacial acetic acid (GAA has presented a satisfactory separation of the soluble and insoluble milk components. Even though the concentration of whey protein and casein are the essential parameters for determining whey addition in milk, the use of measurements from total protein was important in order to improve the linearity of the method due to the fact that the rates whey protein/total protein and casein/total protein presented the best results concerning fraud prediction capacity. Therefore, as the equipment is a rapid, safe and efficient platform, it can be used as an alternative to be implemented in laboratories of food quality control which perform or plan to perform assays to verify the whey addition in fluid milk.

  16. Does whey protein supplementation affect blood pressure in hypoalbuminemic peritoneal dialysis patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kamal Hassan,1,2 Fadi Hassan3 1Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, Safed, 2Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Peritoneal Dialysis Unit, 3Department of Internal Medicine E, Galilee Medical Center, Nahariya, Israel Objective: Hypertension and hypoalbuminemia are common risk factors for cardiovascular complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Data are limited regarding the effects of whey protein consumption on blood pressure in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine if whey protein supplementation for 12 weeks to hypoalbuminemic PD patients affects their blood pressure.Patients and methods: This prospective randomized study included 36 stable PD patients with serum albumin levels <3.8 g/dL. During 12 weeks, 18 patients were instructed to consume 1.2 g/kg/day of protein and an additional whey protein supplement at a dose of 25% of the instructed daily protein (whey protein group. Eighteen patients were instructed to consume protein in the amount of 1.2 g/kg/day and an additional 25%, without whey protein supplementation (control group. Results: Compared to the control group, in the whey protein group, serum albumin levels, oncotic pressure, and dialysate ultrafiltration significantly increased (3.55±0.14 to 4.08±0.15 g/dL, P<0.001; 21.81±2.03 to 24.06±1.54 mmHg, P<0.001; 927.8±120.3 to 1,125.0±125.1 mL/day, P<0.001; respectively and were significantly higher after 12 weeks (4.08±0.15 vs 3.41±0.49 g/dL, P<0.001; 24.06±1.54 vs 22.71±1.77 mmHg, P=0.010; 1,125.0±125.1 vs 930.6±352.8 mL/day, P=0.017; respectively in the whey protein group compared to the control group. Fluid overload, the extracellular to intracellular ratio and mean arterial pressure (MAP significantly decreased (2.46±1.08 to 1.52±0.33, P<0.001; 1.080±0.142 to 0.954±0.124, P<0.001; 102.6±3.80 to 99.83±3.85, P=0.018; respectively and were significantly lower in the whey protein group after 12 weeks (1.52±0

  17. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  18. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” [1].

  19. Whey protein potentiates the intestinotrophic action of glucagon-like peptide-2 in parenterally fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowen; Murali, Sangita G; Holst, Jens J; Ney, Denise M

    2009-11-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-regulated intestinotrophic hormone derived from proglucagon in the distal intestine. Enteral nutrients (EN) potentiate the action of GLP-2 to reverse parenteral nutrition (PN)-induced mucosal hypoplasia. The objective was to determine what enteral protein component, casein, soy, or whey protein, potentiates the intestinal growth response to GLP-2 in rats with PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia. Rats received PN and continuous intravenous infusion of GLP-2 (100 microg/kg/day) for 7 days. Six EN groups received PN+GLP-2 for days 1-3 and partial PN+GLP-2 plus EN for days 4-7. EN was provided by ad libitum intake of a semielemental liquid diet with different protein sources: casein, hydrolyzed soy, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and hydrolyzed WPC+casein. Controls received PN+GLP-2 alone. EN induced significantly greater jejunal sucrase activity and gain of body weight, and improved feed efficiency compared with PN+GLP-2 alone. EN induced greater ileal proglucagon expression, increased plasma concentration of bioactive GLP-2 by 35%, and reduced plasma dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) activity compared with PN+GLP-2 alone, P whey protein, and not casein or soy, potentiated the ability of GLP-2 to reverse PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia and further increase ileal villus height, crypt depth, and mucosa cellularity compared with PN+GLP-2 alone, P whey protein to induce greater mucosal surface area was associated with decreased DPP-IV activity in ileum and colon compared with casein, soy, or PN+GLP-2 alone, P whey protein potentiates the action of GLP-2 to reverse PN-induced mucosal hypoplasia in association with decreased intestinal DPP-IV activity.

  20. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, PFasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P... after an oral glucose challenge (Pmicrobiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P

  1. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Gomes, Sisse

    2014-01-01

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC......) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic...... dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed...

  2. Submerged Yeast Fermentation of Cheese Whey for Protein Production and Nutritional Profile Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anvari and G. Khayati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ten whey samples collected from dairy industries in Rasht (Iran. Five lactose fermentative yeasts strains (designated A1 to A5 were isolated. Beta-galactosidase activity in the yeast strains showed that strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus designated as A2 had highest enzyme activity (up to 9012 EU/mL and the most SCP production from whey with the yield of 12.68 g/L. Ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source had an increasing effect on biomass yield up to 30%. Crude fiber, lipids, carbohydrates and ash content of isolate dry cells were found to be 4.9, 7.23, 33.19 and 14.05%, respectively. The true protein content based on nitrogen fractionation procedure was 29.25%. The yeast biomass recovering by ultrafiltration reduced the total COD to 96.26% of its initial value in the raw whey.

  3. Usage of whey protein may cause liver damage via inflammatory and apoptotic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, S G; Yücel, A T; Karakuş, A Ç; Çeçen, D; Özen, G; Koçtürk, S

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the long- and short-term inflammatory and apoptotic effects of whey protein on the livers of non-exercising rats. Thirty rats were divided into three groups namely (1) control group, (2) short-term whey (WS) protein diet (252 g/kg for 5 days), and (3) long-term whey (WL) protein diet (252 g/kg for 4 weeks). Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18-M30) were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical methods. Apoptosis was evaluated using the terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by quantitation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Based on the biochemical levels and immunohistochemical results, the highest level of IL-1β was identified in the WL group (p whey protein is used in an uninformed manner and without exercising, adverse effects on the liver may occur by increasing the apoptotic signal in the short term and increasing inflammatory markers and hepatotoxicity in the long term.

  4. Effect of crosslink density on the water-binding capacity of whey protein microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, J.P.C.M.; Luyten, H.; Alting, A.C.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of whey protein microparticles (MPs) to bind water and consequently to swell is, amongst others, determined by the crosslink density of the MPs. The Flory-Rehner model states that a decrease in crosslink density should lead to an increased swelling of the MPs. Decreasing the crosslink

  5. Physical Properties Giving the Sensory Perception of Whey Proteins/Polysaccharide Gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den L.; Vliet, van T.; Linden, van der E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Velde, van de F.

    2008-01-01

    Establishing relationships between physical and sensorial properties of semi-solid foods is essential to develop tailored products. Whey protein/polysaccharide mixed gels were used to model both natural and fabricated semi-solid foods. The presence of various polysaccharides modulated the microstruc

  6. Phase behaviour and in vitro hydrolysis of wheat starch in mixture with whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Natasha; Liu, Yingting; Ashton, John; Gorczyca, Elisabeth; Kasapis, Stefan

    2013-04-15

    Network formation of whey protein isolate (WPI) with increasing concentrations of native wheat starch (WS) has been examined. Small deformation dynamic oscillation in shear and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry enabled analysis of binary mixtures at the macro- and micromolecular level. Following heat induced gelation, textural hardness was measured by undertaking compression tests. Environmental scanning electron microscopy provided tangible information on network morphology of polymeric constituents. Experiments involving in vitro starch digestion also allowed for indirect assessment of phase topology in the binary mixture. The biochemical component of this work constitutes an attempt to utilise whey protein as a retardant to the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in a model system with α-amylase enzyme. During heating, rheological profiles of binary mixtures exhibited dramatic increases in G' at temperatures more closely related to those observed for single whey protein rather than pure starch. Results from this multidisciplinary approach of analysis, utilising rheology, calorimetry and microscopy, argue for the occurrence of phase separation phenomena in the gelled systems. There is also evidence of whey protein forming the continuous phase with wheat starch being the discontinuous filler, an outcome that is explored in the in vitro study of the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch.

  7. Changes in volatile compounds in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) has been recommended for use in emergency aid programs, but it is often stored overseas without temperature and relative humidity (RH) control, which may cause it to be rejected because of yellowing, off-flavors, or clumping. Therefore, the volatile compounds present ...

  8. Changes in microbial populations of WPC34 and WPC80 whey protein during long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of whey protein (WPC34 and WPC80) as a food ingredient and as a base for making biodegradable products is increasing. The need to alleviate world hunger in arid and semi-arid regions demands that we investigate the behavior of native bacteria in these products, especially during long term st...

  9. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Aggregating Capacities of Peptide Fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating pepticles, as a function of conc

  10. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Fractionation and Identification of Aggregating Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the dominant aggregating peptides from a whey protein hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis of 6.8%) obtained with Bacillus licheniformis protease. The aggregating peptides were fractionated with preparative reversed-phase chromatography and identified with

  11. Effect of microparticulated whey protein on sensory properties of liquid and semi-solid model foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Stieger, M.A.; Linden, van der E.; Velde, van de Fred

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the sensory properties of microparticulated whey protein (MWP) particles in relation to their rheological and tribological properties. The aim of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the sensory perception of MWP particles compared to oil droplets in liquid and semi-s

  12. Protein denaturation of whey protein isolates (WPIs) induced by high intensity ultrasound during heat gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Rikke P; Hammershøj, Marianne; Andersen, Ulf; Greve, Marie T; Wiking, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the impact of high intensity ultrasound (HIU) on proteins in whey protein isolates was examined. Effects on thermal behavior, secondary structure and nature of intra- and intermolecular bonds during heat-induced gelling were investigated. Ultrasonication (24 kHz, 300 W/cm(2), 2078 J/mL) significantly reduced denaturation enthalpies, whereas no change in secondary structure was detected by circular dichroism. The thiol-blocking agent N-ethylmaleimide was applied in order to inhibit formation of disulfide bonds during gel formation. Results showed that increased contents of α-lactalbumin (α-La) were associated with increased sensitivity to ultrasonication. The α-La:β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) ratio greatly affected the nature of the interactions formed during gelation, where higher amounts of α-La lead to a gel more dependent on disulfide bonds. These results contribute to clarifying the mechanisms mediating the effects of HIU on whey proteins on the molecular level, thus moving further toward implementing HIU in the processing chain in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moisture sorption and stickiness behaviour of hydrolysed whey protein/lactose powders

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, S.; O’Callaghan, D.

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The potentially negative effects of low molecular weight disaccharides, especially lactose, on spray-drying efficiency and storage stability of dairy powders are often counterbalanced by the presence of intact milk proteins. Hydrolysis of proteins, however, may impair such protective effects and contribute to a loss in production performance. Hydrolysed or non-hydrolysed whey protein/lactose (WP/L) dispersions were spray dried, in order to examine the effects of protei...

  14. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during recovery from eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Knudsen, Inge Skovgaard; de Paoli, Frank; Mackey, Abigail L; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-11-01

    Human skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are essential for muscle regeneration and remodeling processes in healthy and clinical conditions involving muscle breakdown. However, the potential influence of protein supplementation on post-exercise SC regulation in human skeletal muscle has not been well investigated. In a comparative human study, we investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein supplementation following eccentric exercise on fiber type-specific SC accumulation. Twenty-four young healthy subjects received either hydrolyzed whey protein + carbohydrate (whey, n = 12) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (placebo, n = 12) during post-exercise recovery from 150 maximal unilateral eccentric contractions. Prior to and 24, 48 and 168 h post-exercise, muscle biopsies were obtained from the exercise leg and analyzed for fiber type-specific SC content. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and serum creatine kinase (CK) were evaluated as indices of recovery from muscle damage. In type II fiber-associated SCs, the whey group increased SCs/fiber from 0.05 [0.02; 0.07] to 0.09 [0.06; 0.12] (p eccentric exercise.

  15. Hydrolyzed whey protein prevents the development of food allergy to β-lactoglobulin in sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Lemos, Luisa; Reis, Daniela Silva; Moreira, Thaís Garcias; Souza, Adna Luciana; Silva, Mauro Ramalho; Silvestre, Marialice Pinto Coelho; Cara, Denise Carmona; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to dietary proteins. Hydrolysates are frequently used for children with milk allergy. However, hydrolysates effects afterwards are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological consequences of hydrolyzed whey protein in allergic mice. For that, we developed a novel model of food allergy in BALB/c mice sensitized with alum-adsorbed β-lactoglobulin. These mice were orally challenged with either whey protein or whey hydrolysate. Whey-challenged mice had elevated levels of specific IgE and lost weight. They also presented gut inflammation, enhanced levels of SIgA and IL-5 as well as decreased production of IL-4 and IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa. Conversely, mice challenged with hydrolyzate maintained normal levels of IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 and showed no sign of gut inflammation probably due to increased IL-12 production in the gut. Thus, consumption of hydrolysate prevented the development of clinical signs of food allergy in mice.

  16. Whey protein polymorphisms in cattle milk%牛乳清蛋白遗传多态性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹喻; 崔艳华; 曲晓军; 董爱军; 马莺

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, whey protein polymorphism, its research methods and the correlation between whey protein polymorphism and milk quality were reviewed. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the current research status of whey protein polymorphism and to provide reference for future researches.%就牛乳清蛋白遗传多态性及其研究方法以及乳清蛋白多样性与乳品质之间的相关性作以阐述,旨在揭示当前该方向研究现状,并为今后研究提供参考.

  17. NMR relaxation and water self-diffusion studies in whey protein solutions and gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colsenet, Roxane; Mariette, François; Cambert, Mireille

    2005-08-24

    The changes in water proton transverse relaxation behavior induced by aggregation of whey proteins are explained in terms of the simple molecular processes of diffusion and chemical exchange. The water self-diffusion coefficient was measured in whey protein solutions and gels by the pulsed field gradient NMR method. As expected, water self-diffusion was reduced with increased protein concentrations. Whatever the concentration, the water molecules were free to diffuse over distances varying from 15 to 47 mum. Water diffusion was constant over these distances, demonstrating that no restrictions were found to explain the water hindrance. The modification in protein structure by gelation induced a decrease in water diffusion. The effects of protein concentration on water diffusion are discussed and modeled. Two approaches were compared, the obstruction effect induced by a spherical particle and the cell model, which considered two water compartments with specific self-diffusion coefficients.

  18. Heat-induced whey protein gels: protein-protein interactions and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havea, Palatasa; Watkinson, Philip; Kuhn-Sherlock, Barbara

    2009-02-25

    Heat-induced gelation (80 degrees C for 30 min or 85 degrees C for 60 min) of whey protein concentrate (WPC) solutions was studied using small deformation dynamic rheology, small and large deformation compression, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The WPC solutions (15% w/w, pH 6.9) were prepared by dispersing WPC powder in water (control), 1% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) solution at a protein/NEM molar ratio of 1:1 or in 10 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) solution. PAGE analyses showed that the heat treatment of control solutions contained both disulfide and non-covalent linkages between denatured protein molecules. Only disulfide linkages were formed in heated SDS-WPC solutions, whereas only non-covalent linkages were formed in DTT-WPC and NEM-WPC solutions during heating. In heated NEM-WPC solutions, the pre-existing disulfide linkages remained unaltered. Small deformation rheology measurements showed that the storage modulus (G') values, compared with those of the control WPC gels (approximately 14000 Pa), were 3 times less for the SDS-WPC gels (approximately 4000 Pa), double for the NEM-WPC gels (approximately 24000 Pa), and even higher for the DTT-WPC gels (approximately 30000 Pa). Compression tests suggested that the rubberiness (fracture strain) of the WPC gels increased as the degree of disulfide linkages within the gels increased, whereas the stiffness (modulus) of the gels increased as the degree of non-covalent associations among the denatured protein molecules increased.

  19. Marschall Rhône-Poulenc Award Lecture. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, J N

    1998-03-01

    Whey proteins are well known for their high nutritional value and versatile functional properties in food products. Estimates of the worldwide production of whey indicate that about 700,000 tonnes of true whey proteins are available as valuable food ingredients. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins are related to the structure and biological functions of these proteins. During recent decades, interest has grown in the nutritional efficacy of whey proteins in infant formula and in dietetic and health foods, using either native or predigested proteins. This paper focuses attention on the differences and similarities in composition of human and bovine milks with reference to infant formula. More desirable milk protein composition for consumption by humans is obtained by the addition of lactoferrin and more specific fractionations of proteins from bovine milk. Optimization of heating processes is important to minimize the destruction of milk components during fractionation and preservation processes. Some functional characteristics of whey proteins are discussed in relation to their properties for application in food products. Information obtained from functional characterization tests in model systems is more suitable to explain retroactively protein behavior in complex food systems than to predict functionality.

  20. Effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution as a function of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengtao; Xiao, Qian

    2017-03-01

    Chitosan was reported to interact with proteins through electrostatic interactions. Their interaction was influenced by pH, which was not fully characterized. Further research on the interactions between protein and chitosan at different pH and their influence on the thermal denaturation of proteins is necessary. In this research, the effect of chitosan on the heat stability of whey protein solution at pH 4.0-6.0 was studied. At pH 4.0, a small amount chitosan was able to prevent the heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of whey protein molecules. At higher pH values (5.5 and 6.0), whey proteins complexed with chitosan through electrostatic attraction. The formation of chitosan-whey protein complexes at pH 5.5 improved the heat stability of dispersions and no precipitation could be detected up to 20 days. The dispersion with a medium amount of chitosan (chitosan:whey protein 1:5) produced the most stable particles, which had an average radius of 135 ± 14 nm and a zeta potential value of 36 ± 1 mV. In contrast, at pH 6.0 only the dispersion with a high amount of chitosan (chitosan:whey protein 1:2) showed good shelf stability up to 20 days. It was possible to produce heat-stable whey protein beverages by regulating the interaction between chitosan and whey protein molecules. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-05

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species.

  2. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Kopeć; Barbara Borczak; Mirosław Pysz; Elżbieta Sikora; Marek Sikora; Duska Curic; Dubravka Novotni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected miner...

  3. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

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    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  4. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

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    Aneta Kopeć

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected minerals content, amino acid composition were measured. Five week-old Wistar rats (n = 30, male, were randomly divided into fi ve groups and fed with modifi ed AIN-93G diets containing experimental breads. In animal study the nutritional value of breads’ proteins and concentration of selected minerals in serum, liver and femoral bone, were measured. Results. The body weight gain, biological value (BV and net protein utilization (NPU were signifi cantly higher in rats fed with partially baked frozen wholemeal (PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins. The level of magnesium was signifi cantly lower in serum of animals fed with the diet containing PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins in comparison to rodents fed with conventional WM bread with sourdough. The content of iron was signifi cantly higher in liver of rats fed with PBF WM with sourdough bread in comparison to the groups fed with conventional WM and conventional WM with sourdough breads. Conclusions. Sourdough addition can be recommended in a production of whole wheat partially baked frozen bread but its use is further more benefi cial if it is fermented with whey proteins.

  5. Effect of whey concentration on protein recovery in fresh ovine ricotta cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, E; Pes, M; Falchi, G; Pagnozzi, D; Furesi, S; Fiori, M; Roggio, T; Addis, M F; Pirisi, A

    2014-01-01

    Ricotta cheese, particularly the ovine type, is a typical Italian dairy product obtained by heat-coagulation of the proteins in whey. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of whey protein concentration, obtained by ultrafiltration, on yield of fresh ovine ricotta cheese. Ricotta cheeses were obtained by thermocoagulation of mixtures with protein content of 1.56, 3.10, 4.16, and 7.09g/100g from the mixing of skim whey and ultrafiltered skim whey. A fat-to-protein ratio of 1.1 (wt/wt) was obtained for all mixtures by adding fresh cream. The initial mixtures, as well as the final ricotta cheeses, were analyzed for their composition and by SDS-PAGE. Protein bands were quantified by QuantityOne software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant differences in the composition of the ricotta cheese were observed depending on protein concentration. Particularly, ricotta cheese resulting from the mixture containing 7.09g/100g of protein presented higher moisture (72.88±1.50g/100g) and protein (10.18±0.45g/100g) contents than that prepared from the mixture with 1.56g/100g of protein (69.52±1.75 and 6.70±0.85g/100g, respectively), and fat content was lower in this sample (12.20±1.60g/100g) compared with the other treatments, with mean values between 15.72 and 20.50g/100g. Each protein fraction presented a different behavior during thermocoagulation. In particular, the recovery of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the cheese increased as their content increased in the mixtures. It was concluded that concentrating ovine rennet whey improved the extent of heat-induced protein aggregation during the thermal coagulation process. This resulted in a better recovery of each protein fraction in the product, and in a consequent increase of ricotta cheese yield.

  6. EFFICACY OF A COATING COMPOSED OF CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE AND WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE TO CONTROL THE QUALITY OF JAGGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Ritesh Mishra; P K Omre; Khan chand; Sanjay Kumar; Ankur Singh Bist

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of coating composed of Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Whey Protein Concentrate on the storage characteristics and storage quality conditions of coated jaggery for 15 weeks. The edible coating was based on five different levels of Carboxymethyl cellulose (0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%and 2.5%) and Whey protein concentrate (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%).The results indicate that the storage of jaggery were modified and improved by coating. The statistical data revealed that differ...

  7. Comparing serum responses to acute feedings of an extensively hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate versus a native whey protein concentrate in rats: a metabolomics approach.

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    Roberts, Michael D; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Lockwood, Christopher M; Pappan, Kirk; Childs, Thomas E; Company, Joseph M; Brown, Jacob D; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Booth, Frank W

    2014-02-01

    We examined how gavage feeding extensively hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) versus a native whey protein concentrate (WPC) transiently affected serum biochemical profiles in rodents. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were 8 h fasted and subsequently fed isonitrogenous amounts of WPH or WPC, or remained unfed (control). Animals were sacrificed 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min post-gavage for serum extraction, and serum was analyzed using untargeted global metabolic profiling via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS platforms. We detected 333 serum metabolites amongst the experimental and control groups. Both WPH and WPC generally increased amino acids (1.2-2.8-fold), branched-chain amino acids (1.2-1.7-fold), and serum di- and oligo-peptides (1.1-2.7-fold) over the 60 min time course compared with control (q protein sources led to a dramatic increase in free fatty acids compared with control (up to 6-fold increases, q protein sources.

  8. Heat-induced destabilization of oil-in-water emulsions formed from hydrolyzed whey protein.

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    Euston, S R; Finnigan, S R; Hirst, R L

    2001-11-01

    The emulsifying ability, heat stability, and coalescence stability of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with whey protein of varied degrees of hydrolysis (DH), and at varied protein contents, was studied. Whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) with a DH of 4% and 10% had poorer emulsifying ability than non-hydrolyzed whey protein concentrate (WPC), but were more heat stable. Increasing DH between 10 and 27% improved emulsifying ability and further improved the heat stability of the emulsion droplets. Increasing DH from 27 to 35% led to a big decrease in both emulsifying ability and heat stability. The quiescent coalescence stability of WPH emulsions was relatively good up to a DH of 27%. Above DH 27% emulsions become highly unstable. It appears that two mechanisms of instability are at work here. At low DH heat-induced denaturation and aggregation occur. In the DH range of 4-20% heat stability increases as protein globular structure is disrupted. At a DH greater than 27% we see a change from a hydrolysis-induced increase in heat-stability to coalescence instability, with a resultant large increase in emulsion breakdown during heating.

  9. [Changes in biliary secretory immunoglobulins A in mice fed whey proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, A M; Balzola, F; Bounous, G

    1989-01-01

    A whey protein diet has been shown to enhance splenic immune response to sheep red blood cells (SBRC) in mice. This study was designed to investigate the influence of the type of dietary protein on the biliary secretory IgA. A/J mice were fed defined formula diets containing either 20% whey protein, or 20% casein. Another group was fed Purina mouse chow. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment the body weight of each mouse was recorded and the gall-bladder was removed and its whole content analyzed by ELISA to determine S-IgA secretion. Body weight curves were similar in all dietary groups; higher biliary levels of S-IgA appeared in the whey protein fed mice than in the casein (p less than 0.025) or purine (p less than 0.025) fed mice. Dietary protein type may have a direct influence on the immune response in the gastrointestinal tract, without affecting body weight.

  10. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Nagata, Masashi; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-03

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a "fast" protein and caseinate (CA) as a "slow" protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-derived proteins to a control, soy protein (SP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for two hours. Immediately after exercise, one of the following four solutions was administered: WP, CA, MP, or SP. Individual rats were euthanized at designated postprandial time points and triceps muscle samples collected for measurement of the protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR). FSR tended to increase in all groups post-ingestion, although the initial peaks of FSR occurred at different times (WP, peak time = 60 min, FSR = 7.76%/day; MP, peak time = 90 min, FSR = 8.34%/day; CA, peak time = 120 min, FSR = 7.85%/day). Milk-derived proteins caused significantly greater increases (p < 0.05) in FSR compared with SP at different times (WP, 60 min; MP, 90 and 120 min; CA, 120 min). Although statistical analysis could not be performed, the calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values for FSR following this trend were: MP, 534.61; CA, 498.22; WP, 473.46; and SP, 406.18. We conclude that ingestion of MP, CA or WP causes the initial peak time in muscle protein synthesis to occur at different times (WP, fast; MP, intermediate; CA, slow) and the dairy proteins have a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis after exercise compared with SP.

  11. The role of whey acidic protein four-disulfide-core proteins in respiratory health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Donna M; Doherty, Declan F; Dougan, Caoifa M; Weldon, Sinéad; Taggart, Clifford C

    2017-04-01

    Members of the whey acidic protein (WAP) or WAP four-disulfide-core (WFDC) family of proteins are a relatively under-explored family of low molecular weight proteins. The two most prominent WFDC proteins, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and elafin (or the precursor, trappin-2), have been shown to possess multiple functions including anti-protease, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties. It is therefore of no surprise that both SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 have been developed as potential therapeutics. Given the abundance of SLPI and elafin/trappin-2 in the human lung, most work in the area of WFDC research has focused on the role of WFDC proteins in protecting the lung from proteolytic attack. In this review, we will outline the current evidence regarding the expanding role of WFDC protein function with a focus on WFDC activity in lung disease as well as emerging data regarding the function of some of the more recently described WFDC proteins.

  12. Cross-linking and rheological changes of whey proteins treated with microbial transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van-Den; Clare, Debra A; Catignani, George L; Swaisgood, Harold E

    2004-03-10

    Modification of the functionality of whey proteins using microbial transglutaminase (TGase) has been the subject of recent studies. However, changes in rheological properties of whey proteins as affected by extensive cross-linking with TGase are not well studied. The factors affecting cross-linking of whey protein isolate (WPI) using both soluble and immobilized TGase were examined, and the rheological properties of the modified proteins were characterized. The enzyme was immobilized on aminopropyl glass beads (CPG-3000) by selective adsorption of the biotinylated enzyme on avidin that had been previously immobilized. WPI (4 and 8% w/w) in deionized water, pH 7.5, containing 10 mM dithiothreitol was cross-linked using enzyme/substrate ratios of 0.12-10 units of activity/g WPI. The reaction was carried out in a jacketed bioreactor for 8 h at 40 degrees C with continuous circulation. The gel point temperature of WPI solutions treated with 0.12 unit of immobilized TGase/g was slightly decreased, but the gel strength was unaffected. However, increasing the enzyme/substrate ratio resulted in extensive cross-linking of WPI that was manifested by increases in apparent viscosity and changes in the gelation properties. For example, using 10 units of soluble TGase/g resulted in extensive cross-linking of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin in WPI, as evidenced by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting results. Interestingly, the gelling point of WPI solutions increased from 68 to 94 degrees C after a 4-h reaction, and the gel strength was drastically decreased (lower storage modulus, G'). Thus, extensive intra- and interchain cross-linking probably caused formation of polymers that were too large for effective network development. These results suggest that a process could be developed to produce heat-stable whey proteins for various food applications.

  13. Whey protein isolate attenuates strength decline after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals

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    Cribb Paul J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effects of short-term consumption of whey protein isolate on muscle proteins and force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. Methods Seventeen untrained male participants (23 ± 5 yr, 180 ± 6 cm, 80 ± 11 kg were randomly separated into two supplement groups: i whey protein isolate (WPH; n = 9; or ii carbohydrate (CHO; n = 8. Participants consumed 1.5 g/kg.bw/day supplement (~30 g consumed immediately, and then once with breakfast, lunch, in the afternoon and after the evening meal for a period of 14 days following a unilateral eccentric contraction-based resistance exercise session, consisting of 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 120% of maximum voluntary contraction on the leg press, leg extension and leg flexion exercise machine. Plasma creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were assessed as blood markers of muscle damage. Muscle strength was examined by voluntary isokinetic knee extension using a Cybex dynamometer. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05. Results Isometric knee extension strength was significantly higher following WPH supplementation 3 (P Conclusions The major finding of this investigation was that whey protein isolate supplementation attenuated the impairment in isometric and isokinetic muscle forces during recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury.

  14. Identification of Diagnostic Protein Markers of Subclinical Mastitis in Bovine Whey Using Comparative Proteomics

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    Bian Yanjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The proteomics of inflammatory response in whey from cows with subclinical mastitis were analysed. Whey protein lysates were separated on 24 cm dry IPG strips (pH 3-10 linear and 24 cm dry IPG strips (pH 4-7 using two-dimensional electrophoresis. The results indicated that the whey proteins in milk from cows with subclinical mastitis are different from those in milk from healthy cows. All protein spots were found to have biologically relevant changes in relative abundance during subclinical mastitis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis, including ß-1,4 galactosyltransferase, ß-2 microglobulin, complement 3, a-1-acid glycoprotein, ß-lactoglobulin A, a-S1 casein precursor, ß-casein B, and serotransferrin precursor. The mRNA expression of these genes was verified by quantitative real-time PCR. These proteins are involved in signal transduction, binding, transport, and immune defence activity. The results suggest that the markers may be used for the diagnosis of subclinical mastitis.

  15. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  16. Oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of films from hydrolyzed whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothornvit, R; Krochta, J M

    2000-09-01

    The effects of whey protein hydrolysis on film oxygen permeability (OP) and mechanical properties at several glycerol-plasticizer levels were studied. Both 5.5% and 10% degree of hydrolysis (DH) whey protein isolate (WPI) had significant effect (p Hydrolyzed WPI required less glycerol to achieve the same mechanical properties compared to those of unhydrolyzed WPI. Little or no significant difference (p > 0.05) occurred for film OP between unhydrolyzed WPI, 5.5% DH WPI, and 10% DH WPI films at the same glycerol content. Hydrolyzed WPI films of mechanical properties similar to those of WPI films had better oxygen barrier. Therefore, use of hydrolyzed WPI allowed achievement of desired film flexibility with less glycerol and with smaller increase in OP.

  17. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2010-03-24

    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities.

  18. Kinetic model for whey protein hydrolysis by alcalase multipoint-immobilized on agarose gel particles

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    Sousa Jr R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial hydrolysis of whey proteins by enzymes immobilized on an inert support can either change or evidence functional properties of the produced peptides, thereby increasing their applications. The hydrolysis of sweet cheese whey proteins by alcalase, which is multipoint-immobilized on agarose gel, is studied here. A Michaelis-Menten model that takes into account competitive inhibition by the product was fitted to experimental data. The influence of pH on the kinetic parameters in the range 6.0 to 11.0 was assessed, at 50ºC. Initial reaction-rate assays in a pHstat at different concentrations of substrate were used to estimate kinetic and Michaelis-Menten parameters, k and K M. Experimental data from long-term batch assays were used to quantify the inhibition parameter, K I. The fitting of the model to the experimental data was accurate in the entire pH range.

  19. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  20. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farup, J; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H; Matzon, A; Hindhede, J; Bejder, A; Ringgard, S; Vissing, K

    2014-10-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD) or a carbohydrate group (PLA). Subjects completed 12 weeks maximal knee extensor training with one leg using eccentric contractions and the other using concentric contractions. Before and after training cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. quadriceps and patellar tendon CSA was quantified with magnetic resonance imaging and a isometric strength test was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD). Quadriceps CSA increased by 7.3 ± 1.0% (P contraction mode. MVC and RFD increased by 15.6 ± 3.5% (P contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training - irrespective of contraction mode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Whey protein enhances normal inflammatory responses during cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats

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    Ebaid Hossam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged wound healing is a complication of diabetes that contributes to mortality. Impaired wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Whey protein (WP is able to reduce the oxygen radicals and increase the levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with WP could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. Animals were assigned into a wounded control group (WN, a wounded diabetic group (WD and a wounded diabetic group orally supplemented with whey protein (WDWP at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Results Whey protein was found to significantly decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO and ROS. A significant restoration of the glutathione level was observed in WDWP rats. During the early wound healing stage, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4 and neutrophil infiltration were significantly decreased in WD mice. WP supplementation was found to restore the levels of these inflammatory markers to the levels observed in control animals. In addition, the time required for wound healing was significantly prolonged in diabetic rats. WP was found to significantly decrease the time required for wound healing in WDWP rats. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation with WP enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic mice by restoring the levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines.

  2. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

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    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  3. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

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    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Acid-induced gelation behavior of casein/whey protein solutions assessed by oscillatory rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahboubeh; Madadlou, Ashkan; Khosrowshahi, Asghar; Mohammadifar, Mohammadamin

    2014-09-01

    Gelation process of acid-induced casein gels was studied using response surface method (RSM). Ratio of casein to whey proteins, incubation and heating temperatures were independent variables. Final storage modulus (G') measured 200 min after the addition of glucono-δ-lactone and the gelation time i.e. the time at which G' of gels became greater than 1 Pa were the parameters studied. Incubation temperature strongly affected both parameters. The higher the incubation temperature, the lower was the G' and the shorter the gelation time. Increased heating temperature however, increased the G' but again shortened the gelation time. Increase in G' was attributed to the formation of disulphide cross-linkages between denatured whey proteins and casein chains; whilst the latter was legitimized by considering the higher isoelectric pH of whey proteins. Maximum response (G' = 268.93 Pa) was obtained at 2.7 % w/w, 25 °C and 90 °C for casein content, incubation and heating temperatures, respectively.

  5. Inhibition of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV using whey proteins

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    Dawood Abdelgawad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin was studied to inhibit tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV on infected tomato plants. Whey proteins fractions and their esterified derivatives were sprayed into TYLCV-infected plants. Samples were collected from infected leaves before treatment, 7 and 15 days after treatment for DNA and molecular hybridization analysis. The most evident inhibition of virus replication was observed after 7 and 15 days using α-lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin, respectively. Native and esterified lactoferrin showed complete inhibition after 7 days. On the other hand, native β-lactoglobulin showed inhibition after 7 and 15 days whereas esterified β-lactoglobulin was comparatively more effective after 7 days. The relative amount of viral DNA was less affected by the esterified α-lactalbumin whereas native α-lactalbumin inhibited virus replication completely after 15 days. These results indicate that native or modified whey proteins fractions can be used for controlling the TYLCV-infected plants.

  6. Functional Biomaterials: Solution Electrospinning and Gelation of Whey Protein and Pullulan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Stephanie Tolstedt

    Utilizing biomaterials that are biodegradable, biocompatible and edible serve well for food products as well as biomedical applications. Biomaterials whey protein and pullulan both have these characteristics. Whey proteins (WP) have been used in food products for many years and more recently in pharmaceutical products. They have the ability to form both gels and stable foams. Pullulan (PULL) has also been used in both food and pharmaceutical products, and is a highly water soluble, non-gelling polysaccharide and has been used primarily as a film former. Herein, we investigate the ability of whey protein and pullulan to form nanofibers and gels. Combining their distinct properties allows the ability to uniquely manipulate nanofiber and gel characteristics and behavior for a variety of applications, from food to even tissue scaffolding. First, we determined the electrospinnability of aqueous whey protein solutions. Both whey protein isolate (WPI) and one of its major components beta--lactoglobulin (BLG), either in native or denatured form, yielded interesting micro and nanostructures when electrosprayed; while nanofiber production required blending with a spinnable polymer, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). WP:PEO solutions were also successfully electrospun at acidic pH (2≤pH≤3), which could improve shelf life. Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectance (FTIR) analysis of WP:PEO fiber mat indicated some variation in WP secondary structure with varying WPI concentration (as WPI increased, % alpha-helix increased and beta-turn decreased) and pH (as pH decreased from neutral (7.5) to acidic (2), % beta-sheet decreased and alpha-helix increased). X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) also confirmed the presence of WP on the surface of the blend fibers, augmenting the FTIR analysis. Interestingly, WP:PEO composite nanofibers maintained its fibrous morphology at temperatures as high as 100 °C, above the 60 °C PEO melting point. Further, we show that the blend mats retained a

  7. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  8. Short communication: Effect of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Erfan; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Jooyandeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein. Whey protein addition with or without transglutaminase treatment caused an increase in apparent viscosity and a decrease in flow index of the reduced-fat ice cream; nevertheless, the flow behavior of full-fat sample was most similar to the enzyme-treated reduced-fat sample with no added whey protein. Descriptive sensory analyses showed that neither whey protein addition nor transglutaminase treatment significantly influenced the flavor and odor of reduced-fat ice cream, but they both noticeably improved the color and texture of the final product. The results of this study suggest that whey protein addition with transglutaminase treatment improves the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream more favorably than does whey protein addition or transglutaminase treatment alone. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of protein/essential amino acids and resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A case for whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regardless of age or gender, resistance training or provision of adequate amounts of dietary protein (PRO or essential amino acids (EAA can increase muscle protein synthesis (MPS in healthy adults. Combined PRO or EAA ingestion proximal to resistance training, however, can augment the post-exercise MPS response and has been shown to elicit a greater anabolic effect than exercise plus carbohydrate. Unfortunately, chronic/adaptive response data comparing the effects of different protein sources is limited. A growing body of evidence does, however, suggest that dairy PRO, and whey in particular may: 1 stimulate the greatest rise in MPS, 2 result in greater muscle cross-sectional area when combined with chronic resistance training, and 3 at least in younger individuals, enhance exercise recovery. Therefore, this review will focus on whey protein supplementation and its effects on skeletal muscle mass when combined with heavy resistance training.

  10. Sensing Small Changes in Protein Abundance: Stimulation of Caco-2 Cells by Human Whey Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Judy K; McConnell, Elizabeth J; Lohe, Kimberly J; Maria, Sarah D; McMahon, Robert J; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-04

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approaches have largely facilitated our systemic understanding of cellular processes and biological functions. Cutoffs in protein expression fold changes (FCs) are often arbitrarily determined in MS-based quantification with no demonstrable determination of small magnitude changes in protein expression. Therefore, many biological insights may remain veiled due to high FC cutoffs. Herein, we employ the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line Caco-2 as a model system to demonstrate the dynamicity of tandem-mass-tag (TMT) labeling over a range of 5-40% changes in protein abundance, with the variance controls of ± 5% FC for around 95% of TMT ratios when sampling 9-12 biological replicates. We further applied this procedure to examine the temporal proteome of Caco-2 cells upon exposure to human whey proteins (WP). Pathway assessments predict subtle effects due to WP in moderating xenobiotic metabolism, promoting proliferation and various other cellular functions in differentiating enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. This demonstration of a sensitive MS approach may open up new perspectives in the system-wide exploration of elusive or transient biological effects by facilitating scrutiny of narrow windows of proteome abundance changes. Furthermore, we anticipate this study will encourage more investigations of WP on infant gastrointestinal tract development.

  11. Incorporation of radiolabeled whey proteins into casein micelles by heat processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, B.; Richardson, T. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Skim milk was heated at .70, 95, and 140{degree}C to simulate the processes of pasteurization, forewarming, and UHT sterilization, and the specific interactions between {alpha}-lactalbumin or {beta}-lactoglobulin and the caseins studied using tracer amounts of added {sup 14}C-labeled whey protein. Radioactivities of the whey and of the washed casein pellets from renneted skim milk were measured and the extent of the interaction estimated. Upon heating skim milk at 70{degree}C for 45 s, less than 2% {beta}-lactoglobulin and less than .3% {alpha}-lactalbumin were incorporated into the curd. Heating at 95{degree}C for .5 to 20 min resulted in 58 to 85% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 8 to 55% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin becoming associated with the curd. Heating at 140{degree}C for 2 and 4 s caused 43 and 54% of the {beta}-lactoglobulin and 9 and 12% of the {alpha}-lactalbumin, respectively, to be bound to the curd fraction. The radiolabeling technique is very sensitive and useful for tracing low levels of interaction between whey proteins and casein in heated milk systems.

  12. Contraction mode and whey protein intake affect the synthesis rate of intramuscular connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Klejs Rahbek, Stine; Farup, Jean

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study we investigated the impact of whey protein hydrolysate and maltodextrin (WPH) intake on intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) after maximal shortening and lengthening contractions. METHODS: Twenty young men were randomized...... to receive either WPH or maltodextrin [carbohydrate (CHO)] immediately after completion of unilateral shortening and lengthening knee extensions. Ring-(13) C6 -phenylalanine was infused, and muscle biopsies were obtained. IMCT protein FSR was measured at 1-5, as well as 1-3 and 3-5 hours after contractions...

  13. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and stability of whey protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Phoebe X; Ren, Daxi; Xiao, Yingping; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2015-05-01

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a 2-stage homogenizer at 35°C (6.9 MPa/10.3 MPa) and, along with skim milk, were subjected to HTST pasteurization (72°C for 15 s) or UHT processing (135°C for 2 s). Other whole milk samples were processed using homogenization followed by either HTST pasteurization or UHT processing. The processed skim and whole milk samples were centrifuged further to remove fat and then acidified to pH 4.6 to isolate the corresponding whey fractions, and centrifuged again. The whey fractions were then purified using dialysis and investigated using the circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared, and Trp intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Results demonstrated that homogenization combined with UHT processing of milk caused not only changes in protein composition but also significant secondary structural loss, particularly in the amounts of apparent antiparallel β-sheet and α-helix, as well as diminished tertiary structural contact. In both cases of homogenization alone and followed by HTST treatments, neither caused appreciable chemical changes, nor remarkable secondary structural reduction. But disruption was evident in the tertiary structural environment of the whey proteins due to homogenization of whole milk as shown by both the near-UV circular dichroism and Trp intrinsic fluorescence. In-depth structural stability analyses revealed that even though processing of milk imposed little impairment on the secondary structural stability, the tertiary structural stability of whey protein was altered significantly. The following order was derived based on these studies: raw whole>HTST, homogenized, homogenized and pasteurized>skimmed and pasteurized, and skimmed UHT

  14. Surface adsorption alters the susceptibility of whey proteins to pepsin-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik, Amir Malaki; Wright, Amanda J; Corredig, Milena

    2010-04-15

    An in vitro digestion model mimicking the gastric phase of the human gastrointestinal tract coupled with SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy was employed to study the hydrolysis profiles of whey proteins in solution and adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The objective of this work was to understand the differences in hydrolysis behaviour of whey protein isolates once adsorbed at the interface, and comparisons were carried out with pure beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin fractions. In solution, while beta-lactoglobulin appeared to be resistant to enzymatic treatment, alpha-lactalbumin was fully degraded. Adsorption of both proteins at the oil-water interface affected their conformational structure and susceptibility to peptic hydrolysis. Adsorbed beta-lactoglobulin was hydrolyzed into small polypeptides and in contrast, the resistance of alpha-lactalbumin to pepsin increased upon adsorption at the interface. In addition, changes in the particle size distribution of the droplets during pepsin hydrolysis mainly depended on the original protein concentration. The results suggested that exchanges occur at the interface between adsorbed and non-adsorbed protein, that is to say that either some protein desorb from the interface and does not fully recover its structure in solution, or that hydrolysis of the protein at the interface induces further adsorption and hydrolysis of the protein in solution. These mechanisms have important implications in the digestibility of the proteins.

  15. Impact of whey proteins on the systemic and local intestinal level of mice with diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiątecka, D; Złotkowska, D; Markiewicz, L H; Szyc, A M; Wróblewska, B

    2017-04-19

    Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically. This way, whey proteins are associated with obesity. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the estimation of the impact of whey proteins using a commercially available whey protein isolate on the physiological response of mice with diet-induced obesity. The physiological response was evaluated on the local-intestinal level, scrutinizing intestinal microbiota as one of the important factors in obesity and on the systemic level, analyzing the response of the organism. Whey proteins brought about the decrease of the fat mass with a simultaneous increase of the lean mass of animals with diet induced obesity, which is a promising, health-promoting effect. Whey proteins also proved to act beneficially helping restore the number of beneficial bifidobacteria in obese animals and decreasing the calorie intake and fat mass as well as the LDL level. Overall, supplementation of the high fat diet with whey proteins acted locally by restoration of the intestinal ecosystem, thus preventing dysbiosis and its effects and also acted systemically by strengthening the organism increasing the lean mass and thus hindering obesity-related detrimental effects.

  16. Influence of system and process parameters on partitioning of cheese whey proteins in aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito-Palomares, M; Hernandez, M

    1998-06-26

    A practical study is described to characterise some problems encountered in the application of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) to protein recovery. These factors include practical design of extraction stages and the impact of ATPS compounding methods and biological suspension upon process performance. They were addressed using the recovery of whey proteins as a model. The known effects of system parameters (i.e. tie-line length, volume ratio and system pH) were exploited to define the specific operating conditions of a two-stage ATPS process for the recovery of whey proteins. The partition of whey proteins in ATPS assembled using different methods resulted in changes in the partition coefficient of the proteins. Such changes were associated with the initial location of the proteins in the polymer or salt-rich solutions of the ATPS. Cheese whey loaded into the ATPS caused the displacement of the binodal curve from the origin. Such behaviour was attributed to the residual fat present in the whey. These findings highlight those factors perceived as negative constraints on the wider adoption of ATPS processes for protein recovery from complex biological systems.

  17. Brown pigment formation in heated sugar-protein mixed suspensions containing unmodified and peptically modified whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2016-01-01

    Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.

  18. Functional properties of whey protein and its application in nanocomposite materials and functional foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Helen

    Whey is a byproduct of cheese making; whey proteins are globular proteins which can be modified and polymerized to add functional benefits, these benefits can be both nutritional and structural in foods. Modified proteins can be used in non-foods, being of particular interest in polymer films and coatings. Food packaging materials, including plastics, can linings, interior coatings of paper containers, and beverage cap sealing materials, are generally made of synthetic petroleum based compounds. These synthetic materials may pose a potential human health risk due to presence of certain chemicals such as Bisphenol A (BPA). They also add to environmental pollution, being difficult to degrade. Protein-based materials do not have the same issues as synthetics and so can be used as alternatives in many packaging types. As proteins are generally hydrophilic they must be modified structurally and their performance enhanced by the addition of waterproofing agents. Polymerization of whey proteins results in a network, adding both strength and flexibility. The most interesting of the food-safe waterproofing agents are the (large aspect ratio) nanoclays. Nanoclays are relatively inexpensive, widely available and have low environmental impact. The clay surface can be modified to make it organophilic and so compatible with organic polymers. The objective of this study is the use of polymerized whey protein (PWP), with reinforcing nanoclays, to produce flexible surface coatings which limit the transfer of contents while maintaining food safety. Four smectite and kaolin type clays, one treated and three natural were assessed for strengthening qualities and the potential waterproofing and plasticizing benefits of other additives were also analyzed. The nutritional benefits of whey proteins can also be used to enhance the protein content of various foodstuffs. Drinkable yogurt is a popular beverage in the US and other countries and is considered a functional food, especially when

  19. Effect of whey supplementation on circulating C-reactive protein: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Mei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Rao, Chun-Ping; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2015-02-09

    Whey supplementation is beneficial for human health, possibly by reducing the circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) level, a sensitive marker of inflammation. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate their relationship. A systematic literature search was conducted in July, 2014, to identify eligible studies. Either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled effects. The meta-analysis results of nine trials showed a slight, but no significant, reduction of 0.42 mg/L (95% CI -0.96, 0.13) in CRP level with the supplementation of whey protein and its derivates. Relatively high heterogeneity across studies was observed. Subgroup analyses showed that whey significantly lowered CRP by 0.72 mg/L (95% CI -0.97, -0.47) among trials with a daily whey dose≥20 g/day and by 0.67 mg/L (95% CI -1.21, -0.14) among trials with baseline CRP≥3 mg/L. Meta-regression analysis revealed that the baseline CRP level was a potential effect modifier of whey supplementation in reducing CRP. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that whey and its derivates elicited a beneficial effect in reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP among participants with highly supplemental doses or increased baseline CRP levels.

  20. Proteomic characterization of human milk whey proteins during a twelve-month lactation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yalin; Alvarado, Rudy; Phinney, Brett; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2011-04-01

    Human milk is a rich source of bioactive proteins that support the early growth and development of the newborn. Although the major components of the protein fraction in human milk have been studied, the expression and relative abundance of minor components have received limited attention. We examined the expression of low-abundance proteins in the whey fraction of human milk and their dynamic changes over a twelve-month lactation period. The low-abundance proteins were enriched by ProteoMiner beads, and protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred and fifteen proteins were identified, thirty-eight of which have not been previously reported in human colostrum or milk. We also for the first time described differences in protein patterns among the low-abundance proteins during lactation. These results enhance our knowledge about the complexity of the human milk proteome, which constitutes part of the advantages to the breast-fed infant.

  1. Effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on surface morphology, water sorption, and glass transition temperature of a model infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Grace M; O'Mahony, James A; Kelly, Alan L; O'Callaghan, Donal J

    2016-09-01

    Physical properties of spray-dried dairy powders depend on their composition and physical characteristics. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed whey protein on the microstructure and physical stability of dried model infant formula. Model infant formulas were produced containing either intact (DH 0) or hydrolyzed (DH 12) whey protein, where DH=degree of hydrolysis (%). Before spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 55°C) at a shear rate of 500 s(-1) were 3.02 and 3.85 mPa·s for intact and hydrolyzed infant formulas, respectively. On reconstitution, powders with hydrolyzed whey protein had a significantly higher fat globule size and lower emulsion stability than intact whey protein powder. Lactose crystallization in powders occurred at higher relative humidity for hydrolyzed formula. The Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation, fitted to sorption isotherms, showed increased monolayer moisture when intact protein was present. As expected, glass transition decreased significantly with increasing water content. Partial hydrolysis of whey protein in model infant formula resulted in altered powder particle surface morphology, lactose crystallization properties, and storage stability.

  2. Hydrolysis of whey protein isolate with Bacillus licheniformis protease: aggregating capacities of peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusot, Nathalie; Gruppen, Harry

    2008-11-12

    In a previous study, peptides aggregating at pH 7.0 derived from a whey protein hydrolysate made with Bacillus licheniformis protease were fractionated and identified. The objective of the present work was to investigate the solubility of the fractionated aggregating peptides, as a function of concentration, and their aggregating capacities toward added intact proteins. The amount of aggregated material and the composition of the aggregates obtained were measured by nitrogen concentration and size exclusion chromatography, respectively. The results showed that of the four fractions obtained from the aggregating peptides, two were insoluble, while the other two consisted of 1:1 mixture of low and high solubility peptides. Therefore, insoluble peptides coaggregated, assumedly via hydrophobic interactions, other relatively more soluble peptides. It was also shown that aggregating peptides could aggregate intact protein nonspecifically since the same peptides were involved in the aggregation of whey proteins, beta-casein, and bovine serum albumin. Both insoluble and partly insoluble peptides were required for the aggregation of intact protein. These results are of interest for the applications of protein hydrolysates, as mixtures of intact protein and peptides are often present in these applications.

  3. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  4. Calcium, vitamin D, casein and whey protein intakes and periodontitis among Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Boucher, Barbara J; Kongstad, Johanne

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether intakes of Ca, vitamin D, casein and whey are associated with periodontitis and to investigate the possibility of interactions between them. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. An Internet-based, 267-item FFQ was used to assess dietary intake. Intakes of casein (32.0 g....../d), whey proteins (9.6 g/d) and vitamin D (5.8 μg/d) were classified as within v. above the 50th percentile. Ca intake was classified as within v. below age-specific recommendations. Severe periodontitis was defined as having ≥2 inter-proximal sites with clinical attachment loss ≥6 mm (not on the same...... study of DANHES 2007-2008. RESULTS: Intakes of Ca within recommendations (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.58, 0.99), whey ≥9.6 g/d (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) and casein ≥32 g/d (OR=0.75 95% CI 0.58, 0.97) were associated with lower likelihood of severe periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education...

  5. Influence of heat and shear induced protein aggregation on the in vitro digestion rate of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanoj K; Øiseth, Sofia K; Lundin, Leif; Day, Li

    2014-11-01

    Protein intake is essential for growth and repair of body cells, the normal functioning of muscles, and health related immune functions. Most food proteins are consumed after undergoing various degrees of processing. Changes in protein structure and assembly as a result of processing impact the digestibility of proteins. Research in understanding to what extent the protein structure impacts the rate of proteolysis under human physiological conditions has gained considerable interest. In this work, four whey protein gels were prepared using heat processing at two different pH values, 6.8 and 4.6, with and without applied shear. The gels showed different protein network microstructures due to heat induced unfolding (at pH 6.8) or lack of unfolding, thus resulting in fine stranded protein networks. When shear was applied during heating, particulate protein networks were formed. The differences in the gel microstructures resulted in considerable differences in their rheological properties. An in vitro gastric and intestinal model was used to investigate the resulting effects of these different gel structures on whey protein digestion. In addition, the rate of digestion was monitored by taking samples at various time points throughout the in vitro digestion process. The peptides in the digesta were profiled using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed-phase-HPLC and LC-MS. Under simulated gastric conditions, whey proteins in structured gels were hydrolysed faster than native proteins in solution. The rate of peptides released during in vitro digestion differed depending on the structure of the gels and extent of protein aggregation. The outcomes of this work highlighted that changes in the network structure of the protein can influence the rate and pattern of its proteolysis under gastrointestinal conditions. Such knowledge could assist the food industry in designing novel food formulations to control the digestion kinetics and the release of biologically

  6. Whey and casein labelled with L-[1-13C]-leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitelseder, Søren; Agergaard, Jakob; Doessing, Simon

    2011-01-01

    to a single bolus intake of whey or casein after performance of heavy resistance exercise. Young male individuals were randomly assigned to participate in two protein trials (n = 9) or one control trial (n = 8). Infusion of l-[1-(13)C]leucine was carried out, and either whey, casein (0.3 g/kg lean body mass......), or a noncaloric control drink was ingested immediately after exercise. l-[1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and casein were used while muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was assessed. Blood and muscle tissue samples were collected to measure systemic hormone and amino acid concentrations, tracer enrichments......, and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Western blots were used to investigate the Akt signaling pathway. Plasma insulin and branched-chain amino acid concentrations increased to a greater extent after ingestion of whey compared with casein. Myofibrillar protein synthesis was equally increased 1-6 h postexercise after...

  7. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines.

  8. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

  9. Effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on symptoms of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Minayuki; Tsuchiya, Yosuke; Sato, Teruyuki; Hamano, Saki; Gushiken, Takeshi; Kimura, Naoto; Ochi, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and whey protein ingestion on muscle strength and damage following a single bout of eccentric exercise. Eighteen untrained male subjects were assigned to HMB and Whey protein (HMB + Whey; 3 g/day HMB and 36.6 g/day whey protein, n = 6), HMB (3 g/day, n = 6), or whey protein (36.6 g/day, n = 6) groups. Ingestion commenced 7 days before non-dominant elbow flexor eccentric exercise (30 deg/sec, 6 reps × 7 sets) and continued until 4 days post-exercise. The maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were assessed pre-exercise, and at 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after exercise. The change scores of maximal isometric strength significantly decreased at day 1, 2, and 5 in the whey protein group compared to pre value and that in HMB + Whey protein and HMB groups decreased at day 1 and 5. The muscle soreness significantly increased in the whey and HMB + Whey protein groups at day 3 compared to pre value (p exercise. However, all data were not significant difference among the groups. These results suggest that ingestion of combined HMB and whey protein does not have a role to inhibit muscle strength loss and soreness, and decrease in muscle damage markers after eccentric exercise in comparison with HMB and whey protein alone.

  10. Influence of heating and acidification on the flavor of whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S S; Fox, K M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have established that whey protein manufacture unit operations influence the flavor of dried whey proteins. Additionally, manufacturers generally instantize whey protein isolate (WPI; ≥ 90% protein) by agglomeration with lecithin to increase solubility and wettability. Whey protein isolate is often subjected to additional postprocessing steps in beverage manufacturing, including acidification and heat treatment. These postprocessing treatments may further influence formation or release of flavors. The objective of the first study was to characterize the effect of 2 processing steps inherent to manufacturing of acidic protein beverages (acidification and heat treatment) on the flavor of non-instant WPI. The second study sought to determine the effect of lecithin agglomeration, a common form of instantized (INST) WPI used in beverage manufacturing, on the flavor of WPI after acidification and heat treatment. In the first experiment, commercial non-instantized (NI) WPI were rehydrated and evaluated as is (control); acidified to pH 3.2; heated to 85°C for 5 min in a benchtop high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer; or acidified to 3.2 and heated to 85°C for 30s (AH-HTST). In the second experiment, INST and NI commercial WPI were subsequently evaluated as control, acidified, heated, or AH-HTST. All samples were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acidification of NI WPI produced higher concentrations of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and sensory detection of potato/brothy flavors, whereas heating increased cooked/sulfur flavors. Acidification and heating increased cardboard, potato/brothy, and malty flavors and produced higher concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Differences between INST and NI WPI existed before treatment; INST WPI displayed cucumber flavors not present in NI WPI. After acidification, INST WPI were distinguished by higher

  11. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti A; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Peltonen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of whey proteins (n = 22), isocaloric carbohydrates (maltodextrin, n = 21), or protein + carbohydrates (n = 25). Within these groups, the subjects were further randomized into two whole-body 12-week RT regimens aiming either for muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength or muscle strength, hypertrophy and power. The post-exercise drink was always ingested immediately after the exercise bout, 2-3 times per week depending on the training period. Body composition (by DXA), quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (by panoramic ultrasound), maximal strength (by dynamic and isometric leg press) and serum lipids as basic markers of cardiovascular health, were analysed before and after the intervention. Twelve-week RT led to increased fat-free mass, muscle size and strength independent of post-exercise nutrient intake (P carbohydrate group independent of the type of RT (P carbohydrate group (P carbohydrates or combination of proteins and carbohydrates did not have a major effect on muscle size or strength when ingested two to three times a week. However, whey proteins may increase abdominal fat loss and relative fat-free mass adaptations in response to resistance training when compared to fast-acting carbohydrates.

  12. Cocoa and Whey Protein Differentially Affect Markers of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Caroline L; Foegeding, E Allen; Harris, G Keith

    2016-03-01

    Food formulation with bioactive ingredients is a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management. Whey proteins are high in leucine and are shown to decrease hunger ratings and increase satiety hormone levels; cocoa polyphenolics moderate glucose levels and slow digestion. This study examined the effects of cocoa and whey proteins on lipid and glucose metabolism and satiety in vitro and in a clinical trial. In vitro, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 0.5-100 μg/mL cocoa polyphenolic extract (CPE) and/or 1-15 mM leucine (Leu) and assayed for lipid accumulation and leptin production. In vivo, a 6-week clinical trial consisted of nine panelists (age: 22.6 ± 1.7; BMI: 22.3 ± 2.1) consuming chocolate-protein beverages once per week, including placebo, whey protein isolate (WPI), low polyphenolic cocoa (LP), high polyphenolic cocoa (HP), LP-WPI, and HP-WPI. Measurements included blood glucose and adiponectin levels, and hunger ratings at baseline and 0.5-4.0 h following beverage consumption. At levels of 50 and 100 μg/mL, CPE significantly inhibited preadipocyte lipid accumulation by 35% and 50%, respectively, and by 22% and 36% when combined with 15 mM Leu. Leu treatment increased adipocyte leptin production by 26-37%. In the clinical trial, all beverages significantly moderated blood glucose levels 30 min postconsumption. WPI beverages elicited lowest peak glucose levels and HP levels were significantly lower than LP. The WPI and HP beverage treatments significantly increased adiponectin levels, but elicited no significant changes in hunger ratings. These trends suggest that combinations of WPI and cocoa polyphenols may improve markers of metabolic syndrome and satiety.

  13. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-09-01

    Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (Pexercise, independent of exercise intensity (PCOPD due to lower WbPB (Pexercise during casein and whey feeding in COPD (Pexercise were higher in COPD (Pexercise, lower NetPS values were found independent of protein type in both groups. Casein resulted in more protein anabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD.

  14. Dose response of whey protein isolate in addition to a typical mixed meal on blood amino acids and hormonal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; McCargar, Linda; Jelen, Paul; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate the effects of a controlled typical 1-day diet supplemented with two different doses of whey protein isolate on blood amino acid profiles and hormonal concentrations following the final meal. Nine males (age: 29.6 ± 6.3 yrs) completed four conditions in random order: a control (C) condition of a typical mixed diet containing ~10% protein (0.8 g·kg1), 65% carbohydrate, and 25% fat; a placebo (P) condition calorically matched with carbohydrate to the whey protein conditions; a low-dose condition of 0.8 grams of whey protein isolate per kilogram body mass per day (g·kg1·d1; W1) in addition to the typical mixed diet; or a high-dose condition of 1.6 g·kg1·d1 (W2) of supplemental whey protein in addition to the typical mixed diet. Following the final meal, significant (p whey protein supplementation while no changes were observed in the control and placebo conditions. There was no significant group difference for glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone. In conclusion, supplementing a typical daily food intake consisting of 0.8 g of protein·kg1·d1 with a whey protein isolate (an additional 0.8 or 1.6 g·kg1·d1) significantly elevated total amino acids, EAA, BCAA, and leucine but had no effect on glucose, insulin, testosterone, cortisol, or growth hormone following the final meal. Future acute and chronic supplementation research examining the physiological and health outcomes associated with elevated amino acid profiles is warranted.

  15. Effect of casein to whey protein ratios on the protein interactions and coagulation properties of low-fat yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L L; Wang, X L; Tian, Q; Mao, X Y

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of casein (CN) to whey protein (WP) ratios (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1) on gelation properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt made with reconstituted skim milk with or without addition of whey protein concentrate. The rheological properties (storage modulus, G'; yield stress; and yield strain) of the obtained low-fat yogurt were greatly enhanced, the fermentation period was shortened, and the microstructure became more compact with smaller pores as the CN:WP ratio decreased. When CN:WP was 2:1 or 1:1, the obtained yogurt coagulum showed higher G' and greater yield stress, with more compact crosslinking and smaller pores. In addition, the more of skim milk powder was replaced by whey protein concentrate, the more disulfide bonds were formed and the greater the occurrence of hydrophobic interactions during heat treatment, which can improve the rheological properties and microstructure of low-fat yogurt.

  16. Fractionation of whey protein isolate with supercritical carbon dioxide to produce enriched alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin food ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potentially economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of alpha-lactalbumin (a-LA) and beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) from whey protein isolate. To prepare the fractions, so...

  17. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  18. Comprehensive peptidomic and glycomic evaluation reveals that sweet whey permeate from colostrum is a source of milk protein-derived peptides and oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C.; Weinborn, Valerie; de Moura Bell, Juliana M.L.N.; Wang, Meng; Parker, Evan A.; Guerrero, Andres; Hettinga, Kasper A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; German, J. Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Whey permeate is a co-product obtained when cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration membrane to concentrate whey proteins. Whey proteins are retained by the membrane, whereas the low-molecular weight compounds such as lactose, salts, oligosaccharides and peptides pass through the membrane yielding whey permeate. Research shows that bovine milk from healthy cows contains hundreds of naturally occurring peptides – many of which are homologous with known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides – and nearly 50 oligosaccharide compositions (not including structural isomers). As these endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides have low-molecular weight and whey permeate is currently an under-utilized product stream of the dairy industry, we hypothesized that whey permeate may serve as an inexpensive source of naturally occurring functional peptides and oligosaccharides. Laboratory fractionation of endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides from bovine colostrum sweet whey was expanded to pilot-scale. The membrane fractionation methodology used was similar to the methods commonly used industrially to produce whey protein concentrate and whey permeate. Pilot-scale fractionation was compared to laboratory-scale fractionation with regard to the identified peptides and oligosaccharide compositions. Results were interpreted on the basis of whether industrial whey permeate could eventually serve as a source of functional peptides and oligosaccharides. The majority (96%) of peptide sequences and the majority (96%) of oligosaccharide compositions found in the laboratory-scale process were mirrored in the pilot-scale process. Moreover, the pilot-scale process recovered an additional 33 peptides and 1 oligosaccharide not identified from the laboratory-scale extraction. Both laboratory- and pilot-scale processes yielded peptides deriving primarily from the protein β-casein. The similarity of the laboratory-and pilot-scale's resulting peptide and oligosaccharide

  19. Comprehensive peptidomic and glycomic evaluation reveals that sweet whey permeate from colostrum is a source of milk protein-derived peptides and oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; Weinborn, Valerie; de Moura Bell, Juliana M L N; Wang, Meng; Parker, Evan A; Guerrero, Andres; Hettinga, Kasper A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Whey permeate is a co-product obtained when cheese whey is passed through an ultrafiltration membrane to concentrate whey proteins. Whey proteins are retained by the membrane, whereas the low-molecular weight compounds such as lactose, salts, oligosaccharides and peptides pass through the membrane yielding whey permeate. Research shows that bovine milk from healthy cows contains hundreds of naturally occurring peptides - many of which are homologous with known antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides - and nearly 50 oligosaccharide compositions (not including structural isomers). As these endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides have low-molecular weight and whey permeate is currently an under-utilized product stream of the dairy industry, we hypothesized that whey permeate may serve as an inexpensive source of naturally occurring functional peptides and oligosaccharides. Laboratory fractionation of endogenous peptides and oligosaccharides from bovine colostrum sweet whey was expanded to pilot-scale. The membrane fractionation methodology used was similar to the methods commonly used industrially to produce whey protein concentrate and whey permeate. Pilot-scale fractionation was compared to laboratory-scale fractionation with regard to the identified peptides and oligosaccharide compositions. Results were interpreted on the basis of whether industrial whey permeate could eventually serve as a source of functional peptides and oligosaccharides. The majority (96%) of peptide sequences and the majority (96%) of oligosaccharide compositions found in the laboratory-scale process were mirrored in the pilot-scale process. Moreover, the pilot-scale process recovered an additional 33 peptides and 1 oligosaccharide not identified from the laboratory-scale extraction. Both laboratory- and pilot-scale processes yielded peptides deriving primarily from the protein β-casein. The similarity of the laboratory-and pilot-scale's resulting peptide and oligosaccharide profiles

  20. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry.

  1. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on improving the heat stability of whey protein isolate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Suresh; Patel, Hasmukh

    2017-05-15

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions (12.8%w/w protein) were treated with varying concentrations of H2O2 in the range of 0-0.144 H2O2 to protein ratios (HTPR) by the addition of the required quantity of H2O2 and deionized water. The samples were analyzed for heat stability, rheological properties, denaturation level of β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA). The samples treated with H2O2 concentration >0.072 (HTPR) showed significant improvement in the heat stability, and decreased whey protein denaturation and aggregation. The WPI solution treated with H2O2 (>0.072 HTPR) remained in the liquid state after heat treatment at 120°C, whereas the control samples formed gel upon heat treatment. Detailed analysis of these samples suggested that the improvement in the heat stability of H2O2 treated WPI solution was attributed to the significant reduction in the sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reaction during denaturation of β-LG and α-LA.

  2. Physical and chemical changes in whey protein concentrate stored at elevated temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Thomas-Gahring, Audrey; Van Hekken, Diane L; Iandola, Susan K; Singh, Mukti; Qi, Phoebe X; Ukuku, Dike O; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Onwulata, Charles I; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-03-01

    In a case study, we monitored the physical properties of 2 batches of whey protein concentrate (WPC) under adverse storage conditions to provide information on shelf life in hot, humid areas. Whey protein concentrates with 34.9 g of protein/100g (WPC34) and 76.8 g of protein/100g (WPC80) were stored for up to 18 mo under ambient conditions and at elevated temperature and relative humidity. The samples became yellower with storage; those stored at 35 °C were removed from the study by 12 mo because of their unsatisfactory appearance. Decreases in lysine and increases in water activity, volatile compound formation, and powder caking values were observed in many specimens. Levels of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeast, and mold were <3.85 log10 cfu/g in all samples. Relative humidity was not a factor in most samples. When stored in sealed bags, these samples of WPC34 and WPC80 had a shelf life of 9 mo at 35 °C but at least 18 mo at lower temperatures, which should extend the market for these products.

  3. Effect of initial protein concentration and pH on in vitro gastric digestion of heated whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2014-02-15

    The in vitro digestion of heated whey protein aggregates having different structure and physicochemical properties was evaluated under simulated gastric conditions. Aggregates were formed by heating whey protein isolates (WPI) at 3-9% w/w initial protein concentration and pH 3.0-7.0. Results showed that high protein concentration led to formation of larger WPI aggregates with fewer remaining monomers. Aggregates formed at high protein concentrations showed slower degradation rate compared to those formed at low protein concentration. The effect of initial protein concentration on peptide release pattern was not apparent. Heating pH was a significant factor affecting digestion pattern. At pH above the isoelectric point, the majority of the proteins involved in the aggregation, and aggregates formed at pH 6.0 were more susceptible to pepsin digestion than at pH 7.0. At acidic conditions, only small amount of proteins was involved in the aggregation and heated aggregates were easily digested by pepsin, while the remaining unaggregated proteins were very resistant to gastric digestion. The potential physiological implication of these results on satiety was discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Continuous protein recovery from whey using liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed ion-exchange extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qingdao; Bassi, Amarjeet; Zhu, Jing-Xu Jesse; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2002-04-20

    A liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) continuous ion-exchange extraction system has been investigated for total protein recovery from whey solutions under various operating conditions. The effectiveness of a dynamic seal was evaluated between the riser and the downcomer, and the best conditions for the establishment of this seal were established. Start-up studies indicated that the system is robust and stable. Under optimal conditions, a productivity of 8.2 g of total protein removed per hour per kilogram of resin was achieved with a protein removal efficiency of 78.4%. However, higher overall protein recovery of up to 90% was also achieved under other conditions, with lower protein concentration in the effluent and a lower overall productivity.

  5. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; Souza, Gabriel Inacio de Morais Honorato de [UNIFESP; Hachul, Ana Claudia Losinskas; Santos, Bruno dos [UNIFESP; Okuda, Marcos Hiromu [UNIFESP; Pinto Neto, Nelson Inacio [UNIFESP; Boldarine, Valter Tadeu; Esposito, Elisa; Ribeiro, Eliane Beraldi; Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do [UNIFESP; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Oyama, Lila Missae [UNIFESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet.Methods: Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 ...

  6. Gelatin increases the coarseness of whey protein gels and impairs water exudation from the mixed gel at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Bakhuizen, E.; Ersch, C.; Urbonaite, V.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the origin of water holding of mixed protein gels, a study was performed on water exudation from mixed whey protein (WP)-gelatin gels upon applied pressure. Mixed gels were prepared with varying WP and gelatin concentration and gelatin type to obtain gels with a wide range of gel

  7. Breakdown properties and sensory perception of whey proteins/polysaccharide mixed gels as a function of microstructure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den L.; Vliet, van T.; Linden, van der E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Velde, van de F.

    2007-01-01

    Whey protein isolate (WPI)/polysaccharide mixed gels used in the current study formed homogeneous and phase separated microstructures as visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The latter can be further classified into protein continuous, bicontinuous and coarse stranded microstruct

  8. The effect of polysaccharides on the ability of whey protein gels to either store or dissipate energy upon mechanical deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darizu Munialo, C.; Linden, E. van der; Ako, K.; Nieuwland, M.; As, H. van; Jongh, H.H.J. de

    2016-01-01

    The addition of polysaccharides to proteins during gel formation can alter the mechanical and textural properties of the resultant gels. However, the effect of addition of different polymers on mechanical properties of whey protein (WP) gels including their ability to elastically store energy, often

  9. The effect of polysaccharides on the ability of whey protein gels to either store or dissipate energy upon mechanical deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munialo, C.D.; Linden, van der E.; Ako, K.; Nieuwland, M.; As, van H.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The addition of polysaccharides to proteins during gel formation can alter the mechanical and textural properties of the resultant gels. However, the effect of addition of different polymers on mechanical properties of whey protein (WP) gels including their ability to elastically store energy, often

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of heat-induced aggregates of whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, I B; Murray, B A; Kelly, P M; FitzGerald, R J; Brodkorb, A

    2012-05-16

    The effects of heat-induced denaturation and subsequent aggregation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions on the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. Both heated (60 °C, 15 min; 65 °C, 5 and 15 min; 70 °C, 5 and 15 min, 75 °C, 5 and 15 min; 80 °C, 10 min) and unheated WPI solutions (100 g L(-1) protein) were incubated with a commercial proteolytic enzyme preparation, Corolase PP, until they reached a target degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 5%. WPI solutions on heating were characterized by large aggregate formation, higher viscosity, and surface hydrophobicity and hydrolyzed more rapidly (P whey proteins exhibited differences in their susceptibility to hydrolysis. Both viscosity and surface hydrophobicity along with insolubility declined as hydrolysis progressed. However, microstructural changes observed by light and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) provided insights to suggest that aggregate size and porosity may be complementary to denaturation in promoting faster enzymatic hydrolysis. This could be clearly observed in the course of aggregate disintegration, gel network breakdown, and improved solution clarification.

  11. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Duan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cow's milk whey consists of many protein components and some of them are antigens to human and known to modulate immune responses. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a useful method to modify proteins with allergenicity. The objective of this study was to identify whether the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates (WPC. In this study, WPC were hydrolyzed by trypsin and twenty-four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and fed with WPC formula and WPC hydrolysates formula, while the control mice received milk-free diet. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between the body weights among all groups. WPC-fed mice produced an elevated spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and also produced higher levels of WPC-specific IgE in intestinal tract and serum in comparison to WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and control group. Significant up-regulation of plasma histamine levels were also observed and showed the same trend with IgE. The secretions of IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly enhanced by WPC. WPC significantly suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ while hydrolysates of WPC significantly increased the secretion of IFN-γ compared to control group. These results suggest that hydrolysis may play a role to reduce the allergenicity of WPC.

  12. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Cuicui; Yang, Lijie; Li, Aili; Zhao, Rui; Huo, Guicheng

    2014-08-01

    Cow's milk whey consists of many protein components and some of them are antigens to human and known to modulate immune responses. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a useful method to modify proteins with allergenicity. The objective of this study was to identify whether the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis could reduce the allergenicity of whey protein concentrates (WPC). In this study, WPC were hydrolyzed by trypsin and twenty-four BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and fed with WPC formula and WPC hydrolysates formula, while the control mice received milk-free diet. The results revealed that there was no significant difference between the body weights among all groups. WPC-fed mice produced an elevated spleen lymphocyte proliferation level than WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and also produced higher levels of WPC-specific IgE in intestinal tract and serum in comparison to WPC hydrolysates-fed mice and control group. Significant up-regulation of plasma histamine levels were also observed and showed the same trend with IgE. The secretions of IL-4 and IL-5 were significantly enhanced by WPC. WPC significantly suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ while hydrolysates of WPC significantly increased the secretion of IFN-γ compared to control group. These results suggest that hydrolysis may play a role to reduce the allergenicity of WPC.

  13. Non-wheat pasta based on pearl millet flour containing barley and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Deep N; Balasubramanian, S; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anand, Tanupriya; Singh, Ashish K

    2014-10-01

    Non-wheat pasta was prepared with pearl millet supplemented with 10-30 % barley flour, 5-15 % whey protein concentrate, 2.5-4 % carboxy methyl cellulose and 27-33 % water using response surface methodology (RSM) following central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Results showed that barley flour and whey protein concentrate (WPC) had significant (p ≤ 0.05) positive effect on lightness and negative effect on stickiness of pasta, thus improved the overall acceptability (OAA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) improved the textural attributes i.e. increased firmness and decreased stickiness significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and caused a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in solids losses in gruel. Based upon the experiments, the optimized level of ingredients were barley flour 13.80 g 100 g(-1) pearl millet flour (PMF), WPC 12.27 g 100 g(-1) PMF, CMC 3.45 g 100 g(-1) PMF and water 27.6 mL 100 g(-1) ingredients premix with 88 % desirability. The developed pasta had protein 16.47 g, calcium 98.53 mg, iron 5.43 mg, phosphorus 315.5 mg and β-glucan 0.33 g 100 g(-1) pasta (db).

  14. Properties of biopolymers produced by transglutaminase treatment of whey protein isolate and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernàndez-Balada, Eduard; Taylor, Maryann M; Phillips, John G; Marmer, William N; Brown, Eleanor M

    2009-07-01

    Byproduct utilization is an important consideration in the development of sustainable processes. Whey protein isolate (WPI), a byproduct of the cheese industry, and gelatin, a byproduct of the leather industry, were reacted individually and in blends with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) at pH 7.5 and 45 degrees C. When a WPI (10% w/w) solution was treated with mTGase (10 U/g) under reducing conditions, the viscosity increased four-fold and the storage modulus (G') from 0 to 300 Pa over 20 h. Similar treatment of dilute gelatin solutions (0.5-3%) had little effect. Addition of gelatin to 10% WPI caused a synergistic increase in both viscosity and G', with the formation of gels at concentrations greater than 1.5% added gelatin. These results suggest that new biopolymers, with improved functionality, could be developed by mTGase treatment of protein blends containing small amounts of gelatin with the less expensive whey protein.

  15. Determination of adsorption isotherm parameters for minor whey proteins by gradient elution preparative liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Naeimeh; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-09-18

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) techniques have been extensively investigated in protein purification processes, due to the more selective and milder separation steps. To date, existing studies of minor whey proteins fractionation in IEC have primarily been conducted as batch uptake studies, which require more experimental search space, time and materials. In this work, the selected resin's (SP Sepharose FF) equilibrium and dynamic binding capacity were first investigated. Next, adsorption of the pure binary mixture of lactoperoxidase and lactoferrin was studied to calibrate steric mass action (SMA) model using a simplified approach with data from single column experiments. The calibrated model was then verified by performing factorial-design based experiments for various process operating conditions assessing process performance on a larger bed height column. The model predicted results demonstrated a realistic agreement with the experiments providing reproducible column elution profile and reduced experimental work. Finally, whey protein isolate was used to evaluate model parameters in real conditions. Results obtained herein are suitable for future large scale applications.

  16. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  17. Whey protein-derived biomaterials and their use as bioencapsulation and delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subirade Muriel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioactive food compounds (nutraceutical compounds with health benefits provides an excellent opportunity for improving public health. The incorporation of bioactive compounds into food systems is therefore of great interest to researchers in their efforts to develop innovative functional foods that may have physiological benefits or reduce the risk of disease beyond basic nutritional functions. However, the effectiveness of these products in preventing diseases relies on preserving the bioavailability of their active ingredients. This represents undoubtedly a great challenge since these molecules are generally sensitive to environmental conditions encountered in food processes (i.e., temperature oxygen, and light or in the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., pH, enzymes presence of other nutrients, which limit their activity and potential health benefits. However, bio- and microencapsulation can be used to overcome these limitations. Whey proteins, also known as the serum proteins of milk, are widely used in food products, because of their high nutritional value and their ability to form gels, emulsions, or foams. The aim of this article is to provide information on the different types of materials obtained from whey proteins and to examine their use as bioencapsulation and delivery systems.

  18. Health of issues of whey proteins: 2. Weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing prevalence in many countries of people with overweight and obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest threats to public health. Dietary proteins, because of their positive effects on satiation/ satiety, may help to reduce energy intake and promote a healthy body composition with less

  19. Health of issues of whey proteins: 2. Weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing prevalence in many countries of people with overweight and obesity is undoubtedly one of the biggest threats to public health. Dietary proteins, because of their positive effects on satiation/ satiety, may help to reduce energy intake and promote a healthy body composition with less b

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey and casein protein- effect on functional, rheological, textural and sensory properties of breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Adil; Broadway, A A; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Wani, Ali Abas; Maqsood, Sajid; Ashwar, Bilal Ahmad; Shah, Asima; Rather, Sajad Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2015-12-01

    Milk proteins were hydrolyzed by papain and their effect on the rheological, textural and sensory properties of bread were investigated. Water absorption capacity, emulsification capacity, foam volume, foam stability and solubility of Whey and casein protein concentrates and their hydrolysates were determined. The farinograph parameters of wheat flour and blends of wheat flour with casein and whey protein and their hydrolysates were determined to evaluate changes in water absorption capacity, dough development time, dough stability time and mixing tolerance index. The incorporation of WPC, casein and their hydrolysates up to the level of 5 % showed dough properties comparable to control. It was also found that 5 % level incorporation of milk proteins and their hydrolysates have no drastic effect on physical and sensory attributes of bread. The pasting properties showed significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with wheat flour at all levels of addition of whey and casein protein concentrates and hydrolysates. Scanning electron microscopy of bread samples shows disruption in the well-defined protein - starch complex of wheat flour bread and the structure of gluten was weak as the concentration of whey protein increases in the wheat flour bread.

  1. Effect of Whey Protein Hydrolysate on Performance and Recovery of Top-Class Orienteering Runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg-1) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg-1 and 1 g carbohydrate kg-1) each exercise session. The others ingested energy and time-matched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). A 4-km run......This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week......-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention. Blood and saliva were obtained in the mornings, before and after run-tests and after the last training session. During the intervention questionnaires were fulfilled regarding psychological sense of performance capacity...

  2. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil-in-water emulsions based on whey protein-phospholipid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sünder, A; Scherze, I; Muschiolik, G

    2001-07-01

    Emulsions prepared with whey proteins, phospholipids and 10% of vegetable oil were used for a model typifying dressings, coffee whitener and balanced diets. For the present study, two whey proteins (partial heat-denatured whey protein concentrate (WPC) and undenatured whey protein isolate (WPI)) in combination with different phospholipids (hydrolysed and unmodified deoiled lecithin) were chosen to investigate the interactions between proteins, phospholipids and salt (sodium chloride) in such emulsion systems. Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions (10 wt.% sunflower oil) containing various concentrations of commercial whey proteins (1-2%), phospholipids (0.39-0.78%) and salt (0.5-1.5%) were prepared using a laboratory high pressure homogeniser under various preparation conditions. Each emulsion was characterised by droplet size, creaming rate, flow behaviour and protein load. The dynamic surface activity of the whey proteins and lecithins at the oil-water interface was determined using the drop volume method. The properties of emulsions were significantly influenced by the content of whey protein. Higher protein levels improved the emulsion behaviour (smaller oil droplets and increased stability) independent of the protein or lecithin samples used. An increase of the protein content resulted in a lower tendency for oil droplet aggregation of emulsions with WPC to occur and emulsions tending towards a Newtonian flow behaviour. The emulsification temperature was especially important using the partial heat-denatured WPC in combination with the deoiled lecithin. A higher emulsification temperature (60 degrees C) promoted oil droplet aggregation, as well as an increased emulsion consistency. Emulsions with the WPC were significantly influenced by the NaCl content, as well as the protein-salt ratio. Increasing the NaCl content led to an increase of the droplet size, higher oil droplet aggregation, as well as to a higher creaming rate of the emulsions. An increase of the lecithin

  3. Impaired Insulin Secretion in Perfused Pancreases Isolated from Offspring of Female Rats Fed a Low Protein Whey-Based Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew PG Barnett

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Insufficient maternal protein intake has been postulated to cause impaired fuel metabolism and diabetes mellitus in adult mammalian progeny, but the mechanism remains unclear. Objective To investigate the effect of a maternal low protein whey-based diet during pregnancy and lactation on pancreatic function and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in the offspring. Animals Sprague-Dawley rats: 8 mothers and 46 offspring. Design Female rats were fed throughout pregnancy and lactation with otherwisecomplete isoenergetic diets sufficient (20% whey protein; control: n=3 or insufficient (5% whey protein; low-protein: n=5 in whey protein. From weaning all offspring ate control diet. Main outcome measures Food intake and weight gain were measured for both mothers and offspring, and in vitro functional studies of endocrine pancreas and skeletal muscle were performed on offspring at 40 and 50 days of age, respectively. Results Food intake (P=0.004 and weight gain (P=0.006 were lower in low protein than control mothers during early gestation. Offspring of low protein mothers had significant lower body weight from 5 to 15 days of age, although there was no significant difference in food consumption. Glucose, arginine- and glucose/arginine-stimulated insulin secretion from perfused pancreases isolated from low protein offspring were decreased by between 55 and 65% compared with control values. Studies in skeletal muscle demonstrated no difference in insulin sensitivity between the two groups. Conclusions Dietary whey protein insufficiency in female rats during pregnancy and lactation can evoke major changes in insulin secretion in progeny, and these changes represent a persistent functional abnormality in the endocrine pancreas.

  4. Promotion of bone growth by dietary soy protein isolate: Comparision with dietary casein, whey hydrolysate and rice protein isolate in growing female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of different dietary protein sources(casein (CAS), soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) and rice protein isolate (RPI)) on bone were studied in intact growing female rats and in ovarectomized (OVX) rats showing sex steroid deficiency-induced bone loss. In addition, S...

  5. Effects of exercise on leukocyte death: prevention by hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Levada-Pires, Adriana C; Folador, Alessandra; Gorjão, Renata; Alba-Loureiro, Tatiana C; Hirabara, Sandro M; Peres, Fabiano P; Silva, Paulo R S; Curi, Rui; Pithon-Curi, Tania C

    2008-06-01

    Lymphocyte and neutrophil death induced by exercise and the role of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide (Gln) supplementation was investigated. Nine triathletes performed two exhaustive exercise trials with a 1-week interval in a randomized, double blind, crossover protocol. Thirty minutes before treadmill exhaustive exercise at variable speeds in an inclination of 1% the subjects ingested 50 g of maltodextrin (placebo) or 50 g of maltodextrin plus 4 tablets of 700 mg of hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with 175 mg of glutamine dipeptide dissolved in 250 mL water. Cell viability, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined in lymphocytes and neutrophils. Exhaustive exercise decreased viable lymphocytes but had no effect on neutrophils. A 2.2-fold increase in the proportion of lymphocytes and neutrophils with depolarized mitochondria was observed after exhaustive exercise. Supplementation of maltodextrin plus Gln (MGln) prevented the loss of lymphocyte membrane integrity and the mitochondrial membrane depolarization induced by exercise. Exercise caused an increase in ROS production by neutrophils, whereas supplementation of MGln had no additional effect. MGln supplementation partially prevented lymphocyte apoptosis induced by exhaustive exercise possibly by a protective effect on mitochondrial function.

  6. Preventive Effects of Chitosan Coacervate Whey Protein on Body Composition and Immunometabolic Aspect in Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods containing bioactive compounds of whey may play an important role in prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospects of the biotechnological process of coacervation of whey proteins (CWP in chitosan and test its antiobesogenic potential. Methods. CWP (100 mg·kg·day was administered in mice with diet-induced obesity for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups: control normocaloric diet gavage with water (C or coacervate (C-CWP, and high fat diet gavage with water (HF or coacervate (HF-CWP. Results. HF-CWP reduced weight gain and serum lipid fractions and displayed reduced adiposity and insulin. Adiponectin was significantly higher in HF-CWP group when compared to the HF. The level of LPS in HF-W group was significantly higher when compared to HF-CWP. The IL-10 showed an inverse correlation between the levels of insulin and glucose in the mesenteric adipose tissue in the HF-CWP group. CWP promoted an increase in both phosphorylation AMPK and the amount of ATGL in the mesenteric adipose tissue in HF-CWP group. Conclusion. CWP was able to modulate effects, possibly due to its high biological value of proteins. We observed a protective effect against obesity and improved the inflammatory milieu of white adipose tissue.

  7. Whey protein solution coating for fat-uptake reduction in deep-fried chicken breast strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragich, Ann M; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of whey protein, as an additional coating, in combination with basic, well-described predust, batter, and breading ingredients, for fat-uptake reduction in fried chicken. Chicken breasts were cut into strips (1 x 5 x 10 cm) and coated with wheat flour (WF) as a predust, dipped in batter, coated with WF as a breading, then dipped in 10% denatured whey protein isolate (DWPI) aqueous solution (wet basis). A WF-batter-WF treatment with no DWPI solution dip was included as a control. Coated chicken strips were deep-fried at 160 degrees C for 5 min. A Soxhlet-type extraction was performed to determine the fat content of the meat fraction of fried samples, the coating fraction of fried samples, raw chicken, and raw coating ingredients. The WF-batter-WF-10% DWPI solution had significantly lower fat uptake than the WF-batter-WF control, by 30.67% (dry basis). This article describes applied research involving fat reduction in coated deep-fried chicken. The methods used in this article were intended to achieve maximized fat reduction while maintaining a simple procedure applicable to actual food processing lines.

  8. Alkali cold gelation of whey proteins. Part I: sol-gel-sol(-gel) transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2009-05-19

    The cold gelation of preheated whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions at alkaline conditions (pH>10) has been studied to better understand the effect of NaOH in the formation and destruction of whey protein aggregates and gels. Oscillatory rheology has been used to follow the gelation process, resulting in novel and different gelation profiles with the gelation pH. At low alkaline pH, typical sol-gel transitions are observed, as in many other biopolymers. At pH>11.5, the system gels quickly, after approximately 300 s, followed by a slow degelation step that transforms the gel to a viscous solution. Finally, there is a second gelation step. This results in a surprising sol-gel-sol-gel transition in time at constant gelation conditions. At very high pH (>12.5), the degelation step is very severe, and the second gelation step is not observed, resulting in a sol-gel-sol transition. The first quick gelation step is related to the quick swelling of the WPI aggregates in alkali, as observed from light scattering, which enables the formation of new noncovalent interactions to form a gel network. These interactions are argued to be destroyed in the subsequent degelation step. Disulfide cross-linking is observed only in the second gelation step, not in the first step.

  9. Glycemic Response of a Carbohydrate-Protein Bar with Ewe-Goat Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Manthou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the glycaemic index (GI and glycaemic load (GL of a functional food product, which contains ewe-goat whey protein and carbohydrates in a 1:1 ratio. Nine healthy volunteers, (age, 23.3 ± 3.9 years; body mass index, 24.2 ± 4.1 kg·m2; body fat %, 18.6 ± 10.0 randomly consumed either a reference food or amount of the test food both with equal carbohydrate content in two visits. In each visit, seven blood samples were collected; the first sample after an overnight fast and the remaining six at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the beginning of food consumption. Plasma glucose concentration was measured and the GI was determined by calculation of the incremental area under the curve. The GL was calculated using the equation: test food GI/100 g available carbohydrates per test food serving. The GI of the test food was found to be 5.18 ± 3.27, while the GL of one test food serving was 1.09 ± 0.68. These results indicate that the tested product can be classified as a low GI (<55 and low GL (<10 food. Given the health benefits of low glycaemic response foods and whey protein consumption, the tested food could potentially promote health beyond basic nutrition.

  10. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum spp in an alginate matrix coated with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbassi, Gildas Komenan; Vandamme, Thierry; Ennahar, Saïd; Marchioni, Eric

    2009-01-31

    Whey proteins were used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum strains in calcium alginate beads. L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum 800 and L. plantarum CIP A159 were used in this study. Inactivation experiments were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Cross-sections of freeze-dried beads revealed the random distribution of bacteria throughout the alginate network. From an initial count of 10.04+/-0.01 log(10) CFU g(-1) for L. plantarum 299v, 10.12+/-0.04 for L. plantarum CIP A159 and 10.03+/-0.01 for L. plantarum 800, bacteria in coated beads and incubated in SGF (37 degrees C, 60 min) showed a better survival for L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum CIP A159 and L. plantarum 800 (respectively 7.76+/-0.12, 6.67+/-0.08 and 5.81+/-0.25 log(10) CFU g(-1)) when compared to uncoated beads (2.19+/-0.09, 1.89+/-0.09 and 1.65+/-0.10 log(10) CFU g(-1)) (p<0.05). Only bacteria in the coated beads survived in the SIF medium (37 degrees C, 180 min) after SGF treatment. This preliminary work showed that whey proteins are a convenient, cheap and efficient material for coating alginate beads loaded with bacteria.

  11. Physicochemical Property and Oxidative Stability of Whey Protein Concentrate Multiple Nanoemulsion Containing Fish Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Won-Jae

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to produce whey protein concentrate (WPC) multiple nanoemulsion (MNE) and to study how whey protein concentration level and antioxidant type affected the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE. The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of MNE were investigated by using transmission electron microscopy and particle size analyzer, respectively. The oxidative stability of fish oil in MNEs was assessed by measuring peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value, and volatile compounds. The spherical forms of emulsions with size ranging from 190 to 210 nm were observed indicating the successful production of MNE. Compared with free fish oil, fish oil in MNE exhibited lower PV, p-anisidine value, and formation of maker of oxidation of fish oil indicating the oxidative stability of fish oil in MNE was enhanced. PV, p-anisidine value, and makers of oxidation of fish oil were decreased with increased WPC concentration level. The combined use of Vitamin C and E in MNE resulted in a reduction in PV and p-anisidine value, and development of maker of oxidation. In conclusion, WPC concentration level and antioxidant type are key factors affecting the droplet size of MNE and oxidative stability of fish oil.

  12. Optimization of folic acid nano-emulsification and encapsulation by maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Maghsoudlou, Yahya; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Aalami, Mehran

    2016-05-01

    Due to susceptibility of folic acid like many other vitamins to environmental and processing conditions, it is necessary to protect it by highly efficient methods such as micro/nano-encapsulation. Our aim was to prepare and optimize real water in oil nano-emulsions containing folic acid by a low energy (spontaneous) emulsification technique so that the final product could be encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. A non ionic surfactant (Span 80) was used for making nano-emulsions at three dispersed phase/surfactant ratios of 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0. Folic acid content was 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0mg/mL of dispersed phase by a volume fraction of 5.0, 8.5, and 12%. The final optimum nano-emulsion formulation with 12% dispersed phase, a water to surfactant ratio of 0.9 and folic acid content of 3mg/mL in dispersed phase was encapsulated within maltodextrin-whey protein double emulsions. It was found that the emulsification time for preparing nano-emulsions was between 4 to 16 h based on formulation variables. Droplet size decreased at higher surfactant contents and final nano-emulsions had a droplet sizenano-emulsions containing folic acid.

  13. Nanoscale understanding of thermal aggregation of whey protein pretreated by transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan; Zhong, Qixin; Hu, Zhixiong

    2013-01-16

    Nanoscale structures of whey protein isolate (WPI) pretreated by microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) and subsequent heating were studied in this work and were correlated to zeta-potential, surface hydrophobicity, thermal denaturation properties, and macroscopic turbidity and viscosity. Dispersions of 5% w/v WPI were pretreated by individual or sequential steps of preheating at 80 °C for 15 min and mTGase, used at 2.0-10.2 U/g WPI for 1-15 h, before adjustment of the pH to 7.0 and to 0-100 mM NaCl for heating at 80 °C for 15 and 90 min. The zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity of WPI increased after all pretreatment steps. Preheating increased cross-linking reactivity of WPI by mTGase, corresponding to significantly increased denaturation temperature. Particle size analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that structures of sequentially pretreated WPI remained stable after heating at 100 mM NaCl, corresponding to transparent dispersions. Conversely, WPI pretreated by one step aggregated at only 100 mM NaCl and resulted in turbid dispersions. Besides reporting a practical approach to produce transparent beverages, nanoscale phenomena in the present study are important for understanding whey protein structures in relevant applications.

  14. Characterization of whey protein-carboxymethylated chitosan composite films with and without transglutaminase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Xuan; Ma, Ying; Tuo, Yanfeng; Qian, Fang; Fu, Wenjia; Mu, Guangqing

    2016-11-20

    Edible composite packaging has the advantage of complementary functional properties over its each bio-components. However, reports on whey protein concentrates (WPC)-carboxymethylated chitosan (CMC) composite films have not yet been released. To investigate the preparation of WPC-CMC composite films and its functional properties, four types of WPC-CMC composite films were prepared with and without Transglutaminase (TGase) treatment by mixing WPC aqueous solutions (10%, w/v) with CMC aqueous solutions (3%, w/v) at WPC to CMC volume ratios of (100:0), (75:25), (50:50), and (25:75). SDS-PAGE confirmed that TGase catalyzed crosslinking of whey protein. Results revealed that CMC incorporation conferred a smooth and even surface microstructure on the films and markedly improved the transparency, water barrier properties, mechanical properties and solubility of the composite film. Furthermore, TGase resulted in an improvement in the water vapor barrier properties and mechanical properties of WPC-CMC (75:25 and 50:50, v/v) composite films, and there was no impairment of thermal stability of composite films. Therefore, TGase successfully facilitated the formation of WPC-CMC composite films with some improved functional properties. This offers potential applications as an alternative approach to the preparation of edible packaging films.

  15. Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. β-lactoglobulin (1.8%), α-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

  16. The insulinogenic effect of whey protein is partially mediated by a direct effect of amino acids and GIP on β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salehi, Albert; Gunnerud, Ulrika; Muhammed, Sarheed J

    2012-01-01

    Whey protein increases postprandial serum insulin levels. This has been associated with increased serum levels of leucine, isoleucine, valine, lysine, threonine and the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). We have examined the effects of these putative mediators...... of whey's action on insulin secretion from isolated mouse Langerhans islets....

  17. Rheological, functional and thermo-physical properties of ultrasound treated whey proteins with addition of sucrose or milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet Režek Jambrak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound represents a non-thermal food processing technique and has great potential to be used in the food industry. The objective of this research was to observe ultrasound impact on physical properties of model systems prepared with whey protein isolates (WPI or whey protein concentrates (WPC with or without sucrose or milk powder addition. This kind of systems is often used in milk beverages and milk based products. Model systems with protein and milk powder or sucrose addition were treated with high power ultrasound (HPU probe of 30 kHz frequency for 5 and 10 minutes. After sonication several properties were determined and examined: solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, rheological and thermophysical properties. Ultrasound treatment showed severe influence on all examined properties, caused by protein denaturation as a consequence of cavitation and microstreaming effects. Ultrasound treatment caused decrease in protein solubility for whey protein isolate and whey protein concentrates model systems, compared to untreated sample. There was statistically significant increase in foam volume of model systems, prepared with sucrose or milk powder and WPI after ultrasound treatment. Statistically significant decrease in emulsion activity and emulsion stability indices was observed for model systems prepared solely with isolates and concentrates. After treatment of whey protein model systems (with or without milk powder or sucrose with 30 kHz ultrasound, the changes in consistency coefficients (k were observed, but there were no significant changes in flow behaviour indices (n. After addition of milk powder or sucrose, statistically significant decrease in initial freezing and melting temperatures was observed due to the ultrasound treatment.

  18. Influence of protein type on oxidation and digestibility of fish oil-in-water emulsions: gliadin, caseinate, and whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2015-05-15

    The influence of three surface-active proteins on the oxidative stability and lipase digestibility of emulsified ω-3 oils was examined: deamidated wheat gliadin (gliadin); sodium caseinate (CN); whey protein isolate (WPI). Gliadin and WPI were more effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation (hydroperoxides and TBARS) of fish oil-in-water emulsions than CN. Protein oxidation during storage was determined by measuring the loss of tryptophan fluorescence. The CN-emulsions exhibited the highest loss of tryptophan fluorescence during aging, as well as the highest amount of lipid oxidation. Potential reasons for the differences in oxidative stability of the emulsions with different proteins include differences in interfacial film thickness, protein chelating ability, and antioxidant amino acids profiles. During in vitro digestion, gliadin-stabilized emulsions had the lowest digestion rate of the three proteins. These results have important implications for using proteins to fabricate emulsion-based delivery systems for ω-3 oils.

  19. Influence of innovative technologies on rheological and thermophysical properties of whey proteins and guar gum model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high-power ultrasound (US and highpressure processing (HP on model systems composed of whey protein concentrate (WPC and whey protein isolate (WPI with or without guar gum addition. This kind of systems can be found in food production industry so the aim was to use novel food processing technologies to be utilized as a method for products development. Aqueous suspensions (10 g kg-1 of powdered whey proteins were treated with either ultrasound or high pressure. The treatment conditions were as follows: US: frequency of 30 kHz, for 5 and 10 min; HP: pressure intensity 300-600 MPa, for 5 and 10 min. Rheological and thermophysical properties were analyzed after guar gum addition (0.5 g kg-1. Ultrasound treatment showed a significant influence on all examined properties through protein denaturation caused by cavitation and microstreaming effects. High pressure caused significant increase in viscosity and consistency coefficients of model systems with and without guar addition. Significant decrease of initial freezing and initial thawing temperature was observed in all samples. With this research the direct influence of ultrasound and high-pressure treatment on the rheological and thermophysical properties of whey protein isolate and concentrate model systems with or without guar gum was demonstrated.

  20. Texture profile in processed cheese: influence of the use of milk protein concentrates and whey protein concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Borges Souza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The techno-functional properties of proteins related with the molecular characteristics are facilitated by partial unfolding of structures. From these interactions, the medium pH is presented as a major interferer in intensity and type of reaction that takes place. The intensity of denaturation and interaction of different proteins occur in different forms and intensity accordingly to the pH value of the medium in which they are located. This study aimed to verify the influence of interactions between whey protein concentrate/milk protein concentrate on the evolution of the texture profile of processed cheese at different pH values. We have analyzed samples of commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC and milk protein concentrate (MPC using 112.5g/kg processed cheese. The results were interpreted in terms of texture profile. It was also possible to optimize the different proportions of WPC and MPC, and pH value change the parameters of texture for creamy processed cheese and the pH was also an influencing factor in this optimization.

  1. Functional properties and sensory testing of whey protein concentrate sweetened with rebaudioside A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gimenez MILANI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To develop a natural dietary product with functional benefits for diabetic patients. Whey protein concentrate was obtained through the separation membrane processes and sweetened with rebaudioside A. This product was submitted to sensory testing in humans and used to evaluate possible functional properties in male Wistar rats models with diabetesMellitus induced by streptozotocin. Methods: Two concentrates were produced. Only the second showed protein content of 74.3 and 17.3% of lactose was used as supplementation in induced diabetic rats. This concentrate was obtained from the concentration by reverse osmosis system (180 k Daltons, followed by nanofiltration in a 500 k Daltons membrane and spray drying at 5.0% solution of the first concentrate developed. The concentrate was sweetened with rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A 26 mg/100 g concentrate. All procedures were performed at the Center for Studies in Natural Products, at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Three experimental groups were established (n=6: two groups of diabetic animals, one control group and one supplemented group; and a control group of normal mice (non-diabetic. The supplemented group received concentrates sweetened with rebaudioside A in a dose of 100 mg/kg bw/day by an esophageal tube for 35 days. Fasting, the fed state and body weight were assessed weekly for all groups. At the end of the supplementation period, the following were analyzed: plasma parameters of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and fructosamine; the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, water and food intake. Organs and tissues were removed and weighed to assess mass and anatomical changes. Results: The product presented 74% of proteins and 17% of lactose and showed satisfactory sensory testing by the addition of 26 mg of rebaudioside A/100 g concentrate. Supplementation of the product reduced hyperglycemia, plasma fructosamine levels

  2. Process steps for the preparation of purified fractions of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin from whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gésan-Guiziou, G; Daufin, G; Timmer, M; Allersma, D; van der Horst, C

    1999-05-01

    Fractions enriched with alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-la) and beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg) were produced by a process comprising the following successive steps: clarification-defatting of whey protein concentrate, precipitation of alpha-lactalbumin, separation of soluble beta-lactoglobulin, washing the precipitate, solubilization of the precipitate, concentration and purification of alpha-la. The present study evaluated the performance of the process, firstly on a laboratory scale with acid whey and then on a pilot scale with Gouda cheese whey. In both cases soluble beta-lg was separated from the precipitate using diafiltration or microfiltration and the purities of alpha-la and beta-lg were in the range 52-83 and 85-94% respectively. The purity of the beta-lg fraction was higher using acid whey, which does not contain caseinomacropeptide, than using sweet whey. With the pilot scale plant, the recoveries (6% for alpha-la; 51% for beta-lg) were disappointing, but ways of improving each step in the process are discussed.

  3. Comparative proteomic exploration of whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Cao, Xueyan; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing; Wu, Junrui

    2017-02-20

    Whey, an essential source of dietary nutrients, is widely used in dairy foods for infants. A total of 584 whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk were identified and quantified by the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic method. The 424 differentially expressed whey proteins were identified and analyzed according to gene ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway, and multivariate statistical analysis. Biological processes principally involved biological regulation and response to stimulus. Major cellular components were extracellular region part and extracellular space. The most prevalent molecular function was protein binding. Twenty immune-related proteins and 13 proteins related to enzyme regulatory activity were differentially expressed in human and bovine milk. Differentially expressed whey proteins participated in many KEGG pathways, including major complement and coagulation cascades and in phagosomes. Whey proteins show obvious differences in expression in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, with consequences for biological function. The results here increase our understanding of different whey proteomes, which could provide useful information for the development and manufacture of dairy products and nutrient food for infants. The advanced iTRAQ proteomic approach was used to analyze differentially expressed whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk.

  4. Whey proteins-Properties and Possibility of Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Jovanović

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteini mliječnog seruma predstavljaju 18-20% ukupnih dušikovih tvari mlijeka. Dominantni serum protein je β-laktoglobulin, dok je α-laktalbumin zastupljen s oko 20%, odnosno 2-5% od ukupnih dušikovih tvari mlijeka. Serum proteini su osjetljivi na djelovanje topline; ireverzibilno denaturiraju i koaguliraju pri djelovanju visokih temperatura. Djelovanje visokih temperatura uzrokuje kemijske interakcije među proteinima mlijeka, a posebno između α-laktalbumina, β-laktoglobulina i κ-kazeina. Kompleksi koji se ostvaruju među njima poznati su pod nazivom koagregati proteina mlijeka. Od osamdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća, serum proteini značajni su i kao nutritivni i kao funkcionalni aditivi. Serum proteini imaju dobre funkcionalne osobine. Mogu se koristiti kao sredstva za želiranje, za vezivanje vode, emulgiranje i obrazovanje pjene. Zahvaljujući primjeni membranskih tehnika frakcioniranja, danas je moguće proizvesti različite aditive na bazi serum proteina. Najvažniji proizvodi na bazi proteina sirutke su: proteinski koncentrati, izolati i hidrolizati proteina sirutke. U ovom su radu prikaz ane osobine dominantnih proteina sirutke i njihova moguća primjena u industriji mlijeka.

  5. Review: elimination of bacteriophages in whey and whey products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamer, Zeynep; Samtlebe, Meike; Neve, Horst; J Heller, Knut; Hinrichs, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 10(9) phages mL(-1). When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favored - rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent phage

  6. Review: elimination of bacteriophages in whey and whey products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep eAtamer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As the cheese market faces strong international competition, the optimization of production processes becomes more important for the economic success of dairy companies. In dairy productions, whey from former cheese batches is frequently re-used to increase the yield, to improve the texture and to increase the nutrient value of the final product. Recycling of whey cream and particulated whey proteins is also routinely performed. Most bacteriophages, however, survive pasteurization and may re-enter the cheese manufacturing process. There is a risk that phages multiply to high numbers during the production. Contamination of whey samples with bacteriophages may cause problems in cheese factories because whey separation often leads to aerosol-borne phages and thus contamination of the factory environment. Furthermore, whey cream or whey proteins used for recycling into cheese matrices may contain thermo-resistant phages. Drained cheese whey can be contaminated with phages as high as 109 phages per mL. When whey batches are concentrated, phage titers can increase significantly by a factor of 10 hindering a complete elimination of phages. To eliminate the risk of fermentation failure during recycling of whey, whey treatments assuring an efficient reduction of phages are indispensable. This review focuses on inactivation of phages in whey by thermal treatment, ultraviolet (UV light irradiation and membrane filtration. Inactivation by heat is the most common procedure. However, application of heat for inactivation of thermo-resistant phages in whey is restricted due to negative effects on the functional properties of native whey proteins. Therefore an alternative strategy applying combined treatments should be favoured - rather than heating the dairy product at extreme temperature/time combinations. By using membrane filtration or UV treatment in combination with thermal treatment, phage numbers in whey can be reduced sufficiently to prevent subsequent

  7. Investigation of the protective effect of whey proteins on lactococcal phages during heat treatment at various pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geagea, Hany; Gomaa, Ahmed I; Remondetto, Gabriel; Moineau, Sylvain; Subirade, Muriel

    2015-10-01

    The incorporation of whey protein concentrates (WPC) into cheese is a risky process due to the potential contamination with thermo-resistant phages of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Furthermore, whey proteins can protect phages during heat treatment, thereby increasing the above risk. The main objective of this work was to understand this protective effect in order to better control LAB phages and maximize whey recycling in the cheese industry. First, the inactivation of a previously characterized thermo-resistant lactococcal virulent phage (P1532) was investigated at 95 °C in WPC, in individual whey components β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and bovine serum albumin as well as under different heat and pH conditions. The structural changes of the tested proteins were also monitored by transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Phage inactivation results indicated that the protective effect of whey proteins was pH and time dependent at 95 °C and was not restricted to one component. FTIR spectra suggest that the protection is related to protein molecular structures and to the level of protein aggregates, which was more pronounced in acidic conditions. Moreover, the molecular structure of the three proteins tested was differently influenced by pH and the duration of the heat treatment. This work confirms the protective effect of WPC on phages during heat treatment and offers the first hint to explain such phenomenon. Finding the appropriate treatment of WPC to reduce the phage risk is one of the keys to improving the cheese manufacturing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation of whey protein-polyphenol meso-structures as a natural means of creating functional particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Esposito, Debora; Lila, Mary Ann; Foegeding, E Allen

    2016-03-01

    Whey proteins provide structure and nutritional properties in food, while berry juices are thought to have biological activity that can impart anti-inflammatory health effects. In combination, the two could be an excellent source of necessary and supplemental nutrients as well as expand the functionality of whey proteins in food structures. The objectives of this investigation were to (1) develop an approach for particle formation between whey protein and cranberry, blackcurrant, or muscadine grape juices, (2) determine resulting particle composition and physical characteristics, and (3) evaluate properties related to food structure stability and maintenance of phytochemical bioactivity. Particles were formed by combining 20% w/w whey protein with juice containing 50, 250, or 500 μg g(-1) total phenolics, adjusting pH to 4.5, and centrifuging to collect aggregated particles. Particles had an approximate molar ratio of 9-50 proteins per polyphenol, and the ratio increased with increasing phenolic content of the juice used to create the particles. Particle size ranged from 1-100 μm at pH 4.5, compared to 10 μm particles that formed when whey protein isolate alone was precipitated at pH 4.5. Polyphenols and other juice components, such as acids and sugars appeared to be involved in particle formation. Particles improved foam stability, and the anti-inflammatory properties of entrapped polyphenols were maintained in the particles. Highly functional protein-polyphenol particles can be designed to stabilize food structures and simultaneously deliver polyphenols associated with health benefits.

  9. Flavor release and perception of flavored whey protein gels: Perception is determined by texture rather than by release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Alting, A.C.; Mil, van P.J.J.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Five whey protein gels, with different gel hardnesses and waterholding capacities, were flavored with ethylbutyrate or diacetyl and evaluated by a 10-person panel to study the relation between the gel structure and the sensory perception, as well as the nosespace flavor concentration during eating.

  10. Estimation of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder by high-performance liquid chromatography quantification of cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Nicolai Z

    2006-06-14

    An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence method for indirect measuring of whey protein in casein coprecipitate and milk powder was developed. Samples were hydrolyzed with HCl, and cysteyl residues were derivatized with 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid and 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The cysteine content was used to calculate the percentage of whey protein in commercial samples with use of European Union Regulation cysteine reference values in both casein and whey protein. Method validation studies were performed for caseinates and milk powder, and results indicate that the present HPLC approach can be applied as a fast method with a standard deviation of repeatability between 3.3 and 9.5%. Applicability was studied by analysis of 40 commercial caseinate samples, and all complied to European legislation with a content of whey protein not exceeding 5%. Finally, an approach used to estimate the cysteine amount in pure casein by comparison of calculated and experimental values questions the generally accepted cysteine reference value in casein, which is most likely an overestimation.

  11. Behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria in whey protein and corn meal during twin screw extrusion processing at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies on the development of new and/ or value added nutritional meal corn and whey protein isolates for US consumers have been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on microbial safety of foods extruded below 100 deg C is limited. In this study, we investigated ...

  12. Thymol nanoemulsified by whey protein-maltodextrin conjugates: the enhanced emulsifying capacity and antilisterial properties in milk by propylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Davidson, P Michael; Zhong, Qixin

    2013-12-26

    The objective of this research was to enhance the capability of whey protein isolate-maltodextrin conjugates in nanoemulsifying thymol using propylene glycol to improve antilisterial properties in milk. Thymol was predissolved in PG and emulsified in 7% conjugate solution. Transparent dispersions with mean diameters of propylene glycol.

  13. Behavior of native microbial populations of WPC-34 and WPC-80 whey protein stored at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein (WPC34 and 80) has been used as food ingredients and as a base for making biodegradable product. However, there is limited information on the behavior of native microflora associated with these products. WPC 34 and WPC80 were obtained from the manufacturer, and were stored at 5, 10, 15,...

  14. Physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of ß-carotene nanoemulsions stabilized with whey protein-dextran conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, ß-carotene (BC)-loaded nanoemulsions encapsulated with native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI-dextran (DT, 5 kDa, 20 kDa, and 70 kDa) conjugates were prepared and the effects of glycosylation with various molecular weight DTs on the physicochemical property, lipolysis, and BC bioac...

  15. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  16. A novel method to prepare gluten-free dough using a meso-structured whey protein particle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemsdijk, van L.E.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept for making an elastic dough using a structured protein suspension. The idea behind it is based on the hypothesis that a number of gluten properties originate from a particle structure present in the gluten network. Three different mesoscopically structured whey pr

  17. Development of iron-rich whey protein hydrogels following application of ohmic heating - Effects of moderate electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo N; Rodrigues, Rui M; Altinok, Emir; Ramos, Óscar L; Xavier Malcata, F; Maresca, Paola; Ferrari, Giovanna; Teixeira, José A; Vicente, António A

    2017-09-01

    The influence that ohmic heating technology and its associated moderate electric fields (MEF) have upon production of whey protein isolate cold-set gels mediated by iron addition was investigated. Results have shown that combining heating treatments (90°C, 5min) with different MEF intensities let hydrogels with distinctive micro and macro properties - i.e. particle size distribution, physical stability, rheological behavior and microstructure. Resulting hydrogels were characterized (at nano-scale) by an intensity-weighted mean particle diameter of 145nm, a volume mean of 240nm. Optimal conditions for production of stable whey protein gels were attained when ohmic heating treatment at a MEF of 3V∙cm(-1) was combined with a cold gelation step using 33mmol∙L(-1) of Fe(2+). The consistency index of hydrogels correlated negatively to MEF intensity, but a shear thickening behavior was observed when MEF intensity was increased up to 10V∙cm(-1). According to transmission electron microscopy, ohmic heating gave rise to a more homogenous and compact fine-stranded whey protein-iron microstructure. Ohmic heating appears to be a promising technique, suitable to tailor properties of whey protein gels and with potential for development of innovative functional foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flavor release and perception of flavored whey protein gels: Perception is determined by texture rather than by release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, K.G.C.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Alting, A.C.; Mil, van P.J.J.M.; Burger, J.J.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Smit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Five whey protein gels, with different gel hardnesses and waterholding capacities, were flavored with ethylbutyrate or diacetyl and evaluated by a 10-person panel to study the relation between the gel structure and the sensory perception, as well as the nosespace flavor concentration during eating.

  19. COST ESTIMATES OF TWIN SCREW EXTRUDED PRODUCTS: TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN SNACKS AND CORN-SOY BLEND USED FOR EMERGENCY FEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operating costs associated with twin screw extrusion cooking of various foods are fixed for a given size and production capacity for any class of products; the greater percentage of costs arise from the choice of ingredients and the product end use. For example, extruder texturized whey proteins...

  20. Effects of whey and fortified collagen hydrolysate protein supplements on nitrogen balance and body composition in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Nicholas P; Kim, Helen; Wells, Amanda M; Kajkenova, Oumitana; Evans, William J

    2009-06-01

    Many elderly people have a low intake of dietary protein, yet their protein requirement may be higher than the current Recommended Dietary Allowance. High-quality protein supplements may be useful to enhance nitrogen retention and increase the availability of essential amino acids in elderly people. We compared the nitrogen balance of two protein supplements (Resource Beneprotein Instant Protein Powder, Nestlé HealthCare Nutrition, Minnetonka, MN, a whey protein concentrate; or Pro-Stat 101, Medical Nutrition USA, Englewood, NJ, a concentrated, fortified, collagen protein hydrolysate) varying in type but not amount of protein content using a crossover study design. The study consisted of two 15-day diet trials separated by a > or = 1-week washout period. Nine healthy elderly women (age 71+/-1 years) were provided a eucaloric diet containing approximately the protein Recommended Dietary Allowance of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day. The supplements constituted about half of the total protein provided to each subject. Nitrogen balance responses were assessed over days 6 to 10 and days 11 to 14 of each trial. Measured nitrogen content of the foods indicated that subjects consumed 0.81+/-0.02 g protein/kg/day and 0.85+/-0.05 g/kg/day for the whey and fortified collagen protein trials, respectively. Body weight decreased (P=0.02) after consumption of the whey supplement, with no significant changes in body weight or composition resulting from the consumption of the collagen supplement. Nitrogen excretion was higher during the whey supplement trial than during the collagen trial (P=0.047). Therefore, a concentrated, fortified, hydrolyzed collagen protein supplement maintained nitrogen balance and preserved lean body mass during 15 days of consumption of a relatively low-protein diet.

  1. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel.

  2. Why whey? Camel whey protein as a new dietary approach to the management of free radicals and for the treatment of different health disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Gamal; Ramadan, Nancy K; Sayed, Leila H; Badr, Badr M; Omar, Hossam M; Selamoglu, Zeliha

    2017-01-01

    The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is an important factor for maintaining health and slowing disease progression. The use of antioxidants, particularly natural antioxidants, has become an important strategy for dealing with this cause of widespread diseases. Natural antioxidants have been used as therapeutic tools against many diseases because they are safe, effective, and inexpensive and are among the most commonly used adjuvants in the treatment of several diseases. Camel whey protein (CWP) is considered a strong natural antioxidant because it decreases oxidative stress, enhances immune system function, and increases glutathione levels. The structure of CWP is very similar to that of other types of whey protein from different types of milk. CWP contains many components, such as lactoferrin (LF), lactalbumin, lactoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme, and is rich in immunoglobulins. However, in contrast to other WPs, CWP lacks β-lactoglobulin, the main cause of milk allergies in children. The components of CWP have many beneficial effects, including stimulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been shown that CWP and its unique components can facilitate the treatment of impaired diabetic wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CWP in human and other animal disorders are not fully understood. Therefore, the current review presents a concise summary of the scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of CWP to support its therapeutic use in disease treatment and nutritional intervention. PMID:28804604

  3. Why whey? Camel whey protein as a new dietary approach to the management of free radicals and for the treatment of different health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Badr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The balance between free radicals and antioxidants is an important factor for maintaining health and slowing disease progression. The use of antioxidants, particularly natural antioxidants, has become an important strategy for dealing with this cause of widespread diseases. Natural antioxidants have been used as therapeutic tools against many diseases because they are safe, effective, and inexpensive and are among the most commonly used adjuvants in the treatment of several diseases. Camel whey protein (CWP is considered a strong natural antioxidant because it decreases oxidative stress, enhances immune system function, and increases glutathione levels. The structure of CWP is very similar to that of other types of whey protein from different types of milk. CWP contains many components, such as lactoferrin (LF, lactalbumin, lactoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, and lysozyme, and is rich in immunoglobulins. However, in contrast to other WPs, CWP lacks β-lactoglobulin, the main cause of milk allergies in children. The components of CWP have many beneficial effects, including stimulation of both innate and adaptive immunity and anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been shown that CWP and its unique components can facilitate the treatment of impaired diabetic wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CWP in human and other animal disorders are not fully understood. Therefore, the current review presents a concise summary of the scientific evidence of the beneficial effects of CWP to support its therapeutic use in disease treatment and nutritional intervention.

  4. Effects of the conjugation of whey proteins with gellan polysaccharides on surfactant-induced competitive displacement from the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, B; Ikeda, S

    2016-08-01

    Whey proteins can be used to stabilize foams and emulsions against coalescence because of their ability to form viscoelastic films at the interface that resist film rupture on collision between colloidal particles. However, whey proteins are competitively displaced from the interface if small-molecule surfactants are added, leading to destabilization of the entire system. This is because surfactants are more effective in molecular packing at the interface, and they lower interfacial tension to a greater degree than whey proteins do, but their interfacial films are poor in viscoelasticity. We hypothesized that whey proteins would become more resistant to surfactant-induced competitive displacement if they were conjugated with network-forming polysaccharides. The protein moiety of the conjugate would be expected to enable its adsorption to the interface, and the polysaccharide moiety would be expected to form self-assembled networks, strengthening the interfacial film as a whole. In this study, whey proteins were conjugated with gellan polysaccharides using the Maillard reaction. Atomic force microscopy images of interfacial films formed by the whey protein-gellan conjugate at the air-water interface and transferred onto mica sheets using the Langmuir-Blodgett method revealed that gellan did form self-assembled networks at the interface and that interfacial films also contained a large number of unconjugated whey protein molecules. Following the addition of a small-molecule surfactant (Tween 20) to the sub-phase, surface pressure increased, indicating spontaneous adsorption of surfactants to the interface. Atomic force microscopy images showed decreases in interfacial area coverage by whey proteins as surface pressure increased. At a given surface pressure, the interfacial area coverage by whey protein-gellan conjugates was greater than coverage by unconjugated whey proteins, confirming that whey proteins became more resistant to surfactant-induced displacement after

  5. Individual whey protein components influence lipid oxidation dependent on pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    amounts of the two. Emulsions were prepared at pH4 and pH7. Emulsions were characterized by their droplet sizes, viscosities, and contents of proteins in the water phase. Lipid oxidation was assessed by PV and secondary volatile oxidation products. Results showed that pH greatly influenced the oxidative......In emulsions, lipid oxidation is expected to be initiated at the oil-water interface. The properties of the emulsifier used and the composition at the interface is therefore expected to be of great importance for the resulting oxidation. Previous studies have shown that individual whey protein...... components (α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin) adsorb differently to the interface depending on pH. In addition, differences has been shown to exists between the oxidative stability provided by α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. The hypothesis is that pH influences the oxidative stability of emulsions...

  6. Whey protein hydrolysates enhance water absorption in the perfused small intestine of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Noma, Teruyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on the water absorption rate in the small intestine using a rat small intestine perfusion model. The rate was significantly higher with 5 g/L WPH than with 5 g/L soy protein hydrolysates or physiological saline (p absorption rate in the range of 1.25-10.0 g/L. WPH showed a significantly higher rate than an amino acid mixture whose composition was equal to that of WPH (p absorption (p absorption was significantly correlated with that of peptides/amino acids absorption in WPH (r = 0.82, p absorption-promoting effect, to which PepT1 contributes.

  7. Stability of whey protein hydrolysate powders: effects of relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Liu, Dasong; Chen, Xiaoxia; Chen, Yingjia; Labuza, Theodore P

    2014-05-01

    Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is now considered as an important and special dairy protein ingredient for its nutritional and functional properties. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of environmental relative humidity (RH) and storage temperature on the physicochemical stability of three WPH powders with hydrolysis degrees (DH) of 5.2%, 8.8% and 14.9%, respectively. The water sorption isotherms of the three WPH powders fitted the Guggenheim-Andersson-DeBoer model well. An increase in water content leaded to a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), following a linear Tg vs log water content relationship. Moreover, an increase in DH caused the decrease in Tg at the same water content. Changes in microstructure and colour occurred significantly when the WPH powders were stored at high environmental RH or temperature, especially for those with high DH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Orange-flavored soft drink with the addition of isolated whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Souza Prado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current assay developed an orange-flavored soda pop with the addition of isolated whey protein, bottled in a 2L-polyethylene terephthalate container and stored at room temperature for 90 days. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses were conducted periodically on the product. The physicochemical analysis showed pH 3.53, 11.5ºBrix and 224 mg of citric acid per 100 mL of the drink and the following proximal composition: protein 0.501%, humidity 88.9%, ash 0.084% and carbohydrates 10.5%. Microbiological analyses detected no microorganisms during the storage period of the drink. Sensorial analysis results had good acceptability. Results showed that the product is stable when stored at room temperature for 90 days. This beverage contains higher nutritional rates and the same calorie rates when compared to sodas and some oranges juices found on the consumer market.

  9. Influence of galactomannans with different molecular weights on the gelation of whey proteins at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sónia R; Tavares, Cláudia; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Moreno, Nuno; Lopes da Silva, J A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of locust bean gum, a galactomannan, with different molecular weights on the microstructure and viscoelastic properties of heat-induced whey protein gels has been studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy and small-deformation rheology. The results obtained clearly showed that differences in the molecular weight of the polysaccharide have a significant influence on the gel microstructure. Homogeneous mixtures and phase-separated systems, with dispersed droplet and bicontinuous morphologies, were observed by changing the polysaccharide/protein ratio and/or the molecular weight. At 11% whey protein, below the gelation threshold of the protein alone, the presence of the nongelling polysaccharide induces gelation to occur. At higher protein concentration, the main effect of the polysaccharide was a re-enforcement of the gel. However, at the higher molecular weight and concentration of the nongelling polymer, the protein network starts to lose elastic perfection, probably due to the formation of bicontinuous structures with lower connectivity.

  10. Fractionation of Whey Protein Isolate with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide—Process Modeling and Cost Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McAloon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2 as an acid to produce enriched fractions of α-lactalbumin (α-LA and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI containing 20% α-LA and 55% β-LG, through selective precipitation of α-LA. Pilot-scale experiments were performed around the optimal parameter range (T = 60 to 65 °C, P = 8 to 31 MPa, C = 5 to 15% (w/w WPI to quantify the recovery rates of the individual proteins and the compositions of both fractions as a function of processing conditions. Mass balances were calculated in a process flow-sheet to design a large-scale, semi-continuous process model using SuperproDesigner® software. Total startup and production costs were estimated as a function of processing parameters, product yield and purity. Temperature, T, pressure, P, and concentration, C, showed conflicting effects on equipment costs and the individual precipitation rates of the two proteins, affecting the quantity, quality, and production cost of the fractions considerably. The highest α-LA purity, 61%, with 80% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction, was obtained at T = 60 °C, C = 5% WPI, P = 8.3 MPa, with a production cost of $8.65 per kilogram of WPI treated. The most profitable conditions resulted in 57%-pure α-LA, with 71% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction and 89% β-LG recovery in the soluble fraction, and production cost of $5.43 per kilogram of WPI treated at T = 62 °C, C = 10% WPI and P = 5.5 MPa. The two fractions are ready-to-use, new food ingredients with a pH of 6.7 and contain no residual acid or chemical contaminants.

  11. Swelling of whey and egg white protein hydrogels with stranded and particulate microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    Swelling of protein hydrogels in alkaline conditions strongly depends on the gel microstructure. Stranded transparent gels swell as predicted using a modified Flory-Rehner model with the net protein charge. Particulate opaque gels swell very differently, with a sudden increase at a narrow pH range. Its swelling is not controlled by the protein charge, but by the destruction of the non-covalent interactions. Comparable dissolution thresholds, one with pH and another with the degree of swelling, are observed in both types of microstructures. These conclusions are valid for both whey protein isolate (WPI) gels and egg white gels, suggesting that they are universal for all globular proteins that can form such microscructures. Differences are observed, however, from the prevalent chemical crosslinks in each protein system. Non-covalent interactions dominate WPI gels; when such interactions are destroyed at pH≥11.5 the gels swell extensively and eventually dissolve. In egg white gels, the higher degree of disulphide crosslinking allows extensive swelling when non-covalent interactions are destroyed, but dissolution only occurs at pH≥13 when covalent crosslinks are cleaved. The current study highlights that the microstructure of protein hydrogels, a unique particularity of protein systems compared to other synthetic hydrogels, defines swelling.

  12. Influence of olive oil phenolic compounds on headspace aroma release by interaction with whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; De Luca, Lucia; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-04-22

    The release of volatile compounds in an oil-in-water model system obtained from olive oil-whey protein (WP) pairing was investigated by considering the effect of phenolic compounds. Human saliva was used to simulate mouth conditions by retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) analysis. Twelve aroma compounds were quantified in the dynamic headspace by SPME-GC/MS. The results showed significant influences of saliva on the aroma release of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatiles also in the presence of WP. The interaction between WP and saliva leads to lower headspace release of ethyl esters and hexanal. Salivary components caused lower decrease of the release of acetates and alcohols. A lower release of volatile compounds was found in the RAS essay in comparison to that in orthonasal simulation of only refined olive oil (without addition of saliva or WP), with the exception of hexanal and 1-penten-3-one, where a significantly higher release was found. Our results suggest that the extent of retronasal odor (green, pungent) of these two volatile compounds is higher than orthonasal odor. An extra VOO was used to verify the release in model systems, indicating that WP affected aroma release more than model systems, while saliva seems to exert an opposite trend. A significant increase in aroma release was found when phenolic compounds were added to the system, probably due to the contrasting effects of binding of volatile compounds caused by WP, for the polyphenol-protein interaction phenomenon. Our study could be applied to the formulation of new functional foods to enhance flavor release and modulate the presence and concentrations of phenolics and whey proteins in food emulsions/dispersions.

  13. Whey proteins have beneficial effects on intestinal enteroendocrine cells stimulating cell growth and increasing the production and secretion of incretin hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Calderwood, Danielle; Hobson, Laura; Green, Brian D

    2015-12-15

    Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin). ALA is a highly potent GLP-1 secretagogue which also increases the intracellular levels of GLP-1. Conversely, whey proteins and hydrolysates had little impact on GIP secretion. This appears to be the first investigation of the effects of the three major proteins of YW and CW on EE cells. The anti-diabetic potential of whey proteins should be further investigated.

  14. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Cinelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET/polyethylene (PE multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at

  15. Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of food packaging applications, high oxygen and water vapour barriers are the prerequisite conditions for preserving the quality of the products throughout their whole lifecycle. Currently available polymers and/or biopolymer films are mostly used in combination with barrier materials derived from oil based plastics or aluminium to enhance their low barrier properties. In order to replace these non-renewable materials, current research efforts are focused on the development of sustainable coatings, while maintaining the functional properties of the resulting packaging materials. This article provides an introduction to food packaging requirements, highlights prior art on the use of whey-based coatings for their barriers properties, and describes the key properties of an innovative packaging multilayer material that includes a whey-based layer. The developed whey protein formulations had excellent barrier properties almost comparable to the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH barrier layer conventionally used in food packaging composites, with an oxygen barrier (OTR of <2 [cm³(STP/(m²d bar] when normalized to a thickness of 100 μm. Further requirements of the barrier layer are good adhesion to the substrate and sufficient flexibility to withstand mechanical load while preventing delamination and/or brittle fracture. Whey-protein-based coatings have successfully met these functional and mechanical requirements.

  16. Kinetics of microstructure formation of high-pressure induced gel from a whey protein isolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jinsong; Yang Hongwei; Zhu Wanpeng [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mu Taihua, E-mail: mutaihuacaas@126.co [Institute of Agro-Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2010-03-01

    The kinetic process of pressure-induced gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied using in situ light scattering. The relationship of the logarithm of scattered light intensity (I) versus time (t) was linear after the induced time and could be described by the Cahn-Hilliard linear theory. With increasing time, the scattered intensity deviated from the exponential relationship, and the time evolution of the scattered light intensity maximum I{sub m} and the corresponding wavenumber q{sub m} could be described in terms of the power-law relationship as I{sub m}{approx}f{sup {beta}} and q{sub m}{approx}f{sup -}{alpha}, respectively. These results indicated that phase separation occurred during the gelation of WPI solutions under high pressure.

  17. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1].

  18. Kinetics of microstructure formation of high-pressure induced gel from a whey protein isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin-Song; Yang, Hongwei; Zhu, Wanpeng; Mu, Tai-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The kinetic process of pressure-induced gelation of whey protein isolate (WPI) solutions was studied using in situ light scattering. The relationship of the logarithm of scattered light intensity (I) versus time (t) was linear after the induced time and could be described by the Cahn-Hilliard linear theory. With increasing time, the scattered intensity deviated from the exponential relationship, and the time evolution of the scattered light intensity maximum Im and the corresponding wavenumber qm could be described in terms of the power-law relationship as Im~fβ and qm~f-α, respectively. These results indicated that phase separation occurred during the gelation of WPI solutions under high pressure.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara

    2016-03-01

    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications.

  20. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016 [1].

  1. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C Bassan

    Full Text Available Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  2. Buffalo Cheese Whey Proteins, Identification of a 24 kDa Protein and Characterization of Their Hydrolysates: In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Juliana C; Goulart, Antonio J; Nasser, Ana L M; Bezerra, Thaís M S; Garrido, Saulo S; Rustiguel, Cynthia B; Guimarães, Luis H S; Monti, Rubens

    2015-01-01

    Milk whey proteins are well known for their high biological value and versatile functional properties, characteristics that allow its wide use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, a 24 kDa protein from buffalo cheese whey was analyzed by mass spectrometry and presented homology with Bos taurus beta-lactoglobulin. In addition, the proteins present in buffalo cheese whey were hydrolyzed with pepsin and with different combinations of trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase-A. When the TNBS method was used the obtained hydrolysates presented DH of 55 and 62% for H1 and H2, respectively. Otherwise for the OPA method the DH was 27 and 43% for H1 and H2, respectively. The total antioxidant activities of the H1 and H2 samples with and without previous enzymatic hydrolysis, determined by DPPH using diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical, was 4.9 and 12 mM of Trolox equivalents (TE) for H2 and H2Dint, respectively. The increased concentrations for H1 and H2 samples were approximately 99% and 75%, respectively. The in vitro gastrointestinal digestion efficiency for the samples that were first hydrolyzed was higher compared with samples not submitted to previous hydrolysis. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, several amino acids were released in higher concentrations, and most of which were essential amino acids. These results suggest that buffalo cheese whey is a better source of bioavailable amino acids than bovine cheese whey.

  3. Enhanced colon cancer chemoprevention of curcumin by nanoencapsulation with whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Chidambara Murthy, Kotamballi N; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-10-15

    To improve bioavailability and enhance colon cancer prevention ability of curcumin, whey protein was used to nanoencapsulate at three different ratios such as 70:30, 50:50 and 35:65 for the first time. The drug loading, entrapment efficiency and structural changes of curcumin was confirmed by quantitative NMR spectroscopy. The nanoparticles prepared using the three ratios had an average diameters of 236.5±8.8, 212±3.4, and 187±11.4nm, as well as zeta (ζ) potentials of -13.1,-9.26, and -4.63mV, respectively, at pH 7.0. The cytotoxicity assay was performed for human colon and prostate cancer (SW480 and LNCap) by MTT assay and results showed significantly higher cytotoxicity of nanoencapsulated curcumin (NEC) (equivalent to 30.91, 20.70 and 16.86µM of NEC-1, 2 and 3 respectively), as compared to plain curcumin at 50µM after 72h of treatment. Cytotoxicity was also confirmed by microscopy of treated cells stained with acridine orange and propidium iodide. The cells treated with 50µM of curcumin, 30.91µM (NEC-1), 20.70µM (NEC-2) and 16.86µM (NEC-3) showed enhanced activation of p53 and elevated bax/Bcl2 expression (NEC-3), increased cytochrome-c in cytosol (NEC-2) confirming the enhanced cytotoxicity. To confirm the increased bioavailability, the intracellular curcumin was measured using fluorescence intensity. The fluorescent signal for intracellular curcumin was increased by 12, 30, and 21% for NEC-1, NEC-2, and NEC-3 respectively as compared to plain curcumin at 4h. Based on these results, we conclude that nanoencapsulated curcumin with whey protein will have potential to be considered for clinical applications for future studies.

  4. Efficacy of fermented milk and whey proteins in Helicobacter pylori eradication: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Aarti; Rawat, Swapnil; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is considered a necessary step in the management of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Standard triple therapy eradication regimens are inconvenient and achieve unpredictable and often poor results. Eradication rates are decreasing over time with increase in antibiotic resistance. Fermented milk and several of its component whey proteins have emerged as candidates for complementary therapy. In this context the current review seeks to summarize the current evidence available on their role in H. pylori eradication. Pertinent narrative/systematic reviews, clinical trials and laboratory studies on individual components including fermented milk, yogurt, whey proteins, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulin were comprehensively searched and retrieved from Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts/proceedings of conferences up to May 2013. A preponderance of the evidence available on fermented milk-based probiotic preparations and bovine lactoferrin suggests a beneficial effect in Helicobacter eradication. Evidence for α-LA and immunoglobulins is promising while that for glycomacropeptide is preliminary and requires substantiation. The magnitude of the potential benefit documented so far is small and the precise clinical settings are ill defined. This restricts the potential use of this group as a complementary therapy in a nutraceutical setting hinging on better patient acceptability/compliance. Further work is necessary to identify the optimal substrate, fermentation process, dose and the ideal clinical setting (prevention/treatment, first line therapy/recurrence, symptomatic/asymptomatic, gastritis/ulcer diseases etc.). The potential of this group in high antibiotic resistance or treatment failure settings presents interesting possibilities and deserves further exploration.

  5. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, D Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP. Objective: We investigated whether intact milk proteins lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and other risk markers of CVD. Design: The trial was a double-blinded, randomized, 3-way–crossover, controlled intervention study. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to consume 2 × 28 g whey protein/d, 2 × 28 g Ca caseinate/d, or 2 × 27 g maltodextrin (control)/d for 8 wk separated by a 4-wk washout. The effects of these interventions were examined with the use of a linear mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Significant reductions in 24-h BP [for systolic blood pressure (SBP): −3.9 mm Hg; for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): −2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.050 for both)] were observed after whey-protein consumption compared with control intake. After whey-protein supplementation compared with control intake, peripheral and central systolic pressures [−5.7 mm Hg (P = 0.007) and −5.4 mm Hg (P = 0.012), respectively] and mean pressures [−3.7 mm Hg (P = 0.025) and −4.0 mm Hg (P = 0.019), respectively] were also lowered. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased significantly after both whey-protein and calcium-caseinate intakes compared with control intake [1.31% (P whey protein and calcium caseinate significantly lowered total cholesterol [−0.26 mmol/L (P = 0.013) and −0.20 mmol/L (P = 0.042), respectively], only whey protein decreased triacylglycerol (−0.23 mmol/L; P = 0.025) compared with the effect of the control. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 were reduced after whey protein consumption (P = 0.011) and after calcium-caseinate consumption (P = 0.039), respectively, compared

  6. Use of {gamma}-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, M. E-mail: monique.lacroix@inrs-iaf.uquebec.ca; Le, T.C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S.F.; Mateescu, M.A.; Patterson, G

    2002-03-01

    {gamma}-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. {gamma}-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  7. Use of /γ-irradiation to produce films from whey, casein and soya proteins: structure and functionals characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, M.; Le, T. C.; Ouattara, B.; Yu, H.; Letendre, M.; Sabato, S. F.; Mateescu, M. A.; Patterson, G.

    2002-03-01

    γ-irradiation and thermal treatments have been used to produce sterilized cross-linked films. Formulations containing variable concentrations of calcium caseinate and whey proteins (whey protein isolate (WPI) and commercial whey protein concentrate) or mixture of soya protein isolate (SPI) with WPI was investigated on the physico-chemical properties of these films. Results showed that the mechanical properties of cross-linked films improved significantly the puncture strength for all types of films. Size-exclusion chromatography showed for no cross-linked proteins, a molecular mass of around 40 kDa. The soluble fractions of the cross-linked proteins molecular distributions were between 600 and 3800 kDa. γ-irradiation seems to modify to a certain extent the conformation of proteins which will adopt structures more ordered and more stable, as suggested by X-ray diffraction analysis. Microstructure observations showed that the mechanical characteristics of these films are closely related to their microscopic structure. Water vapor permeability of films based on SPI was also significantly decreased when irradiated. Microbial resistance was also evaluated for cross-linked films. Results showed that the level of biodegradation of cross-linked films was 36% after 60 d of fermentation in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  8. Secretion of whey acidic protein and cystatin is down regulated at mid-lactation in the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K.R.; Fisher, J.A.; Muths, E.; Trott, J.; Janssens, P.A.; Reich, C.; Shaw, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    Milk collected from the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) between day 100 and 260 of lactation showed major changes in milk composition at around day 200 of lactation, the time at which the pouch young begins to temporarily exit the pouch and eat herbage. The carbohydrate content of milk declined abruptly at this time and although there was only a small increase in total protein content, SDS PAGE analysis of milk revealed asynchrony in the secretory pattern of individual proteins. The levels of ??-lactalbumin, ??-lactoglobulin, serum albumin and transferrin remain unchanged during lactation. In contrast, the protease inhibitor cystatin, and the putative protease inhibitor whey acidic protein (WAP) first appeared in milk at elevated concentrations after approximately 150 days of lactation and then ceased to be secreted at approximately 200 days. In addition, a major whey protein, late lactation protein, was first detected in milk around the time whey acidic protein and cystatin cease to be secreted and was present at least until day 260 of lactation. The co-ordinated, but asynchronous secretion of putative protease inhibitors in milk may have several roles during lactation including tissue remodelling in the mammary gland and protecting specific proteins in milk required for physiological development of the dependent young. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Partially hydrolyzed whey proteins prevent clinical symptoms in a cow's milk allergy mouse model and enhance regulatory T and B cell frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewiet, Mensiena B Gea; van Esch, Betty C A M; Garssen, Johan; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2017-07-05

    Partially hydrolyzed cow's milk proteins are used to prevent cow's milk allergy in children. Here we studied the immunomodulatory mechanisms of partial cow's milk hydrolysates in vivo. Mice were sensitized with whey or partially hydrolyzed whey using cholera toxin. Whey-specific IgE levels were measured to determine sensitization and immune cell populations from spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches after oral whey administration were measured by flowcytometry. Whey-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in partial whey hydrolysate sensitized animals were enhanced, but challenge did not induce clinical symptoms. This immunomodulatory effect of partial whey hydrolysate was associated with increased regulatory B and T cells in the spleen, together with a prevention of IgM-IgA class switching in the mesenteric lymph nodes and an increased Th1 and activated Th17 in the Peyer's patches. Partial hydrolysate sensitization did not induce whey-induced clinical symptoms, even though sensitization was established. Increased regulatory cell populations in the systemic immune system and a prevention of increased total Th1 and activated Th17 in the intestinal immune organs could contribute to the suppression of allergic symptoms. This knowledge is important for a better understanding of the beneficial effects of hydrolysates. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Application of whey protein incorporation with Cinnamon oil as a preservative in Huse huso fillet under chilled storage condition

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradable protein-based film was developed by incorporating cinnamon essential oil (CEO) into whey protein concentrate (WPC) at level of 0.8% and 1.5% v/v. Then physical and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. Adding CEO to the WPC matrix decreased the water vapour permeability of the films and water solubility. Films containing CEO showed significant antibacterial activity both gram-positive and gram-negative strains and exhibited significant inhibitory effe...

  11. A Diet Containing Whey Protein, Free Glutamine, and Transforming Growth Factor-  Ameliorates Nutritional Outcome and Intestinal Mucositis during Repeated Chemotherapeutic Challenges in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boukhettala, N; Ibrahim, A; Aziz, M; Vuichoud, J; Saudan, K.-Y; Blum, S; Dechelotte, P; Breuille, D; Coeffier, M

    2010-01-01

    ...), containing whey proteins, glutamine, and transforming growth factor-[beta] (TGF[beta])-rich casein limits intestinal mucositis and improves recovery after a single methotrexate (MTX) challenge in rats...

  12. The effects of creatine and whey protein supplementation on body composition in men aged 48 to 72 years during resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, K A; Knehans, A W; Bemben, D A; Witten, M S; Carter, J; Bemben, M G

    2008-03-01

    Creatine and whey protein are supplements believed to have an ergogenic effect. Very little is known regarding the effects of these dietary supplements in older men. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of creatine and whey protein supplements, consumed independently and in combination, on total and regional body composition in middle-aged men during a resistance-training program. Forty-two men were randomly assigned to four groups to receive supplements according to a double-blind protocol. Groups consumed their supplements three times per week immediately following their resistance training sessions. The groups were: 1) placebo (480 ml of Gatorade); 2) creatine (480 ml of Gatorade plus 5 grams of creatine); 3) whey protein (480 ml of Gatorade plus 35 grams of whey protein powder); and 4) whey protein/creatine (480 ml of Gatorade plus 5 grams of creatine and 35 grams of whey protein powder). All groups participated in resistance training 3 times per week for 14 weeks. At the beginning and end of the study, total and regional measures of body composition (DXA) and total (TBW), intracellular (ICW), and extracellular (ECW) body water (Multifrequency BIA) were measured and 3-day diet records were completed. There were significant training effects for regional arm fat (decrease), regional arm bone free-fat free mass (BF-FFM - increase), total body BF-FFM (increase), ICW (increase), and ECW (increase) but no significant group effects and only one significant group by training interaction (ECW). There were no significant changes for total calorie, carbohydrate, fat or protein intake for any of the groups from prestudy to post-study testing. The results from this study suggest that supplementation with creatine, whey protein, or a combination of creatine and whey protein, when combined with resistance training in middle-aged men, have no added benefit to changes that occur to body composition due to resistance training alone.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindayikengera, Séverin; Xia, Wen-shui

    2006-02-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard. The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  14. Nutritional evaluation of caseins and whey proteins and their hydrolysates from Protamex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SINDAYIKENGERA Séverin; XIA Wen-shui

    2006-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC 80) and sodium caseinate were hydrolyzed by Protamex to 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% degree of hydrolysis (DH). WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were then analyzed, compared and evaluated for their nutritional qualities. Their chemical composition, protein solubility, amino acid composition, essential amino acid index (EAA index), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI), chemical score, enzymic protein efficiency ratio (E-PER) and in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) were determined. The results indicated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of WPC 80 and sodium caseinate by Protamex improved the solubility and IVPD of their hydrolysates. WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were high-quality proteins and had a surplus of essential amino acids compared with the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) reference standard.The nutritive value of WPC 80 and its hydrolysates was superior to that of sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates as indicated by some nutritional parameters such as the amino acid composition, chemical score, EAA index and predicted BV. However, the E-PER was lower for the WPC hydrolysates as compared to unhydrolyzed WPC 80 but sodium caseinate and its hydrolysates did not differ significantly. The nutritional qualities of WPC 80, sodium caseinate and their hydrolysates were good and make them appropriate for food formulations or as nutritional supplements.

  15. Propriedades funcionais de hidrolisados obtidos a partir de concentrados protéicos de soro de leite Functional properties of whey protein hydrolysates from milk whey proteins concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a atividade funcional de hidrolisados obtidos por diferentes sistemas enzimáticos. Foram selecionadas proteáses de origem animal (pancreatina e bacteriana (protamex e alcalase. A atividade funcional foi monitorada pela dosagem de glutationa no fígado e testes de atividade imunológica no baço para reação imunológica primária (IgM através da contagem de células formadoras de placa (CFP. Nos ensaios biológicos foram utilizados camundongos isogênicos da linhagem A/J, em dieta AIN com 20% de proteínas na forma dos hidrolisados ou de concentrado de soro de leite. O número de CFP não diferiu estatisticamente para os hidrolisados de pancreatina e protamex, sendo inferior (PThe object of this work was to compare the functional activity of whey protein concentrate (WPC and its hydrolysates produced by different enzyme systems. Pancreatin and microbial (protamex and alcalase were utilized. Functional activity was monitored by liver concentration of glutathione and primary immunological response (IgM in spleen (PFC. In the biological assays isogênic mice A/J, fed on an AIN modified diet (20% WPC or its hydrolysates were used. ThePFC number did not differ for pancreatin and protemix hydrolysates but was inferior for alcalase hydrolysate (p<0.05. Liver glutathione concentration showed a high positive correlation (r=0,992 with the PFC number in the spleen.

  16. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became......Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  17. Use of whey protein beads as a new carrier system for recombinant yeasts in human digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Blanquet, Stéphanie; Beyssac, Eric; Remondetto, Gabriel; Subirade, Muriel; Alric, Monique

    2006-12-15

    A new immobilizing protocol using whey protein isolates was developed to entrap recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The model yeast strain expresses the heterologous P45073A1 that converts trans-cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid. Beads resulted from a cold-induced gelation of a whey protein solution (10%) containing yeasts (7.5 x 10(7)cells ml(-1)) into 0.1M CaCl(2). The viability and growth capability of yeasts were not altered by our entrapment process. The release and activity of immobilized yeasts were studied in simulated human gastric conditions. During the first 60 min of digestion, 2.2+/-0.9% (n=3) of initial entrapped yeasts were recovered in the gastric medium suggesting that beads should cross the gastric barrier in human. The P45073A1 activity of entrapped yeasts remained significantly higher (pwhey protein beads. The main potential medical applications include biodetoxication or the correction of digestive enzyme deficiencies.

  18. Chemical characterisation and determination of sensory attributes of hydrolysates produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins following a novel integrative process

    OpenAIRE

    Welderufael, Fisseha Tesfay; Gibson, Trevor; Methven, Lisa; Jauregi, Paula

    2012-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to characterize the major angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins, through the application of a novel integrative process. This process consisted of the combination of adsorption and microfiltration within a stirred cell unit for the selective immobilization of β-lactoglobulin and casein derived peptides (CDP) from whey. The adsorbed proteins were hydrolyzed in-situ which resulted in the separat...

  19. 水牛奶乳清蛋白的热稳定性%Heat stability of whey proteins from buffalo milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 杨士花; 夏晓辉; 李淳; 初雅洁; 黄艾祥

    2012-01-01

    以水牛奶为材料,利用native-PAGE和SDS-PAGE,通过不同温度和加热条件下总乳清蛋白和单体蛋白质量浓度的变化,研究水牛奶乳清蛋白的热稳定性.结果表明:水牛奶乳清蛋白在native-PAGE条件下只有β-LG一条条带,在SDS-PAGE条件下得到4条单体乳清蛋白条带;随着提取温度和时间的增加,水牛奶单体乳清蛋白和总乳清蛋白质量浓度均呈下降趋势,说明水牛奶乳清蛋白热稳定性较差;4种乳清单体蛋白中,α-LA的热稳定性最好,IG的热稳定性最差,热稳定性顺序为:α-LA>β-LG>BSA>IG.%The heat stability of buffalo milk whey proteins were investigated by means of the changes of total whey proteins and individual whey protein at different heat temperatures and times, using native-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. Results showed only β-LG was found by native-PAGE, but four whey protein bands were found by SDS-PAGE. Individual whey protein and total whey proteins contents were decreased when temperatures and times were increased, indicated buffalo whey proteins had poor heat stability. Among the four individual whey protein, α-LA exhibited the strongest heat-tolerance but IG was opposite. The heat stability order was: α-LA >β-LG >BSA>IG.

  20. Physical Stability of Octenyl Succinate-Modified Polysaccharides and Whey Proteins for Potential Use as Bioactive Carriers in Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerta-Gomez, Alex F; Castell-Perez, M Elena

    2015-06-01

    The high cost and potential toxicity of biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) has increased the interest in natural and modified biopolymers as bioactive carriers. This study characterized the physical stability (water sorption and state transition behavior) of selected starch and proteins: octenyl succinate-modified depolymerized waxy corn starch (DWxCn), waxy rice starch (DWxRc), phytoglycogen, whey protein concentrate (80%, WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and α-lactalbumin (α-L) to determine their potential as carriers of bioactive compounds under different environmental conditions. After enzyme modification and particle size characterization, glass transition temperature and moisture isotherms were used to characterize the systems. DWxCn and DWxRc had increased water sorption compared to native starch. The level of octenyl succinate anhydrate (OSA) modification (3% and 7%) did not reduce the water sorption of the DWxCn and phytoglycogen samples. The Guggenheim-Andersen-de Boer model indicated that native waxy corn had significantly (P whey proteins had higher glass transition temperature (Tg) values. On the other hand, depolymerized waxy starches at 7%-OSA modification had a "melted" appearance when exposed to environments with high relative humidity (above 70%) after 10 days at 23 °C. The use of depolymerized and OSA-modified polysaccharides blended with proteins created more stable blends of biopolymers. Hence, this biopolymer would be suitable for materials exposed to high humidity environments in food applications.

  1. Immobilization and utilization of the recombinant fusion proteins trypsin-streptavidin and streptavidin-transglutaminase for modification of whey protein isolate functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Christopher P; Clare, Debra A; Valentine, Val W; Swaisgood, Harold E

    2002-06-19

    A method was developed for the production of a hydrolyzed/polymerized whey protein derivative with altered solution and gelation properties using a combination of recombinant DNA and immobilized enzyme technologies. The recombinant fusion proteins trypsin-streptavidin (TrypSA) and streptavidin-transglutaminase (cSAcTG) were produced in Escherichia coli, extracted, and then immobilized by selective adsorption on biotinylated controlled-pore glass. Recirculation through a TrypSA reactor induced limited proteolysis of whey proteins. Hydrolysates were then recirculated through a cSAcTG reactor for incremental periods of time to arrive at increasing degrees of polymerization. The polymers were subsequently analyzed for viscosity/flow behavior, gelation properties, and fracture properties using shear rate ramps/intrinsic viscosity, small-strain oscillatory rheology, and vane viscometry, respectively. By combining limited proteolysis with controlled cross-linking, it was possible to create derivatives of whey proteins with enhanced functional properties. Increases in the degree of whey protein modification were correlated with greater apparent viscosity and intrinsic viscosity, lowered gel point temperatures, and stronger, more brittle gels. This method allowed for recycling of the enzyme, eliminated the requirement for a downstream inactivation step, and permitted control over the extent of modification. Utilization of a similar process may allow for the production of designer proteins engineered with specific functionalities.

  2. Development, chemical and sensory characterization of semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Regina Antunes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop, to perform the chemical characterization and verify the acceptability of a semi skim yogurt added with whey protein concentrate (WPC 35 %, and compare it to traditional yogurt, without adding any protein source. For this, two formulations were prepared: 1- traditional semi skim and 2: semi skim added with WPC 35 %, with subsequent evaluation of physicochemical characteristics of acidity, pH and viscosity, as well as the compositional analysis of the levels of humidity, full solids, ash, protein, fat and carbohydrates for both formulations. The sensory analysis was performed with 80 untrained tasters, which was based on parameters of appearance, taste, flavor and consistency. The appearance and consistency parameters showed a significant difference between received grades, and the yogurt added with WPC 35 % the most preferred these aspects, as well as the formulation with the highest widespread acceptance among testers. The results indicate that the use of WPC 35 % in foods is a promising alternative, considering the overall acceptance obtained, the protein content beneficial to the consumers health, the improvement of technological properties provided to food coupled to the extent which it is produced, low cost and reducing the damage caused to the environment. 

  3. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  4. Effect of whey protein hydrolysate on performance and recovery of top-class orienteering runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Bibby, Bo Martin; Madsen, Klavs

    2015-04-01

    This trial aimed to examine the effect of whey protein hydrolysate intake before and after exercise sessions on endurance performance and recovery in elite orienteers during a training camp. Eighteen elite orienteers participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial during a 1-week training camp (13 exercise sessions). Half of the runners (PRO-CHO) ingested a protein drink before (0.3 g kg(-1)) and a protein-carbohydrate drink after (0.3 g protein kg(-1) and 1 g carbohydrate kg(-1)) each exercise session. The others ingested energy and time-matched carbohydrate drinks (CHO). A 4-km run-test with 20 control points was performed before and on the last day of the intervention. Blood and saliva were obtained in the mornings, before and after run-tests, and after the last training session. During the intervention, questionnaires were fulfilled regarding psychological sense of performance capacity and motivation. PRO-CHO and not CHO improved performance in the 4-km run-test (interaction p orienteers.

  5. Oral administration of bovine whey proteins to mice elicits opposing immunoregulatory responses and is adjuvant dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFUWAPE, A O; TURNER, M W; STROBEL, S

    2004-01-01

    Most studies investigating the induction of oral tolerance (OT) use purified proteins such as ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG). Little information is available regarding the induction of OT to a protein mixture, e.g. cow's milk. In this study we compared the regulatory mechanisms induced after the oral administration of a whey protein concentrate (WP) derived from cow's milk following immunization with two different adjuvants, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and alum. OVA was used as a control antigen. Animals were given a single feed of these proteins at an equivalent dose of 1 mg/g body weight before they were immunized seven days later with the antigen in Freund's adjuvant or alum. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were suppressed by both a feed of WP and OVA after immunization with CFA. However, only OVA feeding suppressed antigen specific IgG responses. In an attempt to investigate whether WP would tolerize the more susceptible IgE responses, alum immunization replaced CFA as the adjuvant used for systemic immunizations. WP, after a single feed, significantly primed for DTH and IgE responses indicating oral sensitization to WP. In contrast, OVA suppressed DTH, IgE and IgG responses. Antigen specific proliferation of mononuclear cells was suppressed in mice fed OVA, but primed in those fed with WP. In addition cells taken from sensitized mice fed WP up-regulated levels of specific interleukin (IL) -4, -10 and -12 in vitro whereas these cytokines were suppressed in cultures from tolerant WP fed mice. Global suppression was obtained in cultures from tolerant OVA fed mice. TGF-β was not detected in draining PLN cell cultures of either tolerant or sensitized mice. These data suggest that a whey protein mixture induces divergent responses following immunization with either CFA or alum despite being fed at an identical dose. We suggest that that the choice of the adjuvant may determine the immunoregulatory

  6. Increase in antioxidant activity by sheep/goat whey protein through nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) is cell type dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerasioti, Efthalia; Stagos, Dimitrios; Tzimi, Aggeliki; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms through which sheep/goat whey protein exerts its antioxidant activity. Thus, it was examined whey protein's effects on the expression of transcription factor, nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) and on the expression and activity of a number of antioxidant and phase II enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), synthase glutamyl cysteine (GCS) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), in muscle C2C12 and EA.hy926 endothelial cells. C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells were treated with sheep/goat whey protein (0.78 and 3.12 mg/ml) and incubated for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Whey protein increased significantly the expression of Nrf2 only in EA.hy926 cells. Also, the expression of SOD, HO-1, CAT and the activity of SOD, CAT and GST were increased significantly in both cells types. The expression of GCS was increased significantly only in C2C12 cells. Sheep/goat whey protein was shown for the first time to exert its antioxidant activity through Nrf2-dependent mechanism in endothelial cells and Nrf2-independent mechanism in muscle cells. Thus, Nrf2 could be a target for food supplements containing whey protein in order to prevent oxidative stress damages and diseases related to endothelium.

  7. Lesser suppression of energy intake by orally ingested whey protein in healthy older men compared with young controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Rigda, Rachael; Hutchison, Amy T; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Jones, Karen L; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2015-10-15

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in young and older people. Protein is the most satiating of the macronutrients in young. It is not known how the effects of oral protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying are modified by age. The aim of the study was to determine the suppression of energy intake by protein compared with control and underlying gastric-emptying and appetite responses of oral whey protein drinks in eight healthy older men (69-80 yr) compared with eight young male controls (18-34 yr). Subjects were studied on three occasions to determine the effects of protein loads of 30 g/120 kcal and 70 g/280 kcal compared with a flavored water control-drink (0 g whey protein) on energy intake (ad libitum buffet-style meal), and gastric emptying (three-dimensional-ultrasonography) and appetite (0-180 min) in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Energy intake was suppressed by the protein compared with control (P = 0.034). Suppression of energy intake by protein was less in older men (1 ± 5%) than in young controls (15 ± 2%; P = 0.008). Cumulative energy intake (meal+drink) on the protein drink days compared with the control day increased more in older (18 ± 6%) men than young (1 ± 3%) controls (P = 0.008). Gastric emptying of all three drinks was slower in older men (50% gastric-emptying time: 68 ± 5 min) than young controls (36 ± 5 min; P = 0.007). Appetite decreased in young, while it increased in older (P protein-induced suppression of energy intake by whey protein compared with young controls, so that in the elderly men, protein ingestion increased overall energy intake more than in the young men.

  8. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kadzińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3 % of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32 of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90. Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (ΔE increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg’s equation (R2≥0.99. The tensile strength, Young’s modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  9. Moisture Sensitivity, Optical, Mechanical and Structural Properties of Whey Protein-Based Edible Films Incorporated with Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Sabina; Kadzińska, Justyna

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this work is to study the effect of the rapeseed oil content on the physical properties of whey protein emulsion films. For this purpose, whey protein films with the addition of 0, 1, 2 and 3% of rapeseed oil, and glycerol as a plasticizer were obtained by the casting method. Film-forming emulsions were evaluated and compared using light scattering granulometry. The Sauter mean diameters (d32) of lipid droplets in film-forming solutions showed an increasing trend when increasing the oil volume fractions. The inclusion of rapeseed oil enhanced the hydrophobic character of whey protein films, reducing moisture content and film solubility in water. All emulsified films showed high lightness (L*≈90). Parameter a* decreased and parameter b* and total colour difference (∆E) increased with the increase of the volume fractions of oil. These results were consistent with visual observations; control films were transparent and those containing oil opaque. Water vapour sorption experimental data at the full range of water activity values from 0.11 to 0.93 were well described with Peleg's equation (R(2)≥0.99). The tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break increased with the increase of rapeseed oil volume fraction, which could be explained by interactions between lipids and the protein matrix. These results revealed that rapeseed oil has enormous potential to be incorporated into whey protein to make edible film or coating for some food products. The mechanical resistance decreased with the addition of the lipids, and the opacity and soluble matter content increased.

  10. Milk Whey Processes: Current and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced whey processing technologies are yielding a wealth of quality ingredients with recognized positive health benefits. Processes such as ultrafiltration and extrusion are providing potential advancements in functional properties and enabling creation of healthy products containing whey protein...

  11. Dietary whey protein stimulates mitochondrial activity and decreases oxidative stress in mouse female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, Howard G; Krishan, Mansi; Genter, Mary Beth

    2013-08-26

    In humans and experimental animals, protein-enriched diets are beneficial for weight management, muscle development, managing early stage insulin resistance and overall health. Previous studies have shown that in mice consuming a high fat diet, whey protein isolate (WPI) reduced hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance due in part to an increase in basal metabolic rate. In the current study, we examined the ability of WPI to increase energy metabolism in mouse brain. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal AIN-93M diet for 12 weeks, with (WPI group) or without (Control group) 100g WPI/L drinking water. In WPI mice compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals were 40% lower in brain homogenates, and the production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were 25-35% less in brain mitochondria. Brain mitochondria from WPI mice remained coupled, and exhibited higher rates of respiration with proportionately greater levels of cytochromes a+a3 and c+c1. These results suggested that WPI treatment increased the number or improved the function of brain mitochondria. qRT-PCR revealed that the gene encoding a master regulator of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis, Pgc-1alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha) was elevated 2.2-fold, as were the PGC-1alpha downstream genes, Tfam (mitochondrial transcription factor A), Gabpa/Nrf-2a (GA-binding protein alpha/nuclear respiratory factor-2a), and Cox-6a1 (cytochrome oxidase-6a1). Each of these genes had twice the levels of transcript in brain tissue from WPI mice, relative to controls. There was no change in the expression of the housekeeping gene B2mg (beta-2 microglobulin). We conclude that dietary whey protein decreases oxidative stress and increases mitochondrial activity in mouse brain. Dietary supplementation with WPI may be a useful clinical intervention to treat conditions associated with oxidative stress or diminished mitochondrial activity in the

  12. Whey protein hydrolysate enhances HSP90 but does not alter HSP60 and HSP25 in skeletal muscle of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soares Moura

    Full Text Available Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH intake has shown to increase HSP70 expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether WPH intake would also influences HSP90, HSP60 and HSP25 expression, as well as associated parameters. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (unstressed and exercised (stressed groups, and were fed with three different sources of protein: whey protein (WP, whey protein hydrolysate (WPH and casein (CAS as a control, based on the AIN93G diet for 3 weeks. WPH intake increased HSP90 expression in both sedentary and exercised animals compared to WP or CAS, however no alteration was found from exercise or diet to HSP60 or HSP25. Co-chaperone Aha1 and p-HSF1 were also increased in the exercised animals fed with WPH in comparison with WP or CAS, consistent with enhanced HSP90 expression. VEGF and p-AKT were increased in the WPH exercised group. No alteration was found in BCKDH, PI3-Kinase (p85, GFAT, OGT or PGC for diet or exercise. The antioxidant system GPx, catalase and SOD showed different responses to diet and exercise. The data indicate that WPH intake enhanced factors related to cell survival, such as HSP90 and VEGF, but does not alter HSP60 or HSP25 in rat skeletal muscle.

  13. Toward Separating Alpha-lactalbumin and Beta-lactoglobulin Proteins from Whey through Cation-exchange Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mayyada; Chase, Howard

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the cation-exchange adsorption of the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) with the purpose of establishing a process for isolating them from cow's milk whey. The single- and two-component adsorption of 1.5 mg/ml ALA and 3 mg/ml BLG to the cation-exchanger SP Sepharose FF at 20° C using 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 3.7 was studied. Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined for the pure proteins. In two-component systems, BLG breakthrough curve exhibited an overshoot phenomenon that gave evidence for the presence of a competitive adsorption between the two proteins. Complete separation occurred and it was possible to obtain each of the two proteins in a pure form. The process was then applied to a whey concentrate mixture where incomplete separation took place. However, BLG was produced with 95% purity and a recovery of 80%, while ALA showed an 84% recovery with low purity.

  14. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  15. Relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, M; Stading, M; Hermansson, A M

    2000-09-01

    This work was focused on the relationship between the microstructure and the mechanical and barrier properties of whey protein isolate (WPI) films. Sorbitol (S) and glycerol (G) were used as plasticizers and the pH was varied between 7 and 9. The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions and dried in a climate room at 23 degrees C and 50% relative humidity for 16 h. The microstructure of the films was found to be dependent on the concentration, the plasticizers, and the pH. When the concentration increased, a more aggregated structure was formed, with a denser protein network and larger pores. This resulted in increased water vapor permeability (WVP) and decreased oxygen permeability (OP). When G was used as a plasticizer instead of S, the microstructure was different, and the moisture content and WVP approximately doubled. When the pH increased from 7 to 9, a denser protein structure was formed, the strain at break increased, and the OP decreased.

  16. Effects of ionic strength on the enzymatic hydrolysis of diluted and concentrated whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butré, Claire I; Wierenga, Peter A; Gruppen, Harry

    2012-06-06

    To identify the parameters that affect enzymatic hydrolysis at high substrate concentrations, whey protein isolate (1-30% w/v) was hydrolyzed by Alcalase and Neutrase at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. No changes were observed in the solubility and the aggregation state of the proteins. With increasing concentration, both the hydrolysis rate and the final DH decreased, from 0.14 to 0.015 s(-1) and from 24 to 15%, respectively. The presence of 0.5 M NaCl decreased the rate of hydrolysis for low concentrations (to 0.018 s(-1) for 1% WPI), resulting in similar rates of hydrolysis for all substrate concentrations. The conductivity increase (by increasing the protein concentration, or by addition of NaCl) has significant effects on the hydrolysis kinetics, but the reason for this is not yet well understood. The results show the importance of conductivity as a factor that influences the kinetics of the hydrolysis, as well as the composition of the hydrolysates.

  17. Double emulsions stabilized by a charged complex of modified pectin and whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Rachel; Aserin, Abraham; Wicker, Louis; Garti, Nissim

    2009-08-01

    Double emulsions based on naturally occurring stabilizers for food applications were studied. Two charged biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and enzymatic modified pectins, interacted in aqueous solution to form a charge-charge complex that was utilized as a hydrophilic polymeric steric stabilizer improving the double emulsion stability. The main factors that influence the interaction between protein and pectin were investigated in relation to double emulsion stability: creaming, coalescence, and water transport between aqueous phases. The pH determined the size of the complex formed. Thus at pH 6, where a soluble complex was obtained between some molecular positively charged patches on the protein and negatively charged fractions of the hydrocolloids, the double emulsion was the most stable. With the smallest droplet size (ca. 15 microm), the lowest creaming, highest yield, and minimized water transport were obtained. The best concentration and ratio to form the soluble complex are 4 wt% WPI and 0.5 wt% pectin (for 30 wt% of the W/O inner phase). The influence of the charge distribution (degree of order of the carboxylic groups) of the pectin on the associated complex was also investigated, and it was found that the more "ordered" pectin (U63) formed the most stable double emulsion against water transport.

  18. Effect of whey protein concentrate on texture of fat-free desserts: sensory and instrumental measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand how changes in the product formulation can modify its characteristics. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein concentrate (WPC on the texture of fat-free dairy desserts. The correlation between instrumental and sensory measurements was also investigated. Four formulations were prepared with different WPC concentrations (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 wt. (% and were evaluated using the texture profile analysis (TPA and rheology. Thickness was evaluated by nine trained panelists. Formulations containing WPC showed higher firmness, elasticity, chewiness, and gumminess and clearly differed from the control as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA. Flow behavior was characterized as time-dependent and pseudoplastic. Formulation with 4.5% WPC at 10 °C showed the highest thixotropic behavior. Experimental data were fitted to Herschel-Bulkley model. The addition of WPC contributed to the texture of the fat-free dairy dessert. The yield stress, apparent viscosity, and perceived thickness in the dairy desserts increased with WPC concentration. The presence of WPC promotes the formation of a stronger gel structure as a result of protein-protein interactions. The correlation between instrumental parameters and thickness provided practical results for food industries.

  19. Protective effect of whey protein hydrolysates against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Ling, Yu-Fang; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Li; Yu, Hui-Xin; Kamau, Samuel Mburu; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2012-11-01

    The protective effect of whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage on rat pheochromocytoma line 12 (PC12) cells was studied. Whey protein was hydrolyzed by pepsin and trypsin and purified by macrospore absorption resins. PC12 cells were pretreated with WPHs (from 369 to 1,980 Da) at different concentrations for 2 h, then washed and incubated with 100 μM H(2)O(2) in the presence of WPHs for another 24 h. With 100-400 μg WPH/ml the viable cells increased by 20-30 % when incubated with H(2)O(2) suggesting that they may play a role as antioxidant in foods.

  20. Edible films and coatings from whey proteins: a review on formulation, and on mechanical and bioactive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Oscar L; Fernandes, João C; Silva, Sara I; Pintado, Manuela E; Malcata, F Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The latest decade has witnessed joint efforts by the packaging and the food industries to reduce the amount of residues and wastes associated with food consumption. The recent increase in environmental awareness has also contributed toward development of edible packaging materials. Viable edible films and coatings have been successfully produced from whey proteins; their ability to serve other functions, viz. carrier of antimicrobials, antioxidants, or other nutraceuticals, without significantly compromising the desirable primary barrier and mechanical properties as packaging films, will add value for eventual commercial applications. These points are tackled in this review, in a critical manner. The supply of whey protein-based films and coatings, formulated to specifically address end-user needs, is also considered.

  1. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    : The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...

  2. Alginate-whey protein dry powder optimized for target delivery of essential oils to the intestine of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Gong, J; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Defelice, C; Hernandez, M; Yin, Y; Wang, Q

    2014-10-01

    In poultry production, there is a lack of effective and convenient approaches to deliver bioactive compounds such as some essential oils, which have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this research was to develop a method for target delivery of essential oils in feed to the lower intestines of chickens. Carvacrol was used as a model essential oil, and 2 food-grade biopolymers, alginate and whey protein, were selected to encapsulate carvacrol in microparticles. The effects of a medium molecular weight alginate, a low molecular weight alginate (LBA), and whey protein concentrations on the properties of carvacrol-loaded microparticles were investigated using response surface methodology. The encapsulation efficiencies for all the tested formulations were ≥ 98% and carvacrol content in the dry microparticles was 72 ± 2% (wt/wt). The microparticles showed good gastric resistance and rapid intestinal release under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Alginate concentrations had the strongest influence on the gastric resistance of microparticles, whereas whey protein was the dominant parameter in controlling the intestinal release. The concentration of LBA was found to be the critical factor affecting the mechanical strength of the microparticles. A predicted optimum formulation from in vitro optimization was tested in chickens. It was found that a negligible amount of carvacrol was detected in the intestines of chickens fed with unencapsulated carvacrol. Microparticles of predicted optimum formulation delivered a remarkably higher concentration of carvacrol to the jejunum and ileum regions. The high concentration was sustained for more than 3 h after oral administration. The in vivo release of carvacrol from the microparticles appeared faster than release from in vitro simulation. Nonetheless, the in vitro simulation provided good indications of the in vivo performance, and thus may serve as a useful tool for formula

  3. The effect of temperature on adhesion forces between surfaces and model foods containing whey protein and sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Goode, K. R.; Bowen, James; Akhtar, N.; Robbins, P. T.; Fryer, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of fouling deposit from foods and food components is a severe problem in food processing and leads to frequent cleaning. The design of surfaces that resist fouling may decrease the need for cleaning and thus increase efficiency. Atomic force microscopy has been used to measure adhesion forces between stainless steel (SS) and fluoro-coated glass (FCG) microparticles and the model food deposits (i) whey protein (WPC), (ii) sweetened condensed milk, and (iii) caramel. Measurements ...

  4. Peptic and tryptic hydrolysis of native and heated whey protein to reduce its antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Ki, K S; Khan, M A; Lee, W S; Lee, H J; Ahn, B S; Kim, H S

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the effects of enzymes on the production and antigenicity of native and heated whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysates. Native and heated (10 min at 100 degrees C) WPC (2% protein solution) were incubated at 50 degrees C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min with 0.1, 0.5, and 1% pepsin and then with 0.1, 0.5, and 1% trypsin on a protein-equivalent basis. A greater degree of hydrolysis was achieved and greater nonprotein nitrogen concentrations were obtained in heated WPC than in native WPC at all incubation times. Hydrolysis of WPC was increased with an increasing level of enzymes and higher incubation times. The highest hydrolysis (25.23%) was observed in heated WPC incubated with 1% pepsin and then with 1% trypsin for 120 min. High molecular weight bands, such as BSA, were completely eliminated from sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE of both native and heated WPC hydrolysates produced with pepsin for the 30-min incubation. The alpha-lactalbumin in native WPC was slightly degraded when incubated with 0.1% pepsin and then with 0.1% trypsin; however, it was almost completely hydrolyzed within 60 min of incubation with 0.5% pepsin and then with 0.5% trypsin. Incubation of native WPC with 1% pepsin and then with 1% trypsin for 30 min completely removed the BSA and alpha-lactalbumin. The beta-lactoglobulin in native WPC was not affected by the pepsin and trypsin treatments. The beta-lactoglobulin in heated WPC was partially hydrolyzed by the 0.1 and 0.5% pepsin and trypsin treatments and was completely degraded by the 1% pepsin and trypsin treatment. Antigenicity reversibly mimicked the hydrolysis of WPC and the removal of beta-lactoglobulin from hydrolysates. Antigenicity in heated and native WPC was reduced with an increasing level of enzymes. A low antigenic response was observed in heated WPC compared with native WPC. The lowest antigenicity was observed when heated WPC was incubated with 1% pepsin and then with 1% trypsin. These results suggested that

  5. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND GROWTH IN INFANTS WITH COWS MILK PROTEIN INTOLERANCE USING 2 DIFFERENT WHEY-PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE BASED FORMULAS IN A PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE SETTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERWIMP, JJM; BINDELS, JG; BARENTS, M; HEYMANS, HSA

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept(R) or Pepti Junior(R). The efficacy of

  6. SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND GROWTH IN INFANTS WITH COWS MILK PROTEIN INTOLERANCE USING 2 DIFFERENT WHEY-PROTEIN HYDROLYSATE BASED FORMULAS IN A PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE SETTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERWIMP, JJM; BINDELS, JG; BARENTS, M; HEYMANS, HSA

    1995-01-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept(R) or Pepti Junior(R). The efficacy of

  7. In vivo evaluation of whey protein-based biofilms as scaffolds for cutaneous cell cultures and biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud [Faculte de medecine dentaire, GREB, Universite Laval, Quebec (Ciheam) G1K 7P4 (Canada); Gilbert, Vanessa [Unite de Biotechnologie, Institut des biomateriaux, Hopital Saint-Francois d' Assise, CHUQ, 10 de l' Espinay, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Wang Hongxum [Unite de Biotechnologie, Institut des biomateriaux, Hopital Saint-Francois d' Assise, CHUQ, 10 de l' Espinay, Quebec G1L 3L5 (Canada); Subirade, Muriel [Chaire de recherche du Canada sur les proteines, bio-systemes et aliments fonctionnels, Centre de Recherche INAF/STELA, Universite Laval, Quebec (Ciheam) G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity, biodegradability and immunogenicity of newly developed whey protein-based biofilms for possible use as biomaterials for medical applications. Biofilms were prepared using (A) a whey protein isolate plasticized with either diethylene glycol (DEG) or glycerol (GLY), and (B) {beta}-lactoglobulin ({beta}LGA) plasticized with DEG. The biofilms were implanted subcutaneously into Balb/c mice. Analyses were performed at various time points. At 15, 30 and 60 days post-implantation, no necrotic zones or exudates were present at the recipient sites. The biofilms began to degrade as early as 15 days post-implantation, as evidenced by erosion and crumbling. The macroscopic observations were supported by tissue analyses revealing no tissue necrosis or degradation and confirming that the biodegradation of the biofilms began as early as 15 days post-implantation and was almost complete after 60 days. The biodegradation was accompanied by significant leukocyte infiltration at 15 days which significantly decreased at 60 days. The absence of splenomagaly in the implanted mice confirms that these biofilms were not immunogenic. Whey protein-based biofilms are biocompatible and biodegradable and may be of interest for medical applications such as scaffolds for cutaneous cell cultures and skin recovery in burn patients.

  8. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  9. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ticinesi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.

  10. In vivo evaluation of whey protein-based biofilms as scaffolds for cutaneous cell cultures and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Gilbert, Vanessa; Wang, Hongxum; Subirade, Muriel

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity, biodegradability and immunogenicity of newly developed whey protein-based biofilms for possible use as biomaterials for medical applications. Biofilms were prepared using (A) a whey protein isolate plasticized with either diethylene glycol (DEG) or glycerol (GLY), and (B) beta-lactoglobulin (betaLGA) plasticized with DEG. The biofilms were implanted subcutaneously into Balb/c mice. Analyses were performed at various time points. At 15, 30 and 60 days post-implantation, no necrotic zones or exudates were present at the recipient sites. The biofilms began to degrade as early as 15 days post-implantation, as evidenced by erosion and crumbling. The macroscopic observations were supported by tissue analyses revealing no tissue necrosis or degradation and confirming that the biodegradation of the biofilms began as early as 15 days post-implantation and was almost complete after 60 days. The biodegradation was accompanied by significant leukocyte infiltration at 15 days which significantly decreased at 60 days. The absence of splenomagaly in the implanted mice confirms that these biofilms were not immunogenic. Whey protein-based biofilms are biocompatible and biodegradable and may be of interest for medical applications such as scaffolds for cutaneous cell cultures and skin recovery in burn patients.

  11. Urinary loss of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates as revealed by metabolomics studies: an underlying mechanism to reduce lipid accretion by whey protein ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillefosse, Haldis H; Clausen, Morten R; Yde, Christian C; Ditlev, Ditte B; Zhang, Xumin; Du, Zhen-Yu; Bertram, Hanne C; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-05-02

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by (1)H NMR and LC-MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC-MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC-MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice.

  12. Effects of incorporation of whey protein concentrate on physicochemical, texture, and microbial evaluation of developed cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Hamid Wani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whey Protein concentrate (WPC was incorporated into cookies at different levels (0, 2, 4, and 6%. Cookies were analyzed for physicochemical, color, textural, microbial, and sensory attributes. Physicochemical analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookies shows maximum protein content (13.22%, moisture content (11.33%, fat content (23.08%, and ash content (2.02% as compared to control. However, control sample shows significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 value for crude fiber and carbohydrate content. Maximum thickness (9.63 mm, diameter (44.06 mm, and weight (9.10 g were found for control and these decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.05 with increase in WPC supplementation level in cookies. Cookie supplemented with 4% WPC showed maximum overall acceptability (4.76. Texture analysis revealed that 6% WPC supplemented cookie shows maximum cutting force (55.3 N. Lightness (L* value of cookies decreased from 67.32 to 57.94. Where as a* and b* value increased from 0.37 to 3.57 and 25.35 to 27.54, respectively. The total plate count of cookie samples was under acceptable limits.

  13. Stability and in vitro digestibility of emulsions containing lecithin and whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Raphaela Araujo; Cavallieri, Ângelo Luiz Fazani; Netto, Flavia Maria; Cunha, Rosiane Lopes

    2013-09-01

    The effect of pH and high-pressure homogenization on the properties of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions stabilized by lecithin and/or whey proteins (WPI) was evaluated. For this purpose, emulsions were characterized by visual analysis, droplet size distribution, zeta potential, electrophoresis, rheological measurements and their response to in vitro digestion. Lecithin emulsions were stable even after 7 days of storage and WPI emulsions were unstable only at pH values close to the isoelectric point (pI) of proteins. Systems containing the mixture of lecithin and WPI showed high kinetic instability at pH 3, which was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the emulsifiers oppositely charged at this pH value. At pH 5.5 and 7, the mixture led to reduction of the droplet size with enhanced emulsion stability compared to the systems with WPI or lecithin. The stability of WPI emulsions after the addition of lecithin, especially at pH 5.5, was associated with the increase of droplet surface charge density. The in vitro digestion evaluation showed that WPI emulsion was more stable against gastrointestinal conditions.

  14. Interaction of Whey Proteins with Phenolic Derivatives Under Neutral and Acidic pH Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2017-02-01

    Integration of gallic acid (GA) and its derivative epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; 20, 120, and 240 μmol/g, protein basis) into whey protein isolate (WPI) at room temperature and pH 3.0 and pH 7.0 was investigated. At pH 7.0, both phenolics caused significant structural changes and EGCG induced greater digestibility of WPI. Total sulfhydryl in WPI decreased from 28.6 to 7.6 μmol/g and surface hydrophobicity declined by nearly 50% with 240 μmol/g EGCG at pH 7.0. Similar but less appreciable changes were produced by GA and at pH 3.0. Isothermal titration and fluorescence quenching tests showed moderately weak binding of WPI with GA but strong binding with EGCG at pH 7.0. Both phenolics at high concentrations lowered the thermal transition temperature of β-lactoglobulin by 0.5 °C to 1.4 °C and promoted its digestion. The phenolics also displayed a remarkable synergism with peptides in the WPI digest exerting radical scavenging activity. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. The Secondary Structure of Heated Whey Protein and Its Hydrolysates Antigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANGZhi-hua; ZHU Jun; WU Wei-jing; WANG Fang; RENFa-zheng; ZHANG Lu-daa; GUOHui-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FFIR) and circular dichroism (CD) were used to investigate the conformational changes of heated whey protein (WP) and the corresponding changes in the hydrolysates immunoreactivity were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results showed that the contents of α- helix and β-sheet of WP did not decrease much under mild heating conditions and the antigenicity was relatively high; when the heating intensity increased (70 ℃ for 25 min or 75 ℃ for 20 min),the content of α- helix and β-sheet decreased to the minimum,so was the antigenicity; However,when the WP was heated at even higher temperature and for a longer time,the β-sheet associated with protein aggregation begun to increase and the antigenicity increased correspondingly.It was concluded that the conformations of heated WP and the antigenicity of its hydrolysates are related and the optimum structure for decreasing the hydrolysates antigeniity is the least content of α-helix and β-sheet.Establishing the elationship between the WP secondary structure and WP hydrolysates antigenicity is significant to supply the reference for antigenicity reduction by enzymolysis.

  16. Whey protein aerogel as blended with cellulose crystalline particles or loaded with fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Maede; Madadlou, Ashkan; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-04-01

    Whey protein hydrogels blended with nanocrystalline and microcrystalline cellulose particles (NCC and MCC, respectively) were prepared, followed by freeze-drying, to produce aerogels. NCC blending increased the Young's modulus, and elastic character, of the protein aerogel. Aerogels were microporous and mesoporous materials, as characterized by the pores sizing 1.2 nm and 12.2 nm, respectively. Blending with NCC decreased the count of both microporous and mesoporous-classified pores at the sub-100 nm pore size range investigated. In contrast, MCC blending augmented the specific surface area and pores volume of the aerogel. It also increased moisture sorption affinity of aerogel. The feasibility of conveying hydrophobic nutraceuticals by aerogels was evaluated through loading fish oil into the non-blended aerogel. Oil loading altered its microstructure, corresponding to a peak displacement in Fourier-transform infra-red spectra, which was ascribed to increased hydrophobic interactions. Surface coating of aerogel with zein decreased the oxidation susceptibility of the loaded oil during subsequent storage.

  17. Whey protein concentrate doped electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibers for antibiotic release improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Said Mahmoud; Ahmed, Hanaa; Tian, Chang; Tu, Qin; Guo, Yadan; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-07-01

    Design and fabrication of scaffolds using appropriate biomaterials are a key step for the creation of functionally engineered tissues and their clinical applications. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible material with negligible cytotoxicity, is widely used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds by electrospinning for the applications of pharmaceutical products and wound dressings. However, the use of PCL as such in tissue engineering is limited due to its poor bioregulatory activity, high hydrophobicity, lack of functional groups and neutral charge. With the attempt to found nanofiber scaffolds with antibacterial activity for skin tissue engineering, in this study, whey protein concentrate (WPC) was used to modify the PCL nanofibers by doping it in the PCL electrospun solution. By adding proteins into PCL nanofibers, the degradability of the fibers may be increased, and this further allows an antibiotic incorporated in the fibers to be efficiently released. The morphology, wettability and degradation of the as-prepared PCL/WPC nanofibers were carefully characterized. The results showed that the PCL/WPC nanofibers possessed good morphology and wettability, as well as high degradation ability to compare with the pristine PCL fibers. Afterwords, tetracycline hydrochloride as a model antibiotic drug was doped in the PCL/WPC nanofibers. In vitro drug release assays demonstrated that PCL/WPC nanofibers had higher antibiotic release capability than the PCL nanofibers. Also, antibacterial activity evaluation against various bacteria showed that the drug-doped PCL/WPC fibers possessed more efficient antibacterial activity than the PCL nanofibers.

  18. Effectiveness of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin as a food emulsifier: Comparison to whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingfeng; Zhong, Junzhen; Chen, Jun; Liu, Chengmei; Luo, Liping; Luo, Shunjing; Wu, Lixin; McClements, David Julian

    2016-12-15

    The emulsifying properties of partially hydrolyzed rice glutelin (H-RG, 2% degree of hydrolysis) were compared to those of whey isolate protein (WPI), a commonly used protein-based emulsifier. The surface load of WPI (1% emulsifier, d32=167.5nm) was 2.8 times lower than that of H-RG (3% emulsifier, d32=159.0nm). Emulsions containing WPI-coated lipid droplets had better stability to pH changes (2-8), NaCl addition (0-500mM) and thermal processing (30-90°C, 0 or 200mM NaCl). Nevertheless, H-RG emulsions were stable over a range of conditions: pH 6-8; NaCl≤200 (pH 7); temperatures≤90°C in the absence of salt (pH 7); and temperatures≤50°C in the presence of 200mM NaCl (pH 7). This study indicates that H-RG may be utilized as a natural emulsifier in the development of label-friendly emulsion-based food products, but that further work is needed to increase the range of applications.

  19. Functional properties of whey proteins affected by heat treatment and hydrodynamic high-pressure shearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, M; Vasiljevic, T

    2009-04-01

    Two batches of native whey proteins (WP) were subjected to microfluidization or heat denaturation accompanied by microfluidization, followed by spray drying. Powders were assessed for their solubility, heat stability, coagulation time, and emulsifying and foaming properties. Effects of denaturation and shearing were examined by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, reducing and nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC. Heat treatment significantly decreased solubility, whereas the number of microfluidization passes markedly improved solubility. The combined effect of heat and pressure significantly increased heat coagulation time. Emulsifying activity index substantially increased upon heat denaturation and was further enhanced by microfluidization. Emulsion stability appeared unaffected by the combined treatment, but the concentration of adsorbed protein on fat droplets was significantly increased. Foaming properties were diminished by heating. Particle size distribution patterns, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and size exclusion-HPLC revealed disappearance of major WP and creation of relatively higher, as well as smaller, molecular weight aggregates as a result of the 2 treatments. The use of heat and microfluidization in combination could be used to stabilize WP against heat by producing microparticulated species that have different surface and colloidal properties compared with native WP. These results have implications for the use of WP as an additive in heat-processed foods.

  20. The effect of feed solids concentration and inlet temperature on the flavor of spray dried whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that unit operations in whey protein manufacture promote off-flavor production in whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed solids concentration in liquid retentate and spray drier inlet temperature on the flavor of dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 ppm hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain WPC80 retentate (25% solids, wt/wt). The liquid retentate was then diluted with deionized water to the following solids concentrations: 25%, 18%, and 10%. Each of the treatments was then spray dried at the following temperatures: 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the WPC80 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Particle size and surface free fat were also analyzed. Both main effects (solids concentration and inlet temperature) and interactions were investigated. WPC80 spray dried at 10% feed solids concentration had increased surface free fat, increased intensities of overall aroma, cabbage and cardboard flavors and increased concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, decanal, (E)2-decenal, DMTS, DMDS, and 2,4-decadienal (P < 0.05) compared to WPC80 spray dried at 25% feed solids. Product spray dried at lower inlet temperature also had increased surface free fat and increased intensity of cardboard flavor and increased concentrations of pentanal, (Z)4-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, 2,4-nonadienal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2- and 3-methyl butanal (P < 0.05) compared to product spray dried at higher inlet temperature. Particle size was higher for powders from increased feed solids concentration and increased inlet temperature (P < 0.05). An increase in feed solids concentration in the liquid retentate and inlet temperature within the parameters evaluated decreased off-flavor intensity in the resulting WPC80.

  1. Whey protein lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function and lipid biomarkers in adults with prehypertension and mild hypertension: results from the chronic Whey2Go randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Ágnes A; Giromini, Carlotta; Chatzidiakou, Yianna; Givens, D Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the greatest cause of death globally, and their reduction is a key public-health target. High blood pressure (BP) affects 1 in 3 people in the United Kingdom, and previous studies have shown that milk consumption is associated with lower BP. We investigated whether intact milk proteins lower 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and other risk markers of CVD. The trial was a double-blinded, randomized, 3-way-crossover, controlled intervention study. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to consume 2 × 28 g whey protein/d, 2 × 28 g Ca caseinate/d, or 2 × 27 g maltodextrin (control)/d for 8 wk separated by a 4-wk washout. The effects of these interventions were examined with the use of a linear mixed-model ANOVA. Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Significant reductions in 24-h BP [for systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.9 mm Hg; for diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.5 mm Hg; P = 0.050 for both)] were observed after whey-protein consumption compared with control intake. After whey-protein supplementation compared with control intake, peripheral and central systolic pressures [-5.7 mm Hg (P = 0.007) and -5.4 mm Hg (P = 0.012), respectively] and mean pressures [-3.7 mm Hg (P = 0.025) and -4.0 mm Hg (P = 0.019), respectively] were also lowered. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased significantly after both whey-protein and calcium-caseinate intakes compared with control intake [1.31% (P risk factors. Whey-protein supplementation also lowered 24-h ambulatory SBP and DBP. These results may have important implications for public health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02090842.

  2. Pickering emulsions stabilized by whey protein nanoparticles prepared by thermal cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Li, Wei; Zhao, Luhai; Wang, Ze; Yan, Xinzhong; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    A Pickering (o/w) emulsion was formed and stabilized by whey protein isolate nanoparticles (WPI NPs). Those WPI NPs were prepared by thermal cross-linking of denatured WPI proteins within w/o emulsion droplets at 80°C for 15 min. During heating of w/o emulsions containing 10% (w/v) WPI proteins in the water phase, the emulsions displayed turbid-transparent-turbid phase transitions, which is ascribed to the change in the size of the protein-containing water droplets caused by thermal cross-linking between denatured protein molecules. The transparent stage indicated the formation of WPI NPs. WPI NPs of different sizes were obtained by varying the mixing speed. WPI NPs of 200-500 nm were selected to prepare o/w Pickering emulsions because of their good stability against coalescence. By Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, it was observed that WPI NPs were closely packed and distributed at the surface of the emulsion droplets. By measuring water contact angles of WPI NPs films, it was found that under most conditions WPI NPs present good partial wetting properties, but that at the isoelectric point (pI) and high ionic strength the particles become more hydrophobic, resulting in less stable Pickering emulsion. Thus, at pH above and below the pI of WPI NPs and low to moderate ionic strengths (1-10 mM), and with a WPI NPs concentration of 2% (w/v), a stable Pickering emulsion can be obtained. The results may provide useful information for applications of WPI NPs in environmentally friendly and food grade applications, notably in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

  3. Production and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) generated by Alcaligenes latus using lactose and whey after acid protein precipitation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwig, Karina Hammel; Baldasso, Camila; Dettmer, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Whey after acid protein precipitation was used as substrate for PHB production in orbital shaker using Alcaligenes latus. Statistical analysis determined the most appropriate hydroxide for pH neutralization of whey after protein precipitation among NH4OH, KOH and NaOH 10%w/v. The results were compared to those of commercial lactose. A scale-up test in a 4L bioreactor was done at 35°C, 750rpm, 7L/min air flow, and 6.5 pH. The PHB was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. NH4OH provided the best results for productivity (p), 0.11g/L.h, and for polymer yield, (YP/S), 1.08g/g. The bioreactor experiment resulted in lower p and YP/S. PHB showed maximum degradation temperature (291°C), melting temperature (169°C), and chemical properties similar to those of standard PHB. The use of whey as a substrate for PHB production did not affect significantly the final product quality.

  4. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines.

  5. Effect of Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, and Urea on the Molecular Interactions and Properties of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm3 (STP/standard temperature and pressure) 100 μm (m2 d bar)−1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 μm (m2 d)−1 measured at 50 to 0% r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:28149835

  6. Effect of sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and urea on the molecular interactions and properties of whey protein isolate-based films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm³ (STP / standard temperature and pressure) 100 µm (m² d bar)-1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 µm (m² d)-1 measured at 50 to 0 % r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient.

  7. Physicochemical Characterization and Potential Prebiotic Effect of Whey Protein Isolate/Inulin Nano Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jeon, Na-Eun; Kim, Jin Wook; Han, Kyoung-Sik; Yun, Sung Seob; Lee, Mee-Ryung; Lee, Won-Jae

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the impacts of concentration levels of whey protein isolate (WPI) and inulin on the formation and physicochemical properties of WPI/inulin nano complexes and to evaluate their potential prebiotic effects. WPI/inulin nano complexes were produced using the internal gelation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and particle size analyzer were used to assess the morphological and physicochemical characterizations of nano complexes, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency of resveratrol in nano complexes was studied using HPLC while the potential prebiotic effects were investigated by measuring the viability of probiotics. In TEM micrographs, the globular forms of nano complexes in the range of 10 and 100 nm were successfully manufactured. An increase in WPI concentration level from 1 to 3% (w/v) resulted in a significant (pnano complexs while inulin concentration level did not affect the size of nano complexes. The polydispersity index of nano complexes was below 0.3 in all cases while the zeta-potential values in the range of -2 and -12 mV were observed. The encapsulation efficiency of resveratrol was significantly (pnano complexes exhibited similar viability of probiotics with free inulin and had significantly (pnano complexes and had potential prebiotic effect.

  8. Aging of whey protein films and the effect on mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, M; Stading, M; Hermansson, A M

    2001-02-01

    This work focuses on the aging of whey protein isolate (WPI) films plasticized with glycerol (G) and sorbitol (S). The films were cast from heated aqueous solutions at pH 7 and dried at 23 degrees C and 50% relative humidity (RH) for 16 h. They were stored in a climate room (23 degrees C, 50% RH) for 120 days, and the film properties were measured at regular intervals. The moisture content (MC) of the WPI/G films decreased from 22% (2 days) to 15% (45 days) and was thereafter constant at 15% (up to 120 days). This affected the mechanical properties and caused an increased stress at break (from 2.7 to 8.3 MPa), a decreased strain at break (from 33 to 4%), and an increased glass transition temperature (T(g)) (from -56 to -45 degrees C). The barrier properties were, however, unaffected, with constant water vapor permeability and a uniform film thickness. The MC of the WPI/S films was constant at approximately 9%, which gave no change in film properties.

  9. FDA's health claim review: whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula and atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Carolyn S; Yamini, Sedigheh; Trumbo, Paula R

    2012-08-01

    In this review, we explain how the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) used its evidence-based review system to evaluate the scientific evidence for a qualified health claim for 100% whey-protein partially hydrolyzed infant formula (W-PHF) and reduced risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). The labeling of health claims, including qualified health claims, on conventional foods and dietary supplements require premarket approval by the FDA. Health claims characterize the relationship between a substance (food or food component) and disease (eg, cancer or cardiovascular disease) or health-related condition (eg, hypertension). To determine whether sufficient evidence exists to support the qualified health claim, the FDA evaluated human intervention studies that evaluated the role of W-PHF in reducing the risk of AD. The FDA concluded there is little to very little evidence, respectively, to support a qualified health claim concerning the relationship between intake of W-PHF and a reduced risk of AD in partially breastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants throughout the first year after birth and up to 3 years of age. In addition, the FDA required a warning statement be displayed along with the health claim to indicate to consumers that partially hydrolyzed infant formulas are not hypoallergenic and should not be fed to infants who are allergic to milk or to infants with existing milk allergy symptoms.

  10. Drying and denaturation characteristics of whey protein isolate in the presence of lactose and trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Amdadul; Chen, Jie; Aldred, Peter; Adhikari, Benu

    2015-06-15

    The denaturation kinetics of whey protein isolate (WPI), in the presence and absence of lactose and trehalose, was quantified in a convective air-drying environment. Single droplets of WPI, WPI-lactose and WPI-trehalose were dried in conditioned air (2.5% RH, 0.5m/s air velocity) at two temperatures (65°C and 80°C) for 500s. The initial solid concentration of these solutions was 10% (w/v) in all the samples. Approximately 68% of WPI was denatured when it was dried in the absence of sugars. Addition of 20% trehalose prevented the irreversible denaturation of WPI at both temperatures. Thirty percent lactose was required to prevent denaturation of WPI at 65°C and the same amount of lactose protected only 70% of WPI from denaturation at 80°C. The secondary structures of WPI were found to be altered by the drying-induced stresses, even in the presence of 20% trehalose and 30% lactose.

  11. Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim

    2010-05-01

    Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil.

  12. Bovine whey protein concentrate supplementation modulates maturation of immune system in suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Marín-Gallén, Silvia; Castell, Margarida; Rodríguez-Palmero, María; Rivero, Montserrat; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina

    2007-10-01

    During neonatal life, challenges from breast milk and microbial flora promote immune system maturation. Immunonutrition in these stages may become an important way to increase natural defence systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a daily bovine milk whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplement on the intestinal and systemic immune systems in suckling rats. The composition of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes (IEL and LPL) was analysed by flow cytometry. Systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were determined by sera Ig levels and Ig-secreting cell quantification by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. From birth, suckling Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC or standard infant formula (SIF). The WPC group showed the same proportion of most of the main mucosal cell subsets as the reference animals. However, in the first days of life WPC enhanced the innate immunity by increasing the NK cell proportion in both epithelial and lamina propria (LP) compartments. A rise in intestinal CD8alphaalpha+ IEL was also induced by WPC supplementation. A time-course of sera Ig levels and spontaneous IgA, IgM and IgG production by LPL and mononuclear cells from blood and spleen, in the WPC group, exhibited a similar pattern to those pups fed only by dam's milk. In summary, the present results show the effects of WPC on enhancing mucosal innate immunity during early life.

  13. Mathematical modelling of flux recovery during chemical cleaning of tubular membrane fouled with whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Jelena Đ.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane process efficiency in the dairy industry is impaired by the formation of deposits during filtration processes. This work describes cleaning procedures for ceramic tubular membrane (50 nm fouled with whey proteins. Also, mathematical modelling was performed to obtain models which allow deeper insight into the mechanisms involved during cleaning procedures. The caustic solutions (0.2%w/w, 0.4%w/w and 1.0%w/w NaOH and the mixture of two commercial detergents (0.8%w/w P3-ultrasil 69+0.5% w/w P3-ultrasil 67 and 1.2% P3-ultrasil 69+0.75 P3-ultrasil 67 were used as chemical cleaning agents. The results showed that the best flux recovery was achieved with 0.4%w/w NaOH solution. After analyzing the experimental data, five parameter and six parameter kinetic models were suggested for alkali and detergent cleaning, respectively. The changes of total and specific resistances, as well as the change of the effective pore diameter and deposit thickness during cleaning are estimated by applying these models.

  14. Activity of encapsulated Lactobacillus bulgaricus in alginate-whey protein microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yan Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, alginate-whey protein was used as wall materials for encapsulating Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus. The characteristics of encapsulated and free L. bulgaricus showed that the free L. bulgaricus lost viability after 1 min exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF at pH 2.0 and 2.5. However, the viability of encapsulated L. bulgaricus did not decrease in SGF at pH 2.5 for 2 h incubation. The viable numbers of encapsulated L. bulgaricus decreased less than 1.0 log unit for 2 h incubation in SGF at pH 2.0. For bile stability, only 1.2 log units and 2.0 log units viability of the encapsulated L. bulgaricus was lost in 1 and 2% bile for 1 h exposure, respectively, compared with no survival of free L. bulgaricus under the same conditions. Encapsulated L. bulgaricus was completely released from the microspheres in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 6.8 in 3 h. The viability of the encapsulated L. bulgaricus retained more 8.0 log CFU/g after stored at 4°C for four weeks. However, for free L. bulgaricus, only around 3.0 log CFU/mL was found at the same storage conditions. Results showed that the encapsulation could improve the stability of L. bulgaricus.

  15. Coated whey protein/alginate microparticles as oral controlled delivery systems for probiotic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Hoffart, Valérie; Beyssac, Eric; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Alric, Monique; Subirade, Muriel

    2010-01-01

    Viable Saccharomyces boulardii, used as a biotherapeutic agent, was encapsulated in food-grade whey protein isolate (WP) and alginate (ALG) microparticles, in order to protect and vehicle them in gastrointestinal environment. Yeast-loaded microparticles with a WP/ALG ratio of 62/38 were produced with high encapsulation efficiency (95%) using an extrusion/cold gelation method and coated with ALG or WP by a simple immersion method. Swelling, yeast survival, WP loss and yeast release in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, pH 1.2 and 7.5) with and without their respective digestive enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin) were investigated. In SGF, ALG network shrinkage limited enzyme diffusion into the WP/ALG matrix. Coated and uncoated WP/ALG microparticles were resistant in SGF even with pepsin. Survival of yeast cells in microparticles was 40% compared to 10% for free yeast cells and was improved to 60% by coating. In SIF, yeast cell release followed coated microparticle swelling with a desirable delay. Coated WP/ALG microparticles appear to have potential as oral delivery systems for Saccharomyces boulardii or as encapsulation means for probiotic cells in pharmaceutical or food processing applications.

  16. Hydrophobicity, thermal and micro-structural properties of whey protein concentrate-pullulan-beeswax films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Khanzadi, Mehrdad; Mirzaei, Habibollah; Dehnad, Danial; Chegini, Faramarz Khodaian; Maghsoudlou, Yayha

    2015-09-01

    In this research, effects of beeswax (BW) on functional properties of whey protein concentrates (WPC):pullulan (PUL) films were investigated. For this purpose, 0, 10, 20 and 30w/w(glycerol)% BW rates and 30:70, 50:50 and 70:30w/w% WPC:PUL ratios were applied. Films containing 70% WPC:30% PUL (WPC70) and 30% BW (BW30) justified the highest contact angle (92.4°) among all films; SEM micrographs indicated that BW could come toward the surface of films during drying stage and resulted in a higher hydrophobic behavior of bilayer films compared with blend films. WPC70 supplied the lowest T(g) values (36-48 °C) among different proportions of WPC-PUL; the highest melting points were just assured in the absence of BW regardless of combination ratio for WPI:PUL. BW30 films deserved lower roughness rates than BW20 (and even BW10) films, indicating more advantageous microstructure and higher hydrogen connections in BW30 films and justifying similar melting points attained for BW30 films to BW20 or 10 ones. Overall, application of WPC70 and BW30 was recommended to obtain optimum combination of final properties for WPC-PUL-BW bilayer films as SEM exhibited flexible and elastic structures of such films.

  17. Explaining the texture properties of whey protein isolate/starch co-gels from fracture structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    The effects of tapioca starch (TS) and potato starch (PS) on texture properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)/starch co-gels were investigated for fracture structures. We focused on two types of WPI network structures. In a fine-stranded structure at pH 6.8, the WPI/TS co-gel fractured similarly to the WPI single gel. The WPI/PS co-gel was broken at a lower strain and lower stress. In a random aggregation at pH 5.8, the WPI/TS co-gel reached a yielding point at a lower strain, whereas the WPI/PS co-gel fractured at a higher strain and higher stress. In the fracture structures, it was revealed that breaks occurred in different places in these cases, which could explain the different texture properties of samples. This study tries to explain the texture properties of WPI/starch co-gels from fracture structures and provides a reference to predict texture properties of the WPI/starch food system.

  18. Whey protein isolate modified by transglutaminase aggregation and emulsion gel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weiwei; Chen, Chong; Liu, Mujun; Yu, Guoping; Cai, Xinghang; Guo, Peipei; Yao, Yuxiu; Mei, Sijie

    2015-07-01

    Whey protein isolate and commercial soybean salad oil were used to produce the WPI emulsion dispersions. The properties of TG-catalyzed emulsion gelation produced from WPI emulsion dispersions were investigated by the amount of TG, temperature, pH and reaction time. Specifically, the texture properties (hardness and springiness), water-holding capacity and rheological properties (G' and G") were assessed. The result of Orthogonal tests showed WPI emulsion can form better hardness and springiness gel when the ratio of TG and WPI was 20U/g, pH 7.5, treatment temperature and time were 50°C and 3 h, respectively. The microstructure of TG emulsion gels was more compact, gel pore is smaller, distribution more uniform, the oil droplets size smaller compared with untreated emulsion gels. Compared to the control of rheological properties, G' and G" were significantly increased and G' > G", results showed that the gel was solid state, and TG speeded up the process of gelation.

  19. Effect of spray nozzle design on fish oil-whey protein microcapsule properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legako, Jerrad; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2010-08-01

    Microencapsulation improves oxidative stability and shelf life of fish oil. Spray and freeze drying are widely used to produce microcapsules. Newer spray-nozzles utilize multiple fluid channels allowing for mixing of wall and core materials at the point of atomization. Sonic energy has also been employed as a means of atomization. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of nozzle type and design on fish oil encapsulation efficiency and microcapsule properties. A total of 3 nozzle types, a pressure nozzle with 1 liquid channel, a pressure nozzle with 2 liquid channels, and a sonic atomizer with 2 liquid channels were examined for their suitability to encapsulate fish oil in whey protein isolate. Physical and chemical properties of freeze dried microcapsules were compared to those of microcapsules produced by spray drying. The 2-fluid pressure and ultrasonic nozzles had the highest (91.6%) and the lowest microencapsulation efficiencies (76%), respectively. There was no significant difference in bulk density of microcapsules produced by ultrasonic and 3-fluid pressure nozzles. The ultrasonic nozzle showed a significantly narrower particle size distribution than the other nozzles. This study demonstrated that new nozzle designs that eliminate emulsion preparation prior to spray drying can be beneficial for microencapsulation applications. However, there is still a need for research to improve microencapsulation efficiency of multiple channel spray nozzles. Practical Application: Since this research evaluates new spray nozzle designs for oil microencapsulation, the information presented in this article could be an interest to fish oil producers and food industry.

  20. Whey protein coating increases bilayer rigidity and stability of liposomes in food-like matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Monika; Steffen-Heins, Anja

    2015-04-15

    Liposomes are suitable for encapsulating lipophilic bioactive compounds, enhancing compound solubility, stability and bioavailability. To enhance physical stability of liposomes in food-like matrices they were coated with positively charged whey protein isolate (WPI). WPI concentration, for a successful coating, was optimised by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. Membrane properties of coated and uncoated vesicles were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with site-directed and non-site-directed spin probes. Coexistence of two or three simulated spin probe populations indicated a less fluid membrane and higher concentration of water molecules in the phosphate/glycerol moiety with WPI coating. This relies on the insertion of WPI into the membrane, which is favoured by the molten globule state under investigated acidic conditions. Physical stability of liposomes benefits from WPI coating, as indicated by prolonged shelf-life, cancellation of osmotic effects in the presence of salts or sugars and a lower sensitivity towards low pH values during in vitro gastric digestion.

  1. Properties and storage stability of whey protein edible film with spice powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ket-On, Apisada; Pongmongkol, Natkritta; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat; Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Tananuwong, Kanitha

    2016-07-01

    The impact of spice powders on physical, mechanical, thermal and barrier properties, and on storage stability, of whey protein isolate (WPI)-based films was determined. Films with added spices were prepared from casting solution containing 10 % (w/w) heat-denatured WPI, glycerol (WPI:glycerol of 3:2 w/w), sodium chloride (0.4 g/100 g solution), garlic and pepper powders (≤3 g each/100 g solution). Water activity (aw) of all films was 0.53-0.57. Addition of spice powders increased thickness, darkness and yellowness of the WPI films. Films with added spices had lower tensile strength (TS), percent elongation (%E), and melting enthalpy of WPI matrices, but possessed higher water vapor permeability (WVP) than WPI film without sodium chloride and spices. The WPI film containing highest amount of garlic powder and lowest amount of pepper powder was selected for storage tests at 25-45 °C. Storage for up to 49 days resulted in reduced aw and %E, increased TS, and color changes at 35 and 45 °C, with few changes at 25 °C. However, film WVP and OP were not affected by storage conditions after 7 days storage. Active ingredients decreased over time with up to 81 % allicin and 37 % piperine retained in the film matrix after 47 days storage.

  2. Denaturation Kinetics of Whey Protein Isolate Solutions and Fouling Mass Distribution in a Plate Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Khaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Few investigations have attempted to connect the mechanism of dairy fouling to the chemical reaction of denaturation (unfolding and aggregation occurring in the bulk. The objective of this study is to contribute to this aspect in order to propose innovative controls to limit fouling deposit formation. Experimental investigations have been carried out to observe the relationship between the deposit mass distribution generated in plate heat exchangers (PHE by a whey protein isolate (WPI mainly composed of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and the ratio between the unfolding and aggregation rate constants. Experiments using a PHE were carried out at a pilot scale to identify the deposit distribution of a model fouling solution with different calcium contents. In parallel, laboratory experiments were performed to determine the unfolding/aggregation rate constants. Data analysis showed that (i β-Lg denaturation is highly dependent on the calcium content, (ii for each fouling solution, irrespective of the imposed temperature profile, the deposit mass in each channel and the ratio between the unfolding and aggregation rate constants seem to be well correlated. This study demonstrates that both the knowledge of the thermal profile and the β-Lg denaturation rate constants are required in order to predict accurately the deposit distribution along the PHE.

  3. Functional properties of whey proteins microparticulated at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, M; Liyanaarachchi, S; Vasiljevic, T

    2012-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to assess the effect of microparticulation at low pH on the functionality of heat-denatured whey proteins (WP). Spray-dried, microparticulated WP (MWP) powders were produced from 7% (wt/wt) WP dispersions at pH 3, acidified with citric or lactic acid, and microfluidized with or without heat denaturation. Nonmicroparticulated, spray-dried powders produced at neutral pH or pH 3 served as controls. The powders were examined for their functional and physicochemical properties. Denatured MWP had an approximately 2 orders of magnitude reduction in particle size compared with those produced at neutral pH, with high colloidal stability indicated by substantially improved solubility. The detection of monomeric forms of WP in PAGE also confirmed the particle size reduction. Microparticulated WP exhibited enhanced heat stability, as indicated by thermograms, along with better emulsifying properties compared with those produced at neutral pH. However, MWP powders created weaker heat-induced gels at neutral pH compared with controls. However, they created comparatively strong cold acid-set gels. At low pH, a combination of heat and high hydrodynamic pressure produced WP micro-aggregates with improved colloidal stability that affects other functionalities.

  4. Short communication: Potential of Fresco-style cheese whey as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Hernández, S; Alarcón-Rojo, A D; Robles-Sánchez, M; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Rodríguez-Figueroa, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, traditional Mexican Fresco-style cheese production has been increasing, and the volume of cheese whey generated represents a problem. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of Fresco-style cheese wheys and their potential as a source of protein fractions with antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activities. Three samples from Fresco, Panela, and Ranchero cheeses whey were physicochemically characterized. Water-soluble extracts were fractionated to obtain whey fractions with different molecular weights: 10-5, 5-3, 3-1 and Panela and Fresco cheese whey fractions showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity (0.57 ± 0.02 and 0.59 ± 0.04 μg/mL 50%-inhibitory concentration values, respectively). These results suggest that Fresco-style cheese wheys may be a source of protein fractions with bioactivity, and thus could be useful ingredients in the manufacture of functional foods with increased nutritional value.

  5. An adjuvant-free mouse model to evaluate the allergenicity of milk whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonipeta, B; Parvataneni, S; Tempelman, R J; Gangur, V

    2009-10-01

    Milk allergy is the most common type of food allergy in humans with the potential for fatality. An adjuvant-free mouse model would be highly desirable as a preclinical research tool to develop novel hypoallergenic or nonallergenic milk products. Here we describe an adjuvant-free mouse model of milk allergy that uses transdermal sensitization followed by oral challenge with milk protein. Groups of BALB/c mice were exposed to milk whey protein via a transdermal route, without adjuvant. Systemic IgG1 and IgE antibody responses to transdermal exposure as well as systemic anaphylaxis and hypothermia response to oral protein challenge were studied. Transdermal exposure resulted in a time- and dose-dependent induction of significant IgE and IgG1 antibody responses. Furthermore, oral challenge of sensitized mice resulted in significant clinical symptoms of systemic anaphylaxis within 1 h and significant hypothermia at 30 min postchallenge. To study the underlying mechanism, we examined allergen-driven spleen cell T-helper 2 cytokine (IL-4) responses. There was a robust dose- and time-dependent activation of memory IL-4 responses in allergic mice but not in healthy control mice. These data demonstrate for the first time a novel transdermal sensitization followed by oral challenge mouse model of milk allergy that does not use adjuvant. It is expected that this model may be used not only to study mechanisms of milk allergy, but also to evaluate novel milk products for allergenic potential and aid in the production of hypo- or nonallergenic milk products.

  6. Water sorption-induced crystallization, structural relaxations and strength analysis of relaxation times in amorphous lactose/whey protein systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Fanghui; Mou, Tian; Nurhadi, Bambang; Roos, Yrjö H.

    2016-01-01

    Water sorption-induced crystallization, α-relaxations and relaxation times of freeze-dried lactose/whey protein isolate (WPI) systems were studied using dynamic dewpoint isotherms (DDI) method and dielectric analysis (DEA), respectively. The fractional water sorption behavior of lactose/WPI mixtures shown at aw ≤ 0.44 and the critical aw for water sorption-related crystallization (aw(cr)) of lactose were strongly affected by protein content based on DDI data. DEA results showed that the α-rel...

  7. Cross Reactivity between Dromedary Whey Proteins and IgG Anti Bovine α-Lactalbumin and Anti Bovine β-Lactoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Youcef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Our aim was to enhance the data on antigenic properties of dromedary whey proteins. Approach: The identification of the whey proteins was carried by SDS-page and Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The cross-reactivity of dromedary whey proteins with IgG anti bovine β-lactoglobulin and anti bovine α-lactalbumin, obtained by immunisation of Balb/c mice, was carried out by ELISA. Results: The SDS-page showed the presence of band corresponding to α-lactalbumin and albumin serum; this was confirmed by the chromatogram obtained by RP-HPLC, where we detected a pick corresponding to α-lactalbumin. There was a cross reaction of dromedary whey proteins with IgG anti bovin α-~­lactalbumin but it was very weak with IgG anti boin β-lactoglobulin. Conclusion: We detected a cross reactivity between dromedary whey proteins and IgG anti bovin α-lactalbumin.

  8. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    Off-flavors in whey protein negatively influence consumer acceptance of whey protein ingredient applications. Clear acidic beverages are a common application of whey protein, and recent studies have demonstrated that beverage processing steps, including acidification, enhance off-flavor production from whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preacidification of liquid ultrafiltered whey protein concentrate (WPC) before spray drying on flavor of dried WPC. Two experiments were performed to achieve the objective. In both experiments, Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 mg/kg of hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain liquid WPC that was 13% solids (wt/wt) and 80% protein on a solids basis. In experiment 1, the liquid retentate was then acidified using a blend of phosphoric and citric acids to the following pH values: no acidification (control; pH 6.5), pH 5.5, or pH 3.5. The UF permeate was used to normalize the protein concentration of each treatment. The retentates were then spray dried. In experiment 2, 150 μg/kg of deuterated hexanal (D₁₂-hexanal) was added to each treatment, followed by acidification and spray drying. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Flavor properties of the spray-dried WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses in experiment 1 and by instrumental analysis in experiment 2. Preacidification to pH 3.5 resulted in decreased cardboard flavor and aroma intensities and an increase in soapy flavor, with decreased concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide compared with spray drying at pH 6.5 or 5.5. Adjustment to pH 5.5 before spray drying increased cabbage flavor and increased concentrations of nonanal at evaluation pH values of 3.5 and 5.5 and dimethyl trisulfide at all evaluation pH values. In general, the flavor effects of preacidification were consistent regardless of the pH to

  9. Albumen foam stability and s-ovalbumin contents in eggs coated with whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACC Alleoni

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Food products such as breads, cakes, crackers, meringues, ice creams and several bakery items depend on air incorporation to maintain their texture and structure during or after processing. Proteins are utilized in the food industry since they improve texture attributes through their ability to encapsulate and retain air. The objectives of this work were to quantify s-ovalbumin contents in albumen and to determine alterations in egg white foam stability in fresh eggs, and in eggs coated and non-coated with a whey protein-based concentrate film (WPC, stored at 25°C for 28 days. The volume of drained liquid was higher in non-coated eggs than in coated eggs stored at 25°C at all storage periods. The difference on the third day of storage was in the order of 59% between coated and non-coated eggs, while on the twenty-eighth day it was 202%. During the storage period, an increase in pH and drainage volume was observed for non-coated eggs. After three days, the non-coated eggs showed a s-ovalbumin content 33% higher than coated eggs; this increase jumped to 205% at 28 days of storage. There was a positive correlation between s-ovalbumin content and the volume of drained liquid for coated and non-coated eggs; in other words, when the s-ovalbumin content increased, there was an increase in the volume of drained liquid and a decrease in foam stability. WPC coating maintain egg quality, since it is an effective barrier against the loss of CO2, avoiding changes in the pH of egg white.

  10. Foaming Properties of Whey Protein Isolate and λ-Carrageenan Mixed Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshan; Zhang, Sha; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-08-01

    Heating protein with polysaccharide under neutral or near neutral pH can induce the formation of soluble complex with improved functional properties. The objective of our research was to investigate the effects of λ-carrageenan (λC) concentrations and pH on foaming properties of heated whey protein isolate (WPI) and λC soluble complex (h-cpx) in comparison to heated WPI with added λC (pWPI-λC), and unheated WPI with λC (WPI-λC). In all 3 WPI-λC systems at pH 7, increasing λC concentration led to improved foamability until a certain concentration before it decreased. Despite their higher viscosity, both heated systems (pWPI-λC and h-cpx) showed significantly better foamability and foam stability compared to WPI-λC. Rheological results of foams with 0.25% λC suggested that higher elasticity and viscous films were produced in h-cpx and pWPI-λC systems corresponding to better foam stability. Foam microstructure images indicated that foams produced from h-cpx had thicker film and consisted of smaller initial bubble area and more uniform bubble size. Results from the effect of pH (6.2, 6.5, and 7.0) further confirmed that stronger interactions between WPI and λC during heating contributed to the improved foaming properties. Foam stability was higher in h-cpx system at all 3 pH levels, especially under pH 6.2 where there were strongest interactions between the biopolymers.

  11. 补服乳清蛋白对人体最大吸氧量的影响%Effects of supplementation Whey-protein On VO2max

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀红; 张翔; 杨多多

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of whey-protein, or placebo on VO2max, researched effects of intaking whey protein on aerobic exercise power as well. Method: twelve healthy males who major in PE participated in this research study. Single-blind design was employed, participants performed three times increasing the load continuous on anaerobic power cycling which lasted for 3 minutes followed by consumption of 7g whey-protein, 14g whey-protein or placebo 30 minutes before exercise. Results: There was significantly different between supplementation 7g whey-protein and placebo(p〈.05), similarly there was very significantly different between intaklng 7g whey-protein and 14g whey-protein(p〈.01).Conclusion: supplementation different mount of whey-protein has different effects on VO2max, Maybe supplementation whey-protein will effect the power of aerobic exercise.%目的:研究补服不同量的乳清蛋白对人体最大吸氧量的变化,探讨补服乳清蛋白对人体有氧运动能力的影响。方法:采用单盲实验法,体育系12名健康男性大学生作为被试,每次(共3次)补服不同的补剂,然后在无氧功率自行车上进行3个连续三分钟的递增负荷运动,作自身对照。结果:补服7g和14g乳清蛋白与安慰剂相比最大吸氧量水平都有不同程度的变化,补服7g乳清蛋白与安慰剂相比差异性显著,p〈0.05,补服14g乳清蛋白与安慰剂相比差异性非常显著p〈0.01。结论:(1)补服不同量的乳清蛋白都不同程度影响人体的最大吸氧量水平;(2)说明乳清蛋白的补服对人体有氧运动能力有一定影响。

  12. Whey protein isolate gel for separation: A formation, characterization, and application study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jiunn Yeong

    Novel microporous membranes made of whey protein isolate (WPI) were developed. Aggregates of WPI comprised the bulk of the membrane, the size and packing density of which were varied by changing CaCl2 concentration (0.05--0.3M) and WPI concentration (30--40wt%), respectively. Aggregate sizes of the membranes made with 0.3M, 0.1M, 0.05M CaCl2 were roughly 1.5mum, 1mum, and 0.8mum, respectively. Skin layer of thickness about 0.5mum was found on either side of the membrane, but the thickness could reach 5mum at 0.3M CaCl2. Additionally, the porosity of the skin layer was shown to be modifiable with the addition of surfactant. Membranes were stable in hexane with flux values on the order of 1--1000gal/ft 2·d depending on the morphology of the membrane. The molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) of the WPI membranes with skins were evaluated using two different methods: (i) dextran marker method and (ii) protein/vitamin marker method. Membranes were found to have MWCOs of 1,000 or greater with variations when the concentration of salt used to control aggregate size, or surfactant used to modify skin properties were selected. The microporous WPI gel was also used as a cation exchanger and a hydrophobic adsorbent. The WPI cation exchanger has a maximum capacity of 68mg cupric chloride per gram dry WPI gel at neutral pH and can be regenerated effectively by reducing the pH of the solution. The WPI gel has also been found to be an excellent adsorbent for total phenolic compounds from grape extract with a partition coefficient higher than 1000 in aqueous system. The mechanism for total phenolic compounds adsorption is believed to be physical sorption, particularly sorption/condensation of total phenolic compounds in the pores and on all surfaces of WPI gel. The gel has a low extractables of 1ng/ml.g gel, and has an isoelectric point of 5.5. Although WPI gel was made into a monolith for continuous bed chromatography, channeling problems have made it very hard to evaluate the

  13. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2016-11-10

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  14. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  15. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  16. Effect of heating strategies on whey protein denaturation--Revisited by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, M; Rauh, V M; Christensen, M; Johansen, L B; Hammershøj, M; Larsen, L B

    2016-01-01

    Previous standards in the area of effect of heat treatment processes on milk protein denaturation were based primarily on laboratory-scale analysis and determination of denaturation degrees by, for example, electrophoresis. In this study, whey protein denaturation was revisited by pilot-scale heating strategies and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC/MC Q-TOF) analysis. Skim milk was heat treated by the use of 3 heating strategies, namely plate heat exchanger (PHE), tubular heat exchanger (THE), and direct steam injection (DSI), under various heating temperatures (T) and holding times. The effect of heating strategy on the degree of denaturation of β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin was determined using LC/MC Q-TOF of pH 4.5-soluble whey proteins. Furthermore, effect of heating strategy on the rennet-induced coagulation properties was studied by oscillatory rheometry. In addition, rennet-induced coagulation of heat-treated micellar casein concentrate subjected to PHE was studied. For skim milk, the whey protein denaturation increased significantly as T and holding time increased, regardless of heating method. High denaturation degrees were obtained for T >100°C using PHE and THE, whereas DSI resulted in significantly lower denaturation degrees, compared with PHE and THE. Rennet coagulation properties were impaired by increased T and holding time regardless of heating method, although DSI resulted in less impairment compared with PHE and THE. No significant difference was found between THE and PHE for effect on rennet coagulation time, whereas the curd firming rate was significantly larger for THE compared with PHE. Micellar casein concentrate possessed improved rennet coagulation properties compared with skim milk receiving equal heat treatment.

  17. Assessment of whey protein nitrogen index as an indicator of heat treatment for UHT milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Natália Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available During heat treatment of dairy products it is possible to occur several chemical modifications which whey protein denaturation is quite evident and studied. This phenomenon can cause gelation in UHT milk and some problems in reconstitution of milk powder, two major dairy products widely used in dairy foods and by consumer. The whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI can be an useful tool to assess the degree of severity that milk was submitted, and therefore inferred from the occurrence of possible defects associated with protein denaturation. This study presents theevaluation of the non-denaturated whey protein contents as a heat treatment indicator for ultrapasteurization and drying milk processing. Commercial samples of UHT milk and milk powdershowed WPNI confidence interval of (2.39 ± 1.41 mgWPN.mL-1 and (2.63 ± 1.38 mgWPN.mL-1, respectively. According to the statistical analysis of variance, all samples differed with a p-value < 0.001; and 90% of UHT milk and 67% milk powder samples were classified as medium heat treatment. It was possible to infer the severity of the heat treatment associated with each kind of product analyzed.The results were able to demonstrate the lack of standardization of heat treatment processes on the samples studied, a fact that may result in the growth of undesirablecharacteristics in the products during the storage or commercia lization.

  18. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions.

  19. Physical and sensory characteristics of pellets elaborated with different levels of corn grits and whey protein concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Whey has proteins of high biological value, which has been used as an ingredient in the elaboration of yogurt, milk beverages and as protein concentrates. Food extrusion stands out as one of the most efficient cooking techniques, allowing a number of product types, from soluble flour to convenience products, such as snacks, which have high acceptability by the consumers. Products processed by extrusion, such as those expanded by frying (pellets, have high carbohydrate content, and its enrichment with protein can favor its nutritional aspect. This study aimed to use the whey protein concentrate (WPC in combination with corn grits in the preparation of pellets. Absolute density, density of expanded pellets, color, crispness index, and pellet sensory acceptance were determined. For the absolute density, contents from 5% to 17% produced denser non-expanded pellets. The higher the WPC content and the temperature of the extruder, the higher the density of the expanded pellets. The crispness index was not altered by the protein content and by the extruder temperature. In the sensory analysis, the preferred samples were the ones with lower WPC levels (5%. We concluded that higher WPC values in the pellets formulation increased their density, but did not alter color and texture, as well as small WPC levels did not affect the acceptance of snacks.

  20. Efficacy of whey protein gel networks as potential viability-enhancing scaffolds for cell immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, S B; Gee, V L; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Fitzgerald, G F; Brodkorb, A

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated cell immobilization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in three separate protein products: native, denatured and hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI). Treatments were assessed for their ability to enhance probiotic survival during storage, heat stress and ex vivo gastric incubation. Spatial distribution of probiotic cells within immobilized treatments was evaluated by atomic force and confocal scanning laser microscopy, while cell viability was enumerated by plate count and flow cytometry (FACS). Microscopic analysis of denatured treatments revealed an oasis of immobilized cells, phase-separated from the surrounding protein matrix; an environmental characteristic analogous to hydrolysed networks. Cell immobilization in hydrolysed and denatured WPI enhanced survival by 6.1+/-0.1 and 5.8+/-0.1 log10 cycles, respectively, following 14 day storage at 37 degrees C and both treatments generated thermal protection at 57 degrees C (7.3+/-0.1 and 6.5+/-0.1 log(10) cfu/ml). Furthermore, denatured WPI enhanced probiotic protection (8.9+/-0.2 log(10) cfu/ml) following 3h gastric incubation at 37 degrees C. In conclusion, hydrolysed or denatured WPI were the most suitable matrices for cell immobilization, while native protein provided the weakest safeguard against thermal and acid stress, thus making it possible to envision whey protein gel networks as protective substrates for cell immobilization applications.

  1. Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kyosuke; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Koga, Jinichiro; Kanegae, Minoru; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-09-28

    It is well known that ingestion of a protein source is effective in stimulating muscle protein synthesis after exercise. In addition, there are numerous reports on the impact of leucine and leucine-rich whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling. However, there is only limited information on the effects of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) on muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of WPH and amino acids on muscle protein synthesis and the initiation of translation in skeletal muscle during the post-exercise phase. Male Sprague–Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO. WPH also caused a significant increase in FSR compared with AA. Post-exercise ingestion of WPH caused a significant increase in the phosphorylation of mTOR levels compared with AA or CHO. In addition, WPH caused greater phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 than AA and CHO. In contrast, there was no difference in plasma amino acid levels following supplementation with either AA or WPH. These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation.

  2. Low-fat mozzarella as influenced by microbial exopolysaccharides, preacidification, and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisu, B; Shah, N P

    2005-06-01

    Low-fat Mozzarella cheeses containing 6% fat were made by preacidification of milk, preacidification combined with exopolysaccharide- (EPS-) producing starter, used independently or as a coculture with non-EPS starter, and preacidification combined with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and EPS. The impact of these treatments on moisture retention, changes in texture profile analysis, cheese melt, stretch, and on pizza bake performance were investigated over 45 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Preacidified cheeses without EPS (control) had the lowest moisture content (53.75%). These cheeses were hardest and exhibited greatest springiness and chewiness. The meltability and stretchability of these cheeses increased most during the first 28 d of storage. The moisture content in cheeses increased to 55.08, 54.79, and 55.82% with EPS starter (containing 41.18 mg/g of EPS), coculturing (containing 28.61 mg/g of EPS), and WPC (containing 44.23 mg/g of EPS), respectively. Exopolysaccharide reduced hardness, springiness, and chewiness of low-fat cheeses made with preacidified milk in general and such cheeses exhibited an increase in cohesiveness and meltability. Although stretch distance was similar in all cheeses, those containing EPS were softer than the control. Cocultured cheeses exhibited the greatest meltability. Cheeses containing WPC were softest in general; however, hardness remained unchanged over 45 d. Cheeses made with WPC had the least increase in meltability over time. Incorporation of WPC did not reduce surface scorching or increase shred fusion of cheese shreds during pizza baking; however, there was an improvement in these properties between d 7 and 45. Coating of the cheese shreds with oil was necessary for adequate browning, melt, and flow characteristics in all cheese types.

  3. The efects of whey protein and resistant starch on body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemah Malekian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is widely recognized as one of the most critical health threats to families and children across the country. Obesity is a very serious health problem for people in Louisiana and especially in African Americans Children with 40.5% in the State classified as either overweight or obese as compared to 41.2% nationally. African American women have the highest rates of being overweight or obese (79.8% compared to non-Hispanic whites (57.9%. In 2007, African Americans were 1.4 times as likely to be obese as whites. Therefore this study was designed to test the impact of dietary whey protein (WP and resistant starch (RS shakes/smoothies on reduction of body fat via increased satiety and increased energy expenditure in African Americans. Methods: Twenty eight African American males and females, age 21-43 years old were randomly divided into two groups. For a period of 24-weeks, the treatment group consumed WP and RS shakes/smoothies for breakfast and received nutrition education. For the same period, the control group consumed the same shake/smoothies but with starch powder and received nutrition education. The data was analyzed using SAS version 9.3. Results: At the end of the 24 week study, the treatment group lost a mean body weight of approximately 7 kg (P ≤ 0.008 that was significantly different from the control group (P ≤ 0.209. In addition, the treatment group exhibited a significant decrease of ~6 cm in waist circumference (P ≤ 0.023. There was no significant effect on mean blood pressure in treatment and control group. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that a combination of WP and RS in the form of shake/smoothie consumed for breakfast along with a nutrition education component may be an effective method in decreasing body weight, improving waist circumferences and cumulative food intake in African American males and females.

  4. Enhanced physicochemical properties of chitosan/whey protein isolate composite film by sodium laurate-modified TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jiwang; Chen, Yue; Xia, Wenshui; Xiong, Youling L; Wang, Hongxun

    2016-03-15

    Chitosan/whey protein isolate film incorporated with sodium laurate-modified TiO2 nanoparticles was developed. The nanocomposite film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and investigated in physicochemical properties as color, tensile strength, elongation at break, water vapor permeability and water adsorption isotherm. Our results showed that the nanoparticles improved the compatibility of whey protein isolate and chitosan. Addition of nanoparticles increased the whiteness of chitosan/whey protein isolate film, but decreased its transparency. Compared with binary film, the tensile strength and elongation at break of nanocomposite film were increased by 11.51% and 12.01%, respectively, and water vapor permeability was decreased by 7.60%. The equilibrium moisture of nanocomposite film was lower than binary film, and its water sorption isotherm of the nanocomposite film fitted well to Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer model. The findings contributed to the development of novel food packaging materials.

  5. 补服乳清蛋白对人体有氧运动能力的影响%Effects of Supplementation Whey - protein on Aerobic Exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秀红; 杨多多; 李海英

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation whey protein, or placebo on VO2max and Aerobic Endurance, researched effects of intaking whey protein on aerobic exercise power as well. Methods : twelve healthy males who major in PE participated in this research study. Single -blind design was employed,and the experiment was finished in 6 weeks. Participants performed three times increasing the load continuous on Anaerobic power cycling which lasted for three minutes followed by consumption of 7g whey -protein, 14g whey- protein or placebo half an hour before exercise, also performed twelve minutes aerobic en- durance running followed by consumption of 7g whey -protein, 14g whey -protein or placebo. Results: There was significantly different between supplementation 7g whey - protein and placebo ( p 〈. 05 ), similarly there was very significantly different be- tween intaking 7g whey -protein and 14g whey -protein( p 〈. O1 ). There was significantly different between supplementation 7g , lgg whey - protein and placebo( p 〈. 05 ). Conclusion : supplementation different mount of whey - protein has different effects on VO2max, supplementation whey- protein before exercise may improve aerobic endurance.%研究补服不同量的乳清蛋白后人体最大吸氧量及有氧耐力的变化,探讨补服乳清蛋白对人体有氧运动能力的影响。方法:采用单盲实验法,以体育系12名健康男性大学生作为被试,分为两个阶段共六周进行试验。每个阶段补服3次不同的补剂,第一个阶段在无氧功率自行车上进行3个连续3min的递增负荷运动;第二个阶段进行12min跑的耐力运动。补服7g和14g乳清蛋白与安慰剂相比最大吸氧量水平都有不同程度的变化,补服7g,14g乳清蛋白与安慰剂相比差异性显著(p〈0.05);机体有氧耐力水平出现显著性差异(P〈0.05)。(1)补服不同量的乳清蛋白都不同程度影响人体的最大吸氧量水平。(2)补服

  6. Postprandial leucine and insulin responses and toxicological effects of a novel whey protein hydrolysate-based supplement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toedebusch Ryan G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was: aim 1 compare insulin and leucine serum responses after feeding a novel hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH-based supplement versus a whey protein isolate (WPI in rats during the post-absorptive state, and aim 2 to perform a thorough toxicological analysis on rats that consume different doses of the novel WPH-based supplement over a 30-day period. In male Wistar rats (~250 g, n = 40, serum insulin and leucine concentrations were quantified up to 120 min after one human equivalent dose of a WPI or the WPH-based supplement. In a second cohort of rats (~250 g, n = 20, we examined serum/blood and liver/kidney histopathological markers after 30 days of feeding low (1human equivalent dose, medium (3 doses and high (6 doses amounts of the WPH-based supplement. In aim 1, higher leucine levels existed at 15 min after WPH vs. WPI ingestion (p = 0.04 followed by higher insulin concentrations at 60 min (p = 0.002. In aim 2, liver and kidney histopathology/toxicology markers were not different 30 days after feeding with low, medium, high dose WPH-based supplementation or water only. There were no between-condition differences in body fat or lean mass or circulating clinical chemistry markers following the 30-day feeding intervention in aim 2. In comparison to WPI, acute ingestion of a novel WPH-based supplement resulted in a higher transient leucine response with a sequential increase in insulin. Furthermore, chronic ingestion of the tested whey protein hydrolysate supplement appears safe.

  7. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. van den Berg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60% for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size.

  8. Purification and characterisation of a glutamic acid-containing peptide with calcium-binding capacity from whey protein hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Li; Zhao, Li-Na; Cai, Xixi; Wang, Shao-Yun; Huang, Yi-Fan; Hong, Jing; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-02-01

    The bioavailability of dietary ionised calcium is affected by intestinal basic environment. Calcium-binding peptides can form complexes with calcium to improve its absorption and bioavailability. The aim of this study was focused on isolation and characterisation of a calcium-binding peptide from whey protein hydrolysates. Whey protein was hydrolysed using Flavourzyme and Protamex with substrate to enzyme ratio of 25:1 (w/w) at 49 °C for 7 h. The calcium-binding peptide was isolated by DEAE anion-exchange chromatography, Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A purified peptide of molecular mass 204 Da with strong calcium binding ability was identified on chromatography/electrospray ionisation (LC/ESI) tandem mass spectrum to be Glu-Gly (EG) after analysis and alignment in database. The calcium binding capacity of EG reached 67·81 μg/mg, and the amount increased by 95% compared with whey protein hydrolysate complex. The UV and infrared spectrometer analysis demonstrated that the principal sites of calcium-binding corresponded to the carboxyl groups and carbonyl groups of glutamic acid. In addition, the amino group and peptide amino are also the related groups in the interaction between EG and calcium ion. Meanwhile, the sequestered calcium percentage experiment has proved that EG-Ca is significantly more stable than CaCl2 in human gastrointestinal tract in vitro. The findings suggest that the purified dipeptide has the potential to be used as ion-binding ingredient in dietary supplements.

  9. Recovery of residual soluble protein by two-step precipitation process with concomitant COD reduction from the yeast-cultivated cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S S; Yan, S; More, T T; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to recover the residual soluble protein after cultivation of yeast (K. marxianus) in cheese whey. Cheese whey continuous fermentation with cell recycle system was carried out at 40 °C and pH 3.5. The yeast biomass was separated from the fermented broth by centrifugation and residual soluble protein from fermented whey supernatant was precipitated by heat treatment (at 100 °C, pH 4.5 and 10 min incubation). The maximum soluble protein recovery up to 53 % was achieved at pH 4.5 with 54 % residual COD removal. However, gravity sedimentable precipitates were obtained at pH 3.5 with 47 % protein recovery. Therefore, the reactor (scale up) study was conducted at pH 3.5 with agitation, which resulted in 68 % of residual soluble protein recovery and simultaneously residual COD removal of 62 %. Further precipitation/coagulation of soluble protein was also evaluated using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and then two precipitation (thermal followed by CMC precipitation) processes were combined to increase the protein precipitation, which finally reached up to 81 % of total soluble protein recovery from the supernatant. This optimized process could be applied to recover the residual protein left after fermentation of cheese whey without centrifugation.

  10. Fundamental studies on the structural functionality of whey protein isolate in the presence of small polyhydroxyl compounds as co-solute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul; Lundin, Leif; Kasapis, Stefan

    2013-08-15

    The present work deals with the changing network morphology of whey protein isolate (15%, w/w) in the presence of glucose syrup (co-solute) with concentrations ranging from 0% to 65% (w/w) in 10 mM CaCl2 solution, thus producing formulations with a total level of solids of up to 80% (w/w). Denaturation behaviour and aggregation of whey protein systems were investigated using small deformation dynamic oscillation on shear, micro and modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. A progression in the mechanical strength of protein aggregates was observed resulting from enhanced protein-protein interactions in the presence of glucose syrup. Addition of the co-solute resulted in better thermal stability of protein molecules by shifting the process of denaturation to higher temperature, as observed by calorimetry. Observations are supported by micrographs showing coherent networks with reduced size of whey protein aggregates in the presence of high levels of glucose syrup, as opposed to thick and random clusters for systems of whey protein by itself. Glass transition phenomenon was observed for condensed protein/co-solute systems, which were treated with theoretical concepts adapted from synthetic polymer research to pinpoint the mechanical glass transition temperature.

  11. A single whey acidic protein domain containing protein (SWD) inhibits bacteria invasion and dissemination in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hai-Shan; Sun, Chen; Wang, Tong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-08-01

    The single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain containing proteins (SWDs) in crustacean belong to type III crustins and have antiprotease activities and/or antimicrobial activities. Their functions in vivo in crustacean immunity need to be clarify. In this study, a new single WAP domain containing protein (SWD) was obtained from Marsupenaeus japonicus, designated as MjSWD. The full-length cDNA of MjSWD was 522 bp.The open reading frame of MjSWD encoded a protein of 79 amino acids, with a 24 amino acid signal peptide and a WAP domain. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that MjSWD transcripts were generally expressed in all the tested tissues, including hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gill, stomach and intestine. The time course expression of MjSWD was analyzed by quantitative real time PCR, and the results exhibited that MjSWD was upregulated after bacteria (Vibrio anguillarum, Staphylococcus aureus) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge in gills and stomach of the shrimp. The purified recombinant protein of MjSWD could bind to several Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria though binding to microbial polysaccharides (peptidoglycan). MjSWD could inhibit the activity of Subtilisin A and Proteinase K and bacteria-secreted proteases. The results of natural infection with MjSWD incubated bacteria showed that the inhibition of MjSWD against bacterial secreted proteases was contributed to inhibiting bacteria invasion and dissemination in the shrimp. The MjSWD is, thus, involved in the shrimp antibacterial innate immunity.

  12. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41) with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased....

  13. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Functional olive Oil-in-Water Emulsions Formulated Using Olive Mill Wastewater and Whey Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated b...

  14. Fuzzy Clustering-Based Modeling of Surface Interactions and Emulsions of Selected Whey Protein Concentrate Combined to i-Carrageenan and Gum Arabic Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gums and proteins are valuable ingredients with a wide spectrum of applications. Surface properties (surface tension, interfacial tension, emulsion activity index “EAI” and emulsion stability index “ESI”) of 4% whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a combination with '- carrageenan (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.5...

  15. Enzymatic Treatment of Whey Proteins in Cow's Milk Results in Differential Inhibition of IgE-Mediated Mast Cell Activation Compared to T-Cell Activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knipping, Karen; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; van Ieperen-van Dijk, Adrie G.; van Hoffen, Els; van Baalen, Ton; Knippels, Leon M. J.; van der Heide, Sicco; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; Garssen, Johan; Knol, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cow's milk (CM) hydrolysates are frequently used as milk substitutes for children with CM allergy. In hydrolysates, allergenic epitopes within CM proteins are diminished by enzymatic treatment. The aim of this study was to examine the allergenic and immunogenic properties of whey protein

  16. Effect of homogenization and pasteurization on the structure and thermal stability of whey protein in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of homogenization alone or in combination with high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization or UHT processing on the whey fraction of milk was investigated using highly sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In pilot plant trials, 1-L quantities of whole milk were homogenized in a two-...

  17. Phylogeny of whey acidic protein (WAP) four-disulfide core proteins and their role in lower vertebrates and invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie J

    2011-10-01

    Proteins containing WAP (whey acidic protein) domains with a characteristic WFDC (WAP four-disulfide core) occur not only in mammals (including marsupials and monotremes) but also in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. In addition, they are present in numerous invertebrates, from cnidarians to urochordates. Many of those from non-mammalian groups are poorly understood with respect to function or phylogeny. Those well characterized so far are waprins from snakes, perlwapins from bivalves and crustins from decapod crustaceans. Waprins are venom proteins with a single WAP domain at the C-terminus. They display antimicrobial, rather than proteinase inhibitory, activities. Perlwapins, in contrast, possess three WAP domains at the C-terminus and are expressed in the shell nacre of abalones. They participate in shell formation by inhibiting the growth of calcium crystals in the shell. The crustin group is the largest of all WFDC-containing proteins in invertebrates with the vast majority being highly expressed in the haemocytes. Most have a single WAP domain at the C-terminus. The presence and type of the domains between the signal sequence and the C-terminus WAP domain separate the different crustin types. Most of the Type I and II crustins are antimicrobial towards Gram-positive bacteria, whereas the Type III crustins tend to display protease inhibition. Expression studies show that at least some crustins have other important biological effects, as levels change with physiological stress, wound repair, tissue regeneration or ecdysis. Thus WAP domains are widely distributed and highly conserved, serving in diverse physiological processes (proteinase inhibition, bacterial killing or inhibition of calcium transport).

  18. Effect of whey protein isolate on intracellular glutathione and oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, K D; Harper, W J; Bomser, J A

    2003-02-01

    Cysteine is the rate-limiting amino acid for synthesis of the ubiquitous antioxidant glutathione (GSH). Bovine whey proteins are rich in cystine, the disulfide form of the amino acid cysteine. The objective of this study was to determine whether enzymatically hydrolyzed whey protein isolate (WPI) could increase intracellular GSH concentrations and protect against oxidant-induced cell death in a human prostate epithelial cell line (designated RWPE-1). Treatment of RWPE-1 cells with hydrolyzed WPI (500 microg/ml) significantly increased intracellular GSH by 64%, compared with control cells receiving no hydrolyzed WPI (Phydrolyzed sodium caseinate (500 microg/ml), a cystine-poor protein source, did not significantly elevate intracellular GSH. Hydrolyzed WPI (500 microg/ml) significantly protected RWPE-1 cells from oxidant-induced cell death, compared with controls receiving no WPI (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that WPI can increase GSH synthesis and protect against oxidant-induced cell death in human prostate cells.

  19. Determination of the influence of substrate concentration on enzyme selectivity using whey protein Isolate and Bacillus licheniformis protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butré, Claire I; Sforza, Stefano; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter A

    2014-10-22

    Increasing substrate concentration during enzymatic protein hydrolysis results in a decrease in hydrolysis rate. To test if changes in the mechanism of hydrolysis also occur, the enzyme selectivity was determined. The selectivity is defined quantitatively as the relative rate of hydrolysis of each cleavage site in the protein. It was determined from the identification and quantification of the peptides present in the hydrolysates. Solutions of 0.1-10% (w/v) whey protein isolate (WPI) were hydrolyzed by Bacillus licheniformis protease at constant enzyme-to-substrate ratio. The cleavage sites were divided into five groups, from very high (>10%) to very low selectivity (protein concentrations. This finding shows that both the rate of hydrolysis and the enzyme selectivity were influenced by the substrate concentration.

  20. Is it possible to screen for milk or whey protein adulteration with melamine, urea and ammonium sulphate, combining Kjeldahl and classical spectrophotometric methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finete, Virgínia de Lourdes Mendes; Gouvêa, Marcos Martins; Marques, Flávia Ferreira de Carvalho; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2013-12-15

    The Kjeldahl method and four classic spectrophotometric methods (Biuret, Lowry, Bradford and Markwell) were applied to evaluate the protein content of samples of UHT whole milk deliberately adulterated with melamine, ammonium sulphate or urea, which can be used to defraud milk protein and whey contents. Compared with the Kjeldahl method, the response of the spectrophotometric methods was unaffected by the addition of the nitrogen compounds to milk or whey. The methods of Bradford and Markwell were most robust and did not exhibit interference subject to composition. However, the simultaneous interpretation of results obtained using these methods with those obtained using the Kjeldahl method indicated the addition of nitrogen-rich compounds to milk and/or whey. Therefore, this work suggests a combination of resul