WorldWideScience

Sample records for hhcb galaxolide ahtn

  1. Evaluation of Simple Treat 3.0 for two hydrophobic and slowly biodegradable chemicals: Polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, predictions by Simple Treat 3.0, a fate model for organic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs), are compared with actual measurements in three STPs. Two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® (AHTN) and Galaxolide® (HHCB), were used for model evaluation. Results show that Simple Tr

  2. Evaluation of Simple Treat 3.0 for two hydrophobic and slowly biodegradable chemicals: Polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, predictions by Simple Treat 3.0, a fate model for organic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs), are compared with actual measurements in three STPs. Two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® (AHTN) and Galaxolide® (HHCB), were used for model evaluation. Results show that Simple

  3. Field dissipation and risk assessment of typical personal care products TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie; Peng, Feng-Jiao

    2014-02-01

    The antimicrobial agents triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) and synthetic musks AHTN (Tonalide) and HHCB (Galaxolide) are widely used in many personal care products. These compounds may release into the soil environment through biosolid application to agricultural land and potentially affect soil organisms. This paper aimed to investigate accumulation, dissipation and potential risks of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in biosolid-amended soils of the three field trial sites (Zhejiang, Hunan and Shandong) with three treatments (CK: control without biosolid application, T1: single biosolid application, T2: repeated biosolid application every year). The one-year monitoring results showed that biosolids application could lead to accumulation of these four chemicals in the biosolid-amended soils, with the residual concentrations in the following order: TCC>TCS>AHTN>HHCB. Dissipation of TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB in the biosolid-amended soils followed the first-order kinetics model. Half-lives for TCC, TCS, AHTN and HHCB under the field conditions of Shandong site were 191, 258, 336 and 900 days for T1, and 51, 106, 159 and 83 days for T2, respectively. Repeated applications of biosolid led to accumulation of these personal care products and result in higher ecological risks. Based on the residual levels in the trial sites and limited toxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC and TCS, while low-medium risks for AHTN and HHCB.

  4. A rapid method for the analysis of methyl dihydrojasmonate and galaxolide in indoor and outdoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontal, Marta; van Drooge, Barend L; Grimalt, Joan O

    2016-05-20

    A method for the analysis of methyl dihydrojasmonate (MHDJ) in air particulate matter (PM1 and PM2.5) is described for the first time. This fragrance is determined together galaxolide (HHCB). Airborne particles were collected by filtration of air volumes between 100 and 1000m(3). Recovery efficiencies of filter extraction with Soxhlet and pressurized liquids were evaluated. The method included reaction with BSTFA:TMCS for generation of trimethylsilyloxy derivatives which prevented deleterious effects in the gas capillary column by interaction of hydroxyl groups from air constituents other than these fragrances. This step avoided the use of additional clean up methods such as liquid column chromatography affording direct quantification by GC-EI-MS. The proposed method had enough sensitivity for quantification of these fragrances in indoor and outdoor environmental samples using small aliquots of the PM extracts, e.g. 2.5%, and therefore saving sample material for eventual determination of other compounds. The detection limits were 0.03ng and 0.01ng for MHDJ and HHCB, respectively. Both MHDJ and HHCB were predominantly found in the smallest PM fraction analyzed (<0.5μm). The outdoor concentrations were highest in busy urban streets. However, indoor levels in school classrooms and subway stations were one order of magnitude higher than those observed outdoor. This difference was consistent with the use of these compounds as additives in cleaning and personal care products and the small dispersion of these fragrances in indoor environments. Information on the occurrence of this and other fragrances is needed to increase the understanding on the influence of anthropogenic activities in the formation of organic aerosols and source apportionment.

  5. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  6. Polycyclic musks in green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, W M; Murphy, M B; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2008-01-01

    Six polycyclic musk compounds [Cashmeran (DPMI), Celestolide (ADBI), Phantolide (AHMI), Traseolide (ATII), Tonalide (AHTN), and Galaxolide (HHCB)] were analysed in marine green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis) from Hong Kong. ADBI, HHCB and AHTN were detected in almost all samples, while AHMI, ATII and DPMI were not detected. Concentrations of ADBI, HHCB and AHTN in mussels ranged from below detection limit-0.0743 (mean: 0.0246), 0.247-6.08 (mean: 1.15) and 0.0591-0.738 (mean: 0.190)mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. Mussels from two sampling sites in central Victoria Harbour contained the highest total polycyclic musk levels, suggesting that these waters are heavily influenced by domestic sewage. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN detected in the mussel samples were the second highest and the highest levels, respectively, compared to global concentrations. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that HHCB and AHTN in mussels pose little or no threat to the health of shellfish consumers. Nevertheless, more comprehensive studies are required to further assess the ecological and human health risks associated with polycyclic musks.

  7. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two benth

  8. Bioconcentration and acute toxicity of polycyclic musks in two benthic organisms (Chironomus riparius and Lumbriculus variegatus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Sinnige, T.L.; Holsteijn, I. van; Vaes, W.H.J.; Hermens, J.L.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the bioconcentration behavior and acute toxicity of two polycyclic musks, Tonalide® 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6,-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4,-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) and Galaxolide® 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methyl-cyclopenta[γ]-2- benzopyran (HHCB), were studied in two

  9. Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Correia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal, aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.

  10. Individual- and population-level effects of the synthetic musk, HHCB, on the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Salvito, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    A life table response experiment lasting 120 d was used to investigate the effects of the synthetic polycyclic musk HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-gamma-2-benzopyrane; 0, 1.5, 26, 123, and 168 mg/kg dry wt sediment) on the life history of the infaunal polychaete...... Capitella species I. The HHCB exposure showed no detectable effects on adult survival, age at first reproduction, length of the reproductive period, number of broods, individual worm body volumes, or body size-specific egestion rates. In contrast, HHCB significantly affected juvenile survival (>= 123 mg...... and exposed groups were not significant. Thus, despite detectable effects of HHCB on individual life-history traits, the results suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of HHCB are not likely to reduce the growth rate of Capitella sp. I populations....

  11. Inputs and distributions of synthetic musk fragrances in an estuarine and coastal environment; a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, Nicola R. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Science, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Guitart, Carlos, E-mail: guitart.carlos@gmail.co [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Fuentes, Gustavo [Instituto Universitario de Tecnologia del Mar (IUTEMAR), Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales, Margarita Island (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Readman, James W. [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Synthetic musks are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Compartmental distributions (dissolved, suspended particle associated and sedimentary) of the compounds throughout an axial estuarine transect and in coastal waters are reported. High concentrations of Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) (987-2098 ng/L and 55-159 ng/L, respectively) were encountered in final effluent samples from sewage treatment plants (STPs) discharging into the Tamar and Plym Estuaries (UK), with lower concentrations of Celestolide (ADBI) (4-13 ng/L), Phantolide (AHMI) (6-9 ng/L), musk xylene (MX) (4-7 ng/L) and musk ketone (MK) (18-30 ng/L). Rapid dilution from the outfalls is demonstrated with resulting concentrations of HHCB spanning from 5 to 30 ng/L and those for AHTN from 3 to 15 ng/L. The other musks were generally not detected in the estuarine and coastal waters. The suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sedimentary profiles and compositions (HHCB:AHTN ratios) generally reflect the distribution in the water column with highest concentrations adjacent to sewage outfalls. - Synthetic musks were determined in coastal environmental compartments along an estuarine transect indicating their ubiquitous occurrence in transitional waters.

  12. Biomarkers of human exposure to personal care products: results from the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS 2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, Elly; Paulussen, Melissa; Geens, Tinne; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Baeyens, Willy; David, Frank; Dumont, Emmie; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; de Bellevaux, Benoit Nemery; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Personal care products (PCPs), such as soaps, perfumes, cosmetics, lotions, etc., contain a variety of chemicals that have been described as potentially hormone disrupting chemicals. Therefore, it is important to assess the internal exposure of these chemicals in humans. Within the 2nd Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II, 2007-2011), the human exposure to three classes of pollutants that are present in a wide variety of PCPs--i.e. polycyclic musks (galaxolide, HHCB and tonalide, AHTN in blood), parabens (urinary para-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) and triclosan (urinary TCS)--was assessed in 210 Flemish adolescents (14-15 years) and in 204 adults (20-40 years) randomly selected from the general population according to a stratified two stage clustered study design. The aim of this study was to define average levels of exposure in the general Flemish population and to identify determinants of exposure. Average levels (GM (95% CI)) in the Flemish adolescents were 0.717 (0.682-0.753) μg/L for blood HHCB; 0.118 (0.108-0.128) μg/L for blood AHTN; 1022 (723-1436) μg/L for urinary HBA and 2.19 (1.64-2.92) μg/L for urinary TCS. In the adults, levels of HBA were on average 634 (471-970) μg/L. Inter-individual variability was small for HHCB and AHTN, intermediate for HBA, and large for TCS. All biomarkers were positively associated with the use of PCPs. Additionally, levels of HHCB and AHTN increased with higher educational level of the adolescents. Both in adults and adolescents, urinary HBA levels were negatively correlated with BMI. We define here Flemish exposure values for biomarkers of PCPs, which can serve as baseline exposure levels to identify exposure trends in future biomonitoring campaigns.

  13. The developmental toxicity assay of synthetic musks using the mouse embryonic stem cells%人工合成麝香对胚胎干细胞发育毒性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施嘉琛; 张晶; 邵兵

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the potential embryotoxicity of two commonly used musks, tonalide ( AHTN) and galaxolide (HHCB) , using the 129 mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods The cytotoxicity assay with MTT method and differentiation assay were used to determinate the potential developmental toxicities of the musks. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed the IC50 of AHTN and HHCB were 34 and 29 μg/ml. The differentiation assay showed the ID50 of AHTN and HHCB were 257 and 153 jig/ml. Conclusion Both AHTN and HHCB were evaluated as weak-embryotoxicity, the toxicological effect of these compounds should be further concerned in future study.%目的 研究常用人工合成麝香吐纳麝香(A HTN)和佳乐麝香(HHCB)对129小鼠胚胎干细胞的发育毒性效应.方法 利用MTT法检测两种麝香对胚胎干细胞的毒性效应,结合不同暴露浓度下麝香对胚胎干细胞体外分化为心肌细胞能力的抑制情况,判断受试物的发育毒性.结果 MTT实验表明,AHTN和HHCB对小鼠胚胎干细胞半数毒性浓度IC50分别为34和29 μg/ml,而分化抑制实验表明这两种麝香对胚胎干细胞向心肌细胞的半数分化抑制浓度ID50分别为257和153 μg/ml.结论 人工麝香对胚胎发育具有弱发育毒性,对孕妇和儿童发育的影响需要在相关的发育毒性研究中给予重视.

  14. Interactions of triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide with biosolid-amended soils: Effects of the level and nature of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usyskin, Alla; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Triclosan, gemfibrozil and galaxolide, representing acidic and non-ionized hydrophobic organic compounds, are biologically active and can be accumulated during wastewater treatment in sewage sludge. The interactions of these substances with the soils amended by sewage sludge-originating biosolids may control their environmental fate. Therefore, the sorption of three organic compounds was studied in dune sand, loess soil, clay soil and mixtures of these media with three different sewage sludge-originating biosolids that were incubated under aerobic conditions for 6 months. For each compound, 15 sorption isotherms were produced at pH 7.8-8.0. The sorption of triclosan and gemfibrozil on sand-containing sorbents was examined also under acidic conditions. In some soil series, the compound's Freundlich constants (KF) are linearly related to the soil organic carbon (OC) content. Notably, for a given OC content, the sand-containing sorbents tend to demonstrate enhanced interactions with triclosan and galaxolide. This may be related with more hydrophobic and/or less rigid soil organic matter (SOM) as compared with the clay-containing soils, implying indirect effects of minerals. Generally the OC-normalized KF vary among different soil-biosolid combinations which is explained by the differences in the composition and properties of SOM, and is also contributed by the non-zero intercepts of the linear KF upon soil OC dependencies. The negative intercepts suggest that below a certain OC level no considerable organic compound-soil interactions would occur. Interactions of molecular and anionic forms of triclosan with a sand-containing sorbent may be comparable, but interactions involving gemfibrozil molecules could be stronger than interactions involving its anion.

  15. Hydrochemical modelling of water quality in terms of emerging micropollutants in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Emerging micropollutants (EMPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems and are associated with a wide range of eco-toxicological effects worldwide. There remains a lack of scientific understanding of the major underlying hydrochemical factors behind variations in concentration heterogeneities of EMPs in time and space. This study was therefore conducted to determine major hydrochemical processes controlling water quality and the occurrence of EMPs mainly, carbamazepine (CBZ), tonalide (AHTN), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), technical 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces in South Africa. Grab water samples were collected bi-monthly between June 2014 and April 2016 from 44 water sources using standard sampling procedures. BPA, NP, CAF, HHCB, AHTN, CBZ were extracted, cleaned and enriched using autotrace-SPE at neutral pH and analyzed using GC × GC-TOFMS. Kruskal Wallis-test was used to test for temporal variations in occurrence of the analytes. The Geochemist's Workbench® Release 11 software, Surfer Golden Graphics for surface mapping, PHREEQC software and bivariate ion plots were used determine the major hydrogeochemical processes. The mean concentrations of EMPs varied from 3.48 μg/L for CAF to 421.53 μg/L for HHCB. Although the Kruskal Wallis test revealed no any statistically significant temporal variations in concentrations of the analytes in water samples at 95% confidence level, their occurrence and distribution vary spatially with BPA being the most widely distributed EMP and was present in 62% of the sampled sites. Municipal waste water inputs, agricultural pollution, ion-exchange reactions, carbonate and silicate weathering were the major processes controlling water quality in the study area. This study may assist water resource managers to ably address and manage water pollution resulting from a number of natural and anthropogenic hydrochemical processes in the study area.

  16. One-step microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction for the rapid determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in oyster by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shin-Fang; Liu, Li-Lian; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2012-07-15

    A rapid, simple and solvent-free procedure was developed for the determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in oyster samples by using one-step microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction (MA-HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two commonly used synthetic polycyclic musks, galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN), were selected in the method development and validation. The parameters (microwave irradiation power, extraction time, amount of water added, pH value and addition of NaCl) affecting the extraction efficiency of analytes from oyster slurry were systematically investigated and optimised. The best extraction conditions were achieved when the oyster tissue mixed with 10-mL deionised water (containing 3g of NaCl in a 40-mL sample-vial) was microwave irradiated at 80 W for 5 min. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.1 ng/g in 5-g of wet tissue. The good precision and accuracy of one-step MA-HS-SPME coupled with GC-MS for the determination of trace level of AHTN in oyster samples was also demonstrated.

  17. Remediation of Galaxolide and Cadmium Compound Contaminated Soil with Plant-Microbial Combination%植物-微生物联合修复佳乐麝香与镉复合污染土壤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珣; 陈宝楠; 孙丽娜

    2016-01-01

    为探讨植物-微生物联合修复佳乐麝香(HHCB)与镉(Cd)复合污染土壤技术的可行性及其相关修复土壤微生物群落多样性的变化,采用紫茉莉(Mirabilis jalapa L.)与孔雀草(Tagetes patula L.)两种植物配合HHCB降解菌,对HHCB,Cd复合污染土壤进行联合修复研究,并使用变性梯度凝胶电泳技术(DGGE)在微观层面上进一步分析土壤微生物群落多样性的变化趋势.结果表明:孔雀草对Cd的富集效果要好于紫茉莉,且两种植物地上部分对于Cd的富集效果更好.HHCB含量的增加会导致降解菌的降解效率降低,在HHCB含量为100mg· kg-1时,最好的降解效果可达到63.58%,在HHCB含量为300mg· kg-1时,最好的降解效果达到55.3%.土壤中HHCB的含量升高,其细菌种群多样性指数呈现降低的趋势,添加Cd也会使其细菌种群多样性指数呈现降低的趋势,HHCB与Cd复合污染的细菌种群多样性指数低于HHCB与Cd单一污染的细菌种群多样性指数.研究结果为HHCB与Cd复合污染土壤的植物-微生物联合修复提供了一条比较可行的方法并为进一步研究其微生物多样性变化提供了一定的理论基础.

  18. 吐纳麝香长期暴露下蚯蚓体内金属硫蛋白和谷胱甘肽变化%Metallothionein and Glutathionein Contents Variation in Eisenia fetida Exposed by AHTN in Long-term Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钰; 王轲; 朱琳; 王雯

    2012-01-01

    AHTN, as a typical polycyclic musk, with characteristics of volatility and lipophilicity, is widely used in personal care productions and can be accumulated in organisms, presenting some biological effects in previous studies. The bioactivity of AHTN to Eisenia fetida in long term exposure was studied, with analysis of its biological effects through detecting the variation of metallothionein (MT) and glutathionein (GSH) in earthworm. Results showed that low concentration AHTN significantly inhibited the contents of MT and GSH, while higher levels of AHTN significantly induced the contents of MT and GSH.%吐纳麝香(AHTN)作为人工合成麝香中多环麝香的典型代表,具有挥发性、易生物富集等特性,由于其在环境中的浓度日益升高,呈现出一定的生物效应,可能对生态系统的稳态存在着潜在的威胁,为探讨上述课题,试验通过采用自然土壤法以赤子爱胜蚓(Eiseniafetida)作为试验动物,首次研究测定蚯蚓在AHTN的长期暴露条件下,其体内金属硫蛋白和谷胱甘肽含量的变化.试验结果得出低浓度的AHTN能够抑制机体内金属硫蛋白和谷胱甘肽的生成,使得金属硫蛋白和谷胱甘肽的含量显著减少,在一定浓度范围内的AHTN对机体无明显不利影响,而高浓度的AHTN能够诱导机体内金属硫蛋白和谷胱甘肽的生成,使得金属硫蛋白和谷胱甘肽的含量显著增多(P<0.05),从而对土壤环境存在着潜在的生态风险.

  19. Synthetic Musk Fragrances in a Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plant with Lime Softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, William D; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic musk fragrances are common personal care product additives and wastewater contaminants that are routinely detected in the environment. This study examines the presence eight synthetic musk fragrances (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, musk xylene, and musk ketone) in source water and the removal of these compounds as they flow through a Midwestern conventional drinking water plant with lime softening. The compounds were measured in water, waste sludge, and air throughout the plant. HHCB and AHTN were detected in 100% of the samples and at the highest concentrations. A mass balance on HHCB and AHTN was performed under warm and cold weather conditions. The total removal efficiency for HHCB and AHTN, which averaged between 67% to 89%, is dominated by adsorption to water softener sludge and its consequent removal by sludge wasting and media filtration. Volatilization, chlorine disinfection, and the disposal of backwash water play a minor role in the removal of both compounds. As a result of inefficient overall removal, HHCB and AHTN are a constant presence at low levels in finished drinking water.

  20. Levels of synthetic musk fragrances in human milk from three cities in the Yangtze River Delta in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Liang, Gaofeng; Zeng, Xiangying; Zhou, Jing; Sheng, Guoying; Ful, Jiamo

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic musks are used as additives in many household products. After absorption into the human body, they accumulate and their concentrations in human milk reflect both the mother and her infant's exposure level. Concentrations of four synthetic musks, musk xylene (1-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, MX), musk ketone (4-tert-butyl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-dinitroacetophenone, MK), 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[gamma]-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN), were determined in human milk samples collected from Shanghai, Wuxi, and Shaoxing in Eastern China. The four synthetic musks were found in most samples analyzed, with HHCB the dominant component followed by MX. The median (mean) values for HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK concentrations were 63 (82), 5 (12), 17 (24) and 4 (9) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. These data suggested the total synthetic musk contamination was low, and the distribution percentage was HHCB > MX > AHTN approximately MK. The relative high ratio of nitro to polycylic musk indicated that nitro musks were still widely used. The musk concentrations in these cities were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Principal components score plots were obtained, which showed similar exposure sources. The amount of total synthetic musks in human milk were not associated with mother's age, although HHCB was significantly correlated with AHTN (p < 0.05). Daily ingestion of HHCB, AHTN, MX and MK for infants from human milk were estimated as (2526 +/- 2926), (370 +/- 524), (7391 +/- 832), and (277 +/- 462) ng/day, respectively. Those doses were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the provisional tolerable daily intakes.

  1. Fate of xenobiotic compounds and plants activity in reed bed sludge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauli, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    unplanted in order to distinguish the impact of the root system on the performance of the containers. After twelve months OTNE, Triclosan and DEHP were significant degraded with half-lives of 187-204 days for OTNE, 330-462 days for Triclosan and 315-533 days for DEHP.  HHCB and AHTN have half-lives of 770...

  2. Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the rapid analysis of synthetic polycyclic musks using thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wu-Hsun; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2013-09-13

    A simple and solvent-free method for the rapid analysis of five synthetic polycyclic musks in water samples is described. The method involves the use of dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) coupled with direct thermal desorption (TD) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in the selected-ion-storage (SIS) mode. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water sample and the thermal desorption conditions in the GC injection-port were optimized using a central composite design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved immersing 3.2mg of a typical octadecyl (C18) bonded silica adsorbent (i.e., ENVI-18) in a 10mL water sample. After extraction by vigorously shaking for 1.0min, the adsorbents were collected and dried on a filter. The adsorbents were transferred to a micro-vial, which was directly inserted into GC temperature-programmed injector, and the extracted target analytes were then thermally desorbed in the GC injection-port at 337°C for 3.8min. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 1.2-3.0ng/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 9% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 74 and 90%. A preliminary analysis of the river water samples revealed that galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the two most common synthetic polycyclic musks present. Using a standard addition method, their concentrations were determined to in the range from 11 to 140ng/L.

  3. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinos-Senante, M., E-mail: maria.molinos@uv.es [Department of Mathematics for Economy, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Reif, R., E-mail: rreif@icra.cat [Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Garrido-Baserba, M., E-mail: mgarrido@icra.cat [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Hernández-Sancho, F., E-mail: francesc.hernandez@uv.es [Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa s/n, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Poch, M., E-mail: manel@lequia.udg.edu [Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Laboratory of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (LEQUIA), Universitat de Girona, Facultat Ciències, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Sala-Garrido, R., E-mail: ramon.sala@uv.es [Department of Mathematics for Economy, Universitat de Valencia, Campus dels Tarongers, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are − 73.73; − 34.95; − 42.20; − 10.98; and − 8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. - Highlights: • Environmental Benefit Analysis of PPCPs • PPCPs' removal depends on their functional group and molecular structures. • Shadow prices as a proxy of the environmental benefits from ozonation process • HHCB and AHTN have the lowest shadow prices. • The greatest environmental benefit is associated with the removal of DCF.

  4. Fate and removal of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products by three different treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu-jie; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-ying, E-mail: zhxyqq@hhu.edu.cn; Wang, Xing-nan; Huang, Xi

    2013-03-01

    The presence and distribution of typical of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), which comprise two types of polycyclic musks (PCMs) including Galaxolide (HHCB) and Tonalide (AHTN) as well as six types of estrogens containing estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and bisphenol A (BPA), were investigated at two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jiangsu, China. Only raw wastewater was treated in WWTP A while WWTP B was serving an urban-industrialized area. In the influent, the concentrations of EE2 (2193–4437 ng L{sup −1}), E2 (1126–1170 ng L{sup −1}), and DES (268–421 ng L{sup −1}) were generally higher than the previously reported values, whereas the concentrations of HHCB (306–316 ng L{sup −1}), E1 (29–129 ng L{sup −1}), E3 (53 ng L{sup −1}), and BPA (26–176 ng L{sup −1}) were much lower than those reported in other previous studies. In addition, AHTN was not detected in either WWTP and E3 was not found in WWTP B. The detected processes including anaerobic/oxic process (A/O), combined orbal oxidation ditch process (C-orbal OD) and anaerobic/anoxic/anoxic/oxic membrane biological reactor (A/A/A/O-MBR) showed higher removal efficiencies for HHCB (67–71%) and EE2 (87%) than those in other previous studies. Besides, the total hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged between 6.7 and 20.0 h, sludge retention time (SRT) ranged between 8 and 23 d, and water temperature ranged from 24.8 to 28.2 °C. The removal efficiencies for estrogens in biological processes were related to the following factors: the level of hydrophobic estrogens, the type of removal process (C-orbal OD was consistently less efficient in removing estrogens than A/O and A/A/A/O-MBR), and a high SRT or HRT (A/A/A/O-MBR with higher SRT and HRT showed higher and more stable removal of hydrophobic estrogens). - Highlights: ► We investigated 8 kinds of PPCPs in each unit at 2 WWTPs with different

  5. Occurrence and transport of synthetic musks in paired maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Jing, Ye; Ma, Li; Zhou, Jing; Fang, Xiangming; Zhang, Xinyu; Yu, Yingxin

    2015-01-01

    Although early exposure to environmental pollutants may have important toxicological consequences, the mechanisms of transplacental transfer of synthetic musks are still not well understood. The objective of the present study was to learn the musk contaminations in three matrices, including maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, and breast milk; and investigate their placental transfer mechanisms. The concentrations of eight commonly used synthetic musks were measured in 42 paired samples (126 individual samples in total) of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and breast milk from Chinese women living in Shanghai. Musks were ubiquitously detected, especially galaxolide (HHCB) and musk xylene (MX). The total lipid-based concentrations were higher in umbilical cord sera (87.3ng/g), but lower in breast milk (35.2ng/g), compared with maternal serum concentrations (71.2ng/g). There were significant correlations between maternal serum concentrations of HHCBs (HHCB and HHCB-lactone) and umbilical cord serum concentrations, and between maternal serum concentrations and breast milk concentrations (Spearman's rho=0.338-0.597, pumbilical cord sera were >1. And the HHCB-lactone/HHCB ratio in maternal sera was higher compared with umbilical cord sera. Contamination levels were low compared with other regions and HHCBs were found to be the predominant constituents. No regional differences or age-related accumulations were observed. Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to HHCBs occurs and that transplacental transfer is the main route of exposure. Preferential accumulation in umbilical cord blood was observed. The results showed that transplacental transfer of HHCB did not correspond to passive diffusion since the transfer ratios were significantly different from 1. The transfer ratio for HHCB was also larger than that of HHCB-lactone, although HHCB has higher lipid solubility. Low fetal metabolism of HHCB was suggested by the HHCB-lactone/HHCB ratio in maternal and

  6. Transformation products and reaction kinetics of fragrances in advanced wastewater treatment with ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Dopp, Elke; Hesse, Julia

    2011-01-01

    ) ethanone (musk ketone/MK), and 1-(2,3,8,8-tetramethyl-1,3,4,5,6,7-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl)ethanone (OTNE) with ozone in tap water as well as waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is described. Several transformation products are characterized by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass...... spectrometry. One transformation product (HHCB-Lactone) was confirmed by means of a true standard. Musk xylene and musk ketone do not react with ozone under the conditions used in this study. AHTN and HHCB reacted slowly to a multitude of transformation products, while OTNE reacted quickly to several stable...

  7. Biomarkers of human exposure to personal care products: Results from the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS 2007-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Den Hond, Elly; Paulussen, Melissa; Geens, Tinne; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Baeyens, Willy; David, Frank; Dumont, Emmie; Loots, Ilse; Morrens, Bert; de Bellevaux, Benoit Nemery; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Personal care products (PCPs), such as soaps, perfumes, cosmetics, lotions, etc., contain a variety of chemicals that have been described as potentially hormone disrupting chemicals. Therefore, it is important to assess the internal exposure of these chemicals in humans. Within the 2nd Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS II, 2007-2011), the human exposure to three classes of pollutants that are present in a wide variety of PCPs - i.e. polycyclic musks (galaxolide, HHCB and tonalide, A...

  8. Bioaccumulation, temporal trend, and geographical distribution of synthetic musks in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Takemura, Akira; Yoshioka, Motoi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of synthetic musks in a marine food chain was investigated by analyzing marine organisms at various trophic levels, including lugworm, clam, crustacean, fish, marine mammal, and bird samples collected from tidal flat and shallow water areas of the Ariake Sea, Japan. Two of the polycyclic musks, HHCB and AHTN, were the dominant compounds found in most of the samples analyzed, whereas nitro musks were not detected in any of the organisms, suggesting greater usage of polycyclic musks relative to the nitro musks in Japan. The highest concentrations of HHCB were detected in clams (258-2730 ng/g lipid wt.), whereas HHCB concentrations in mallard and black-headed gull were low, and comparable with concentrations in fish and crab. These results are in contrast to the bioaccumulation pattern of polychlorinated biphenyls; for which a positive correlation between the concentration and the trophic status of organisms was found. Such a difference in the bioaccumulation is probably due to the metabolism and elimination of HHCB in higher trophic organisms. Temporal trends in concentrations of synthetic musks were examined by analyzing tissues of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters collected during 1977-2005. HHCB concentrations in marine mammals have shown significant increase since the early 1990s, suggesting a continuous input of this compound into the marine environment. Comparison of the time trend for HHCB with those for PCBs and PBDEs suggested that the rates of increase in HHCB concentrations were higher than the other classes of pollutants. To examine the geographical distribution of HHCB, we have analyzed tissues of fish, marine mammals, and birds collected from several locations. Synthetic musks were not detected in a sperm whale (pelagic species) from Japanese coastal water and in eggs of south polar skua from Antarctica. While the number of samples analyzed is limited, these results imply a lack of long-range transportation potential of

  9. Occurrence of UV filters, fragrances and organophosphate flame retardants in municipal WWTP effluents and their removal during membrane post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeminski, P; Schwermer, C; Wennberg, A; Langford, K; Vogelsang, C

    2017-02-05

    Membrane filtration using ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was evaluated as an efficient effluent polishing step at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for the removal of selected contaminants of emerging concern and for improvement of water quality according to water reuse requirements. In samples collected at two largest WWTPs in Norway, 12 out of 14 selected personal care products and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were found above analytical detection limit. The highest concentrations were observed for BP3, OC (UV filters), HHCB, AHTN (fragrances), TCPP and TBP (OPFRs), exceeding the predicted no-effect concentration for BP3 in one sample and AHTN in five samples. Independently of the membrane type used, membrane filtration effectively (>60%) removed BP3, UV-329, OC, HHCB, AHTN and DBPP. However, UF was insufficient (<20%) for removal of DEET, TCPP and TCEP. UF was sufficient to remove 30-50% of COD, 80-95% of TP, up to 30% of TN and NH4, and a min of 2log reduction of E. coli. Water quality improved further with application of NF and RO. The results indicate that membrane filtration can be effective post-treatment to improve overall water quality and a measure to reduce potential risk in the receiving aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of personal care compounds from sewage sludge in reed bed container (lysimeter) studies - Effects of macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauly, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    as on the bactericide Triclosan. Additionally, the capacity of different macrophytes species to affect the treatment process was examined. Three different macrophyte species were compared: bulrush (Typha latifolia), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea). They were planted...... into containers (lysimeters) with a size of 1 m × 1 m × 1 m which were filled with 20 cm gravel at the bottom and 50 cm sludge on top, into which the macrophytes were planted. During the twelve months experiment reduction of 20-30% for HHCB and AHTN, 70% for Triclosan and 70% for OTNE were determined under...

  11. The occurrence of synthetic musks in human breast milk in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Naiyuan; Gao, Fudie; Wu, Yongning; Xiang, Jie; Shao, Bing

    2012-05-01

    Human breast milk samples collected from mothers (n=110) who lived in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, southwestern China in 2009 were analyzed to determine the concentrations of 13 musk compounds. Possible relationships between musk concentrations and some personal characteristics were also studied. Only five target analytes were detected in the milk samples analyzed, with median concentration values of 16.5, 11.5, 7.85, hair conditioners, hair dyes and hair gels had significantly elevated milk concentrations of HHCB whereas elevated milk concentrations of AHTN were observed among mothers reporting high use of body-cleaning agents, body lotions, shampoos, hair dyes and hair gels. Younger age showed a significantly positive effect on milk concentrations of both HHCB and AHTN whereas BMI after delivery, the number of children nursed and place of residence (urban or rural) had no significant effect. The estimated median daily intakes of synthetic musks for breast-fed infants were considerably lower than the current provisional tolerable daily intake amounts suggested for adults.

  12. Polycyclic Musks in the Air and Water of the Lower Great Lakes: Spatial Distribution and Volatilization from Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Helm, Paul A; Muir, Derek; Puggioni, Gavino; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    Polycyclic musks (PCMs) are synthetic fragrance compounds used in personal care products and household cleaners. Previous studies have indicated that PCMs are introduced to aquatic environments via wastewater and river discharge. Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were deployed in air and water during winter 2011 and summer 2012 to investigate the role of population centers as sources of these contaminants to the Great Lakes and determine whether the lakes were acting as sources of PCMs via volatilization. Average gaseous Σ5PCM ranged from below detection limits (Lake Erie in Toledo. Average dissolved Σ5PCM ranged from Lake Ontario near the mouth of the Oswego River. Significant correlations were observed between population density and Σ5PCM in both air and water, with strongest correlations within a 25 and 40 km radius, respectively. At sites where HHCB was detected it was generally volatilizing, while the direction of AHTN air-water exchange was variable. Volatilization fluxes of HHCB ranged from 11 ± 6 to 341 ± 127 ng/m(2)/day, while air-water exchange fluxes of AHTN ranged from -3 ± 2 to 28 ± 10 ng/m(2)/day. Extrapolation of average air-water exchange flux values over the surface area of the lakes' coastal boundary zone suggested volatilization may be responsible for the loss of 64-213 kg/year of dissolved Σ5PCM from the lakes.

  13. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.

  14. Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, personal care products and artificial sweetener in an aerated sewage lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M Ehsanul; Cloutier, Frédéric; Arcieri, Carlo; McInnes, Mark; Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2014-07-15

    A sewage lagoon serving the small municipality of Lakefield in Ontario, Canada was monitored in the summer, fall and winter to determine removals of carbamazepine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, triclosan, sucralose, HHCB and AHTN. Concentrations of these compounds in untreated and treated wastewater were estimated by deploying POCIS and SPMD passive samplers in the sewage lagoon. Passive samplers were also deployed at several points upstream and downstream of the point of discharge from the lagoon into the Otonabee River. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS were utilized to determine the concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and sucralose, an artificial sweetener. Among PPCPs sampled by POCIS, the highest estimated concentration in untreated wastewater was ibuprofen sampled during the fall, at an estimated concentration of 60.3 ng/L. The estimated average concentration of sucralose was 13.6 ng/L in the untreated wastewaters. Triclosan, HHCB and AHTN in SPMDs were highest during fall season, at 30, 1677 and 109 ng/L, respectively. For all compounds except gemfibrozil, carbamazepine and sucralose, removals were highest in the summer (83.0 to 98.8%) relative to removals in the fall (48.4 to 91.4%) and winter (14.0 to 78.3%). Finally, the estimated concentrations of carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan and HHCB were compared with predicted values obtained through application of the WEST® modeling tool, with a new model based on the River Water Quality Model No. 1 and extended with dynamic mass balances describing the fate of chemicals of emerging concern subject to a variety of removal pathways. The model was able to adequately predict the fate of these four compounds in the lagoon in summer and winter, but the model overestimated removals of three of the four test compounds in the fall sampling period. This lagoon was as effective at removing PPCPs as many conventional WWTPs, but removals were better during the summer

  15. Analysis of lipophilic organic pollutants in the Baltic and North Sea (ALOSON). Final report; Analyse lipophiler organischer Schadstoffe in Ost- und Nordsee (ALOSON). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehnerfuss, H.; Giger, W.; Schroeder, H.

    1999-10-01

    During the ALOSON-F+E-project emphasis has been placed upon non-target investigations of seawater, marine sediments and marine biota from the Baltic and North Sea. Sampling procedures as well as extraction, clean-up and fractionation methods were developed for these three environmental compartments and applied to three stations in the German Bight. In these water samples 20 compounds were verified thus far not included in actual monitoring programmes, while in the respective sediment samples 12 compounds were verified. It is worth mentioning that in the seawater samples some new compounds were found which are essential components of drugs or other active substances like coffein. Furthermore, halogenated pyridine derivatives may be of interest. In the sediment samples dominating pollutants turned out to comprise musk compounds and several sulfur and nitrogen containing substances which may justify subsequent investigations. In biota samples (mussels and Wittling gonades/liver/muscle) 11 compounds were verified. Again, the polycyclic musks HHCB and AHTN dominated, but also several 'classical' pollutants like chlordane, HCH and DDT isomers and/or metabolites were found. In addition, comparison with the MS library suggested many brominated compounds which may be of particular interest with regard to subsequent studies. In parallel, some target investigations were carried out in 13 marinas at the Baltic and North Sea coast and for 5 stations in the German Bight. Orienting quantifications in seawater (German Bight) were carried out for benzothiazole, methylthiobenzothiazole, thiocyanatobenzothiazole, HHCB, AHTN, 2,5-dichloroaniline, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene and LAS, while extensive quantifications in marine sediments as well as in marina sediments were performed for Irgarol 1051, TBT, DBT, MBT, TPT, DPT, MPT, nonylphenol, nonylphenol-monoethoxylate, nonylphenolpolyethoxylate, LAS and the optical whiteners DAS 1, DSBP, BLS, LAS. (orig

  16. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) — A new concept to evaluate the environmental fate of chiral organic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu, E-mail: badeasilviu@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Danet, Andrei-Florin [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Panduri Str., Bucharest 050657 (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Since 2011, the enantiospecific stable carbon isotope analysis (ESIA) has emerged as an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral emerging compounds by combining in one experimental technique both compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and enantioselective analysis. To date, the ESIA was applied for four classes of compounds: α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), polar herbicides (phenoxy acids), synthetic polycyclic musk galaxolide (HHCB), and phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. From an analytical point of view there are factors that are hindering the application of ESIA methods for the field samples: (i.e. amounts of target analyte, matrix effects, GC resolution) and overcoming these factors is challenging. While ESIA was shown as a mature technique for the first three abovementioned class of compounds, no isotope analysis of individual enantiomers could be performed for phenoxyalkanoic methyl herbicides. With respect to field studies, one study showed that ESIA might be a promising tool to distinguish between biotic and abiotic transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants and even to differentiate between their aerobic and anaerobic biotransformation pathways. The development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants in combination with development of multi-element isotope analysis will contribute to a better characterization of transformation pathways of chiral organic contaminants. - Highlights: • ESIA is an innovative technique to assess the environmental fate of chiral pollutants • Overcoming the analytical limitations of ESIA is challenging • Development of ESIA methods for new chiral emerging contaminants is needed.

  17. 1-(4-Bromo-3,5,5,6,8,8-hexamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylethan-1-one: a precursor for phase-I metabolite of AHTN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kuhlich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H25BrO, crystallized as a racemate with four independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, three of these four molecules are linked via C—Br...Br—C halogen bonds [Br...Br = 3.662 (2 and 3.652 (2 Å], forming dimers.

  18. Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression as Molecular Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Musks%抗氧化酶基因作为多环麝香污染分子标志物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春; 周启星; 刘潇威

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular toxicological effects of low level synthetic musks exposure on the earthworm Eisenia fetida.The method of Sybr Green Ⅰ real time quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR) for detecting gene expression level was established.SOD(superoxide dismutase) and CAT(catalase) mRNA expression levels were measured after 28 days of AHTN and HHCB exposure.The analysis results of both sequence alignment and melting curve demonstrated that the selected primers were suitable for mRNA quantification.The liner correlation coefficients of SOD and CAT standard curves were 0.997 and 0.994,respectively,and the PCR amplification efficiencies were both close to 100%.Therefore,relative quantification method could be applied to analyze the gene expression levels.The significant elevation of malondialdehyde(MDA) levels indicated that the reactive oxygen species-induced cellular oxidative injury might be one of the main toxic effects of AHTN and HHCB.Besides,a significant positive correlation was observed between the up-regulation of SOD,CAT mRNA and the MDA levels,suggesting that possible changes in the transcript expression of antioxidant enzyme genes were associated with the oxidative stress.Furthermore,the dose-response correlation between SOD,CAT mRNA levels and the exposure concentrations was also found.The overall results indicated that SOD and CAT genes might be potential molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of the pollution stress and toxicological effects of synthetic musks in the environment.%为研究土壤中低剂量合成麝香暴露的分子毒理效应,以蚯蚓超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT)基因为供试基因,建立mRNA表达水平的Sybr GreenⅠ荧光定量PCR检测方法;并且采用自然土壤染毒实验,检测了吐纳麝香(AHTN)或佳乐麝香(HHCB)胁迫诱导SOD、CAT mRNA的表达水平变化.序列同源性比较与熔解曲线分析表明设计的引物适合

  19. Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewater?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, Thomas A; Stüber, Jeannette; Herrmann, Nadine; McDowell, Derek; Ried, Achim; Kampmann, Martin; Teiser, Bernhard

    2003-04-01

    A pilot plant for ozonation and UV-disinfection received effluent from a German municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) to test the removal of pharmaceuticals, iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and musk fragrances from municipal wastewater. In the original STP effluent, 5 antibiotics (0.34-0.63 microgl(-1)), 5 betablockers (0.18-1.7 microgl(-1)), 4 antiphlogistics (0.10-1.3 microgl(-1)), 2 lipid regulator metabolites (0.12-0.13 microgl(-1)), the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (2.1 microgl(-1)), 4 ICM (1.1-5.2 microgl(-1)), the natural estrogen estrone (0.015 microgl(-1)) and 2 musk fragrances (0.1-0.73 microgl(-1)) were detected by LC-electrospray tandem MS and/or GC/MS/MS. ICM, derived from radiological examinations, were present with the highest concentrations (diatrizoate: 5.7 microgl(-1), iopromide: 5.2 microgl(-1)). By applying 10-15 mgl(-1) ozone (contact time: 18 min), all the pharmaceuticals investigated as well as musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN) and estrone were no longer detected. However, ICM (diatrizoate, iopamidol, iopromide and iomeprol) were still detected in appreciable concentrations. Even with a 15 mgl(-1) ozone dose, the ionic diatrizoate only exhibited removal efficiencies of not higher than 14%, while the non-ionic ICM were removed to a degree of higher than 80%. Advanced oxidation processes (O(3)/UV-low pressure mercury arc, O(3)/H(2)O(2)), which were non-optimized for wastewater treatment, did not lead significantly to a higher removal efficiency for the ICM than ozone alone.

  20. Prioritizing research for trace pollutants and emerging contaminants in the freshwater environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Kyle E., E-mail: Kyle.Murray@utsa.ed [Center for Water Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Thomas, Sheeba M. [San Antonio River Authority, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bodour, Adria A. [Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment (AFCEE), Brooks City-Base, TX (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Organic chemicals have been detected at trace concentrations in the freshwater environment for decades. Though the term trace pollutant indicates low concentrations normally in the nanogram or microgram per liter range, many of these pollutants can exceed an acceptable daily intake (ADI) for humans. Trace pollutants referred to as emerging contaminants (ECs) have recently been detected in the freshwater environment and may have adverse human health effects. Analytical techniques continue to improve; therefore, the number and frequency of detections of ECs are increasing. It is difficult for regulators to restrict use of pollutants that are a human health hazard; scientists to improve treatment techniques for higher priority pollutants; and the public to modify consumption patterns due to the vast number of ECs and the breadth of literature on the occurrence, use, and toxicity. Hence, this paper examines literature containing occurrence and toxicity data for three broad classes of trace pollutants and ECs (industrials, pesticides, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)), and assesses the relevance of 71 individual compounds. The evaluation indicates that widely used industrials (BPF) and PPCPs (AHTN, HHCB, ibuprofen, and estriol) occur frequently in samples from the freshwater environment but toxicity data were not available; thus, it is important to establish their ADI. Other widely used industrials (BDE-47, BDE-99) and pesticides (benomyl, carbendazim, aldrin, endrin, ethion, malathion, biphenthrin, and cypermethrin) have established ADI values but occurrence in the freshwater environment was not well documented. The highest priority pollutants for regulation and treatment should include industrials (PFOA, PFOS and DEHP), pesticides (diazinon, methoxychlor, and dieldrin), and PPCPs (EE2, carbamazepine, {beta}E2, DEET, triclosan, acetaminophen, and E1) because they occur frequently in the freshwater environment and pose a human health hazard at

  1. Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition for 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethylcyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran (HHCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta--2-benzopyran

  2. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent

  3. Removal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products from Municipal Sewage by A2/O-MBR Process%A2/O—MBR组合工艺去除城市污水中PPCPs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春英

    2013-01-01

    The removal of typical pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by A2/O-MBR process was investigated in a wastewater treatment plant.The concentrations of several target PPCPs in the influent showed a seasonal variation.But most of the target compounds were removed at a stable rate during this investigation.The removal rates of caffeine,erythromycin and DEET were more than 80%.On the other hand,sulpiride,carbamazepine and diclofenac were hardly removed.The concentration variation of the target PPCPs along the process was also investigated.The target PPCPs were divided into three groups according to their different behavioral characteristics:substances that could be removed effectively in the anaerobic tank such as caffeine,DEET,HHCB and AHTN; substances that could be removed uniformly along the process such as metoprolol,trimethoprim and erythromycin; and substances that could not be removed such as sulpiride,carbamazepine and diclofenac.%对某城市污水处理厂采用A2/O—MBR组合工艺去除几种典型药品及个人护理品(PPCPs)的效果进行了长期检测.结果表明,部分目标物的进水浓度呈现一定的季节性变化规律,对大部分目标物的去除效果相对稳定,其中对咖啡因、硫氰酸盐和避蚊胺的去除率达到80%以上,而舒必利、卡马西平和双氯酚酸等物质在工艺中几乎不能被去除.通过考察各种目标物沿工艺流程的浓度变化,发现目标物的迁移行为呈现出一定的规律性,根据这种规律性可将目标物划分为3类:在厌氧段迅速得到去除的物质(如咖啡因、避蚊胺、佳乐麝香和吐纳麝香)、沿程均匀去除的物质(如美托洛尔、甲氧苄安嘧啶和硫氰酸盐)以及在工艺中不易被去除的物质(如舒必利、卡马西平和双氯酚酸).

  4. 北京市母乳中人工合成麝香暴露水平研究%Occurrence of synthetic musks in human milk samples collected from Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 尹杰; 张晶; 吴永宁; 邵兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of 13 kinds of synthetic musk and triclosan in breast milk samples collected from Beijing, and to estimate the exposure of breastfed infants. Methods Target compounds in 65 milk samples collected from 4 districts of Beijing in 2004 were analyzed by means of gas chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry ( CC - MS/MS) and quantified by internal standards. The exposure of infants was analyzed statistically by SPSS software. Results HHCB, AHTN, OTNE, MT and Triclosan were detected in milk samples in the range of 0.6~ 174. 1 ng/g lipid, with some difference in 4 districts. It is estimated that the intake of synthetic musks and triclosan for each infant from breast milk would be 13. 5 - 3917 ng/d. Conclusion Commonly used synthetic musks and tricloson were generally detected in breast milk. Further study should be focused on monitoring and tracing the possible source of pollution.%目的 了解北京市母乳中人工合成麝香及三氯生的污染水平,初步评价婴儿经母乳喂养的暴露量.方法 在北京市崇文、海淀、石景山和通州4区县采集母乳样品65份,采用气相色谱串联质谱法( GC-MS/MS)测定13种人工合成麝香及三氯生含量,内标法定量,应用SPSS软件对检测结果进行统计分析,计算婴儿经哺乳的暴露重.结果 母乳中检出佳乐麝香、吐纳麝香、OTNE、西藏麝香等四种人工合成麝香及三氯生,含量在0.6 ~174.1ng/g lipid范围内,不同区县母乳样品中目标化合物的含量存在差异;婴儿经母乳的摄入量为13.5~3917ng.结论 常用的人工合成麝香和三氯生在母乳中普遍检出,值得进一步关注,应加强监测,追溯可能的污染来源.

  5. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  6. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC)

  7. Synthetic Musk fragrances in Trout from Danish fish farms and human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Pedersen, K. H.

    2005-01-01

    /HRMS in Danish farmed trout and human milk from primiparous mothers are reported. The polycyclic musk, HHCB, dominated the synthetic musk compounds found in trout samples from 1999 with a median concentration of 5.0 mu g/kg fresh weight (n.d.-52.6 mu g/kg fresh weight) and in trout samples collected in 2003...

  8. Macrocyclic-, polycyclic-, and nitro musks in cosmetics, household commodities and indoor dusts collected from Japan: implications for their human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Hinosaka, Mari; Yanagimoto, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported the occurrence and concentrations of macrocyclic-, polycyclic- and nitro musks in cosmetics and household commodities collected from Japan. The high concentrations and detection frequencies of Musk T, habanolide, and exaltolides were found in commercial products, suggesting their large amounts of production and usage in Japan. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, also showed high concentrations in cosmetics and products. The estimated dairy intakes of Musk T and HHCB by the dermal exposure to commercial products were 7.8 and 7.9 μg/kg/day in human, respectively, and perfume and body lotion are dominant exposure sources. We also analyzed synthetic musks in house dusts. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, showed high concentrations in samples, but macrocyclic musks were detected only in a few samples, although these types of musks were highly detected in commercial products. This is probably due to easy-degradation of macrocyclic musks in indoor environment. The dairy intakes of HHCB by dust ingestions were 0.22 ng/kg/day in human, which were approximately five orders of magnitudes lower than those of dermal absorption from commercial household commodities.

  9. Toxicity and Treatment of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products Using Exotic Plants - A Laboratory Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés; Paredes, Diego; Cubillos, Janneth

    alternative systems. Constructed wetlands (CWs) have showed satisfactory results for PPCPs removal (Avila et al., 2013). The aim of the study was to assess the tolerance and removal capacity of Aspirin, Ibuprofen, Cis-MDJM, Galaxolide, Tonalide, Caffeine, Naproxen, Ketoprofen and Diclofenac, by exotic plants...

  10. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in constructed wetland compartments: Influent, effluent, pore water, substrate and plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijosa-Valsero, María; Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Domínguez, Carmen; Bécares, Eloy; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-02-01

    Seven mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) with different design configurations, dealing with primary-treated urban wastewater, were assessed for the concentration, distribution and fate of ten pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) [ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, salicylic acid, caffeine, carbamazepine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide] and eight of their transformation products (TPs). Apart from influent and effluent, various CW compartments were analysed, namely, substrate, plant roots and pore water. PPCP content in pore water depended on the specific CW configuration. Macrophytes can take up PPCPs through their roots. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide were present on the root surface with a predominance of galaxolide and caffeine in all the planted systems. Naproxen, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide were uptaken by the roots. In order to better understand the removal processes, biomass measurement and biodegradability studies through the characterization of internal-external isomeric linear alkylbenzenes present on the gravel bed were performed. Three TPs namely, ibuprofen-amide, 3-ethylbenzophenone and 4-hydroxy-diclofenac were identified for the first time in wetland pore water and effluent water, which suggests de novo formation (they were not present in the influent). Conversely, O-desmethyl-naproxen was degraded through the wetland passage since it was detected in the influent but not in the subsequent treatment stages. Biodegradation pathways are therefore suggested for most of the studied PPCPs in the assessed CWs.

  11. Flow cytometric assay to assess short-term effects of personal care products on the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Marta; Esperanza, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2017-03-01

    Large quantities of personal care products (PCPs) are used daily and many of their chemical ingredients are subsequently released into marine environments. Cultures of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica were exposed for 24 h to three emerging compounds included in the main classes of PCPs: the UV filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3), the disinfectant triclosan (TCS) and the fragrance tonalide (AHTN). Concentrations tested, expressed as cellular quota (pg cell(-1)), ranged from 5 to 40 for BP-3, from 2 to 16 for TCS and from 1.2 to 2.4 for AHTN. A small cytometric panel was carried out to evaluate key cytotoxicity biomarkers including inherent cell properties, growth and metabolic activity and cytoplasmic membrane properties. BP-3 caused a significant increase in growth rate, metabolic activity and chlorophyll a fluorescence from 10 pg cell(-1). However, growth and esterase activity decreased in cells exposed to all TCS and AHTN concentrations, except the lowest ones. Also these two compounds provoked a significant swelling of cells, more pronounced in the case of TCS-exposed cells. Although all treated cells remained viable, changes in membrane potential were observed. BP-3 and AHTN caused a significant depolarization of cells from 10 to 1.6 pg cell(-1), respectively; however all TCS concentrations assayed caused a noticeable hyperpolarization of cells. Metabolic activity and cytoplasmic membrane potential were the most sensitive parameters. It can be concluded that the toxicological model used and the toxicological parameters evaluated are suitable to assess the toxicity of these emerging contaminants.

  12. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: septic tank - upflow anaerobic filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrubla, Juan Pablo; Cubillos, Janneth A.; Ramírez Vargas, Carlos Andrés

    2016-01-01

    of the city. The compounds monitored in this research included ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, aspirin, ketoprofen, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide and dihydrojasmonate. An adapted method of multi-residue analysis was used, which is based on solid phase extraction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance...... in 15 %; and caffeine, ibuprofen and ketoprofen were not removed. Results provided basic information to decide over the necessity of complementary treatments for ef uents from systems with the mentioned units....

  13. Occurence of organic pollutants in constructed wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    TRSKOVÁ, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands are wetlands designed to improve the quality of water. In this work, four representatives of typical organic pollutants in Constructed wetlands are studied : DEET, cotinine, coprostanol and galaxolide as the representatives of insecticide, alkaloid,faecal sterol and musk compound respectively. Moreover three different types of extraction techniques : aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) - are investiga...

  14. Inhibition of larval development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa by four synthetic musk substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberger, Leah; Breitholtz, Magnus; Ole Kusk, Kresten; Bengtsson, Bengt Erik

    2003-04-15

    A nitro musk (musk ketone) and three polycyclic musks (Tonalide, Galaxolide and Celestolide) were tested for acute and subchronic effects on a marine crustacean, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Sublethal effects on A. tonsa larvae were investigated with a rapid and cost effective bioassay, which is based on the easily detectable morphological change from the last nauplius to the first copepodite stage during copepod larval development. The inhibition of larval development after 5 days exposure was a very sensitive endpoint, with 5-d-EC(50)-values as low as 0.026 mg/l (Tonalide), 0.059 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.066 mg/l (musk ketone) and 0.160 mg/l (Celestolide), respectively. These values were generally more than one order of magnitude below the 48-h-LC(50)-values found for adults, which were 0.47 mg/l (Galaxolide), 0.71 mg/l (Celestolide), 1.32 mg/l (musk ketone) and 2.5 mg/l (Tonalide). Since the synthetic musks strongly inhibited larval development in A. tonsa at low nominal concentrations, they should be considered as very toxic. The larval development test with A. tonsa is able to provide important aquatic toxicity data for the evaluation of synthetic musks, for which there is little published ecotoxicological information available regarding Crustacea. It is suggested that subchronic and chronic copepod toxicity tests should be used more frequently for risk assessment of environmental pollutants.

  15. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a sewage treatment plant of northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballa, M; Omil, F; Lema, J M; Llompart, M; García, C; Rodriguez, I; Gómez, M; Ternes, T

    2005-01-01

    Thirteen pharmaceutical and cosmetic compounds have been surveyed along the different units of a municipal sewage treatment plant (STP) to study their fate across each step and the overall removal efficiency. The STP studied corresponds to a population of approximately 100,000 inhabitants located in Galicia (northwest Spain), including three main sections: pre-treatment (coarse and fine screening, grit and fat removal); primary treatment (sedimentation tanks); and secondary treatment (conventional activated sludge). Among all the substances considered (galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, diazepam, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, estrone, estradiol, ethinylestradiol, roxitromycin, sulfamethoxazole and iopromide), only significant concentrations were found for two musks (galaxolide and tonalide), two antiphlogistics (ibuprofen and naproxen), two natural estrogens (estrone, estradiol), one antibiotic (sulfamethoxazole) and the X-ray contrast media (iopromide), being the other compounds below the quantification level. In the primary treatment, only the fragrances were partly removed, with efficiencies of 20-50% for galaxolide and tonalide. However, the aerobic treatment caused an important reduction in all compounds detected, between 35 and 75%, with the exception of iopromide. The overall removal efficiency of the STP ranged between 70 and 90% for the fragrances, 45 and 70% for the acidic compounds, around 67% for estradiol and 57% for the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole.

  16. 3,5,5,6,8,8-Hexamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid (AHTN–COOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Nehls

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H24O2, is the product of a haloform reaction of 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetraline (AHTN. The compound is a racemic mixture with a disorder in its aliphatic ring [occupany ratio 0.683 (4:0.317 (4] due to two possible half-chair forms. The carboxylic acid unit is slightly twisted out of coplanarity with the aromatic system [dihedral angle = 29.26 (6°]. In the crystal, pairs of short classical intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link pairs of molecules around a center of symmetry.

  17. The improvement of removal effects on organic pollutants in Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincas, O.; Petrov, P.; Ternes, T.; Avram, V.; Moldovan, Z.

    2009-08-01

    Purpose of this study is to improve the efficiency of removal in wastewater treatment plants of some organic pollutants like pharmaceuticals, antioxidants, pesticides (triazines, phenylurea herbicides), personal care products (PCPs) musk fragrances (galaxolide and tonalide) and estrogens using zeolites with excellent absorption capacity. The zeolite selected for all experiments was Szedimentin-MW. The experiment took place in three stages: no zeolite addition, zeolite added at the end of the bioreactor and zeolite added at the start of the bioreactor. The water samples were pre-concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and analyzed with analytical system Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

  18. Multi-class method for biomonitoring of hair samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Julia; Möder, Monika; Gaudl, Alexander; Alonso, Esteban; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2015-11-01

    Currently, non-invasive biomonitoring of human exposure to organic pollutants bases upon the analysis mainly of urine and human breast milk. While mostly persistent organic pollutants are the center of interest, the aim of our study was to develop a method for the determination of different chemical classes of emerging pollutants (organophosphorus flame retardants, plastic additives such as phthalates, bisphenol A, insecticides, antimicrobials, preservatives and musk fragrances) in hair by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The preferred sample preparation included hydrolysis of the hair with trifluoroacetic acid in methanol followed by a liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate. The validated method is characterized by recoveries higher than 77 % for most analytes, relative standard deviations below 16 % and limits of detection between 2 pg mg(-1) (HHCB) and 292 pg mg(-1) (propylparaben) using 50 mg of dry hair. After respective blank corrections, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and the musk fragrance HHCB were the predominant compounds determined in all hair samples at concentrations between 32 and 59 ng mg(-1) and 0.8-13 ng mg(-1), respectively. The bactericide triclosan and the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) were detected in selected hair samples at 2 and 0.8 ng mg(-1), respectively.

  19. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in domestic wastewater and their removal in anaerobic treatment systems: Septic tank – up flow anaerobic filter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arrubla Vélez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In several countries around the world, Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs exist in aquatic environments, a fact that increases the awareness within the scientific community with respect to their possible fate and environment effects. This research presents a preliminary monitoring of use, consumption and presence of PPCPs in wastewater from a treatment plant in a rural area of Pereira (Colombia. Domestic sewage is treated in a septic tank followed by an Up-Flow Anaerobic Filter and its effluent is discharged into the Otún River, upstream of the water intake of the supply system of the city. The compounds monitored in this research included ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, aspirin, ketoprofen, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide and dihydrojasmonate. An adapted method of multi-residue analysis was used, which is based on solid phase extraction with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The removal efficiencies demonstrated that the treatment plant could eliminate less than 50% of dihydrojasmonate, diclofenac and galaxolide existing in wastewater; concentration of aspirin, naproxen and tonalide could only be reduced in 15%; and caffeine, ibuprofen and ketoprofen were not removed. Results provided basic information to decide over the necessity of complementary treatments for effluents from systems with the mentioned units.

  20. Cometabolic Enzymatic Transformation of Organic Micropollutants under Methanogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Lorena; Carballa, Marta; Lema, Juan M

    2017-02-23

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been shown to have the biological potential to decrease concentrations of several organic micropollutants (OMPs) in sewage sludge. However, the mechanisms and factors behind these biotransformations, which are essential for elucidating the possible transformation products and to foster the complete removal of OMPs via operational strategies, remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the transformation mechanisms of 20 OMPs during the methanogenic step of AD with a focus on the role of acetate kinase (AK), which is a key enzyme in methane production. The results from lab-scale methanogenic reactors showed that this step accounts for much of the reported OMP biotransformation in AD. Furthermore, enzymatic assays confirmed that AK transforms galaxolide, naproxen, nonylphenol, octylphenol, ibuprofen, diclofenac, bisphenol A, and triclosan. Except for galaxolide, for which further studies are required to refine conclusions, the OMP's chemical structure was a determinant for AK action because only compounds that contain a carboxyl or hydroxyl group and have moderate steric hindrance were enzymatically transformed, likely by phosphorylation. For these seven compounds, this enzymatic mechanism accounts for 10-90% of the measured methanogenic biotransformation, suggesting that other active enzymes of the AD process are also involved in OMP biotransformation.

  1. Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan; Bayona, Josep M

    2016-01-15

    Aerated batch reactors (2.5L) fed either with urban or synthetic wastewater were inoculated with microalgae (dominated by Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) to remove caffeine, ibuprofen, galaxolide, tributyl phosphate, 4-octylphenol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and carbamazepine for 10 incubation days. Non-aerated and darkness reactors were used as controls. Microalgae grew at a rate of 0.25 d(-1) with the complete removal of N-NH4 during the course of the experiment. After 10 incubation days, up to 99% of the microcontaminants with a Henry's law constant higher than 3 10(-1) Pa m(3) mol(-1) (i.e., 4-octylphenol, galaxolide, and tributyl phosphate) were removed by volatilization due to the effect of air stripping. Whereas biodegradation was effective for removing ibuprofen and caffeine, carbamazepine and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate behaved as recalcitrant compounds. The use of microalgae was proved to be relevant for increasing the biodegradation removal efficiency of ibuprofen by 40% and reducing the lag phase of caffeine by 3 days. Moreover, the enantioselective biodegradation of S-ibuprofen suggested a biotic prevalent removal process, which was supported by the identification of carboxy-ibuprofen and hydroxy-ibuprofen. The results from microalgae reactors fed with synthetic wastewater showed no clear evidences of microalgae uptake of any of the studied microcontaminants.

  2. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2011-04-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100-1600 μgL(-1)) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%): Four parabens, bisphenol-A, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP3), triclosan, galaxolide and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate. After 60 min, the removal efficiency of benzalkonium chloride was 98%, tonalide and nonylphenol 95%, octocrylene 92% and 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (PBSA) 84%. Ozonation of aerobically treated grey water at an applied ozone dose of 15 mgL(-1), reduced the concentrations of octocrylene, nonylphenol, triclosan, galaxolide, tonalide and 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor to below limits of quantification, with removal efficiencies of at least 79%. Complete adsorption of all studied micropollutants onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was observed in batch tests with milliQ water spiked with 100-1600 μgL(-1) at a PAC dose of 1.25 gL(-1) and a contact time of 5 min. Three granular activated carbon (GAC) column experiments were operated to treat aerobically treated grey water. The operation of a GAC column with aerobically treated grey water spiked with micropollutants in the range of 0.1-10 μgL(-1) at a flow of 0.5 bed volumes (BV)h(-1) showed micropollutant removal efficiencies higher than 72%. During the operation time of 1728 BV, no breakthrough of TOC or micropollutants was observed. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water was tested in a GAC column at a flow of 2 BVh(-1). Bisphenol-A, triclosan, tonalide, BP3, galaxolide, nonylphenol and PBSA were effectively removed even after a stable TOC breakthrough of 65% had been reached. After spiking the aerobically treated effluent with micropollutants to concentrations of 10-100 μgL(-1), efficient removal to below limits of quantification

  3. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  4. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A; Garrison, Virginia H; Alvarez, David A; Echols, Kathy R

    2013-05-15

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17-0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Occurrence and persistence of organic emerging contaminants and priority pollutants in five sewage treatment plants of Spain: two years pilot survey monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, M J Martínez; Gomez, M J; Herrera, S; Hernando, M D; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-05-01

    This work summarized all results obtained during almost two-years of a monitoring programme carried out in five municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in the north, centre and south-east of Spain. The study evaluated the occurrence and persistence of a group of 100 organic compounds belonging to several chemical groups (pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and metabolites). The average removal efficiencies of the STPs studied varied from 20% (erythromycin) to 99% (acetaminophen). In analysed samples, we identified a large number of compounds at mean range concentrations between 7-59,495 ng/L and 5-32,720 ng/L for influent and effluent samples, respectively. This study also identified 20 of the mostly detected and persistent compounds in wastewater effluent, of which hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, gemfibrozil, galaxolide and three metabolites (fenofibric acid, 4-AAA and 4-FAA), presented the highest average contribution percentages, in relation to the total load of contaminants for the different STPs effluent studied.

  6. Temporal evolution in PPCP removal from urban wastewater by constructed wetlands of different configuration: a medium-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Contreras, Carolina; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Bayona, Josep M; Bécares, Eloy

    2012-06-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are widely distributed in urban wastewaters and can be removed to some extent by constructed wetlands (CWs). The medium-term (3-5 years) behaviour of these systems regarding PPCP removal is still unknown. Seven mesocosm-scale (1 m(2)) CWs of different configurations were operated outdoors for 39 months under the same conditions to assess their PPCP removal ability and temporal evolution. CWs differed in some design parameters, namely plant presence, species chosen (Typha angustifolia vs Phragmites australis), flow configuration and presence/absence of gravel bed (floating macrophytes surface flow, FM-SF; free-water surface flow, FW-SF; free-water subsurface flow, FW-SSF; or conventional horizontal subsurface flow, SSF). PPCP efficiencies decreased throughout time and performance differences among CWs disappeared with the systems aging. This could be due to a homogenization process in the systems caused by detrimental factors like saturation, clogging and shading. Winter efficiencies were lower than summer ones for salicylic acid, caffeine, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide and tonalide, and seasonal biological activities seem key factors to explain this fact. Maximal removal efficiencies were achieved in an unplanted-FW-SSF for ketoprofen (47-81%), naproxen (58-81%) and salicylic acid (76-98%); in an unplanted-SSF for caffeine (65-99%); in a Phragmites-FM-SF for ibuprofen (49-96%) and diclofenac (16-68%); in a Typha-FM-SF for carbamazepine (35-71%); and in a Typha-FW-SSF for methyl dihydrojasmonate (71-96%), galaxolide (67-82%) and tonalide (55-74%). Photodegradation could be involved in ketoprofen, naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac removal. Carbamazepine and diclofenac were moderately removed by the most efficient CWs studied. Carbamazepine might be eliminated by vegetal uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of the mechanisms involved in the removal of emerging contaminants by microalgae from wastewater: a laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, c/Jordi Girona, 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Uggetti, Enrica; García, Joan [GEMMA—Group of Environmental Engineering and Microbiology, Department of Hydraulic, Maritime and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya BarcelonaTech, c/Jordi Girona, 1-3, Building D1, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA–CSIC, c/Jordi Girona, 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalage on the removal of emerging contaminants has been evaluated. • Volatilization was relevant for compounds with a moderate Henry’s law constant. • Biodegradation was the main factor for the removal of caffeine and ibuprofen. • Ibuprofen enantioselective biodegradation was observed. • CA-ibuprofen and OH-ibuprofen followed the concentration decline of ibuprofen. - Abstract: Aerated batch reactors (2.5 L) fed either with urban or synthetic wastewater were inoculated with microalgae (dominated by Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus sp.) to remove caffeine, ibuprofen, galaxolide, tributyl phosphate, 4-octylphenol, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and carbamazepine for 10 incubation days. Non-aerated and darkness reactors were used as controls. Microalgae grew at a rate of 0.25 d{sup −1} with the complete removal of N-NH{sub 4} during the course of the experiment. After 10 incubation days, up to 99% of the microcontaminants with a Henry’s law constant higher than 3 10{sup −1} Pa m{sup 3} mol{sup −1} (i.e., 4-octylphenol, galaxolide, and tributyl phosphate) were removed by volatilization due to the effect of air stripping. Whereas biodegradation was effective for removing ibuprofen and caffeine, carbamazepine and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate behaved as recalcitrant compounds. The use of microalgae was proved to be relevant for increasing the biodegradation removal efficiency of ibuprofen by 40% and reducing the lag phase of caffeine by 3 days. Moreover, the enantioselective biodegradation of S-ibuprofen suggested a biotic prevalent removal process, which was supported by the identification of carboxy-ibuprofen and hydroxy-ibuprofen. The results from microalgae reactors fed with synthetic wastewater showed no clear evidences of microalgae uptake of any of the studied microcontaminants.

  8. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: results of a national pilot study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro J; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Mottaleb, Mohammad A; O'Donnell, John G; Stahl, Leanne L; Wathen, John B; Snyder, Blaine D; Pitt, Jennifer L; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Dobbins, Laura L; Brooks, Bryan W; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being increasingly reported in a variety of biological matrices, including fish tissue; however, screening studies have presently not encompassed broad geographical areas. A national pilot study was initiated in the United States to assess the accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish sampled from five effluent-dominated rivers that receive direct discharge from wastewater treatment facilities in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; and West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Fish were also collected from the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, as a reference condition expected to be minimally impacted by anthropogenic influence. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals revealed the presence of norfluoxetine, sertraline, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine at nanogram-per-gram concentrations in fillet composites from effluent-dominated sampling locations; the additional presence of fluoxetine and gemfibrozil was confirmed in liver tissue. Sertraline was detected at concentrations as high as 19 and 545 ng/g in fillet and liver tissue, respectively. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of personal care products in fillet composites revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at maximum concentrations of 2,100 and 290 ng/g, respectively, and trace levels of triclosan. In general, more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues. Higher lipid content in liver tissue could not account for this discrepancy as no significant positive correlations were found between accumulated pharmaceutical concentrations and lipid content for either tissue type from any sampling site. In contrast, accumulation of the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide was significantly related to lipid content. Results suggest that the detection of

  9. Non-target screening and prioritization of potentially persistent, bioaccumulating and toxic domestic wastewater contaminants and their removal in on-site and large-scale sewage treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kristin M; Andersson, Patrik L; Renman, Gunno; Ahrens, Lutz; Gros, Meritxell; Wiberg, Karin; Haglund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    On-site sewage treatment facilities (OSSFs), which are used to reduce nutrient emissions in rural areas, were screened for anthropogenic compounds with two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The detected compounds were prioritized based on their persistence, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity, removal efficiency, and concentrations. This comprehensive prioritization strategy, which was used for the first time on OSSF samples, ranked galaxolide, α-tocopheryl acetate, octocrylene, 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol, several chlorinated organophosphorus flame retardants and linear alkyl benzenes as the most relevant compounds being emitted from OSSFs. Twenty-six target analytes were then selected for further removal efficiency analysis, including compounds from the priority list along with substances from the same chemical classes, and a few reference compounds. We found significantly better removal of two polar contaminants 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (p=0.0003) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (p=0.005) in soil beds, a common type of OSSF in Sweden, compared with conventional sewage treatment plants. We also report median removal efficiencies in OSSFs for compounds not studied in this context before, viz. α-tocopheryl acetate (96%), benzophenone (83%), 2-(methylthio)benzothiazole (64%), 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (33%), and a range of organophosphorus flame retardants (19% to 98%). The environmental load of the top prioritized compounds in soil bed effluents were in the thousands of nanogram per liter range, viz. 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn-4,7-diol (3000ngL(-1)), galaxolide (1400ngL(-1)), octocrylene (1200ngL(-1)), and α-tocopheryl acetate (660ngL(-1)). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity.

  11. Fully automated ionic liquid-based headspace single drop microextraction coupled to GC-MS/MS to determine musk fragrances in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecillos, Laura; Pocurull, Eva; Borrull, Francesc

    2012-09-15

    A fully automated ionic liquid-based headspace single drop microextraction (IL-HS-SDME) procedure has been developed for the first time to preconcentrate trace amounts of ten musk fragrances extensively used in personal care products (six polycyclic musks, three nitro musks and one polycyclic musk degradation product) from wastewater samples prior to analysis by gas chromatography and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS/MS). Due to the low volatility of the ILs, a large internal diameter liner (3.4 mm i.d.) was used to improve the ILs evaporation. Furthermore, a piece of glass wool was introduced into the liner to avoid the entrance of the ILs in the GC column and a guard column was used to prevent analytical column damages. The main factors influencing the IL-HS-SDME were optimized. For all species, the highest enrichments factors were achieved using 1 μL of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([OMIM][PF(6)]) ionic liquid exposed in the headspace of 10 mL water samples containing 300 g L(-1) of NaCl and stirred at 750 rpm and 60 °C for 45 min. All compounds were determined by direct injection GC-IT-MS/MS with a chromatographic time of 19 min. Method detection limits were found in the low ng mL(-1) range between 0.010 ng mL(-1) and 0.030 ng mL(-1) depending on the target analytes. Also, under optimized conditions, the method gave good levels of intra-day and inter-day repeatabilities in wastewater samples with relative standard deviations varying between 3% and 6% and 5% and 11%, respectively (n=3, 1 ng mL(-1)). The applicability of the method was tested with different wastewater samples from influent and effluent urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one potable treatment plant (PTP). The analysis of influent urban wastewater revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at concentrations of between 2.10 ng mL(-1) and 0.29 ng mL(-1) and 0.32 ng mL(-1) and waters from PTP only galaxolide was found at a concentration higher than MQL.

  12. Expanded target-chemical analysis reveals extensive mixed-organic-contaminant exposure in USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste; Romanok, Kristin; Barber, Larry B.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jones, Daniel K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Surface water from 38 streams nationwide was assessed using 14 target-organic methods (719 compounds). Designed-bioactive anthropogenic contaminants (biocides, pharmaceuticals) comprised 57% of 406 organics detected at least once. The 10 most-frequently detected anthropogenic-organics included eight pesticides (desulfinylfipronil, AMPA, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, metolachlor, atrazine, CIAT, glyphosate) and two pharmaceuticals (caffeine, metformin) with detection frequencies ranging 66–84% of all sites. Detected contaminant concentrations varied from less than 1 ng L–1 to greater than 10 μg L–1, with 77 and 278 having median detected concentrations greater than 100 ng L–1 and 10 ng L–1, respectively. Cumulative detections and concentrations ranged 4–161 compounds (median 70) and 8.5–102 847 ng L–1, respectively, and correlated significantly with wastewater discharge, watershed development, and toxic release inventory metrics. Log10 concentrations of widely monitored HHCB, triclosan, and carbamazepine explained 71–82% of the variability in the total number of compounds detected (linear regression; p-values: direct environment application (pesticides), designed-bioactive organics (median 41 per site at μg L–1 cumulative concentrations) in developed watersheds present aquatic health concerns, given their acknowledged potential for sublethal effects to sensitive species and lifecycle stages at low ng L–1.

  13. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  14. Removal of polycyclic synthetic musks and antineoplastic drugs in ozonated wastewater: Quantitation based on the data of differential spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Nanaboina, Venkateswarlu; Chen, Fang; Korshin, Gregory V

    2016-03-05

    This study examined the degradation behavior of polycyclic musks (PMs) and antineoplastic drugs (ADs) and the absorbance spectra of effluent organic matter (EfOM) in municipal wastewater by ozone. Specific ozone doses used in the experiments ranged from 0 to 1mg O3/mg dissolved organic matter (DOC). The examined PMs included galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide, traseolide and phantolide. ADs included busulfan, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, flutamide, ifosfamide, tamoxifen and methotrexate. Strong monotonic albeit nonlinear correlations were found to exist between relative changes of EfOM absorbance at 254 nm (i.e. ΔA254/A(0)254) and the degradation of the selected PMs and ADs. This result was interpreted based on the concept of the simultaneous oxidation of EfOM and, on the other hand, PMs and ADs. This interpretation showed that PMs were degraded primarily via OH radical attack, with tonalide and phantolide being less reactive compared with the other PMs. ADs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and busulfan were also determined to undergo oxidation by OH radicals. Comparison of the behavior of the radical probe para-chlorobenzoic acid and the examined ADs and PMs allowed evaluating corresponding reaction rate constants for reactions between these species and OH radicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mitigation of micropollutants for black water application in agriculture via composting of anaerobic sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkovskyi, A., E-mail: andrii.butkovskyi@wur.nl [Sub-Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Ni, G. [Sub-Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Hernandez Leal, L. [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900CC Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Rijnaarts, H.H.M.; Zeeman, G. [Sub-Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Micropollutants removal in the composted UASB sludge ranged from 87% to 99%. • 99% removal of the persistent pharmaceutical diclofenac is achieved. • Triclosan is partly transformed into methyltriclosan that is accumulated in compost. - Abstract: The excess sludge from Up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated on source separated toilet wastewater is a potential source of nutrients and organic matter. It can be further stabilized and dried by composting and applied as a soil amendment. Presence of pathogens, heavy metals and micropollutants in the compost derived from anaerobic sludge is thus undesirable. This paper focuses on removal of micropollutants, typically present in domestic wastewater, via composting of UASB sludge with waste wood. Estrone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol, carbamazepine, galaxolide and triclosan were spiked to a mixture of UASB sludge and waste wood. Their concentrations were monitored during 92 days of composting at controlled temperature conditions. All studied micropollutants were removed at various rates with overall removal ranging from 99.9% for ibuprofen, diclofenac and estrone to 87.8% for carbamazepine. Accumulation of methyltriclosan as by-product of triclosan degradation was observed. The prospects and limitations of the integration of a composting process into Source Separated Sanitation concepts are discussed.

  16. Xenobiotics in groundwater and surface water of the city of Leipzig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, A.; Leschik, S.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Schirmer, M.; Möder, M.

    2007-09-01

    Xenobiotics are increasingly being considered as ecotoxicologically relevant for the aquatic environment and human health. Their behaviour and the effects on the environment have not yet been comprehensively investigated and, therefore, are currently the subject of the project WASSER Leipzig initiated by the UFZ. The results of this article are based on groundwater and surface water analyses of a watershed within the town of Leipzig. Here the industrial chemicals bisphenol-A and t-nonylphenol, the polycyclic fragrances galaxolide and tonalide, the antiepileptic drug carbamacepine and caffeine where investigated. Xenobiotics showed ubiquitous occurrence in the rivers, which were contaminated from treated and untreated sewage, as well as in groundwater, contaminated by leaky sewers. Mean concentrations up to several hundred ng/l were found in the rivers, while groundwater concentrations, except for bisphenol-A, tended to be lower. Applying the statistical factor analysis on the hydrochemical measurements, a differentiation of the xenobiotics with regard to their hydrochemical behaviour in groundwater was performed.

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.musolff@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Leschik, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.leschik@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Moeder, Monika, E-mail: monika.moeder@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Strauch, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.strauch@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Reinstorf, Frido, E-mail: frido.reinstorf@hs-magdeburg.d [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Department of Water and Waste Management, Breitscheidstr. 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Schirmer, Mario, E-mail: mario.schirmer@eawag.c [Eawag, The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Ueberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

  18. Mitigation of micropollutants for black water application in agriculture via composting of anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, A; Ni, G; Hernandez Leal, L; Rijnaarts, H H M; Zeeman, G

    2016-02-13

    The excess sludge from Up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated on source separated toilet wastewater is a potential source of nutrients and organic matter. It can be further stabilized and dried by composting and applied as a soil amendment. Presence of pathogens, heavy metals and micropollutants in the compost derived from anaerobic sludge is thus undesirable. This paper focuses on removal of micropollutants, typically present in domestic wastewater, via composting of UASB sludge with waste wood. Estrone, diclofenac, ibuprofen, metoprolol, carbamazepine, galaxolide and triclosan were spiked to a mixture of UASB sludge and waste wood. Their concentrations were monitored during 92 days of composting at controlled temperature conditions. All studied micropollutants were removed at various rates with overall removal ranging from 99.9% for ibuprofen, diclofenac and estrone to 87.8% for carbamazepine. Accumulation of methyltriclosan as by-product of triclosan degradation was observed. The prospects and limitations of the integration of a composting process into Source Separated Sanitation concepts are discussed.

  19. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from <1 to 7677 ng kg(-1), with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinations of airborne synthetic musks by polyurethane foam coupled with triple quadrupole gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, I-Ting Ivy; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Tsai, Shih-Wei

    2014-02-21

    Synthetic musk is widely used in various scented consumer products. However, the exposure via inhalation is often ignored due to pleasant smells. In addition, the information regarding the distribution of synthetic musk in air is limited. Hence, this research is aimed to develop a highly sensitive and widely applicable method for the determination of airborne synthetic musk. In this study, polyurethane foam (PUF) and filter were employed for active air sampling. Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and nitrogen evaporator were performed for sample preparation. A gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS-MS) with specific multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transition pairs was applied for sample analysis. Compared with using selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode traditionally, the sensitivities were improved in this study about an order at least. In terms of air concentration, as low as 0.48ngm(-3) can be determined when sampling at 3.5Lmin(-1) for 8h. The method established was further applied to the analysis of synthetic musk compounds in air samples collected in a cosmetics plant. The results showed that the airborne concentrations of gaseous polycyclic musk, gaseous nitro-musk, and particle-phase polycyclic musk were 6.4×10(2), 4.0×10(1) and 3.1×10(2)ngm(-3), respectively. Meanwhile, Cashmeran, Celstolide, Galaxolide, and Tonalide were found as the dominant musk compounds in the factory investigated.

  1. Effects of porous media, macrophyte type and hydraulic retention time on the removal of organic load and micropollutants in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Cárdenas, Jorge; Navarro, Amado E; Torres, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The performance of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands in the removal of micropollutants from a wastewater treatment plant effluent was evaluated at mesocosm level. Fifteen mesocosms were studied following a modified Latin Square experimental design with six additional points. Three variables at three levels were studied: porous media -PM- (river gravel, fine volcanic gravel and coarse volcanic gravel), macrophyte type -M- (Thypa latiffolia, Phragmites australis, and Cyperus papyrus) and hydraulic retention time -HRT- (1, 3 and 5 days). As response variables the removal percentages of the total organic load of the effluent (BOD5) and the loads of several micropollutants (caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, alkylphenols and their monoethoxylates and diethoxylates, methyl dihydrojasmonate, sunscreen UV-15 and parsol) were used. The results showed that the systems remove between 70% and 75% of the organic load and that all the micropollutants were degraded at different extents, from 55% to 99%. The HRT was the variable that showed major effects on the treatment process, while M and PM showed no statistically significant differences in the used experimental conditions.

  2. Economic valuation of environmental benefits of removing pharmaceutical and personal care products from WWTP effluents by ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, M; Reif, R; Garrido-Baserba, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Omil, F; Poch, M; Sala-Garrido, R

    2013-09-01

    Continuous release of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is nowadays leading to the adoption of specific measures within the framework of the Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive). The ozonation process, normally employed for drinking water production, has also proven its potential to eliminate PPCPs from secondary effluents in spite of their low concentrations. However, there is a significant drawback related with the costs associated with its implementation. This lack of studies is especially pronounced regarding the economic valuation of the environmental benefits associated to avoid the discharge of these pollutants into water bodies. For the first time the shadow prices of 5 PPCPs which are ethynilestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, tonalide and galaxolide from treated effluent using a pilot-scale ozonation reactor have been estimated. From non-sensitive areas their values are -73.73; -34.95; -42.20; -10.98; and -8.67 respectively and expressed in €/kg. They represent a proxy to the economic value of the environmental benefits arisen from undischarged pollutants. This paper contributes to value the environmental benefits of implementing post-treatment processes aimed to achieve the quality standards required by the Priority Substances Directive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations.

  4. Cleaning practices and cleaning products in nurseries and schools: to what extent can they impact indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Boumier, J; Wyart, G; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a nationwide survey on indoor air quality conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 in 310 nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary schools in all regions of France, cleaning practices and products were described through an extensive questionnaire completed on-site by expert building inspectors. The questionnaire included the cleaning frequencies and periods, cleaning techniques, whether windows were open during cleaning, and the commercial names of the products used. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that cleaning was generally performed daily for furniture and floors. It was performed mostly in the evening with wet mopping and with one or more windows open. Five hundred eighty-four different cleaning products were listed, among which 218 safety data sheets (SDSs) were available and analyzed. One hundred fifty-two chemical substances were identified in the SDSs. The typical substances in cleaning products included alcohols, chlorides, terpenes, aldehydes, and ethers; more than half of them are irritants. Two endocrine disruptors, 2-phenylphenol and Galaxolide, were identified in two cleaning products used every day to clean the floors, in seven kindergartens and in a nursery respectively. Eleven reactive substances containing C=C double bonds, mostly terpenes, were identified in a wide variety of cleaning products.

  5. Distribution and fate of legacy and emerging contaminants along the Adriatic Sea: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Tatiane; Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; Lara-Martin, Pablo A; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    The spatial distributions and fates of selected legacy and emerging compounds were investigated and compared in surface sediments sampled along the Adriatic mud-wedge and in deep-sea regions from the southern Adriatic basin. Results indicated that the concentrations of legacy contaminants (PAHs, PCBs and DDTs) and emerging contaminants (tonalide, galaxolide, EHMC, octocrylene, BP3 and NP) ranged from 0.1 to 572 ng g(-1) and from emerging contaminants to sediments in the Adriatic Sea. Nevertheless, the prevalence of some UV filters and fragrances in the central and southern Adriatic indicates that the proximity to tourist areas and WWTPs discharges seems to affect the distribution of those compounds. The accumulation of contaminants in the deep-sea areas supports the inference that this region may act as an important repository for contaminants within the Adriatic Sea. Estimated annual contaminant accumulation reveals that both, legacy and emerging contaminants accumulate preferentially in the northern Adriatic (40-60% of the total annual contaminant accumulation), where the presence of legacy, and to a lesser extent emerging contaminants, are likely to pose an immediate or long-term hazard to resident biota.

  6. Evaluation of a coagulation/flocculation-lamellar clarifier and filtration-UV-chlorination reactor for removing emerging contaminants at full-scale wastewater treatment plants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2013-03-15

    The presence and elimination of 25 emerging contaminants in two full-scale Spanish wastewater treatment plants was studied. The tertiary treatment systems consisted of coagulation, flocculation lamellar settlement and filtration (pulsed-bed sand filters) units, and disinfection was carried out by medium pressure UV light lamps and chlorination. Diclofenac and carbamazepine were found to be the emerging contaminants with the highest concentrations in secondary effluents. Photodegradable emerging contaminants (e.g. ketoprofen, triclosan and diclofenac) were removed by filtration-UV light radiation-chlorination whereas most hydrophobic compounds (e.g. galaxolide and tonalide) were eliminated by coagulation-flocculation followed by lamellar clarification, a unit in which a seasonal trend was observed. Overall mass removal efficiency was about 60%. 1-(8-Chlorocarbazolyl) acetic acid, an intermediate product of the photodegradation of diclofenac, was detected after filtration-UV-chlorination, but not after coagulation-flocculation and lamellar clarification. This study demonstrated potential for general applicability of two established tertiary treatment systems to eliminate emerging contaminants.

  7. Legacy and emerging contaminants in meltwater of three Alpine glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Claudia; Finizio, Antonio; Villa, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater samples collected in early and late summer from three Alpine glaciers were analysed to determine the occurrence of POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants: DDTs, HCHs and PCBs) and emerging contaminants (current used pesticides and polycyclic musk fragrances). For legacy POPs, we reconstructed a concentration time series using data from previous surveys in the same areas (starting from 2000). The results suggest a declining tendency of these compounds, probably related to the introduction of international regulations, which has led the strong use reduction and ban of these compounds. Among the analysed current used pesticides the terbuthylazine and chlorpyrifos were found in all the analysed samples. The experimental results were in line with the prediction of the OECD tool screening model, which was applied to estimate the potential of these substances to undergo regional-scale atmospheric transport processes. Temporal and spatial differences in concentrations for these compounds were related to the timing of applications, weather conditions and crop distribution along the adjacent Po River Plain. Despite model predictions, the herbicide pendimethalin was never detected, probably due to the lower use of this compound in the agricultural practices. Conversely, concentrations of polycyclic musk fragrances galaxolide and tonalide were more homogeneous both temporally and spatially, in agreement with their continuous release from emission sources.

  8. Uptake calibration of polymer-based passive samplers for monitoring priority and emerging organic non-polar pollutants in WWTP effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ureta, Oscar; Olivares, Maitane; Zatón, Leire; Delgado, Alejandra; Prieto, Ailette; Vallejo, Asier; Paschke, Albrecht; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-05-01

    The uptake calibration of more than 12 non-polar organic contaminants by 3 polymeric materials is shown: bare polydimetilsiloxane (PDMS, stir-bars), polyethersulfone tubes and membranes (PES) and polyoxymethylene membranes (POM), both in their free form and membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO). The calibration process was carried out exposing the samplers to a continuous flow of contaminated water at 100 ng mL(-1) for up to 28 days, and, consequently, the sampling rates (Rs, mL day(-1)) of several organic microcontaminants were provided for the first time. In situ Rs values were also determined disposing the samplers in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. Finally, these passive samplers were applied to monitor the effluents of two wastewater treatment plants. This application lead to the confirmation of the presence of galaxolide, tonalide and 4-tert-octylphenol at high ng mL(-1) levels, as well as the identification of compounds like some phthalates and alkylphenols at levels below the detection limits for active sampling methods.

  9. In-cell clean-up pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of hydrophobic persistent and emerging organic pollutants in coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The main goal of this work was to develop, optimize and validate a multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of 97 contaminants, including fragrances, UV filters, repellents, endocrine disruptors, biocides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorus flame retardants, and several types of pesticides in marine sediment samples. Extraction and cleanup were integrated into the same step using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell clean-up (1g of alumina). The extraction was performed using dichloromethane at 100 °C, 1500 psi and 3 extraction cycles (5 min per cycle). Extracts were derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to improve the signal and sensitivity of some target compounds (i.e., triclosan, 2-hydroxybenzophenone). Separation, identification and quantification of analytes were carried out by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Under optimal conditions, the optimized protocol showed good recovery percentages (70-100%), linearity (>0.99) and limits of detection below 1 ng g(-1) for all compounds. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of sediment samples from different coastal areas from Andalusia (Spain), where occurrence and distribution of emerging contaminants in sediments is very scarce. Twenty five compounds out of 98 were detected in all samples, with the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol and the fragrance galaxolide showing the highest concentrations, up to 377.6 ng g(-1) and 237.4 ng g(-1), respectively.

  10. Determinants of Exposure to Fragranced Product Chemical Mixtures in a Sample of Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. Gribble

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced product chemical mixtures may be relevant for environmental health, but little is known about exposure. We analyzed results from an olfactory challenge with the synthetic musk fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopento-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB, and a questionnaire about attitudes toward chemical safety and use of fragranced products, in a sample of 140 white and 17 black twin pairs attending a festival in Ohio. Data for each product were analyzed using robust ordered logistic regressions with random intercepts for “twin pair” and “sharing address with twin”, and fixed effects for sex, age, education, and “ever being bothered by fragrances”. Due to the small number of black participants, models were restricted to white participants except when examining racial differences. Overall patterns of association were summarized across product-types through random-effects meta-analysis. Principal components analysis was used to summarize clustering of product use. The dominant axis of variability in fragranced product use was “more vs. less”, followed by a distinction between household cleaning products and personal care products. Overall, males used fragranced products less frequently than females (adjusted proportionate odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.93. This disparity was driven by personal care products (0.42, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.96, rather than household cleaning products (0.79, 95% CI: 0.49, 1.25 and was particularly evident for body lotion (0.12, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27. Overall usage differed by age (0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95 but only hand soap and shampoo products differed significantly. “Ever being bothered by fragrance” had no overall association (0.92, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.30 but was associated with laundry detergent use (0.46, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.93. Similarly, black vs. white differences on average were not significant (1.34, 95% CI: 0.55, 3.28 but there were apparent differences in use of

  11. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  12. iSTREEM(®) : An approach for broad-scale in-stream exposure assessment of "down-the-drain" chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapo, Katherine E; DeLeo, Paul C; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher M; Ferrer, Darci; Dyer, Scott D; Wang, Xinhao; White-Hull, Charlotte

    2016-10-01

    The "in-stream exposure model" iSTREEM(®) , a Web-based model made freely available to the public by the American Cleaning Institute, provides a means to estimate concentrations of "down-the-drain" chemicals in effluent, receiving waters, and drinking water intakes across national and regional scales under mean annual and low-flow conditions. We provide an overview of the evolution and utility of the iSTREEM model as a screening-level risk assessment tool relevant for down-the-drain products. The spatial nature of the model, integrating point locations of facilities along a hydrologic network, provides a powerful framework to assess environmental exposure and risk in a spatial context. A case study compared national distributions of modeled concentrations of the fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethylcyclopenta-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) to available monitoring data at comparable flow conditions. The iSTREEM low-flow model results yielded a conservative distribution of values, whereas the mean-flow model results more closely resembled the concentration distribution of monitoring data. We demonstrate how model results can be used to construct a conservative estimation of the distribution of chemical concentrations for effluents and streams leading to the derivation of a predicted environmental concentration (PEC) using the high end of the concentration distribution (e.g., 90th percentile). Data requirements, assumptions, and applications of iSTREEM are discussed in the context of other down-the-drain modeling approaches to enhance understanding of comparative advantages and uncertainties for prospective users interested in exposure modeling for ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:782-792. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. How to examine soil sorption of ionizable organic compounds and avoid varying pH?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisover, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    describing the transfer of the sorbing compound from its initial molecular (non-ionized) state (in a solution or in the gas phase) to the final hydrated sorbed state equilibrated with the actual aqueous solution of this ionizable compound. In this way, any contributions from the bulk solvent-organic ion interactions into the sorption transfer may be excluded; in addition, further any solute-solvent interactions may be taken out of the consideration. Therefore, compound's sorption characteristics "cleared" of solute-solvent interactions may be obtained, and a better understanding of relations between interactions in a sorbed phase and a molecular structure of organic sorbates can be reached. The approach is illustrated by examining sorption of variously ionized organic compounds, i.e., those belonging to the pharmaceuticals and personal care products (triclosan, gemfibrozil, galaxolide), and aliphatic organic acids on natural and organic amendment-enriched soils. Specifically, it is demonstrated how the greater H-donating ability of trifluoroacetic acid, as compared with acetic acid, strengthens the acid interactions in the soil phase. In another series of examples, it is shown how hydrophobic and non-ionizing galaxolide interacts weakly with soils, as compared with partially ionized triclosan and almost fully ionized gemfibrozil, i.e., leading to the conclusions not reachable based only on the direct comparison of experimentally measured distribution coefficients.

  14. Reconnaissance of Persistent and Emerging Contaminants in the Shenandoah and James River Basins, Virginia, During Spring of 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, David A.; Cranor, Walter; Perkins, Stephanie; Schroeder, Vickie; Werner, Stephen; Furlong, Edward; Kain, Donald; Brent, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Fish exhibiting external lesions, incidences of intersex, and death have recently been observed in the Shenandoah and James River Basins. These basins are characterized by widespread agriculture (intensive in some areas), several major industrial discharges, numerous sewage treatment plant discharges, and urban, transportation, and residential growth that has increased rapidly in recent years. Nine locations in the Shenandoah River Basin, Virginia, and two in the James River Basin, Virginia, were selected for study in an attempt to identify chemicals that may have contributed to the declining fish health. Two passive sampling devices, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were deployed during the spring and early summer of 2007 to measure select organic contaminants to which fish may have been exposed. This study determined that concentrations of persistent hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<17,000 picograms per liter), legacy pesticides (<510 picograms per liter), and polychlorinated biphenyls (<1,600 picograms per liter) were generally low and indicative of a largely agricultural area. Chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and lindane were the most commonly detected chlorinated pesticides. Atrazine, which was detected at concentrations much greater than other pesticides associated with agricultural use, ranged from <0.18 to 430 nanograms per liter during the deployment period. Few chemicals characteristic of wastewater treatment plant effluent or septic tank discharges were detected. The fragrance components, galaxolide, indole, and tonalide, were the predominant waste indicator chemicals detected. Caffeine, the caffeine metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine, the nicotine metabolite cotinine, and the prescription pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, venlafaxine, and trimethoprim were detected at several sites. Natural and synthetic hormones were detected at a few sites with 17 alpha

  15. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154 > PBDE-153. Concentrations in tissues and in sediments increased moving

  16. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  17. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  18. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L., E-mail: lidia.paredes@usc.es; Fernandez-Fontaina, E., E-mail: eduardo.fernandez.fontaina@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es; Carballa, M., E-mail: marta.carballa@usc.es

    2016-05-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2 d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. - Highlights: • OMP removal was comparatively assessed in sand and GAC biofilters. • The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal was identified. • The filtering material did not affect the biological activities in biofilters. • There is no direct correlation between EBCT and OMP removal in biofilters. • The type of secondary effluent determines the lifespan of filtering

  19. Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Takada, Hideshige

    2017-08-01

    The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of "indicators" that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.

  20. Development of a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determining personal care products in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Noelia; Marcé, Rosa Maria; Borrull, Francesc

    2010-06-25

    This study describes the development of a new analytical method for determining 14 personal care products (PCPs) - nine synthetic musks, four parabens and one insect repellent - in air samples. The method is based on active sampling on sorbent tubes and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and is rapid, sensitive and drastically reduces the risk of sample contamination. Three kinds of tubes and traps were tested, those filled with Tenax TA being the most suitable for this study. Method validation showed good repeatability and reproducibility, low detection limits (between 0.03 ng m(-3) for DPMI and 12.5 ng m(-3) for propyl paraben) and good linearity for all compounds. Stability during storage indicated that samples must be kept refrigerated at 4 degrees C and analysed within 1 week of collection. The applicability of the technique to real samples was tested in different indoor and outdoor atmospheres. The total PCP values for indoor air ranged from 135 ng m(-3) in a pharmacy to 2838 ng m(-3) in a hairdresser's, whereas the values for outdoor air ranged from 14 ng m(-3) for a suburban environment to 26 ng m(-3) for an urban environment. In general, the most abundant synthetic musks were galaxolide (5.9-1256 ng m(-3)), musk xylene (1.6-766 ng m(-3)) and tonalide (1.1-138 ng m(-3)). Methyl and ethyl paraben (2.4-313 ng m(-3) and 1.8-117 ng m(-3), respectively) were the most abundant parabens. Although thermal desorption methods have been widely used for determining volatile organic compounds, they are rarely used with semi-volatile compounds. This study thus demonstrates that the thermal desorption method performs well with semi-volatile compounds and, for the first time, that it can be used for determining PCPs.

  1. Determination of silicone rubber and low-density polyethylene diffusion and polymer/water partition coefficients for emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintado-Herrera, Marina G; Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Allan, Ian J

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in assessing the concentration and distribution of new nonregulated organic compounds (emerging contaminants) in the environment. The measurement of freely dissolved concentrations using conventional approaches is challenging because of the low concentrations that may be encountered and their temporally variable emissions. Absorption-based passive sampling enables the estimation of freely dissolved concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants of emerging concern in water. In the present study, calibration was undertaken for 2 polymers, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and silicone rubber for 11 fragrances, 5 endocrine-disrupting compounds, 7 ultraviolet (UV) filters, and 8 organophosphate flame retardant compounds. Batch experiments were performed to estimate contaminant diffusion coefficients in the polymers (Dp ), which in general decreased with increasing molecular weight. The values for fragrances, endocrine-disrupting compounds, and UV filters were in ranges similar to those previously reported for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but were 1 order of magnitude lower for organophosphate flame retardant compounds. Silicone rubber had higher Dp values than LDPE and was therefore selected for further experiments to calculate polymer/water partition coefficients (KPW ). The authors observed a positive correlation between log KPW and log octanol/water partition coefficient values. Field testing of silicone rubber passive samplers was undertaken though exposure in the River Alna (Norway) for an exposure time of 21 d to estimate freely dissolved concentration. Some fragrances and UV filters were predominant over other emerging and regulated contaminants, at levels up to 1600 ng L(-1) for galaxolide and 448 ng L(-1) for octocrylene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2162-2172. © 2016 SETAC.

  2. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of synthetic musk fragrances in aqueous matrices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Alice; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve synthetic musks in water samples, using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was successfully developed. The influence of seven factors (volume of the extraction solvent and disperser solvent, sample volume, extraction time, ionic strength, type of extraction and disperser solvent) affecting the UA-DLLME extraction efficiency was investigated using a screening design. The significant factors were selected and optimised employing a central composite design: 80 μL of chloroform, 880 μL of acetonitrile, 6 mL of sample volume, 3.5% (wt) of NaCl and 2 min of extraction time. Under the optimised conditions, this methodology was successfully validated for the analysis of 12 synthetic musk compounds in different aqueous samples (tap, sea and river water, effluent and influent wastewater). The proposed method showed enrichment factors between 101 and 115 depending on the analyte, limits of detection in the range of 0.004-54 ng L(-1) and good repeatability (most relative standard deviation values below 10%). No significant matrix effects were found, since recoveries ranged between 71% and 118%. Finally, the method was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of five different aqueous samples. Results demonstrated the existence of a larger amount of synthetic musks in wastewaters than in other water samples (average concentrations of 2800 ng L(-1) in influent and 850 ng L(-1) in effluent). Galaxolide, tonalide and exaltolide were the compounds most detected.

  3. Energy efficiency for the removal of non-polar pollutants during ultraviolet irradiation, visible light photocatalysis and ozonation of a wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier; Gómez, María José; Herrera-López, Sonia; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy; Rosal, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to assess the removal of a set of non-polar pollutants in biologically treated wastewater using ozonation, ultraviolet (UV 254 nm low pressure mercury lamp) and visible light (Xe-arc lamp) irradiation as well as visible light photocatalysis using Ce-doped TiO2. The compounds tracked include UV filters, synthetic musks, herbicides, insecticides, antiseptics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Raw wastewater and treated samples were analyzed using stir-bar sorptive extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (SBSE-CG × GC-TOF-MS). Ozone treatment could remove most pollutants with a global efficiency of over 95% for 209 μM ozone dosage. UV irradiation reduced the total concentration of the sixteen pollutants tested by an average of 63% with high removal of the sunscreen 2-ethylhexyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), the synthetic musk 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydronaphthalene (tonalide, AHTN) and several herbicides. Visible light Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis reached ~70% overall removal with particularly high efficiency for synthetic musks. In terms of power usage efficiency expressed as nmol kJ(-1), the results showed that ozonation was by far the most efficient process, ten-fold over Xe/Ce-TiO2 visible light photocatalysis, the latter being in turn considerably more efficient than UV irradiation. In all cases the efficiency decreased along the treatments due to the lower reaction rate at lower pollutant concentration. The use of photocatalysis greatly improved the efficiency of visible light irradiation. The collector area per order decreased from 9.14 ± 5.11 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for visible light irradiation to 0.16 ± 0.03 m(2) m(-3) order(-1) for Ce-TiO2 photocatalysis. The toxicity of treated wastewater was assessed using the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Ozonation reduced the toxicity of treated wastewater, while UV irradiation and visible light photocatalysis limited by 20-25% the algal growth due to

  4. Occurrence and Distribution of Organic Wastewater Compounds in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Park Service Police Aviation Group, conducted a high-resolution, low-altitude aerial thermal infrared survey of the Washington, D.C. section of Rock Creek Basin within the Park boundaries to identify specific locations where warm water was discharging from seeps or pipes to the creek. Twenty-three stream sites in Rock Creek Park were selected based on the thermal infrared images. Sites were sampled during the summers of 2007 and 2008 for the analysis of organic wastewater compounds to verify potential sources of sewage and other anthropogenic wastewater. Two sets of stormwater samples were collected, on June 27-28 and September 6, 2008, at the Rock Creek at Joyce Road water-quality station using an automated sampler that began sampling when a specified stage threshold value was exceeded. Passive-sampler devices that accumulate organic chemicals over the duration of deployment were placed in July 2008 at the five locations that had the greatest number of detections of organic wastewater compounds from the June 2007 base-flow sampling. During the 2007 base-flow synoptic sampling, there were ubiquitous low-level detections of dissolved organic wastewater indicator compounds such as DEET, caffeine, HHCB, and organophosphate flame retardants at more than half of the 23 sites sampled in Rock Creek Park. Concentrations of DEET and caffeine in the tributaries to Rock Creek were variable, but in the main stem of Rock Creek, the concentrations were constant throughout the length of the creek, which likely reflects a distributed source. Organophosphate flame retardants in the main stem of Rock Creek were detected at estimated concentrations of 0.2 micrograms per liter or less, and generally did not increase with distance downstream. Overall, concentrations of most wastewater indicators in whole-water samples in the Park were similar to the concentrations found at the upstream sampling station at the Maryland/District of Columbia

  5. A sampling scheme to assess persistence and transport characteristics of xenobiotics within an urban river section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwientek, Marc; Guillet, Gaelle; Kuch, Bertram; Rügner, Hermann; Grathwohl, Peter

    2014-05-01

    HHCB and the pharmaceutical oxcarbacepine). Some behaved conservatively (some phosphorous flame retardants and the pharmaceutical carbamazepine). A differing susceptibility to photo degradation appears a likely explanation. A deeper investigation of the involved processes will be subject of future studies.

  6. Indicators for assessing anthropogenic impact on urban surface and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, G.; Glaeser, H.R.; Schladitz, T.; Mueller, C.; Reinstorf, F.; Schirmer, M. [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. of Hydrogeology, Halle (Germany); Moeder, M.; Wennrich, R. [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Halle (Germany); Osenbrueck, K. [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. of Isotope Hydrology, Halle (Germany); Schirmer, K. [UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Dept. of Cell Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    Background, aim and scope. Our study focuses on the indication of anthropogenic impacts on the urban surface and groundwater in large cities, demonstrated for the cities of Halle/Saale and Leipzig (Germany). For the study we selected indicator substances such as xenobiotics, trace elements, and stable isotopes which are connected to human activities in urban areas. The xenobiotics reported here are the pharmaceutical carbamacepine, the polycylic musk compounds galaxolide and tonalide, the life style product caffeine, and industrial chemicals such as bisphenol A and t-nonylphenol. The investigated xenobiotics pose largely unknown risks to human health and the aquatic ecosystem. Trace elements are represented by the rare earth element gadolinium (Gd), used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast substance. Nitrogen isotopes in dissolved nitrate characterize the origin of nitrogen compounds, mixing and reaction processes. Methodology. River water was sampled along the flow path of the rivers Saale and Weisse Elster through the city of Halle/Saale, the rivers Luppe and Weisse Elster through the city of Leipzig. Separate samples were collected from the effluent of the local waste water treatment plants. Groundwater from Quaternary plain aquifers along the rivers and from different urban locations was collected at the same time. The indicators were analysed and assessed according to their sources, concentration and distribution patterns. Results and discussion. Based on the nitrogen isotopic signature, dissolved nitrate in river water of the Saale was referred mainly to two sources: the effluent of the water treatment plant and a mixture of diffusive inputs from rain water channels, sewage leakages and agriculture activities along the rivers. The Gd anomaly was recognized in surface water of both cities, particularly in the effluent of the water treatment plants, but clearly attenuated in groundwater. We measured concentrations of xenobiotics in river and sewer water

  7. Effects Of Leaky Sewers On Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschik, S.; Musolff, A.; Reinstorf, F.; Strauch, G.; Oswald, S. E.; Schirmer, M.

    2007-12-01

    The impact of urban areas on groundwater quality has become an emerging research field in hydrogeology. Urban subsurface infrastructures like sewer networks are often leaky, so untreated wastewater may enter the urban aquifer. The transport of wastewater into the groundwater is still not well understood under field conditions. In the research platform WASSER Leipzig (Water And Sewershed Study of Environmental Risk in Leipzig- Germany) the effects of leaky sewers on the groundwater quality are investigated. The research is focused on the occurrence and transport of so-called "xenobiotics" such as pharmaceuticals and personal care product additives. Xenobiotics may pose a threat on human health, but can also be considered a marker for an urban impact on water resources. A new test site was established in Leipzig to quantify mass fluxes of xenobiotics into the groundwater from a leaky sewer. Corresponding to the leaks which were detected by closed circuit television inspections, monitoring wells were installed up- and downstream of the sewer. Concentrations of eight xenobiotics (technical-nonylphenol, bisphenol-a, caffeine, galaxolide, tonalide, carbamazepine, phenazone, ethinylestradiol) obtained from first sampling programmes were found to be highly heterogeneous, but a relation between the position of the sampling points and the sewer could not be clearly identified. However, concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and nitrate increased significantly downstream of the sewer which may be due to wastewater exfiltration, since no other source is known on the water flowpath from the upstream to the downstream wells. Because of the highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of xenobiotics at the test site, a monitoring concept was developed comprising both high-resolution sampling and an integral approach to obtain representative average concentrations. Direct-push techniques were used to gain insight into the fine-scale spatial distribution of the target compounds

  8. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team

    2003-04-01

    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  9. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    (BAF) ranged from 0.05 (galaxolide) to 27 (triclosan). This study documents that when AWIs are present in source materials that are land applied, such as biosolids and swine manure, AWIs can be transferred to earthworms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  10. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    that the detections reported for ground-water samples represented low-level field or laboratory contamination, and it would appear that coliphage were effectively attenuated to less than 1 PFU/100 mL over distances of several feet of transport in the La Pine aquifer and (or) overlying unsaturated zone. Organic wastewater compounds were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Of the 63 organic wastewater compounds in the analytical schedule, 45 were detected in the 21 samples of onsite wastewater. Concentrations of organic wastewater compounds reached a maximum of 1,300 ug/L (p-cresol). Caffeine was detected at concentrations as high as 320 ug/L. Fourteen of the 45 compounds were detected in more than 90 percent of onsite wastewater samples. Fewer (nine) organic wastewater compounds were detected in ground water, despite the presence of nitrate and chloride likely from onsite wastewater sources. The nine organic wastewater compounds that were detected in ground-water samples were acetyl-hexamethyl-tetrahydro-naphthalene (AHTN), caffeine, cholesterol, hexahydrohexamethyl-cyclopentabenzopyran, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), tetrachloroethene, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris (dichloroisopropyl) phosphate, and tributyl phosphate. Frequent detection of household-chemical type organic wastewater compounds in onsite wastewater provides evidence that some of these organic wastewater compounds may be useful indicators of human waste effluent dispersal in some hydrologic environments. The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in ground water downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment systems demonstrates that a subgroup of organic wastewater compounds is transported in the La Pine aquifer. The consistently low concentrations (generally less than 1 ug/L) of organic wastewater compounds in water samples collected from wells located no more than 19 feet from drainfield lines indicates that the reactivity (sorption, degradation) of this suite of organic waste

  11. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment, a case study: Hoeje River in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Department of Environmental Technology, Hospitalsgatan 16A, S-211 33 Malmoe (Sweden)]. E-mail: David.Bendz@swedgeo.se; Paxeus, Nicklas A. [Gryaab, Karl IX:s vaeg, S-418 34 Gothenburg (Sweden); Ginn, Timothy R. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1 Shields Avenue, 2001 Engineering III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Loge, Frank J. [University of California, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1 Shields Avenue, 2001 Engineering III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2005-07-15

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the environment lately have been acknowledged to constitute a health risk for humans and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Human and veterinary applications are the main sources of PhACs in the environment and the major pathways are excretion and discharge to the environment through sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this study, the occurrence and fate of selected human PhACs belonging to different therapeutic classes (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, lipid regulators, anti-epileptics, antibiotics and {beta}-blockers) were investigated in a small river in the very south of Sweden. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the impact of a high and rather constant load in sewage influent on downstream concentrations and whether substances that are metabolized to a high degree in humans also show a low persistency in a natural aquatic environment. Water samples were collected from the influent and effluent of the STP, in a series of dammed reservoirs leading to discharge into the Hoeje River in Sweden, and at several locations in the river downstream of the outfall. After enrichment by solid-phase extraction, the compounds were analyzed using GC-MS (methylated derivatives) or LC-MS/MS. In addition to the targeted pharmaceuticals, GC-MS analysis of the samples revealed the presence of other sewage-related pollutants (triclosan, caffeine, flame-retardants, antioxidants) and these results where included for comparison. Removal efficiencies were calculated in the STP and found to display a wide range with numerous species surviving treatment at greater than half their influent concentrations, including diclofenac, the anti-epileptic carbamazepine, a {beta}-blocker (propanolol), and antibiotics trimetoprim and sulfamethoxazole. Low removals were also observed for Tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (flame retardant), BHT-aldehyde (oxidation product of BHT) and synthetic musk (HHCB). The concentrations of chloride (Cl

  12. Water-quality monitoring for a pilot piling removal field evaluation, Coal Creek Slough, Washington, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David A.

    2011-01-01

    -removal sampling compared to the pre-removal sampling. * Several PAHs were detected at relatively high concentrations in core samples, likely indicating historical sources. * Most commonly detected PAHs in sediments were 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, fluoranthene, perylene, and pyrene. * Most commonly detected AWIs in sediments were 3-methyl-1h-indole (skatol), acetophenone, indole, phenol, and paracresol. * Sedimentary concentrations of perylene exceeded available sediment quality guidelines. Perylene is widespread in the environment and has large potential natural sources in addition to its anthropogenic sources. * Concentrations of metals did not exceed sediment quality guidelines. * Multiple organochlorine pesticides, both banned and currently used, were detected at each site using passive samplers. * Commonly detected pesticides included hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole (a degradation product of pentachlorophenol), diazinon, cis-chlordane, endosulfan, DDD, and endosulfan sulfate. * PBDE concentrations detected in passive sampler extracts were less than the method detection limit at all sites with the exception of PBDE-99, detected at a concentration less than the reporting limit. * The fragrance galaxolide was detected at a concentration greater than the method detection limit. * Common PAHs, such as phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, were detected in every passive sampler. * Dissolved oxygen concentration was slightly higher at site CCS1 compared to site CCS2 in both years. * Overall, there was no systematic increase in chemicals of concern at the restoration site during post-removal monitoring compared to conditions during pre-removal monitoring. Any immediate, short-duration effects of piling removal on water quality could not be determined because monitoring was not conducted during the removal.