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Sample records for hgps nuclear lamina

  1. Mechanisms of nuclear lamina growth in interphase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhironkina, O.A.; Kurchashova, S.Y.; Pozharskaia, V.A.; Cherepanynets, V.D.; Strelkova, O.S.; Hozák, Pavel; Kireev, I.I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 145, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-432 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03403S Grant - others:Russian Fund for Basic Research(RU) 13-04-00885; Russian Fund for Basic Research(RU) 15-54-78077 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Nuclear lamina * Microdomains * Interphase * Nucleus * DNA replication * Cell cycle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.553, year: 2016

  2. Abnormal nuclear morphology is independent of longevity in a zmpste24-deficient fish model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoyama, Yasuhiro; Shinya, Minori; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kitano, Takeshi; Oga, Atsunori; Nishimaki, Toshiyuki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Oota, Hiroki; Wan, Miles T; Yip, Bill W P; Helen, Mok O L; Chisada, Shinichi; Deguchi, Tomonori; Au, Doris W T; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshihito

    2018-07-01

    Lamin is an intermediate protein underlying the nuclear envelope and it plays a key role in maintaining the integrity of the nucleus. A defect in the processing of its precursor by a metalloprotease, ZMPSTE24, results in the accumulation of farnesylated prelamin in the nucleus and causes various diseases, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). However, the role of lamin processing is unclear in fish species. Here, we generated zmpste24-deficient medaka and evaluated their phenotype. Unlike humans and mice, homozygous mutants did not show growth defects or lifespan shortening, despite lamin precursor accumulation. Gonadosomatic indices, blood glucose levels, and regenerative capacity of fins were similar in 1-year-old mutants and their wild-type (WT) siblings. Histological examination showed that the muscles, subcutaneous fat tissues, and gonads were normal in the mutants at the age of 1 year. However, the mutants showed hypersensitivity to X-ray irradiation, although p53target genes, p21 and mdm2, were induced 6 h after irradiation. Immunostaining of primary cultured cells from caudal fins and visualization of nuclei using H2B-GFP fusion proteins revealed an abnormal nuclear shape in the mutants both in vitro and in vivo. The telomere lengths were significantly shorter in the mutants compared to WT. Taken together, these results suggest that zmpste24-deficient medaka phenocopied HGPS only partially and that abnormal nuclear morphology and lifespan shortening are two independent events in vertebrates. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Discordant gene expression signatures and related phenotypic differences in lamin A- and A/C-related Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Plasilova

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a genetic disorder displaying features reminiscent of premature senescence caused by germline mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A and C, essential components of the nuclear lamina. By studying a family with homozygous LMNA mutation (K542N, we showed that HGPS can also be caused by mutations affecting both isoforms, lamin A and C. Here, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in both, lamin A- (sporadic and lamin A and C-related (hereditary HGPS. For this, we performed detailed molecular studies on primary fibroblasts of hetero- and homozygous LMNA K542N mutation carriers, accompanied with clinical examinations related to the molecular findings. By assessing global gene expression we found substantial overlap in altered transcription profiles (13.7%; 90/657 in sporadic and hereditary HGPS, with 83.3% (75/90 concordant and 16.7% (15/90 discordant transcriptional changes. Among the concordant ones we observed down-regulation of TWIST2, whose inactivation in mice and humans leads to loss of subcutaneous fat and dermal appendages, and loss of expression in dermal fibroblasts and periadnexial cells from a LMNA(K542N/K542N patient further confirming its pivotal role in skin development. Among the discordant transcriptional profiles we identified two key mediators of vascular calcification and bone metabolism, ENPP1 and OPG, which offer a molecular explanation for the major phenotypic differences in vascular and bone disease in sporadic and hereditary HGPS. Finally, this study correlates reduced TWIST2 and OPG expression with increased osteocalcin levels, thereby linking altered bone remodeling to energy homeostasis in hereditary HGPS.

  4. Quantification of the spatial organization of the nuclear lamina as a tool for cell classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righolt, C.H.; Zatreanu, D.A.; Raz, V.

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is the structural scaffold of the nuclear envelope that plays multiple regulatory roles in chromatin organization and gene expression as well as a structural role in nuclear stability. The lamina proteins, also referred to as lamins, determine nuclear lamina organization and

  5. Robust nuclear lamina-based cell classification of aging and senescent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righolt, Christiaan H; van 't Hoff, Merel L R; Vermolen, Bart J; Young, Ian T; Raz, Vered

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the shape of the nuclear lamina are exhibited in senescent cells, as well as in cells expressing mutations in lamina genes. To identify cells with defects in the nuclear lamina we developed an imaging method that quantifies the intensity and curvature of the nuclear lamina. We show that this method accurately describes changes in the nuclear lamina. Spatial changes in nuclear lamina coincide with redistribution of lamin A proteins and local reduction in protein mobility in senescent cell. We suggest that local accumulation of lamin A in the nuclear envelope leads to bending of the structure. A quantitative distinction of the nuclear lamina shape in cell populations was found between fresh and senescent cells, and between primary myoblasts from young and old donors. Moreover, with this method mutations in lamina genes were significantly distinct from cells with wild-type genes. We suggest that this method can be applied to identify abnormal cells during aging, in in vitro propagation, and in lamina disorders.

  6. The Insulator Protein SU(HW) Fine-Tunes Nuclear Lamina Interactions of the Drosophila Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bemmel, J.G.; Pagie, L.; Braunschweig, U.; Brugman, W.; Meuleman, W.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Van Steensel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL) are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs) in

  7. Nuclear lamina and nuclear matrix organization in sperm pronuclei assembled in Xenopus egg extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Jenkins, H; Goldberg, M W; Allen, T D; Hutchison, C J

    1996-09-01

    Nuclear lamina and matrices were prepared from sperm pronuclei assembled in Xenopus egg extracts using a fractionation and extraction procedure. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that while chromatin was efficiently removed from nuclei during the extraction procedure, the distribution of lamins was unaffected. Consistent with this data, the amount of lamin B3, determined by immunoblotting, was not affected through the extraction procedure. Nuclear matrices were visualised in DGD sections by TEM. Within these sections filaments were observed both at the boundary of the nucleus (the lamina) and within the body of the nucleus (internal nuclear matrix filaments). To improve resolution, nuclear matrices were also prepared as whole mounts and viewed using field emission in lens scanning electron microscopy (FEISEM). This technique revealed two distinct networks of filaments. Filaments lying at the surface of nuclear matrices interconnected nuclear pores. These filaments were readily labelled with monoclonal anti-lamin B3 antibodies. Filaments lying within the body of the nuclear matrix were highly branched but were not readily labelled with antilamin B3 antibodies. Nuclear matrices were also prepared from sperm pronuclei assembled in lamin B3 depleted extracts. Using FEISEM, filaments were also detected in these preparations. However, these filaments were poorly organised and often appeared to aggregate. To confirm these results nuclear matrices were also observed as whole mounts using TEM. Nuclear matrices prepared from control nuclei contained a dense array of interconnected filaments. Many (but not all) of these filaments were labelled with anti-lamin B3 antibodies. In contrast, nuclear matrices prepared from "lamin depleted nuclei' contained poorly organised or aggregated filaments which were not specifically labelled with anti-lamin B3 antibodies.

  8. Remodeling of the Nuclear Envelope and Lamina during Bovine Preimplantation Development and Its Functional Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Popken

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a major remodeling of the nuclear envelope and its underlying lamina during bovine preimplantation development. Up to the onset of major embryonic genome activation (MGA at the 8-cell stage nuclei showed a non-uniform distribution of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs. NPCs were exclusively present at sites where DNA contacted the nuclear lamina. Extended regions of the lamina, which were not contacted by DNA, lacked NPCs. In post-MGA nuclei the whole lamina was contacted rather uniformly by DNA. Accordingly, NPCs became uniformly distributed throughout the entire nuclear envelope. These findings shed new light on the conditions which control the integration of NPCs into the nuclear envelope. The switch from maternal to embryonic production of mRNAs was accompanied by multiple invaginations covered with NPCs, which may serve the increased demands of mRNA export and protein import. Other invaginations, as well as interior nuclear segments and vesicles without contact to the nuclear envelope, were exclusively positive for lamin B. Since the abundance of these invaginations and vesicles increased in concert with a massive nuclear volume reduction, we suggest that they reflect a mechanism for fitting the nuclear envelope and its lamina to a shrinking nuclear size during bovine preimplantation development. In addition, a deposit of extranuclear clusters of NUP153 (a marker for NPCs without associated lamin B was frequently observed from the zygote stage up to MGA. Corresponding RNA-Seq data revealed deposits of spliced, maternally provided NUP153 mRNA and little unspliced, newly synthesized RNA prior to MGA, which increased strongly at the initiation of embryonic expression of NUP153 at MGA.

  9. Transient and Partial Nuclear Lamina Disruption Promotes Chromosome Movement in Early Meiotic Prophase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Jana; Paouneskou, Dimitra; Velkova, Maria; Daryabeigi, Anahita; Laos, Triin; Labella, Sara; Barroso, Consuelo; Pacheco Piñol, Sarai; Montoya, Alex; Kramer, Holger; Woglar, Alexander; Baudrimont, Antoine; Markert, Sebastian Mathias; Stigloher, Christian; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Dammermann, Alexander; Alsheimer, Manfred; Zetka, Monique; Jantsch, Verena

    2018-04-23

    Meiotic chromosome movement is important for the pairwise alignment of homologous chromosomes, which is required for correct chromosome segregation. Movement is driven by cytoplasmic forces, transmitted to chromosome ends by nuclear membrane-spanning proteins. In animal cells, lamins form a prominent scaffold at the nuclear periphery, yet the role lamins play in meiotic chromosome movement is unclear. We show that chromosome movement correlates with reduced lamin association with the nuclear rim, which requires lamin phosphorylation at sites analogous to those that open lamina network crosslinks in mitosis. Failure to remodel the lamina results in delayed meiotic entry, altered chromatin organization, unpaired or interlocked chromosomes, and slowed chromosome movement. The remodeling kinases are delivered to lamins via chromosome ends coupled to the nuclear envelope, potentially enabling crosstalk between the lamina and chromosomal events. Thus, opening the lamina network plays a role in modulating contacts between chromosomes and the nuclear periphery during meiosis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-Nuclear Lamina Interactions Regulate Cardiac Stem Cell Lineage Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshko, Andrey; Shah, Parisha P; Gupta, Mudit; Babu, Apoorva; Morley, Michael P; Manderfield, Lauren J; Ifkovits, Jamie L; Calderon, Damelys; Aghajanian, Haig; Sierra-Pagán, Javier E; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Qiaohong; Li, Li; Dubois, Nicole C; Morrisey, Edward E; Lazar, Mitchell A; Smith, Cheryl L; Epstein, Jonathan A; Jain, Rajan

    2017-10-19

    Progenitor cells differentiate into specialized cell types through coordinated expression of lineage-specific genes and modification of complex chromatin configurations. We demonstrate that a histone deacetylase (Hdac3) organizes heterochromatin at the nuclear lamina during cardiac progenitor lineage restriction. Specification of cardiomyocytes is associated with reorganization of peripheral heterochromatin, and independent of deacetylase activity, Hdac3 tethers peripheral heterochromatin containing lineage-relevant genes to the nuclear lamina. Deletion of Hdac3 in cardiac progenitor cells releases genomic regions from the nuclear periphery, leading to precocious cardiac gene expression and differentiation into cardiomyocytes; in contrast, restricting Hdac3 to the nuclear periphery rescues myogenesis in progenitors otherwise lacking Hdac3. Our results suggest that availability of genomic regions for activation by lineage-specific factors is regulated in part through dynamic chromatin-nuclear lamina interactions and that competence of a progenitor cell to respond to differentiation signals may depend upon coordinated movement of responding gene loci away from the nuclear periphery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Significance of host cell kinases in herpes simplex virus type 1 egress and lamin-associated protein disassembly from the nuclear lamina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Natalie R.; Roller, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be a steric barrier to the herpesvirus capsid. Disruption of the lamina accompanied by phosphorylation of lamina proteins is a conserved feature of herpesvirus infection. In HSV-1-infected cells, protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and delta isoforms are recruited to the nuclear membrane and PKC delta has been implicated in phosphorylation of emerin and lamin B. We tested two critical hypotheses about the mechanism and significance of lamina disruption. First, we show that chemical inhibition of all PKC isoforms reduced viral growth five-fold and inhibited capsid egress from the nucleus. However, specific inhibition of either conventional PKCs or PKC delta does not inhibit viral growth. Second, we show hyperphosphorylation of emerin by viral and cellular kinases is required for its disassociation from the lamina. These data support hypothesis that phosphorylation of lamina components mediates lamina disruption during HSV nuclear egress.

  12. The insulator protein SU(HW fine-tunes nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke G van Bemmel

    Full Text Available Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW weakens genome - NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW as a fine-tuner of genome - NL interactions.

  13. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  14. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...

  15. The influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear accumulation on survival in stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: We assessed the influence of the level of lamina propria invasion and the prevalence of p53 nuclear immunoreactivity on the survival of patients with stage T1 transitional cell bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients presenting with stage T1 bladder cancer were prospectively...... and routinely grouped according to the level of lamina propria invasion. Invasion of the tumor stalk was defined as stage T1a, invasion of the lamina propria proper superficial to the level of muscularis mucosa as stage T1b and into or deeper than the muscularis mucosa as stage T1c. The p53 nuclear...... related to age, level of lamina propria invasion and presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. For this subpopulation overall survival was 67%, and 79% for stage T1a, 70% for stage T1b and 57% for stage T1c (p

  16. Cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina affection in recessive osteogenesis imperfecta: A functional proteomics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Assunta; Besio, Roberta; Carnemolla, Chiara; Landi, Claudia; Armini, Alessandro; Aglan, Mona; Otaify, Ghada; Temtamy, Samia A; Forlino, Antonella; Bini, Luca; Bianchi, Laura

    2017-09-07

    . Our analyses demonstrated the occurrence of an altered cytoskeleton and, for the first time in OI, of nuclear lamina organization. Hence, cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton components may be considered as novel drug targets for clinical management of the disease. Finally, according to our analyses, OI emerged to share similar deregulated pathways and molecular aberrances, as previously described, with other rare disorders caused by different genetic defects. Those aberrances may provide common pharmacological targets to support classical clinical approach in treating different diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Truncated prelamin A expression in HGPS-like patients: a transcriptional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthelemy, F.; Navarro, C; Fayek, R.; Silva, N.; Roll, P.; Sigaudy, S.; Oshima, J.; Bonne, G.; Papadopoulou-Legbelou, K.; Evangeliou, A.E.; Spilioti, M.; Lemerrer, M.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.; Robaglia-Schlupp, A.; Levy, N.; Bartoli, M.; Sandre-Giovannoli, A. De

    2015-01-01

    Premature aging syndromes are rare genetic disorders mimicking clinical and molecular features of aging. A recently identified group of premature aging syndromes is linked to mutation of the LMNA gene encoding lamins A and C, and is associated with nuclear deformation and dysfunction.

  18. Radiologic study on lamina dura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-11-15

    This study was performed to investigate the thickness of lamina dura of the human teeth in periodontal disease, which obtained from the intraoral roentgenograms of the 122 cases taken by bisecting technic. All films were divided into the different ages, the different sexes, and the different location of the different teeth. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Compared with the normal teeth, the thickness of lamina dura in periodontal disease is increased in all of different ages, sexes and teeth. 2. Generally, the alveolar crest portion is the thickest among the root surfaces, and midroot, apex followed, and the average thickness of the posterior teeth is thicker than that of anterior teeth. 3. The mean value of the whole maxillary teeth is almost same as that of mandibular teeth. 4. On the whole cases, the differences of male and female is about 0.01 mm, which is not a significant differences.

  19. Radiologic study on lamina dura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1981-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the thickness of lamina dura of the human teeth in periodontal disease, which obtained from the intraoral roentgenograms of the 122 cases taken by bisecting technic. All films were divided into the different ages, the different sexes, and the different location of the different teeth. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Compared with the normal teeth, the thickness of lamina dura in periodontal disease is increased in all of different ages, sexes and teeth. 2. Generally, the alveolar crest portion is the thickest among the root surfaces, and midroot, apex followed, and the average thickness of the posterior teeth is thicker than that of anterior teeth. 3. The mean value of the whole maxillary teeth is almost same as that of mandibular teeth. 4. On the whole cases, the differences of male and female is about 0.01 mm, which is not a significant differences.

  20. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination of cortical laminae using MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-11-15

    Typically MEG source reconstruction is used to estimate the distribution of current flow on a single anatomically derived cortical surface model. In this study we use two such models representing superficial and deep cortical laminae. We establish how well we can discriminate between these two different cortical layer models based on the same MEG data in the presence of different levels of co-registration noise, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and cortical patch size. We demonstrate that it is possible to make a distinction between superficial and deep cortical laminae for levels of co-registration noise of less than 2mm translation and 2° rotation at SNR > 11 dB. We also show that an incorrect estimate of cortical patch size will tend to bias layer estimates. We then use a 3D printed head-cast (Troebinger et al., 2014) to achieve comparable levels of co-registration noise, in an auditory evoked response paradigm, and show that it is possible to discriminate between these cortical layer models in real data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Size dependence of ozone lamina characteristics and their correlations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Križan, Peter; Laštovička, Jan; Kozubek, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 132, September (2015), s. 116-123 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone laminae * correlations among laminae * vertical resolution of ozone sonde measurements Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682615300055

  3. Recapitulation of premature ageing with iPSCs from Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Barkho, Basam Z; Ruiz, Sergio; Diep, Dinh; Qu, Jing; Yang, Sheng-Lian; Panopoulos, Athanasia D; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kurian, Leo; Walsh, Christopher; Thompson, James; Boue, Stephanie; Fung, Ho Lim; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Zhang, Kun; Yates, John; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-14

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare and fatal human premature ageing disease, characterized by premature arteriosclerosis and degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). HGPS is caused by a single point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene, resulting in the generation of progerin, a truncated splicing mutant of lamin A. Accumulation of progerin leads to various ageing-associated nuclear defects including disorganization of nuclear lamina and loss of heterochromatin. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts obtained from patients with HGPS. HGPS-iPSCs show absence of progerin, and more importantly, lack the nuclear envelope and epigenetic alterations normally associated with premature ageing. Upon differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs, progerin and its ageing-associated phenotypic consequences are restored. Specifically, directed differentiation of HGPS-iPSCs to SMCs leads to the appearance of premature senescence phenotypes associated with vascular ageing. Additionally, our studies identify DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNAPKcs, also known as PRKDC) as a downstream target of progerin. The absence of nuclear DNAPK holoenzyme correlates with premature as well as physiological ageing. Because progerin also accumulates during physiological ageing, our results provide an in vitro iPSC-based model to study the pathogenesis of human premature and physiological vascular ageing.

  4. Fate of the Molar Dental Lamina in the Monophyodont Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosedělová, Hana; Dumková, Jana; Lesot, Hervé; Glocová, Kristýna; Kunová, Michaela; Tucker, Abigail S.; Veselá, Iva; Krejčí, Pavel; Tichý, František; Hampl, Aleš; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    The successional dental lamina (SDL) plays an essential role in the development of replacement teeth in diphyodont and polyphyodont animals. A morphologically similar structure, the rudimental successional dental lamina (RSDL), has been described in monophyodont (only one tooth generation) lizards on the lingual side of the developing functional tooth. This rudimentary lamina regresses, which has been proposed to play a role in preventing the formation of future generations of teeth. A similar rudimentary lingual structure has been reported associated with the first molar in the monophyodont mouse, and we show that this structure is common to all murine molars. Intriguingly, a lingual lamina is also observed on the non-replacing molars of other diphyodont mammals (pig and hedgehog), initially appearing very similar to the successional dental lamina on the replacing teeth. We have analyzed the morphological as well as ultrastructural changes that occur during the development and loss of this molar lamina in the mouse, from its initiation at late embryonic stages to its disappearance at postnatal stages. We show that loss appears to be driven by a reduction in cell proliferation, down-regulation of the progenitor marker Sox2, with only a small number of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The lingual lamina was associated with the dental stalk, a short epithelial connection between the tooth germ and the oral epithelium. The dental stalk remained in contact with the oral epithelium throughout tooth development up to eruption when connective tissue and numerous capillaries progressively invaded the dental stalk. The buccal side of the dental stalk underwent keratinisation and became part of the gingival epithelium, while most of the lingual cells underwent programmed cell death and the tissue directly above the erupting tooth was shed into the oral cavity. PMID:26010446

  5. Mechanisms and timing of replacement dental lamina regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dosedělová, H.; Dumková, J.; Lesot, H.; Glocová, K.; Hampl, A.; Tucker, A.; Buchtová, Marcela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 296, special feature (2013), s. 272-272 ISSN 1932-8486. [International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology /10./. 08.07.2013-12.07.2013, Barcelona] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : dental lamina Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  6. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  7. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  8. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  9. The diagnostic value of the alveolar lamina dura in generalised bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlencordt, J.; Kruse, H.P.; Franke, J.; Hamburg Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in the alveolar lamina dura in 134 patients have been analysed. They included 32 cases with urolithiasis in whom generalised bone disease had been excluded, 37 cases of primary hyperparathyroidism, 31 cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism and 34 cases with primary osteoporosis. The state of the lamina dura was related to biochemical, radiological and histological findings in the various groups. The value of the lamina dura in the diagnosis of generalised skeletal abnormalities has been defined. (orig.) [de

  10. Functional Characterization of Lamina X Neurons in ex-Vivo Spinal Cord Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Krotov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of lamina X neurons in the spinal cord remain unknown despite the established role of this area for somatosensory integration, visceral nociception, autonomic regulation and motoneuron output modulation. Investigations of neuronal functioning in the lamina X have been hampered by technical challenges. Here we introduce an ex-vivo spinal cord preparation with both dorsal and ventral roots still attached for functional studies of the lamina X neurons and their connectivity using an oblique LED illumination for resolved visualization of lamina X neurons in a thick tissue. With the elaborated approach, we demonstrate electrophysiological characteristics of lamina X neurons by their membrane properties, firing pattern discharge and fiber innervation (either afferent or efferent. The tissue preparation has been also probed using Ca2+ imaging with fluorescent Ca2+ dyes (membrane-impermeable or -permeable to demonstrate the depolarization-induced changes in intracellular calcium concentration in lamina X neurons. Finally, we performed visualization of subpopulations of lamina X neurons stained by retrograde labeling with aminostilbamidine dye to identify sympathetic preganglionic and projection neurons in the lamina X. Thus, the elaborated approach provides a reliable tool for investigation of functional properties and connectivity in specific neuronal subpopulations, boosting research of lamina X of the spinal cord.

  11. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta

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    M Cotrufo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal lamina (BL is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation.We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens.We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study.We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RTPCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin a2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type

  12. Medial depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sun Young; Lee, Young Uk; Youn, Eun Kyung; Suh, Sang Gyung; Kim, Dong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and CT findings of the medial depression and bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation. 1472 PNS CTs of the patients with symptoms of chronic sinusitis were retrospectively evaluated. The total incidence of depressed lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation was 3.5%(52/1472) on PNS CT. There was a statistically significant correlation between the increasing age and the incidence of depressed lamina papyracea. Depression of lamina papyracea anterior to the basal lamella were more common than those of the posterior depression. Associated findings were herniation of adjacent fatty tissue in all cases and the medial bowing and hypertrophied configuration of the medial rectus muscle without significant herniation in 19 cases(34%). Nontraumatic, asymptomatic depression with bony dehiscence of lamina papyracea as an anatomic variation is not uncommon with the incidence of 3.5%. Recognition of its existence and degree may be helpful in avoiding various ocular complication during ethmoid surgery

  13. Toughening MoSi2 with Niobium metal -- Effects of size and orientation of ductile laminae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.; Abbaschian, R.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of size and orientation of ductile laminae on the toughness of brittle matrix composites have been evaluated using MoSi 2 composites reinforced with Nb laminae. Nb laminae with thicknesses ranging from 0.127 to 1.0 mm were hot pressed with MoSi 2 powder to prepare the composites. Toughness of the composites was measured using four-point bend test on chevron-notched specimens. It was found that the toughness of the composites increased with increasing size of the niobium laminae. Furthermore, toughening was observed at crack propagation directions perpendicular to the laminae plane, indicating that ductile laminae offer two dimensional toughening. A model based on the bridging contribution of the ductile phase has been proposed to analyze the chevron-notched specimens of the ductile-phase-reinforced brittle matrix composites. The analysis showed that the dependence of the toughness of the composites on the size and orientation of the ductile laminae could be interpreted in terms of their bridging capability and bending contributions

  14. The essential oil in lamina and petiole of heracleum-dissectum leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montanarella, L; Bos, R; Fisher, FC

    The essential oils of lamina and petiole of Heracleum dissectum are described. Fifty-seven compounds have been identified by mass spectrometry and retention indices. Differences between the oils of the two organs were mainly quantitative.

  15. Experimental Investigations on the effect of Additive on the Tensile Properties of Fiber Glass Fabric Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava Sai Divya, A.; Raghu Kumar, B., Dr; Lakshmi Narayana, G., Dr

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the effect of additives on tensile behaviour of fiber glass fabric at lamina level to explore an alternative skin material for the outer body of aerospace applications and machines. This experimental work investigates the effect of silica concentration in epoxy resin lapox L-12 on the tensile properties of glass fabric lamina of 4H-satin weave having 3.6 mm thickness. The lamina was prepared by using hand lay-up method and tests were conducted on it. Various tensile properties values obtained from experimentation were compared for four glass fiber lamina composites fabricated by adding the silica powder to resin bath. The effect of variations in silica concentration (0% SiO2, 5% SiO2, 10% SiO2 and 15% SiO2) on the tensile properties of prepared material revealed that maximum stiffness was obtained at 15% and yield strength at 10% SiO2 concentration in glass fiber lamina. Increasing the silica concentration beyond 10% had led to deterioration in the material properties. The experimentation that was carried out on test specimen was reasonably successful as the effect of silica powder as an additive in glass fiber lamina enhanced the mechanical properties up to certain limit. The underpinning microscopic behaviour at the source of these observations will be investigated in a follow up work.

  16. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the

  17. Dermal fibroblasts in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with the lamin A G608G mutation have dysmorphic nuclei and are hypersensitive to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worman Howard J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare sporadic disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per 8 million live births. The phenotypic appearance consists of short stature, sculptured nose, alopecia, prominent scalp veins, small face, loss of subcutaneous fat, faint mid-facial cyanosis, and dystrophic nails. HGPS is caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamins A and C. The most common mutation in subjects with HGPS is a de novo single-base pair substitution, G608G (GGC>GGT, within exon 11 of LMNA. This creates an abnormal splice donor site, leading to expression of a truncated protein. Results We studied a new case of a 5 year-old girl with HGPS and found a heterozygous point mutation, G608G, in LMNA. Complementary DNA sequencing of RNA showed that this mutation resulted in the deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of prelamin A. We characterized a primary dermal fibroblast cell line derived from the subject's skin. These cells expressed the mutant protein and exhibited a normal growth rate at early passage in primary culture but showed alterations in nuclear morphology. Expression levels and overall distributions of nuclear lamins and emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, were not dramatically altered. Ultrastructural analysis of the nuclear envelope using electron microscopy showed that chromatin is in close association to the nuclear lamina, even in areas with abnormal nuclear envelope morphology. The fibroblasts were hypersensitive to heat shock, and demonstrated a delayed response to heat stress. Conclusion Dermal fibroblasts from a subject with HGPS expressing a mutant truncated lamin A have dysmorphic nuclei, hypersensitivity to heat shock, and delayed response to heat stress. This suggests that the mutant protein, even when expressed at low levels, causes defective cell stability, which may be responsible for phenotypic

  18. The formation process of the flood type lamina in the Lake Mokoto, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, K.; Katsuki, K.; Takeshi, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the coastal area of the Sea of Okhotsk in the east part of Hokkaido located to subarctic zone, many brackish-water lakes are distributed. Lake Mokoto consist of organic mud with the lamination. The 09Mk-1C core at 2009. In the soft X-ray photograph, the cyclic lamina set is observed. The cyclic lamina set consists of low- and high-density lamina. According to the meteorological data in Abashiri region, the annually precipitation is high from August to September. Probably, the cyclic lamina set is formed by seasonal change of precipitation. In August 2016, it showed a precipitation of 425 mm which is about 4 times the average precipitation. In February 2017, the 10 cm class short core (17Mk-4SC core) was collected and the flood lamina was observed. Six layers showing different color were observed in top 6.5 cm. The first, third and fifth layers from the top are relatively light in color (L*value=17). The second, fourth and sixth layers are relatively dark in color (L*value=8). Thickness of the first to fourth layers is about 5 mm, but the thickness of the fifth layer reaches 4 cm. According to the observation of the soft X-ray photograph, the third and fifth layers were high-density lamina, and the others were low-density lamina. Because these layers were not observed in the 15Mk-3C core collected in March 2015, they were deposited after that. It is estimated that the third layer showing the high-density lamina is the sediment of the flood event in August 2016. This is supported by the fact that the total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS) contents are diluted and the C/N ratio is relatively high value. Because this lamina is remarkable, it will be used as a future key bed. On the other hand, the fifth layer showing the high-density is a very thick. In this layer, the TS content is diluted and the C/N ratio is high, but the TOC content shows the highest value. This suggests that sediments with high TOC content flowed out from Mokoto River Basin. It has

  19. Contributions of the 12 neuron classes in the fly lamina to motion vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, John C; Nern, Aljoscha; Holtz, Stephen L; Rubin, Gerald M; Reiser, Michael B

    2013-07-10

    Motion detection is a fundamental neural computation performed by many sensory systems. In the fly, local motion computation is thought to occur within the first two layers of the visual system, the lamina and medulla. We constructed specific genetic driver lines for each of the 12 neuron classes in the lamina. We then depolarized and hyperpolarized each neuron type and quantified fly behavioral responses to a diverse set of motion stimuli. We found that only a small number of lamina output neurons are essential for motion detection, while most neurons serve to sculpt and enhance these feedforward pathways. Two classes of feedback neurons (C2 and C3), and lamina output neurons (L2 and L4), are required for normal detection of directional motion stimuli. Our results reveal a prominent role for feedback and lateral interactions in motion processing and demonstrate that motion-dependent behaviors rely on contributions from nearly all lamina neuron classes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Galanin-immunoreactivity identifies a distinct population of inhibitory interneurons in laminae I-III of the rat spinal cord

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    Watanabe Masahiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitory interneurons constitute 30-40% of neurons in laminae I-III and have an important anti-nociceptive role. However, because of the difficulty in classifying them we know little about their organisation. Previous studies have identified 3 non-overlapping groups of inhibitory interneuron, which contain neuropeptide Y (NPY, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or parvalbumin, and have shown that these differ in postsynaptic targets. Some inhibitory interneurons contain galanin and the first aim of this study was to determine whether these form a different population from those containing NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin. We also estimated the proportion of neurons and GABAergic axons that contain galanin in laminae I-III. Results Galanin cells were concentrated in laminae I-IIo, with few in laminae IIi-III. Galanin showed minimal co-localisation with NPY, nNOS or parvalbumin in laminae I-II, but most galanin-containing cells in lamina III were nNOS-positive. Galanin cells constituted ~7%, 3% and 2% of all neurons in laminae I, II and III, and we estimate that this corresponds to 26%, 10% and 5% of the GABAergic neurons in these laminae. However, galanin was only found in ~6% of GABAergic boutons in laminae I-IIo, and ~1% of those in laminae IIi-III. Conclusions These results show that galanin, NPY, nNOS and parvalbumin can be used to define four distinct neurochemical populations of inhibitory interneurons. Together with results of a recent study, they suggest that the galanin and NPY populations account for around half of the inhibitory interneurons in lamina I and a quarter of those in lamina II.

  1. Effect of Lamina Thickness of Prepreg on the Surface Accuracy of Carbon Fiber Composite Space Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhanwen; Xie, Yongjie; Shi, Hanqiao; Zhang, Boming; Guo, Hongjun

    2018-02-01

    Composite space mirror can completely replicate the high-precision surface of mould by replication process, but the actual surface accuracy of the replication composite mirror always decreases. Lamina thickness of prepreg affects the layers and layup sequence of composite space mirror, and which would affect surface accuracy of space mirror. In our research, two groups of contrasting cases through finite element analyses (FEA) and comparative experiments were studied; the effect of different lamina thicknesses of prepreg and corresponding lay-up sequences was focused as well. We describe a special analysis model, validated process and result analysis. The simulated and measured surface figures both get the same conclusion. Reducing lamina thickness of prepreg used in replicating composite space mirror is propitious to optimal design of layup sequence for fabricating composite mirror, and could improve its surface accuracy.

  2. Isolation of Eosinophils from the Lamina Propria of the Murine Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berek, Claudia; Beller, Alexander; Chu, Van Trung

    2016-01-01

    Only recently has it become apparent that eosinophils play a crucial role in mucosal immune homeostasis. Although eosinophils are the main cellular component of the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal tract, they have often been overlooked because they express numerous markers, which are normally used to characterize macrophages and/or dendritic cells. To study their function in mucosal immunity, it is important to isolate them with high purity and viability. Here, we describe a protocol to purify eosinophils from the lamina propria of the murine small intestine. The method involves preparation of the small intestine, removal of epithelial cells and digestion of the lamina propria to release eosinophils. A protocol to sort eosinophils is included.

  3. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales.

  4. Characterization of the surface and interfacial properties of the lamina splendens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexwinkle, Joe T.; Hunt, Heather K.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2017-06-01

    Joint disease affects approximately 52.5 million patients in the United States alone, costing 80.8 billion USD in direct healthcare costs. The development of treatment programs for joint disease and trauma requires accurate assessment of articular cartilage degradation. The articular cartilage is the interfacial tissue between articulating surfaces, such as bones, and acts as low-friction interfaces. Damage to the lamina splendens, which is the articular cartilage's topmost layer, is an early indicator of joint degradation caused by injury or disease. By gaining comprehensive knowledge on the lamina splendens, particularly its structure and interfacial properties, researchers could enhance the accuracy of human and animal biomechanical models, as well as develop appropriate biomimetic materials for replacing damaged articular cartilage, thereby leading to rational treatment programs for joint disease and injury. Previous studies that utilize light, electron, and force microscopy techniques have found that the lamina splendens is composed of collagen fibers oriented parallel to the cartilage surface and encased in a proteoglycan matrix. Such orientation maximizes wear resistance and proteoglycan retention while promoting the passage of nutrients and synovial fluid. Although the structure of the lamina splendens has been explored in the literature, the low-friction interface of this tissue remains only partially characterized. Various functional models are currently available for the interface, such as pure boundary lubrication, thin films exuded under pressure, and sheets of trapped proteins. Recent studies suggest that each of these lubrication models has certain advantages over one another. Further research is needed to fully model the interface of this tissue. In this review, we summarize the methods for characterizing the lamina splendens and the results of each method. This paper aims to serve as a resource for existing studies to date and a roadmap of the

  5. Electron microscopic observation of 137Cs-irradiated rat testis. Production of basal laminae for germ cells, despite their absence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Hajime; Esaki, Michiyo

    2003-01-01

    Whole body γ-ray irradiation of rats with caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) at embryonic day 20 induced marked reduction of the weight of the testis. Body weight and other tissues, however, seemed to remain normal. By light microscopy, complete loss of germ cells was observed in the testis. Other components, such as Sertoli cells and interstitial cells, seemed to be normal. The testes from day 8 postpartum rats contained very few spermatogonia compared with newborn rats, indicating loss of germ cells between days 0 and 8. In the adult, 137 Cs-irradiated testes showed two conspicuous features other than the loss of germ cells: empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells and multilayered seminiferous tubule basal laminae (lamina densa). The junctional structures (ectoplasmic specializations) between Sertoli cells, however, seemed normal. The thickness of each layer of multilayered basal laminae was the same as that of normal rats and electron-lucent layers similar to lamina lucida were interposed between them. Of the empty vacuolar spaces between Sertoli cells, basal laminae bridge the gap. The basal laminae contained laminin, type IV collagen and heparan sulphate proteoglycan evenly distributed among layers, suggesting a normal composition. Rough estimation of the amount of basal laminae deposited in 137 Cs-irradiated rats indicates that it is within a range similar to that in normal testis. These features imply that Sertoli cells are, in part, determined perinatally to produce basal laminae for germ-line cells. (author)

  6. Glymphatic stasis at the site of the lamina cribrosa as a potential mechanism underlying open-angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wostyn, Peter; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    The underlying pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma remains unclear, but the lamina cribrosa seems to be the primary site of injury, and raised intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. In recent years, a decreased intracranial pressure, leading to an abnormally high trans-lamina

  7. Single‑shot lamina technique of paravertebral block as an adjunct to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thoracic paravertebral block can be employed as an alternative or an adjunct to general anesthesia (GA) for breast cancer surgery. There is no report of this new lamina technique for catheter placement in our environment. In low‑resource settings, potent opioids are lacking and the extended postoperative analgesia it ...

  8. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao Q.; Bach-Holm, Daniella

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...

  9. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize

  10. Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Albert; Kiel, Tilman; Heupel, Wolfgang-M.; Wehnert, Manfred; Huebner, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, not only constitute an important determinant of nuclear architecture, but additionally play essential roles in many nuclear functions. Mutations in A-type lamins cause a wide range of human genetic disorders (laminopathies). The importance of lamin A (LaA) in the spatial arrangement of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) prompted us to study the role of LaA mutants in nuclear protein transport. Two mutants, causing prenatal skin disease restrictive dermopathy (RD) and the premature aging disease Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome, were used for expression in HeLa cells to investigate their impact on the subcellular localization of NPC-associated proteins and nuclear protein import. Furthermore, dynamics of the LaA mutants within the nuclear lamina were studied. We observed affected localization of NPC-associated proteins, diminished lamina dynamics for both LaA mutants and reduced nuclear import of representative cargo molecules. Intriguingly, both LaA mutants displayed similar effects on nuclear morphology and functions, despite their differences in disease severity. Reduced nuclear protein import was also seen in RD fibroblasts and impaired lamina dynamics for the nucleoporin Nup153. Our data thus represent the first study of a direct link between LaA mutant expression and reduced nuclear protein import.

  11. The nuclear envelopathies and human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nuclear envelope (NE consists of two membrane layers that segregate the nuclear from the cytoplasmic contents. Recent progress in our understanding of nuclear-lamina associated diseases has revealed intriguing connections between the envelope components and nuclear processes. Here, we review the functions of the nuclear envelope in chromosome organization, gene expression, DNA repair and cell cycle progression, and correlate deficiencies in envelope function with human pathologies.

  12. Spatial distribution and functional significance of leaf lamina shape in Amazonian forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. M. Malhado

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape "strategies" coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential investment in support tissues required for different leaf lamina shapes. Here, we take a macrogeographic approach to understanding the function of different lamina shape categories. Specifically, we use 106 permanent plots spread across the Amazon rainforest basin to: 1 describe the geographic distribution of some simple metrics of lamina shape in plots from across Amazonia, and; 2 identify and quantify relationships between key environmental parameters and lamina shape in tropical forests. Because the plots are not randomly distributed across the study area, achieving this latter objective requires the use of statistics that can account for spatial auto-correlation. We found that between 60–70% of the 2791 species and 83 908 individual trees in the dataset could be classified as having elliptic leaves (= the widest part of the leaf is on an axis in the middle fifth of the long axis of the leaf. Furthermore, the average Amazonian tree leaf is 2.5 times longer than it is wide and has an entire margin. Contrary to theoretical expectations we found little support for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to dry conditions. However, we did find strong regional patterns in leaf lamina length-width ratios and several significant correlations with precipitation variables suggesting that water availability may be exerting an as yet unrecognised selective pressure on leaf shape of rainforest trees. Some support was found for the hypothesis that narrow leaves are an adaptation to low nutrient soils. Furthermore, we found a strong correlation between

  13. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata). Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  14. Nomenclature of Vertebral Laminae in Lizards, with Comments on Ontogenetic and Serial Variation in Lacertini (Squamata, Lacertidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Tschopp

    Full Text Available Vertebral laminae are bony ridges or sheets that connect important morphological landmarks on the vertebrae, like diapophyses or zygapophyses. They usually exhibit some serial variation throughout the column. A consistent terminology facilitates the morphological description of this variation, and the recognition of patterns that could be taxonomically significant and could serve as phylogenetic characters. Such a terminology was designed for saurischian dinosaurs, and has also been applied to other members of Archosauriformes. Herein, this terminology is applied for the first time to lizards (Squamata. Probably due to their generally smaller size compared to saurischian dinosaurs, lizards have less developed vertebral laminae. Some laminae could not be recognized in this group and others require new names to account for differences in basic vertebral morphology. For instance, the fusion of diapophysis and parapophysis in lacertids into a structure called synapophysis necessitates the creation of the new term synapophyseal laminae for both diapophyseal and parapophyseal laminae. An assessment of occurrence and serial variation in a number of lacertid species shows that some laminae develop throughout ontogeny or only occur in large-sized species, whereas the distribution of other laminae might prove to be taxonomically significant in future.

  15. Neutrophil migration through preexisting holes in the basal laminae of alveolar capillaries and epithelium during streptococcal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D C; Behzad, A R; Chu, F

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not there are preexisting holes in the endothelial and epithelial basal laminae of alveolar walls and to determine the path taken by neutrophils as they migrate from the capillaries to the airspace of the alveoli during inflammation. Using transmission electron microscopy and serial thin sections of normal rabbit and mouse lung, we have demonstrated the presence of slit-like holes in the capillary basal laminae and round holes in the basal laminae of type 2 pneumocytes. The slits in the capillary basal laminae were observed at the intersection of the thick and thin walls where endothelium, pericytes, and fibroblasts make close contact. The round holes in the type 2 cell basal laminae were observed at sites of close contact with fibroblasts. Neutrophils were observed to migrate through these slits and holes during streptococcal pneumonia in rabbit lungs. We conclude that during inflammation in the lung, migrating neutrophils displace pericytes and fibroblasts from the slits in the capillary basal lamina and then crawl through these slits into the alveolar interstitium. We postulate that neutrophils find their way to type 2 pneumocytes by following interstitial fibroblasts. We believe that neutrophils displace fibroblasts from their close contacts with the type 2 cells and then crawl through the holes in the basal lamina into the basal lateral space of the type 2 cells. From there, neutrophils migrate into the alveolar airspace.

  16. Anterior lamina cribrosa insertion in primary open-angle glaucoma patients and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Min Lee

    Full Text Available To determine using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT whether there are differences in the location of the anterior lamina cribrosa insertion (ALI in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients and healthy subjects.Fifty three eyes from 53 patients with POAG, and 53 eyes from 53 age-matched healthy subjects were included prospectively in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Twelve radial line B-scans centered on the optic disc in every half-clock-hour meridian were acquired using SS-OCT. The ALI position was assessed by measuring two parameters: (1 ALI distance (ALID--the distance from the anterior scleral canal opening (ASCO to the ALI; and (2 marginal anterior lamina cribrosa surface depth (mALCSD--the perpendicular distance from the ASCO plane to the anterior lamina cribrosa surface. These parameters were compared between the two groups for each meridian.Both ALID (256 ± 54 vs. 209 ± 37 µm, mean ± SD, p < 0.001 and mALCSD (232 ± 63 vs. 187 ± 40 µm, p < 0.001 were significantly greater in the POAG group than in the normal group. The largest difference was observed at the 6.5 o'clock and 11.5 o'clock meridians for both ALID and mALCSD. Multiple regression analysis revealed a negative correlation between age and both ALID and mALCSD in the control group, and a negative correlation between mean deviation of the visual field test and both ALID and mALCSD in the POAG group.The ALI was displaced posteriorly in eyes with POAG compared to those of healthy controls. This finding suggests that the posteriorly located lamina cribrosa insertion is an important component of glaucomatous optic nerve excavation.

  17. Long-term trends in the northern extratropical ozone laminae with focus on European stations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Križan, Peter; Kozubek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, December (2014), s. 88-95 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12070; GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : ozone laminae * long-term trends * atmospheric dynamics Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682614002119

  18. Lamina specific loss of inhibition may lead to distinct neuropathic manifestations: a computational modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Javier Argüello Prada

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been reported that inhibitory control at the superficial dorsal horn (SDH can act in a regionally distinct manner, which suggests that regionally specific subpopulations of SDH inhibitory neurons may prevent one specific neuropathic condition. Methods In an attempt to address this issue, we provide an alternative approach by integrating neuroanatomical information provided by different studies to construct a network-model of the SDH. We use Neuroids to simulate each neuron included in that model by adapting available experimental evidence. Results Simulations suggest that the maintenance of the proper level of pain sensitivity may be attributed to lamina II inhibitory neurons and, therefore, hyperalgesia may be elicited by suppression of the inhibitory tone at that lamina. In contrast, lamina III inhibitory neurons are more likely to be responsible for keeping the nociceptive pathway from the mechanoreceptive pathway, so loss of inhibitory control in that region may result in allodynia. The SDH network-model is also able to replicate non-linearities associated to pain processing, such as Aβ-fiber mediated analgesia and frequency-dependent increase of the neural response. Discussion By incorporating biophysical accuracy and newer experimental evidence, the SDH network-model may become a valuable tool for assessing the contribution of specific SDH connectivity patterns to noxious transmission in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  19. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, SHUGUANG; SUN, JUNYING; TANG, GENLIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47?72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column...

  20. Vigas de madeira laminada colada com laminas pre-classificadas de eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Sandra Zampieri

    1998-01-01

    Dissertação (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnologico Comprovar a viabilidade de realização e desempenho de vigas de madeira laminada colada de Eucalyptus grandis classificadas de acordo com sua rigidez cujas lâminas estão divididas em classes de resistência onde o parâmetro de comparação é o módulo de elasticidade longitudinal. Para isso caracterizou-se física e mecanicamente a madeira e fez-se a classificação das laminas em grupos de acordo com o módulo de e...

  1. The prognosis significance and application value of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Hu, Xiumei; Meng, Yutong; Zhao, Hongying; Cao, Qing; Jin, Mulan

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) and the clinicopathological prognostic factors of colon cancer, to evaluate the feasibility of ELI with use of an elastic stain to help diagnose serosal invasion of colon cancer in routine practice, so as to help us to provide a more accurate estimate for prognosis and stage of patients and a marker for postoperative treatment. 254 cases with colon cancer were included in the study. According to the presence of elastic lamina (EL) and elastic lamina invasion (ELI), all cases were divided into four groups: pT3 EL negative (pT3 EL (-)), pT3 ELI positive (pT3 ELI (+)), pT3 ELI negative (pT3 ELI (-)) and pT4a. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the relationship between elastic lamina invasion and other established adverse histologic features. The EL and ELI positive rates were 81.5% and 42.1% respectively. There were significant differences in mph node metastasis, venous invasion and tumor buds between pT3 ELI (-) and pT3 ELI (+), pT3 ELI (-) and pT4a. There was no significant difference in same factors between pT3 ELI (+) and pT4a. In pT3 stage, there were significant differences in lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and tumor buds between EL (-) and ELI (+). There were no significant differences in same factors between EL (-) and ELI (-). EL was detected less frequently in right-sided tumors compared with left-sided tumors. ELI might be the prognostic factors of colon cancer with II stage and might be the marker of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with pT3 ELI (+) might have similar prognosis to patients with pT4a. For patients with pT3 colon cancer, EL(-) might have similar prognosis as ELI (-) and might take the same therapy. In addition, the right half colon EL positive rate was lower than the left colon. Elastic staining might be a useful tool to help determine the invasive depth and stage of colon cancer.

  2. Compartmentalised expression of meprin in small intestinal mucosa: enhanced expression in lamina propria in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottaz, Daniel; Buri, Caroline; Monteleone, Giovanni; Rösmann, Sandra; Macdonald, Thomas T; Sanderson, Ian R; Sterchi, Erwin E

    2007-03-01

    Epithelial cells in the human small intestine express meprin, an astacin-like metalloprotease, which accumulates normally at the brush border membrane and in the gut lumen. Therefore, meprin is targeted towards luminal components. In coeliac disease patients, peptides from ingested cereals trigger mucosal inflammation in the small intestine, disrupting epithelial cell differentiation and function. Using in situ hybridisation on duodenal tissue sections, we observed a marked shift of meprin mRNA expression from epithelial cells, the predominant expression site in normal mucosa, to lamina propria leukocytes in coeliac disease. Meprin thereby gains access to the substrate repertoire present beneath the epithelium.

  3. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  4. Mechanical properties of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the application of natural fiber composite especially ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis. The research focuses on the tensile and shear strength from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite which will be applied as alternative material for socket prosthesis. The research based on American Society for Testing Material (ASTM standard D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 4255/D 4255M-83 for shear strength. The ramie fiber applied is a fiber continue 100 % Ne14'S with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 as matrix and Epoxy Hardener V-140 as hardener. The sample composite test made by hand lay up method. Multiaxial characteristic from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite will be compared with ISO standard for plastic/polymer for health application and refers strength of material application at Prosthetics and Orthotics. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure and the failure criterion observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Based on results of the research could be concluded that ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite could be developed further as the alternative material for socket prosthesis on Vf 40-50%. Results of the research will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  5. Boomerang deformity of cervical spinal cord migrating between split laminae after laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, S; Gomibuchi, F; Shimoda, H; Ikezawa, Y; Segawa, H; Kaneko, F; Uchiyama, S; Homma, T

    2000-04-01

    Patients with cervical compression myelopathy were studied to elucidate the mechanism underlying boomerang deformity, which results from the migration of the cervical spinal cord between split laminae after laminoplasty with median splitting of the spinous processes (boomerang sign). Thirty-nine cases, comprising 25 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, 8 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and 6 patients with cervical disc herniation with developmental canal stenosis, were examined. The clinical and radiological findings were retrospectively compared between patients with (B group, 8 cases) and without (C group, 31 cases) boomerang sign. Moderate increase of the grade of this deformity resulted in no clinical recovery, although there was no difference in clinical recovery between the two groups. Most boomerang signs developed at the C4/5 and/or C5/6 level, where maximal posterior movement of the spinal cord was achieved. Widths between lateral hinges and between split laminae in the B group were smaller than in the C group. Flatness of the spinal cord in the B group was more severe than in the C group. In conclusion, the boomerang sign was caused by posterior movement of the spinal cord, narrower enlargement of the spinal canal and flatness of the spinal cord.

  6. Microchannel neural interface manufacture by stacking silicone and metal foil laminae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancashire, Henry T.; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Ajam, Yazan Al; Magee, Elliot; Donaldson, Nick; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Microchannel neural interfaces (MNIs) overcome problems with recording from peripheral nerves by amplifying signals independent of node of Ranvier position. Selective recording and stimulation using an MNI requires good insulation between microchannels and a high electrode density. We propose that stacking microchannel laminae will improve selectivity over single layer MNI designs due to the increase in electrode number and an improvement in microchannel sealing. Approach. This paper describes a manufacturing method for creating MNIs which overcomes limitations on electrode connectivity and microchannel sealing. Laser cut silicone—metal foil laminae were stacked using plasma bonding to create an array of microchannels containing tripolar electrodes. Electrodes were DC etched and electrode impedance and cyclic voltammetry were tested. Main results. MNIs with 100 μm and 200 μm diameter microchannels were manufactured. High electrode density MNIs are achievable with electrodes present in every microchannel. Electrode impedances of 27.2 ± 19.8 kΩ at 1 kHz were achieved. Following two months of implantation in Lewis rat sciatic nerve, micro-fascicles were observed regenerating through the MNI microchannels. Significance. Selective MNIs with the peripheral nervous system may allow upper limb amputees to control prostheses intuitively.

  7. Luminal DMSO: Effects on Detrusor and Urothelial/Lamina Propria Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DMSO is used as a treatment for interstitial cystitis and this study examined the effects of luminal DMSO treatment on bladder function and histology. Porcine bladder was incubated without (controls or with DMSO (50% applied to the luminal surface and the release of ATP, acetylcholine, and LDH assessed during incubation and in tissues strips after DMSO incubation. Luminally applied DMSO caused ATP, Ach, and LDH release from the urothelial surface during treatment, with loss of urothelial layers also evident histologically. In strips of urothelium/lamina propria from DMSO pretreated bladders the release of both ATP and Ach was depressed, while contractile responses to carbachol were enhanced. Detrusor muscle contractile responses to carbachol were not affected by DMSO pretreatment, but neurogenic responses to electrical field stimulation were enhanced. The presence of an intact urothelium/lamina propria inhibited detrusor contraction to carbachol by 53% and this inhibition was significantly reduced in DMSO pretreated tissues. Detection of LDH in the treatment medium suggests that DMSO permeabilised urothelial membranes causing leakage of cytosolic contents including ATP and Ach rather than enhancing release of these mediators. The increase in contractile response and high levels of ATP are consistent with initial flare up in IC/PBS symptoms after DMSO treatment.

  8. Direct and indirect pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstege, Gert

    1988-01-01

    The pathways to lamina I in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord of the cat were traced using horse-radish-peroxidase (HRP) and autoradiographic techniques. The HRP results indicated that several neuronal cell groups in the brain stem and hypothalamus project to the spinal cord throughout its total length. The autoradiographic tracing results demonstrated that the strongest projections to lamina I are derived from the following four areas: the caudal nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the ventral part of the caudal pontine and NRM, the contralaterally projecting lateral pontine or paralemniscal tegmentum, and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a limited, especially at lumbosacral levels, distinct projection to lamina I was found to originate in the most caudal part of the medullary tegmentum.

  9. Evaluation of the rostral projection of the sacral lamina as a component of degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in German shepherd dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Harvey; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela

    2018-05-20

    To determine the association between a greater rostral projection of the sacral lamina and clinical signs of cauda equina syndrome (CES) in German shepherd dogs (GSD) with presumptive degenerative lumbosacral disease (DLSS). Retrospective cohort study. One hundred forty-three GSD (125 police dogs and 18 pet dogs) presenting for either CES or prebreeding evaluation. Fifty-five were classified as affected by CES and diagnosed with DLSS, and 88 were classified as unaffected on the basis of clinical and imaging findings. The position of the rostral edge of the sacral lamina was measured from radiographs and/or computed tomography (CT) scans. This position was compared between affected and unaffected dogs. In dogs that underwent both radiography and CT scanning, the agreement between sacral lamina localization using each imaging modality was determined. Owners/handlers were contacted to determine whether dogs subsequently developed clinical signs compatible with CES at a mean of 29 months (unaffected). The sacral lamina did not extend as far rostrally in affected dogs, compared to unaffected dogs (P = .04). Among the 88 dogs unaffected by CES at initial evaluation, 2 developed clinical signs consistent with CES at follow-up. Rostral projection of the sacral lamina, previously proposed as a potential risk factor in dogs with CES due to lumbosacral degeneration, was not associated with a diagnosis of DLSS in this study; the opposite was true. Rostral projection of the sacral lamina may not be a predisposing factor in the development of CES due to DLSS in GSD. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Using the trans-lamina terminalis route via a pterional approach to resect a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma involving the third ventricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Robert, Thomas; Alsaiari, Sultan; Obaid, Sami; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2016-01-01

    Retrochiasmatic craniopharyngiomas involving the anterior third ventricle are challenging to access. Although the pterional approach is a common route for suprasellar lesions, when the craniopharyngioma extends behind the chiasma into the third ventricle, access is even more difficult, and the lamina terminalis may offer a good working window. The translamina terminalis approach provides direct access to the retrochiasmatic portion of the tumor with minimal brain retraction and no manipulation of the visual nerves. In this video, we emphasize the utility of using the lamina terminalis corridor to resect the retrochiasmatic intraventricular portion of a craniopharyngioma. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/hrLNC0hDKe4 .

  11. Low-Cost Intra-Articular Distraction Technique Using Kirschner Wires and a Toothed Lamina Spreader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymon, Stephen Joseph; Harris, Thomas Gregory

    We describe a low-cost (instrument cost) technique for joint distraction using 2 Kirschner wires and a toothed lamina spreader in lieu of a Hintermann distractor. The described technique allows for temporary intra-articular distraction and visualization and preservation of the articular surface with extra-articular instrumentation. The technique can also allow for closed reduction and percutaneous treatment in cases of soft tissue compromise. Additionally, the technique uses common orthopedic surgical instruments, leading to a minimal learning curve for novice surgeons. We have found this distraction technique to be most effective for intra-articular preparation of hindfoot and midfoot arthrodeses and for navicular fracture reduction. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Lamina Cribrosa Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Myopic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Choi, Da Ye Diana; Lim, Dong Hui; Chung, Tae Young; Han, Jong Chul; Kee, Changwon

    2018-04-01

    To determine deep optic nerve head structure changes after transient intraocular pressure elevation during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for myopia. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography was performed in each myopic eye that underwent LASIK surgery. Enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography images were created at postoperative 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month. Lamina cribrosa (LC) thickness, LC depth and prelaminar thickness at the superior, middle and inferior portions of the optic nerve head were measured by two investigators. Forty eyes in 40 patients were included in the present study. During follow-up, there were no significant differences in prelaminar thickness or LC depth. The LC demonstrated increased thickness at postoperative 1 day at all three locations (superior, middle, and inferior) (p LASIK surgery. However, the thickness will gradually return to baseline morphology. Temporary intraocular pressure increase during LASIK does not appear to induce irreversible LC thickness changes. © 2018 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

  13. Isolation and Flow Cytometry Analysis of Innate Lymphoid Cells from the Intestinal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system, has caught particular attention. These so-called innate lymphoid cells (ILC) reside within the lamina propria of the small and large intestines and rapidly respond to environmental challenges. They provide immunity to various types of infections but may also contribute to organ homeostasis as they produce factors acting on epithelial cells thereby enhancing barrier integrity. Here, we describe how these cells can be isolated from their environment and provide an in-depth protocol how to visualize the various ILC subsets by flow cytometry.

  14. Disruption of basal lamina components in neuromotor synapses of children with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn G Robinson

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is a static encephalopathy occurring when a lesion to the developing brain results in disordered movement and posture. Patients present with sometimes overlapping spastic, athetoid/dyskinetic, and ataxic symptoms. Spastic CP, which is characterized by stiff muscles, weakness, and poor motor control, accounts for ∼80% of cases. The detailed mechanisms leading to disordered movement in spastic CP are not completely understood, but clinical experience and recent studies suggest involvement of peripheral motor synapses. For example, it is recognized that CP patients have altered sensitivities to drugs that target neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, and protein localization studies suggest that NMJ microanatomy is disrupted in CP. Since CP originates during maturation, we hypothesized that NMJ disruption in spastic CP is associated with retention of an immature neuromotor phenotype later in life. Scoliosis patients with spastic CP or idiopathic disease were enrolled in a prospective, partially-blinded study to evaluate NMJ organization and neuromotor maturation. The localization of synaptic acetylcholine esterase (AChE relative to postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR, synaptic laminin β2, and presynaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2 appeared mismatched in the CP samples; whereas, no significant disruption was found between AChR and SV2. These data suggest that pre- and postsynaptic NMJ components in CP children were appropriately distributed even though AChE and laminin β2 within the synaptic basal lamina appeared disrupted. Follow up electron microscopy indicated that NMJs from CP patients appeared generally mature and similar to controls with some differences present, including deeper postsynaptic folds and reduced presynaptic mitochondria. Analysis of maturational markers, including myosin, syntrophin, myogenin, and AChR subunit expression, and telomere lengths, all indicated similar levels of motor maturation in the two groups

  15. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  16. Effects Aerosol of Industrial Bleach and Detergent Mixture on Mucosa Layer and Lamina Mucosa Conjunctiva in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Vaezi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today bleach and detergents are being frequently used and some people use their mixture for more cleaning. Because of chemical interaction of bleach and detergent, chlorine gas was released and thereby it could be dangerous for human health. This study examined the effects of exposed toxic mixture of bleach and detergent on the Mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva in the mice. In this study, 42 adult male mice NMRI race weighing 35-40 gr and from age 8 to 10 weeks were divided into 6 experimental groups and one control group. Experimental groups 1-2-3 with the use of chamber, the exposed 20 minutes were exposed to spray the amount 1 cc of mixture of bleach and detergent by nebulizer. Experimental groups 4-5-6 were for 35 minutes to inhale the same amount of material. Mice killed at 24-48-72 hours after exposed and the Mucosa Layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue was studied pathology. In the study of microscopic sections prepared of mouse mucosa layer and Lamina mucosa conjunctiva tissue experimental group comparison with the control group, significant decrease was observed in mucosa layer the have (p ≤ 0.001  and significant decrease was observed in the Lamina mucosa have(p ≤ 0. 01,  p ≤ 0.001. As a result, increasing the exposed time of mixing bleach and detergent, as time passed, increasing the tissue damage and changes.

  17. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  18. Angled Growth of the Dental Lamina Is Accompanied by Asymmetrical Expression of the WNT Pathway Receptor Frizzled 6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Putnová, Iveta; Dosedělová, Hana; Bryja, V.; Landová, Marie; Buchtová, Marcela; Štembírek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 29. ISSN 1664-042X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-29273P Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : FZD6 * successional dental lamina * WNT signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016

  19. Cytotoxic reactivity of gut lamina propria CD4+ alpha beta T cells in SCID mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonhagen, K; Thoma, S; Bland, P

    1996-01-01

    Polyclonal, mucosa-seeking memory/effector CD4+ T cells containing a large fraction of blasts activated in situ accumulate in the gut lamina propria of severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice developing colitis after CD4+ T cell transplantation. CD4+ T cells isolated from different repopulated...

  20. Diagenetic variation at the lamina scale in lacustrine organic-rich shales: Implications for hydrocarbon migration and accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Cao, Yingchang; Liu, Keyu; Jiang, Zaixing; Wu, Jing; Hao, Fang

    2018-05-01

    Lacustrine carbonate-rich shales are well developed within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic strata of the Bohai Bay Basin (BBB) of eastern China and across southeast Asia. Developing an understanding of the diagenesis of these shales is essential to research on mass balance, diagenetic fluid transport and exchange, and organic-inorganic interactions in black shales. This study investigates the origin and distribution of authigenic minerals and their diagenetic characteristics, processes, and pathways at the scale of lacustrine laminae within the Es4s-Es3x shale sequence of the BBB. The research presented in this study is based on thin sections, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and SEM-catholuminescence (CL) observations of well core samples combined with the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and carbon and oxygen isotope analyses performed using a laser microprobe mass spectrometer. The dominant lithofacies within the Es4s-Es3x sequence are a laminated calcareous shale (LCS-1) and a laminated clay shale (LCS-2). The results of this study show that calcite recrystallization1 is the overarching diagenetic process affecting the LCS-1, related to acid generation from organic matter (OM) thermal evolution. This evolutionary transition is the key factor driving the diagenesis of this lithofacies, while the transformation of clay minerals is the main diagenetic attribute of the LCS-2. Diagenetic differences occur within different laminae and at variable locations within the same lamina level, controlled by variations in mineral composition and the properties of laminae interfaces. The diagenetic fluid migration scale is vertical and responses (dissolution and replacement) are limited to individual laminae, between zero and 100 μm in width. In contrast, the dominant migration pathway for diagenetic fluid is lateral, along the abrupt interfaces between laminae boundaries, which leads to the vertical

  1. Stochastic and cyclic deposition of multiple subannual laminae in an urban lake (Twin Lake, Golden Valley, Minnesota, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbo, A.; Ustipak, K.; Demet, B.

    2013-12-01

    Twin Lake, a small, deep, meromictic urban lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, annually deposits two to 10 laminae that are distinguished from one another by composition and resulting color. Sediment sources are both autochthonous and allochthonous, including pure and mixed laminae of authigenic calcite, algal organic matter, and diatoms, as well as at least three distinct types of sediment gravity flow deposits. Diagenetic iron sulfide and iron phosphate phases are minor components, but can affect color out of proportion to their abundance. We used L*a*b* color from digital images of a freeze core slab, and petrographic smear slides of individual laminae, to categorize 1080 laminae deposited between 1963 and 2010 CE (based on lead-210 dating). Some causal relationships exist between the ten categories identified: diatom blooms often occur directly above the debris of gravity flows that probably disrupt the phosphate-rich monimolomnion and fertilize the surface waters; calcite whitings only occur after diatom blooms that increase calcite saturation. Stochastic events, as represented by laminae rich in siliciclastics and other terrigenous material, or shallow-water microfossils and carbonate morphologies, are the dominant sediment source. The patterns of cyclic deposition (e.g., summer and winter sedimentation) that produce 'normal' varve couplets in some lakes are continually interrupted by these stochastic events, to such an extent that spectral analysis finds only a weak one-year cycle. Sediments deposited before about 1900, and extending through the entire Holocene sequence (~10m) are varve couplets interrupted by thick (20-90 cm) debris layers, indicating that gravity flows were lower in frequency but greater in magnitude before the historical period, probably due to an increased frequency of disturbance under urban land-use.

  2. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  3. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza

    2015-01-01

    , the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have...

  4. Effects of collagen microstructure and material properties on the deformation of the neural tissues of the lamina cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, A P; Jan, N-J; Sigal, I A

    2017-08-01

    It is widely considered that intraocular pressure (IOP)-induced deformation within the neural tissue pores of the lamina cribrosa (LC) contributes to neurodegeneration and glaucoma. Our goal was to study how the LC microstructure and mechanical properties determine the mechanical insult to the neural tissues within the pores of the LC. Polarized light microscopy was used to measure the collagen density and orientation in histology sections of three sheep optic nerve heads (ONH) at both mesoscale (4.4μm) and microscale (0.73μm) resolutions. Mesoscale fiber-aware FE models were first used to calculate ONH deformations at an IOP of 30mmHg. The results were then used as boundary conditions for microscale models of LC regions. Models predicted large insult to the LC neural tissues, with 95th percentile 1st principal strains ranging from 7 to 12%. Pores near the scleral boundary suffered significantly higher stretch compared to pores in more central regions (10.0±1.4% vs. 7.2±0.4%; p=0.014; mean±SD). Variations in material properties altered the minimum, median, and maximum levels of neural tissue insult but largely did not alter the patterns of pore-to-pore variation, suggesting these patterns are determined by the underlying structure and geometry of the LC beams and pores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first computational model that reproduces the highly heterogeneous neural tissue strain fields observed experimentally. The loss of visual function associated with glaucoma has been attributed to sustained mechanical insult to the neural tissues of the lamina cribrosa due to elevated intraocular pressure. Our study is the first computational model built from specimen-specific tissue microstructure to consider the mechanics of the neural tissues of the lamina separately from the connective tissue. We found that the deformation of the neural tissue was much larger than that predicted by any recent microstructure-aware models of the lamina. These results

  5. Application of Elliptic Fourier analysis to describe the lamina cribrosa shape with age and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, P G; Grimm, J L; Flanagan, J G; Lathrop, K L; Sigal, I A

    2014-11-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) plays an important biomechanical role in the optic nerve head (ONH). We developed a statistical shape model of the LC and tested if the shape varies with age or IOP. The ONHs of 18 donor eyes (47-91 years, mean 76 years) fixed at either 5 or 50 mmHg of IOP were sectioned, stained, and imaged under a microscope. A 3D model of each ONH was reconstructed and the outline of the vertical sagittal section closest to the geometric center of the LC extracted. The outline shape was described using Elliptic Fourier analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) employed to identify the primary modes of LC shape variation. Linear mixed effect models were used to determine if the shape measurements were associated with age or IOP. The analysis revealed several modes of shape variation: thickness and depth directly (PC 1), or inversely (PC 2) related, and superior-inferior asymmetry (PC 3). Only PC 3 was associated with IOP, with higher IOP correlating with greater curvature of the LC superiorly compared to inferiorly. Our analysis enabled a concise and complete characterization of LC shape, revealing variations without defining them a priori. No association between LC shape and age was found for the relatively old population studied. Superior-inferior asymmetry of LC shape was associated with IOP, with more asymmetry at higher IOP. Increased IOP was not associated with LC thickness or depth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order partial derivative (1st order partial derivative) as a coefficient. On the contrary, in order to extract the 1st/2nd order partial derivatives from this potential by partial differential, it requires partial differentiation with these partial derivatives considered to be a constant. The reason that they can be realized is attributable to the zero result of the linear form which has as the coefficient a 3rd order partial derivative concerning the variable of integration in a primitive function. If this relation is used, the integral calculation and description may be simplified. An explanation was given with examples enumerated so that these conditions might be understood.

  7. Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography.Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch's membrane openings (BMO. The mean LC depth (mLCD was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated.The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P -6 dB and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < -6 dB, P = 0.95.LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change.

  8. Basigin/EMMPRIN/CD147 mediates neuron-glia interactions in the optic lamina of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Kathryn D; Wyman, Robert J; Meinertzhagen, Ian A

    2007-11-15

    Basigin, an IgG family glycoprotein found on the surface of human metastatic tumors, stimulates fibroblasts to secrete matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) that remodel the extracellular matrix, and is thus also known as Extracellular Matrix MetalloPRotease Inducer (EMMPRIN). Using Drosophila we previously identified novel roles for basigin. Specifically, photoreceptors of flies with basigin eyes show misplaced nuclei, rough ER and mitochondria, and swollen axon terminals, suggesting cytoskeletal disruptions. Here we demonstrate that basigin is required for normal neuron-glia interactions in the Drosophila visual system. Flies with basigin mutant photoreceptors have misplaced epithelial glial cells within the first optic neuropile, or lamina. In addition, epithelial glia insert finger-like projections--capitate projections (CPs)--sites of vesicle endocytosis and possibly neurotransmitter recycling. When basigin is missing from photoreceptors terminals, CP formation between glia and photoreceptor terminals is disrupted. Visual system function is also altered in flies with basigin mutant eyes. While photoreceptors depolarize normally to light, synaptic transmission is greatly diminished, consistent with a defect in neurotransmitter release. Basigin expression in photoreceptor neurons is required for normal structure and placement of glia cells.

  9. Correlating Corneal Biomechanics and Ocular Biometric Properties with Lamina Cribrosa Measurements in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Bartolomé, Francisco; Martínez de la Casa, Jose María; Camacho Bosca, Irene; Sáenz-Francés, Federico; Aguilar Munoa, Soledad; Martín Juan, Alberto; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian

    2018-01-01

    To examine interrelations between corneal biomechanics, ocular biometric variables and optic disc size (ODS), lamina cribosa depth (LCD) or thickness (LCT) in a healthy population. In a cross-sectional case-control study, the following measurements were made in 81 eyes of 81 participants: axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness using the optical biometer Lenstar LS900; and corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) using the Ocular Response Analyzer. Serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI OCT) B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained in each participant. Mean ODS, mean LCD, and mean LCT were measured in 11 equally spaced horizontal B-scans, excluding the LC insertion area under Bruch's membrane and scleral rim. LCD was measured in 74 of 81 eyes (91.36%); LCT in 60/81 (75.3%); ODS in 81/81 (100%). CRF was poorly, but significantly, correlated with LCT (Pearson's R = 0.264; P = 0.045). IOPcc, IOPg, CH, and ocular biometrics variables were poorly (non-significantly) correlated with LCD, LCT, and ODS. CRF was poorly but directly correlated with LCT. No association was detected between CH or ocular biometric variables and ODS, LCD, or LCT.

  10. Severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae in a Japanese Black steer with chronic bloat--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Mukai, Shuhei; Fushimi, Yasuo; Matsushita, Kouhei; Miyoshi, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Kitajima, Hideo; Takamure, Senro; Matsushita, Toshihiko; Kitamura, Nobuo; Deguchi, Eisaburo

    2007-12-01

    An 11-month-old Japanese Black steer with chronic bloat underwent clinical and histological analyses. During the observation period, it showed normal appetite and fecal volume but persistent chronic bloat symptoms. Compared to controls, the steer's feces contained undigested large straws. Necropsy revealed normal rumen, reticulum, and abomasum but a small omasum. The rumen, reticulum, and abomasum mucosa was normal, with well-developed ruminal papillae. However, severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae was observed along with hypoplasia reticular groove and ruminoreticular fold. The contents of the reticulum, omasum, and abomasums comprised undigested large sized hay particles. The omasum papillae showed no pathological abnormalities. This is a rare case of a steer with chronic bloat probably caused by severe hypoplasia of the omasal laminae.

  11. Cholera toxin B subunit labeling in lamina II of spinal cord dorsal horn following chronic inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing Ping; Tian, Li

    2002-07-26

    We have investigated the effect of inflammation on the labeling pattern of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)-conjugated horseradish peroxidase, an A-fiber marker, by an intra-sciatic nerve injection of the tracer. Following chronic inflammation in one hind paw in rats, there was substantial CTB labeling in lamina II of the spinal dorsal horn, which is normally absent. However, there was no change in the labeling pattern of wheat germ agglutinin or fluoride resistant acid phosphatase/thiamine monophosphatase, two C-fiber markers. The CTB labeling in lamina II after peripheral nerve injury has been interpreted as central sprouting of A-fibers or uptake of the tracer by injured C-fibers. Our results suggest that chronic inflammation and nerve injury may share some common mechanisms in generating allodynia and hyperalgesia.

  12. An examination of the damage tolerance enhancement of carbon/epoxy using an outer lamina of spectra (R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    Low velocity instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the effects of an outer lamina of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (Spectra) on the damage tolerance of carbon epoxy composites. Four types of 16-ply quasi-isotropic panels (0, +45, 90, -45) were tested. Some panels contained no Spectra, while others had a lamina of Spectra bonded to the top (impacted side), bottom, or both sides of the composite plates. The specimens were impacted with energies up to 8.5 J. Force time plots and maximum force versus impact energy graphs were generated for comparison purposes. Specimens were also subjected to cross-sectional analysis and compression after impact tests. The results show that while the Spectra improved the maximum load that the panels could withstand before fiber breakage, the Spectra seemingly reduced the residual strength of the composites.

  13. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pchronic periodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  14. Activation of stretch-activated channels and maxi-K+ channels by membrane stress of human lamina cribrosa cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irnaten, Mustapha

    2009-01-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head is considered the primary site of damage in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Resident LC cells have a profibrotic potential when exposed to cyclical stretch. However, the mechanosensitive mechanisms of these cells remain unknown. Here the authors investigated the effects of membrane stretch on cell volume change and ion channel activity and examined the associated changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)).

  15. Immunostaining for Homer reveals the majority of excitatory synapses in laminae I?III of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Kuehn, Emily D.; Abraira, Victoria E.; Polg?r, Erika; Watanabe, Masahiko; Todd, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn processes somatosensory information before conveying it to the brain. The neuronal organization of the dorsal horn is still poorly understood, although recent studies have defined several distinct populations among the interneurons, which account for most of its constituent neurons. All primary afferents, and the great majority of neurons in laminae I–III are glutamatergic, and a major factor limiting our understanding of the synaptic circuitry has been the difficulty i...

  16. Antinociceptive action of oxytocin involves inhibition of potassium channel currents in lamina II neurons of the rat spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbon Pascal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence in the literature shows that oxytocin (OT has a strong spinal anti-nociceptive action. Oxytocinergic axons originating from a subpopulation of paraventricular hypothalamic neurons establish synaptic contacts with lamina II interneurons but little is known about the functional role of OT with respect to neuronal firing and excitability. Results Using the patch-clamp technique, we have recorded lamina II interneurons in acute transverse lumbar spinal cord slices of rats (15 to 30 days old and analyzed the OT effects on action potential firing ability. In the current clamp mode, we found that bath application of a selective OT-receptor agonist (TGOT reduced firing in the majority of lamina II interneurons exhibiting a bursting firing profile, but never in those exhibiting a single spike discharge upon depolarization. Interestingly, OT-induced reduction in spike frequency and increase of firing threshold were often observed, leading to a conversion of the firing profile from repetitive and delayed profiles into phasic ones and sometimes further into single spike profile. The observed effects following OT-receptor activation were completely abolished when the OT-receptor agonist was co-applied with a selective OT-receptor antagonist. In current and voltage clamp modes, we show that these changes in firing are strongly controlled by voltage-gated potassium currents. More precisely, transient IA currents and delayed-rectifier currents were reduced in amplitude and transient IA current was predominantly inactivated after OT bath application. Conclusion This effect of OT on the firing profile of lamina II neurons is in good agreement with the antinociceptive and analgesic properties of OT described in vivo.

  17. Glymphatic stasis at the site of the lamina cribrosa as a potential mechanism underlying open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wostyn, Peter; Killer, Hanspeter Esriel; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2017-07-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma remains unclear, but the lamina cribrosa seems to be the primary site of injury, and raised intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. In recent years, a decreased intracranial pressure, leading to an abnormally high trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference, has gained interest as a new risk factor for glaucoma. New research now lends support to the hypothesis that a paravascular transport system is present in the eye analogous to the recently discovered 'glymphatic system' in the brain, which is a functional waste clearance pathway that promotes elimination of interstitial solutes, including β-amyloid, from the brain along paravascular channels. Given that β-amyloid has been reported to increase by chronic elevation of intraocular pressure in glaucomatous animal models and to cause retinal ganglion cell death, the discovery of a paravascular clearance system in the eye may provide powerful new insights into the pathophysiology of primary open-angle glaucoma. In this review, we provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma, present supporting preliminary data from our own post-mortem study and hypothesize that the disease may result from restriction of normal glymphatic flow at the level of the lamina cribrosa owing to a low intracranial pressure and/or a high trans-lamina cribrosa pressure gradient. If confirmed, this viewpoint could offer new perspectives for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this devastating disorder. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Scafè, M.; Raiteri, G.; Brentari, A.; Dlacic, R.; Troiani, E.; Falaschetti, M. P.; Besseghini, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Over the years various methods have been developed to deduce compressive properties of composite materials reinforced with long fibres. Each of these methods is characterized by a specific way of applying load to the specimen. The method chosen to perform the compression tests is the Wyoming Combined Loading Compr...

  19. Proliferation and apoptosis of lamina propria CD4+ T cells from scid mice with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Reimann, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    Scid mice transplanted with low numbers of syngeneic CD4+ T cells, develop a chronic and lethal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) within 4-6 months. We have used in vivo 5-bromo2-deoxy-uridine (BrdU) labeling to assess the proliferation of lamina propria-derived CD4+ T cells in diseased scid mice....... The hourly rate of renewal of colonic lamina propria CD4+ T cells in diseased mice was 7% compared with 1.5% in normal BALB/c control mice. Transplantation of scid mice with in vitro activated CD4+ T cells accelerated the disease onset and development in a cell dose-dependent fashion when compared with non......-activated CD4+ T cells. In pulse-chase experiments it was shown that BrdU-labeled cells disappeared rapidly from the lamina propria of diseased mice. DNA analysis revealed that this was due to the presence of nearly four times as many apoptotic CD4+ T cells in diseased than in control mice. Further analyses...

  20. Correlation of radiographic size and the presence of radiopaque lamina with histological findings in 70 periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Penarrocha, Miguel; Ortega, Bárbara; Martí, Eva; Bagán, José Vicente; Vera, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to relate the histological diagnosis of chronic inflammatory periapical lesions with the radiographic images of these lesions. A total of 70 biopsy specimens obtained during periapical surgery were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined under a microscope. Histological analysis established the diagnosis as granuloma, cyst, or scar tissue. The location of the lesion was recorded, as were the radiographic size (maximum and minimum diameter in mm and area in mm(2)) and the presence of radiopaque lamina around the lesion, using an image analyzing system. The distribution of the biopsy specimens was 65.7% granulomas, 25.7% scar tissue, and 8.6% cysts, 1 of which was a keratocyst. The largest lesions were cysts and epithelialized granulomas, with statistically significant differences. Radiopaque lamina was observed around 9 lesions; of these, only 2 were histologically diagnosed as cysts, with the rest as granulomas. Most of the apical lesions were granulomas. Cysts had the largest radiotransparent images; however, in the 70 cases studied, neither the radiographic size nor the presence of associated radiopaque lamina alone was sufficient to determine the type of lesion. Histological analysis is required.

  1. Repetitive disruptions of the nuclear envelope invoke temporary loss of cellular compartmentalization in laminopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vos, W.H.; Houben, F.; Kamps, M.; Malhas, A.; Verheyen, F.; Cox, J.; Manders, E.M.M.; Verstraeten, V.L.R.M.; van Steensel, M.A.M.; Marcelis, C.L.M.; van den Wijngaard, A.; Vaux, D.J.; Ramaekers, F.C.S.; Broers, J.L.V.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear lamina provides structural support to the nucleus and has a central role in nuclear organization and gene regulation. Defects in its constituents, the lamins, lead to a class of genetic diseases collectively referred to as laminopathies. Using live cell imaging, we observed the

  2. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  3. Mesoscopic Strains Maps in Woven Composite Laminas During Off-axis Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of woven carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites is influenced by the complex architecture of the reinforcement phase. Computational (i.e. finite element based approaches have been used increasingly to model not only the global laminate stiffness, but also damage evolution and laminate strength. The modeling combines the identification of the architectural unit cell (UC, the selection of suitable constitutive models of the different phases, the creation of a fine discretization of the UC in finite elements, the application of an incremental solution procedure that solves iteratively for the stresses and strains in the UC, [1]. The experimental validation of computational models is carried out mainly at the macroscopical level, i.e. simulation of the macroscopic stress-strain curve. Damage, however, is a localized, straindependent phenomenon and therefore only accurate strain distribution within the UC (at the mesolevel can identify critical conditions in terms of damage location, extension and evolution. The validation of computational damage procedures is a key task and full-field optical strain analysis methods appear the ideal instrument. However, only limited examples of direct finte element method (FEM vs experimental strain correlation are found because of the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of some techniques and the complexity and applicative difficulty of others. The aim of the present paper is to present the application of the digital image correlation (DIC technique, [2], to the full-field strain analysis at the mesoscopic level (i.e. within the UC of a woven CFRP lamina when the direction of loading forms an angle to the material direction. The material under consideration is a woven carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite. Orthogonal yarns, each made of of several thousand fibers, are woven according the twill-weave architecture is shown in Fig. 1a. Single-ply laminas were manufactured and tested to

  4. The pulmonary pseudonodule: Characteristic features of a normal variant due to a bone thickening at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The normal thickening of bone at the junction of the laminae and posterior spine should not be confused with a patholigc process. Its appearance on the plain radiograph and computed tomography is pathognomonic. (orig.)

  5. Flow through internal elastic lamina affects shear stress on smooth muscle cells (3D simulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Shigeru; Tarbell, John M

    2002-02-01

    We describe a three-dimensional numerical simulation of interstitial flow through the medial layer of an artery accounting for the complex entrance condition associated with fenestral pores in the internal elastic lamina (IEL) to investigate the fluid mechanical environment around the smooth muscle cells (SMCs) right beneath the IEL. The IEL was modeled as an impermeable barrier to water flow except for the fenestral pores, which were assumed to be uniformly distributed over the IEL. The medial layer was modeled as a heterogeneous medium composed of a periodic array of cylindrical SMCs embedded in a continuous porous medium representing the interstitial proteoglycan and collagen matrix. Depending on the distance between the IEL bottom surface and the upstream end of the proximal layer of SMCs, the local shear stress on SMCs right beneath the fenestral pore could be more than 10 times higher than that on the cells far removed from the IEL under the conditions that the fenestral pore diameter and area fraction of pores were kept constant at 1.4 microm and 0.05, respectively. Thus these proximal SMCs may experience shear stress levels that are even higher than endothelial cells exposed to normal blood flow (order of 10 dyn/cm(2)). Furthermore, entrance flow through fenestral pores alters considerably the interstitial flow field in the medial layer over a spatial length scale of the order of the fenestral pore diameter. Thus the spatial gradient of shear stress on the most superficial SMC is noticeably higher than computed for endothelial cell surfaces.

  6. Microbial Communities and Their Predicted Metabolic Functions in Growth Laminae of a Unique Large Conical Mat from Lake Untersee, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunmin Koo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report the distribution of microbial taxa and their predicted metabolic functions observed in the top (U1, middle (U2, and inner (U3 decadal growth laminae of a unique large conical microbial mat from perennially ice-covered Lake Untersee of East Antarctica, using NextGen sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and bioinformatics tools. The results showed that the U1 lamina was dominated by cyanobacteria, specifically Phormidium sp., Leptolyngbya sp., and Pseudanabaena sp. The U2 and U3 laminae had high abundances of Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Closely related taxa within each abundant bacterial taxon found in each lamina were further differentiated at the highest taxonomic resolution using the oligotyping method. PICRUSt analysis, which determines predicted KEGG functional categories from the gene contents and abundances among microbial communities, revealed a high number of sequences belonging to carbon fixation, energy metabolism, cyanophycin, chlorophyll, and photosynthesis proteins in the U1 lamina. The functional predictions of the microbial communities in U2 and U3 represented signal transduction, membrane transport, zinc transport and amino acid-, carbohydrate-, and arsenic- metabolisms. The Nearest Sequenced Taxon Index (NSTI values processed through PICRUSt were 0.10, 0.13, and 0.11 for U1, U2, and U3 laminae, respectively. These values indicated a close correspondence with the reference microbial genome database, implying high confidence in the predicted metabolic functions of the microbial communities in each lamina. The distribution of microbial taxa observed in each lamina and their predicted metabolic functions provides additional insight into the complex microbial ecosystem at Lake Untersee, and lays the foundation for studies that will enhance our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the formation of these unique mat structures and their evolutionary significance.

  7. Nanoscale invaginations of the nuclear envelope: Shedding new light on wormholes with elusive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Ingmar; Aires, Lina; Ries, Jonas; Vogel, Viola

    2017-09-03

    Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have opened up new possibilities to investigate chromosomal and nuclear 3D organization on the nanoscale. We here discuss their potential for elucidating topographical details of the nuclear lamina. Single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in combination with immunostainings of lamina proteins readily reveals tube-like invaginations with a diameter of 100-500 nm. Although these invaginations have been established as a frequent and general feature of interphase nuclei across different cell types, their formation mechanism and function have remained largely elusive. We critically review the current state of research, propose possible connections to lamina associated domains (LADs), and revisit the discussion about the potential role of these invaginations for accelerating mRNA nuclear export. Illustrative studies using 3D super-resolution imaging are shown and will be instrumental to decipher the physiological role of these nanoscale invaginations.

  8. Abnormality of the spinal column in pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipoma with special reference to CT findings of the lamina defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Ochi, Satoko; Koyanagi, Izumi; Houkin, Kiyohiro

    2009-01-01

    Lumbosacral spinal lipomas are usually associated with occult spinal dysraphism at the lumbosacral spine. During childfood, posterior arch defects in the lumbosacral spine are considered normal computed tomography (CT) findings because of the presence of interlaminar synchondrosis. In this study, we investigated the CT findings of the lumbosacral spine in the pediatric patients with lumbosacral spinal lipomas. We aimed to characterize the radiological features of the abnormal spinal column in case of spinal lipomas. Twenty-one patients (age, 1 month to 3 years) were enrolled in this study: 11 patients had conus lipoma; 10 patients, filum lipoma. All patients showed lamina defects of the lumbosacral spine on 3D-CT. The number of the defective laminae was significantly larger in the patients with conus lipomas than in those with filum lipomas. Although the appearance of lamina defects in the patients with filum lipoma was similar to the reported findings of defective laminae in normal children, these patients were characterized by mild scoliosis and asymmetry of the posterior arches localized in the lower sacrum and coccyx. On the other hand, the patients with conus lipoma were characterized by wider lamina defects that extended rostrally, 'open-door like' deformity of lamina, vertebral dysgenesis, thoracolumber scoliosis and heterotopic ossification. Such CT characterization of the abnormality of the lumbosacral spine in lipoma patients will be useful to differentiate the pathological spina bifida from the normal open posterior arches in childhood. (author)

  9. Stretch independent regulation of prostaglandin E(2) production within the isolated guinea-pig lamina propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Christopher J; de Vente, Jan; Gillespie, James I

    2010-02-01

    To use an isolated preparation of the guinea-pig bladder lamina propria (LP) to investigate the effects of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) and nitric oxide (NO) on the release of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The bladders of female guinea-pigs (200-400 g) were isolated and opened to expose the urothelial surface. The LP was dissected free of the underlying detrusor muscle and cut into strips from the dome to base. Strips were then incubated in Krebs buffer at 37 degrees C. Each tissue piece was then exposed to the stable ATP analogue, BzATP, and a NO donor, diethylamine-NONOate (DEANO), and the effect on PGE(2) output into the supernatant determined using the Parameter(TM) PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay kit (R & D Systems, Abingdon, UK). Experiments were repeated in the presence of purinergic receptor and cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, COX I and COX II, antagonists. The cellular location of COX I, COX II and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) within the bladder LP was also determined by immunohistochemistry. PGE(2) production was significantly increased by BzATP. Antagonist studies showed the purinergic stimulation involved both P(2)X and P(2)Y receptors. The BzATP response was inhibited by the COX inhibitor indomethacin (COX I >COX II) but not by DUP 697 (COX II >COX I). Thus, BzATP stimulation occurs because of COX I stimulation. NO had no effect on PGE(2) production over the initial 10 min of an exposure. However, PGE(2) output was increased 100 min after exposure to the NO donor. In the presence of NO, the BzATP stimulation was abolished. Immunohistochemistry was used to confirm the location of COX I to the basal and inner intermediate urothelial layers and to cells within the diffuse layer of LP interstitial cells. In addition, nNOS was also located in the basal urothelial layers whilst COX II was found in the interstitial cell layers. There is complex interaction between ATP and NO to modulate PGE(2) release from the bladder LP in the un-stretched preparation. Such

  10. Phosphorylation of ERK in neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal dorsal horn following noxious stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Masahiko

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a population of large neurons with cell bodies in laminae III and IV of the spinal dorsal horn which express the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1r and have dendrites that enter the superficial laminae. Although it has been shown that these are all projection neurons and that they are innervated by substance P-containing (nociceptive primary afferents, we know little about their responses to noxious stimuli. In this study we have looked for phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs in these neurons in response to different types of noxious stimulus applied to one hindlimb of anaesthetised rats. The stimuli were mechanical (repeated pinching, thermal (immersion in water at 52°C or chemical (injection of 2% formaldehyde. Results Five minutes after each type of stimulus we observed numerous cells with phosphorylated ERK (pERK in laminae I and IIo, together with scattered positive cells in deeper laminae. We found that virtually all of the lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons contained pERK after each of these stimuli and that in the great majority of cases there was internalisation of the NK1r on the dorsal dendrites of these cells. In addition, we also saw neurons in lamina III that were pERK-positive but lacked the NK1r, and these were particularly evident in animals that had had the pinch stimulus. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that lamina III/IV NK1r-immunoreactive neurons show receptor internalisation and ERK phosphorylation after mechanical, thermal or chemical noxious stimuli.

  11. Nuclear envelopathies: a complex LINC between nuclear envelope and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Alexandre; Bauer, Delphine; Ratti, Francesca; Millat, Gilles; Méjat, Alexandre

    2017-08-30

    Since the identification of the first disease causing mutation in the gene coding for emerin, a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, hundreds of mutations and variants have been found in genes encoding for nuclear envelope components. These proteins can be part of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), such as emerin or SUN proteins, outer nuclear membrane (ONM), such as Nesprins, or the nuclear lamina, such as lamins A and C. However, they physically interact with each other to insure the nuclear envelope integrity and mediate the interactions of the nuclear envelope with both the genome, on the inner side, and the cytoskeleton, on the outer side. The core of this complex, called LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton) is composed of KASH and SUN homology domain proteins. SUN proteins are INM proteins which interact with lamins by their N-terminal domain and with the KASH domain of nesprins located in the ONM by their C-terminal domain.Although most of these proteins are ubiquitously expressed, their mutations have been associated with a large number of clinically unrelated pathologies affecting specific tissues. Moreover, variants in SUN proteins have been found to modulate the severity of diseases induced by mutations in other LINC components or interactors. For these reasons, the diagnosis and the identification of the molecular explanation of "nuclear envelopathies" is currently challenging.The aim of this review is to summarize the human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for INM proteins, nuclear lamina, and ONM proteins, and to discuss their potential physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the large spectrum of observed symptoms.

  12. Oxytocin-induced antinociception in the spinal cord is mediated by a subpopulation of glutamatergic neurons in lamina I-II which amplify GABAergic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlichter Rémy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that oxytocin (OT, secreted in the superficial spinal cord dorsal horn by descending axons of paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN neurons, produces antinociception and analgesia. The spinal mechanism of OT is, however, still unclear and requires further investigation. We have used patch clamp recording of lamina II neurons in spinal cord slices and immunocytochemistry in order to identify PVN-activated neurons in the superficial layers of the spinal cord and attempted to determine how this neuronal population may lead to OT-mediated antinociception. Results We show that OT released during PVN stimulation specifically activates a subpopulation of lamina II glutamatergic interneurons which are localized in the most superficial layers of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (lamina I-II. This OT-specific stimulation of glutamatergic neurons allows the recruitment of all GABAergic interneurons in lamina II which produces a generalized elevation of local inhibition, a phenomenon which might explain the reduction of incoming Aδ and C primary afferent-mediated sensory messages. Conclusion Our results obtained in lamina II of the spinal cord provide the first clear evidence of a specific local neuronal network that is activated by OT release to induce antinociception. This OT-specific pathway might represent a novel and interesting therapeutic target for the management of neuropathic and inflammatory pain.

  13. Comparison of 640-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography Versus 32-Slice MDCT for Imaging of the Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis Lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joseph M; Kishikova, Lyudmila; Avadhanam, Venkata S; Koumellis, Panos; Francis, Ian S; Liu, Christopher S C

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 640-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting osteo-odonto laminar resorption in the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) compared with the current standard 32-slice MDCT. Explanted OOKP laminae and bone-dentine fragments were scanned using 640-slice MDCT (Aquilion ONE; Toshiba) and 32-slice MDCT (LightSpeed Pro32; GE Healthcare). Pertinent comparisons including image quality, radiation dose, and scanning parameters were made. Benefits of 640-slice MDCT over 32-slice MDCT were shown. Key comparisons of 640-slice MDCT versus 32-slice MDCT included the following: percentage difference and correlation coefficient between radiological and anatomical measurements, 1.35% versus 3.67% and 0.9961 versus 0.9882, respectively; dose-length product, 63.50 versus 70.26; rotation time, 0.175 seconds versus 1.000 seconds; and detector coverage width, 16 cm versus 2 cm. Resorption of the osteo-odonto lamina after OOKP surgery can result in potentially sight-threatening complications, hence it warrants regular monitoring and timely intervention. MDCT remains the gold standard for radiological assessment of laminar resorption, which facilitates detection of subtle laminar changes earlier than the onset of clinical signs, thus indicating when preemptive measures can be taken. The 640-slice MDCT exhibits several advantages over traditional 32-slice MDCT. However, such benefits may not offset cost implications, except in rare cases, such as in young patients who might undergo years of radiation exposure.

  14. Lamina cribrosa position and Bruch's membrane opening differences between anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolleda, Gema; Pérez-Sarriegui, Ane; Díez-Álvarez, Laura; De Juan, Victoria; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco J

    2018-06-01

    To compare the optic nerve head morphology among primary open-angle glaucoma, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, their fellow healthy eyes and control eyes, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging. Observational cross-sectional study including 88 eyes of 68 patients. In this study, 23 non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, 17 fellow unaffected eyes, 25 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes, and 23 age-matched control eyes were included. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk area were evaluated. Bruch's membrane opening diameter, optic cup depth, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, and prelaminar tissue thickness were assessed. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and primary open-angle glaucoma eyes had similar visual field mean deviation and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P = 0.6 and P = 0.56, respectively). Bruch's membrane opening diameter was significantly larger in primary open-angle glaucoma eyes than in control eyes (P = 0.02). Lamina cribrosa and disk cup were deeper in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma than both control and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes (P open-angle glaucoma eyes than in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes (P opening diameter was found in primary open-angle glaucoma eyes compared with control eyes. This issue has clinical implications because Bruch's membrane opening has been considered a stable reference for disk-related measures.

  15. Estimation of Lamina Stiffness and Strength of Quadriaxial Non-Crimp Fabric Composites Based on Semi-Laminar Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Quadriaxial non-crimp fabric (QNCF composites are increasingly being used as primary structural materials in aircraft and automotive applications. Predicting the mechanical properties of QNCF lamina is more complicated compared with that of unidirectional (UD composites, because of the knitting connection of different plies. In this study, to analyze the stiffness and strength of the QNCF composites, a novel modeling strategy for the meso-scale features is presented based on the semi-laminar assumption. Following the view of the mechanical properties of single composite lamina, the complex QNCF layer is decomposed into individual plies. Three different representative unit cells along fiber direction are selected to predict the mechanical performance of QNCF, including in-plane stiffness, damage initiation, and stiffness degradation. To validate the developed modeling strategy, the predictions are compared with existing experimental results, where a good agreement is presented on the prediction of in-plane stiffness and strength. Furthermore, the effect of in-plane fiber distortion, induced by the stitching yarn on the mechanical properties, is studied.

  16. [Effectiveness of posterior intrasegmental fixation with pedicle screw-lamina hook system in treatment of lumbar spondylolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongjie; Song, Yueming; Zeng, Jiancheng; Liu, Hao; Liu, Limin; Kong, Qingquan; Li, Tao; Gong, Quan

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of posterior intrasegmental fixation with pedicle screw-lamina hook system and bone grafting for lumbar spondylolysis. Between January 2005 and October 2009, 22 patients with lumbar spondylolysis underwent posterior intrasegmental fixation with pedicle screw-lamina hook system and bone grafting. There were 19 males and 3 females with an average age of 18.4 years (range, 12-26 years). The main symptom was low back pain with an average disease duration of 16 months (range, 8-56 months). The visual analogue scale (VAS) was 6.0 +/- 1.2 and Oswestry disability index (ODI) was 72.0% +/- 10.0% preoperatively. The X-ray films showed bilateral spondylolysis at L4 in 9 cases and at L5 in 13 cases. The range of motion (ROM) at upper and lower intervertebral spaces was (11.8 +/- 2.8) degrees and (14.1 +/- 1.9) degrees, respectively. All incisions healed by first intention. All patients were followed up 12-45 months (mean, 25 months). Low back pain was significantly alleviated after operation. The VAS score (0.3 +/- 0.5) and ODI (17.6% +/- 3.4%) were significantly decreased at last follow-up when compared with preoperative scores (P spondylolysis, having a high fusion rate, low complication rate, and maximum retention of lumbar ROM.

  17. Small Intestinal Submucosa Implantation for the Possible Treatment of Vocal Fold Scar, Sulcus, and Superficial Lamina Propria Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Michael J; Cabin, Jonathan A; Iacob, Codrin E

    2016-02-01

    Evaluate the histologic effects of grafting porcine-derived small intestinal submucosa (SIS) into the vocal fold superficial lamina propria (SLP) layer for the potential treatment of vocal fold scar, sulcus and superficial lamina propria atrophy. Small intestinal submucosa was implanted into the right vocal fold SLP of 6 mongrel dogs. The left vocal fold served as a sham surgical control. At 2, 4, and 6 weeks postoperative, bilateral vocal fold specimens were evaluated histologically. At 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, SIS-implanted vocal folds demonstrated moderate and mild inflammation and acute and chronic inflammation. At 6 weeks, inflammation was minimal and chronic. The 6-week specimens showed copious amounts of newly generated hyaluronic acid (HA) within the graft. There was no reactive fibrosis at 6 weeks. In the canine model, SIS appears safe for SLP grafting. Inflammation is similar to that of sham surgery. Small intestinal submucosa results in newly generated HA without concomitant fibrosis. Small intestinal submucosa has potential to be used in treatment of disorders with SLP, including vocal fold scar, sulcus, and atrophy. Studies evaluating the effect of SIS implantation on vocal fold function, as well as the ultimate fate of the graft, are required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Basilar membrane and reticular lamina motion in a multi-scale finite element model of the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Joris; Dirckx, Joris; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    A multi-scale finite element (FE) model of the mouse cochlea, based on its anatomy and material properties is presented. The important feature in the model is a lattice of 400 Y-shaped structures in the longitudinal direction, each formed by Deiters cells, phalangeal processes and outer hair cells (OHC). OHC somatic motility is modeled by an expansion force proportional to the shear on the stereocilia, which in turn is proportional to the pressure difference between the scala vestibule and scala tympani. Basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) velocity compare qualitatively very well with recent in vivo measurements in guinea pig [2]. Compared to the BM, the RL is shown to have higher amplification and a shift to higher frequencies. This comes naturally from the realistic Y-shaped cell organization without tectorial membrane tuning.

  19. Visibility of lamina dura and periodontal space on periapical radiographs and its comparison with cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimish Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the subjective quality of images of cone beam computed tomography and compare with periapical radiographs (PR to determine whether lamina dura (LD and periodontal ligament (PDL space can be detected and reported. Study Design: Sixty scans for anterior and posterior teeth with PR were included and scored on four point subjective scale. Scores assessed using Wilcoxon Signed rank test with the level of statistical significance P < 0.05. Results: Maximum number of ties for LD in anteriors was seen in coronal section (16 and in posteriors with sagittal section (17. Assessing PDL space in anteriors, high number of ties was seen with coronal section (25 and sagittal section (21, while for posteriors showed a high number of ties in all sections. Conclusions: LD could be observed and reported in coronal section for anteriors and in sagittal section for posteriors and PDL space in all the sections for both anteriors and posteriors.

  20. In vitro evaluation of a basic fibroblast growth factor-containing hydrogel toward vocal fold lamina propria scar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erndt-Marino, Josh D; Jimenez-Vergara, Andrea C; Diaz-Rodriguez, Patricia; Kulwatno, Jonathan; Diaz-Quiroz, Juan Felipe; Thibeault, Susan; Hahn, Mariah S

    2018-04-01

    Scarring of the vocal fold lamina propria can lead to debilitating voice disorders that can significantly impair quality of life. The reduced pliability of the scar tissue-which diminishes proper vocal fold vibratory efficiency-results in part from abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) that have taken on a fibrotic phenotype. To address this issue, bioactive materials containing cytokines and/or growth factors may provide a platform to transition fibrotic VFF within the scarred tissue toward an anti-fibrotic phenotype, thereby improving the quality of ECM within the scar tissue. However, for such an approach to be most effective, the acute host response resulting from biomaterial insertion/injection likely also needs to be considered. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory capacity of an injectable hydrogel containing tethered basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the dual context of scar and biomaterial-induced acute inflammation. An in vitro co-culture system was utilized containing both activated, fibrotic VFF and activated, pro-inflammatory macrophages (MΦ) within a 3D poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel containing tethered bFGF. Following 72 h of culture, alterations in VFF and macrophage phenotype were evaluated relative to mono-culture and co-culture controls. In our co-culture system, bFGF reduced the production of fibrotic markers collagen type I, α smooth muscle actin, and biglycan by activated VFF and promoted wound-healing/anti-inflammatory marker expression in activated MΦ. Cumulatively, these data indicate that bFGF-containing hydrogels warrant further investigation for the treatment of vocal fold lamina propria scar. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1258-1267, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  2. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Milbradt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  3. Visualizing the molecular sociology at the HeLa cell nuclear periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamid, Julia; Pfeffer, Stefan; Schaffer, Miroslava; Villa, Elizabeth; Danev, Radostin; Cuellar, Luis Kuhn; Förster, Friedrich; Hyman, Anthony A; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2016-02-26

    The molecular organization of eukaryotic nuclear volumes remains largely unexplored. Here we combined recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to produce three-dimensional snapshots of the HeLa cell nuclear periphery. Subtomogram averaging and classification of ribosomes revealed the native structure and organization of the cytoplasmic translation machinery. Analysis of a large dynamic structure-the nuclear pore complex-revealed variations detectable at the level of individual complexes. Cryo-ET was used to visualize previously elusive structures, such as nucleosome chains and the filaments of the nuclear lamina, in situ. Elucidation of the lamina structure provides insight into its contribution to metazoan nuclear stiffness. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. The majority of lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells from scid mice with colitis undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Petersen, T R; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    We have previously shown that adoptively transferred CD4(+) T-cells mediate an chronic colitis in severe combined immune deficient (scid) mice. Colitis is accompanied by activation and apoptosis of Fas ligand and TNF-alpha expressing CD4(+) T-cells in the diseased colonic lamina propria (Eur. J....... Immunol. 28:3655 (1998)). Here we investigate the apoptosis-inducing mechanism in these lamina propria infiltrating CD4(+) T-cells. We observe that freshly isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells can kill Fas transfected P815 mastocytoma cells in a TCR/CD3 redirected chromium-release assay, but do...... not express TNF-alpha mediated cytotoxicity. Pre-incubation of the isolated lamina propria CD4(+) T-cells with an anti-FasL antiserum partially blocked killing of the Fas transfected target cells, indicating a role for the Fas-FasL system in the killing process. Treatment of scid mice with colitis with anti-Fas...

  5. Bait-lamina assay as a tool to assess the effects of metal contamination in the feeding activity of soil invertebrates within a uranium mine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, A.; Antunes, S.C.; Goncalves, F.; Pereira, R.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the tier 2 of a site-specific risk assessment, this study was the first reporting an intensive in situ application of the bait-lamina assay; two exposure periods (7 and 14 days) were tested during four seasons in ten different sites, within a uranium mine area and at two different depths. The most contaminated sites (by deposition of sludge from the effluent treatment pond) were discriminated after 14 days of exposure because extremely low percentages of feeding activity were recorded. Previous sub-lethal ecotoxicological assays, already had demonstrated that the habitat function of these soils is compromised. Nevertheless, seasonality has proved to have a significant influence on responses. Thus to strength conclusions about the impact of contaminants, the in situ bait-lamina assay should be performed on different annual seasons, at least for temperate regions. It was also found that some environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture and litter) can act as confounding factors in the bait-lamina assay. - Bait-lamina assay for in situ evaluation of soil functions under site-specific risk assessments.

  6. Differential nuclear remodeling of mammalian somatic cells by Xenopus laevis oocyte and egg cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberio, Ramiro; Johnson, Andrew D.; Stick, Reimer; Campbell, Keith H.S.

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms governing nuclear reprogramming have not been fully elucidated yet; however, recent studies show a universally conserved ability of both oocyte and egg components to reprogram gene expression in somatic cells. The activation of genes associated with pluripotency by oocyte/egg components may require the remodeling of nuclear structures, such that they can acquire the features of early embryos and pluripotent cells. Here, we report on the remodeling of the nuclear lamina of mammalian cells by Xenopus oocyte and egg extracts. Lamin A/C is removed from somatic cells incubated in oocyte and egg extracts in an active process that requires permeable nuclear pores. Removal of lamin A/C is specific, since B-type lamins are not changed, and it is not dependent on the incorporation Xenopus egg specific lamin III. Moreover, transcriptional activity is differentially regulated in somatic cells incubated in the extracts. Pol I and II transcriptions are maintained in cells in oocyte extracts; however, both activities are abolished in egg extracts. Our study shows that components of oocyte and egg extracts can modify the nuclear lamina of somatic cells and that this nuclear remodeling induces a structural change in the nucleus which may have implications for transcriptional activity. These experiments suggest that modifications in the nuclear lamina structure by the removal of somatic proteins and the incorporation of oocyte/egg components may contribute to the reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei and may define a characteristic configuration of pluripotent cells

  7. Bone augmentation of the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina in MOOKP--will it delay laminar resorption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Rishi, Ekta; Rishi, Pukhraj; Rajan, Gunaseelan; Shanmugasundaram, Shanmugasundaram

    2015-07-01

    We aimed to describe a new technique and analyse the early outcomes of augmenting the canine tooth using a mandibular bone graft in an attempt to delay or retard the process of laminar resorption following the modified osteo odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) procedure. This was a retrospective case series. Eyes that underwent the bone augmentation procedure between December 2012 and February 2014 were retrospectively analysed. The procedure, performed by the oromaxillofacial surgeon, involved securing a mandibular bone graft beneath the periosteum on the labial aspect of the canine tooth chosen to be harvested for the MOOKP procedure. This procedure was performed simultaneously with the Stage 1 A of the MOOKP. Three months later, the tooth was harvested and fashioned into the osteo-odonto alveolar lamina similar to the method described in the Rome-Vienna Protocol. The bone augmentation procedure was performed in 11 eyes (five SJS/ six chemical injuries). The mean follow-up after Stage 2 of MOOKP procedure in these eyes was 7.45 months (2 to 20 months). Complications noted were peripheral laminar exposure (three eyes-SJS) and bone graft exposure and necrosis in the mouth (nine-SJS). No evidence of clinical laminar resorption was noted in any of the eyes. Laminar resorption in MOOKP can lead to vision and globe threatening complications due to the consequent cylinder instability and chances of extrusion. Augmenting the bone on the labial aspect of the canine tooth might have a role to play in delaying or preventing laminar resorption.

  8. 3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M.; Queener, Hope M.; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

    2013-01-01

    En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (−0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma. PMID:23847739

  9. Immunomodulation by Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in the murine lamina propria requires retinoic acid-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Konieczna

    Full Text Available Appropriate dendritic cell processing of the microbiota promotes intestinal homeostasis and protects against aberrant inflammatory responses. Mucosal CD103(+ dendritic cells are able to produce retinoic acid from retinal, however their role in vivo and how they are influenced by specific microbial species has been poorly described. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 (B. infantis feeding to mice resulted in increased numbers of CD103(+retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH(+ dendritic cells within the lamina propria (LP. Foxp3(+ lymphocytes were also increased in the LP, while TH1 and TH17 subsets were decreased. 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (citral treatment of mice blocked the increase in CD103(+RALDH(+ dendritic cells and the decrease in TH1 and TH17 lymphocytes, but not the increase in Foxp3(+ lymphocytes. B. infantis reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis, associated with decreased TH1 and TH17 cells within the LP. Citral treatment confirmed that these effects were RALDH mediated. RALDH(+ dendritic cells decreased within the LP of control inflamed animals, while RALDH(+ dendritic cells numbers were maintained in the LP of B. infantis-fed mice. Thus, CD103(+RALDH(+ LP dendritic cells are important cellular targets for microbiota-associated effects on mucosal immunoregulation.

  10. Laminae type and possible mechanisms for the formation of laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Seeberg-Elverfeldt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated sediments in the Shaban Deep, a brine-filled basin in the northern Red Sea, were analyzed with backscattered electron imagery. Here we present possible mechanisms involved in the formation of laminae of various types and homogenous intervals arising from the detailed investigation of multicore GeoB 7805-1 (26°13.9' N and 35°22.6' E; water depth 1447 m and gravity core GeoB 5836-2 (26°12.61' N, 35°21.56' E; water depth 1475 m. Sediment makeup includes six types: a a laminated structure with alternating light (mainly coccoliths and dark (diatom frustules layers, where the diatom component is indicative of the intra-annual variability between stratification and mixing events; b a pocket-like structure attributed to the sinking of particles within fecal pellets and aggregates; c a matrix of tightly packed diatoms that relates to extended stratification/mixing periods of the water column; d homogenous intervals that result from turbidity deposition; e silt accumulations which origin may lie in agglutinated foraminifers; and f pyrite layers with pyrite formation initiated at the seawater-brine interface.

  11. Experimental Tests on Steel Plate-to-Plate Splices Bonded by C-FRPS Laminas with and without Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Aniello

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of an experimental investigation carried out on steel splices bonded by (Carbon-Fiber–Reinforced Polymers C-FRPs are presented in this paper. The main aim of the study is to examine the influence of different parameters on the type of failure and on the ductility of splices. Different configurations of the specimens were considered, including butt and lapped joints using different arrangements for end anchorage of the bonded C-FRP laminas, such as (i external bonding; and (ii anchored jacketing with C-FRP sheets transversally wrapped to the longitudinal axis of the joints. The results in terms of failure modes and response curves are described and discussed, highlighting the potentiality of these types of bonded connections for metal structures. In particular, experimental results showed that (i the failure modes exhibited by both butt and lapped wrapped splices were substantially similar; (ii the wrapped anchoring is beneficial in order to achieve large deformations prior to failure, thus allowing a satisfactory ductility, even though a more timely installation process is necessary.

  12. Estimate of compressive strength of an unidirectional composite lamina using cross-ply and angle-ply laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scafè

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work has been estimated the compressive strength of a unidirectional lamina of a carbon/epoxy composite material, using the cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Over the years various methods have been developed to deduce compressive properties of composite materials reinforced with long fibres. Each of these methods is characterized by a specific way of applying load to the specimen. The method chosen to perform the compression tests is the Wyoming Combined Loading Compression (CLC Test Method, described in ASTM D 6641 / D 6641M-09. This method presents many advantages, especially: the load application on the specimen (end load combined with shear load, the reproducibility of measurements and the experimental equipment quite simplified. Six different laminates were tested in compressive tests. They were realized by the same unidirectional prepreg, but with different stacking sequences: two cross-ply [0/90]ns, two angle-ply [0/90/±45]ns and two unidirectional laminates [0]ns and [90]ns. The estimate of the compressive strength of the unidirectional laminates at 0°, was done by an indirect analytical method, developed from the classical lamination theory, and which uses a multiplicative parameter known as Back-out Factor (BF. The BF is determined by using the experimental values obtained from compression tests.

  13. Biointegration of the osteo-odonto lamina in the modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis: engineering of tissue to restore lost vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Yoh; Marx, Robert E; Perez, Victor L; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis (MOOKP) is a biologic keratoprosthesis that is used to treat a severely scarred cornea. The procedure involves multiple stages, including the transplantation of buccal mucosa to the damaged ocular surface and the implantation of an osteo-odonto lamina with a mounted polymethylmethacrylate lens. Among the keratoprostheses currently available, the MOOKP has proven to be the most effective based on the number of patients who have undergone the procedure and the duration of documented follow-up. Upon successful biointegration of the osteo-odonto lamina, the keratoprosthesis is able to resist resorption, provide stability, and prevent bacterial invasion and epithelial ingrowth. The effectiveness of the MOOKP is dependent on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the dental tissues and periodontal ligament.

  14. Spatial distribution of diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels in the upper laminae of the frontal cortex in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A; Cairns, N J; Lantos, P L

    1998-12-01

    The spatial distribution of the diffuse, primitive, and classic amyloid-beta deposits was studied in the upper laminae of the superior frontal gyrus in cases of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Amyloid-beta-stained tissue was counterstained with collagen IV to determine whether the spatial distribution of the amyloid-beta deposits along the cortex was related to blood vessels. In all patients, amyloid-beta deposits and blood vessels were aggregated into distinct clusters and in many patients, the clusters were distributed with a regular periodicity along the cortex. The clusters of diffuse and primitive deposits did not coincide with the clusters of blood vessels in most patients. However, the clusters of classic amyloid-beta deposits coincided with those of the large diameter (>10 microm) blood vessels in all patients and with clusters of small-diameter (upper cortical laminae.

  15. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  16. Co-expression of GAD67 and choline acetyltransferase in neurons in the mouse spinal cord: A focus on lamina X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Jittima; Atkinson, Lucy; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Deuchars, Jim; Deuchars, Susan A

    2016-09-01

    Lamina X of the spinal cord is a functionally diverse area with roles in locomotion, autonomic control and processing of mechano and nociceptive information. It is also a neurochemically diverse region. However, the different populations of cells in lamina X remain to be fully characterised. To determine the co-localisation of the enzymes responsible for the production of GABA and acetylcholine (which play major roles in the spinal cord) in lamina X of the adult and juvenile mouse, we used a transgenic mouse expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) neurons, combined with choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunohistochemistry. ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) and GAD67-GFP containing neurons were observed in lamina X of both adult and juvenile mice and in both age groups a population of cells containing both ChAT-IR and GAD67-GFP were observed in lumbar, thoracic and cervical spinal cord. Such dual labelled cells were predominantly located ventral to the central canal. Immunohistochemistry for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and GAD67 revealed a small number of double labelled terminals located lateral, dorsolateral and ventrolateral to the central canal. This study therefore describes in detail a population of ChAT-IR/GAD67-GFP neurons predominantly ventral to the central canal of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord of adult and juvenile mice. These cells potentially correspond to a sub-population of the cholinergic central canal cluster cells which may play a unique role in controlling spinal cord circuitry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Sang Yeop; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (? 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  18. A-type and B-type lamins initiate layer assembly at distinct areas of the nuclear envelope in living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Kazuhiro, E-mail: furukawa@chem.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Ishida, Kazuya; Tsunoyama, Taka-aki; Toda, Suguru; Osoda, Shinichi; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fisher, Paul A. [Department of Pharmacological Sciences, School of Medicine, University Medical Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8651 (United States); Sugiyama, Shin [Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    To investigate nuclear lamina re-assembly in vivo, Drosophila A-type and B-type lamins were artificially expressed in Drosophila lamin Dm{sub 0}null mutant brain cells. Both exogenous lamin C (A-type) and Dm{sub 0} (B-type) formed sub-layers at the nuclear periphery, and efficiently reverted the abnormal clustering of the NPC. Lamin C initially appeared where NPCs were clustered, and subsequently extended along the nuclear periphery accompanied by the recovery of the regular distribution of NPCs. In contrast, lamin Dm{sub 0} did not show association with the clustered NPCs during lamina formation and NPC spacing recovered only after completion of a closed lamin Dm{sub 0} layer. Further, when lamin Dm{sub 0} and C were both expressed, they did not co-polymerize, initiating layer formation in separate regions. Thus, A and B-type lamins reveal differing properties during lamina assembly, with A-type having the primary role in organizing NPC distribution. This previously unknown complexity in the assembly of the nuclear lamina could be the basis for intricate nuclear envelope functions.

  19. Repopulation with IgA-containing cells of bronchial and intestinal lamina propria after transfer of homologous peyer's patch and bronchial lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudzik, R.; Clancy, R.L.; Perey, D.Y.E.; Day, R.P.; Bienenstock, J.

    1975-01-01

    Transfer of 50 million rabbit allogeneic lymphocytes from either bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) or Peyer's patches into 1000 R x-irradiated recipients results, 6 days later, in predominant repopulation of gut and bronchial lamina propria, as well as spleen, with IgA-containing cells. After repopulation with BALT or Peyer's patch cells, lymphoid follicles in both gut and lung showed peripheral cellular membrane type of fluorescence with fluorescein-conjugated anti-IgA antisera only. Six days after x-irradiation alone, little evidence of repopulation was seen and immunofluorescent qualitative observations of gut and lung, and quantitative data in the spleen, confirmed these findings. After transfer of 50 million lymph node cells, very few immunoglobulin-containing cells were seen in the gut or bronchial lamina propria. These results suggest that there may be a common mucosal immunologic system, and that repopulation of gut and lung lamina propria may be through the organized lymphoid tissue therein. (U.S.)

  20. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Dauer, William [Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Johnson, David [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Roller, Richard J., E-mail: richard-roller@uiowa.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. - Highlights: • We show that wild-type HSV can induce breakdown of the nuclear envelope in a specific cell system. • The viral fusion proteins gB and gH are required for induction of nuclear envelope breakdown. • Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the HSV UL34 gene.

  1. Chikungunya virus dissemination from the midgut of Aedes aegypti is associated with temporal basal lamina degradation during bloodmeal digestion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the mosquito, the midgut epithelium is the initial tissue to become infected with an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus that has been acquired from a vertebrate host along with a viremic bloodmeal. Following its replication in midgut epithelial cells, the virus needs to exit the midgut and infect secondary tissues including the salivary glands before it can be transmitted to another vertebrate host. The viral exit mechanism from the midgut, the midgut escape barrier (MEB, is poorly understood although it is an important determinant of mosquito vector competence for arboviruses. Using chikungunya virus (CHIKV as a model in Aedes aegypti, we demonstrate that the basal lamina (BL of the extracellular matrix (ECM surrounding the midgut constitutes a potential barrier for the virus. The BL, predominantly consisting of collagen IV and laminin, becomes permissive during bloodmeal digestion in the midgut lumen. Bloodmeal digestion, BL permissiveness, and CHIKV dissemination are coincident with increased collagenase activity, diminished collagen IV abundance, and BL shredding in the midgut between 24-32 h post-bloodmeal. This indicates that there may be a window-of-opportunity during which the MEB in Ae. aegypti becomes permissive for CHIKV. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are the principal extracellular endopeptidases responsible for the degradation/remodeling of the ECM including the BL. We focused on Ae. aegypti (AeMMP1, which is expressed in midgut epithelial cells, is inducible upon bloodfeeding, and shows collagenase (gelatinase activity. However, attempts to inhibit AeMMP activity in general or specifically that of AeMMP1 did not seem to affect its function nor produce an altered midgut escape phenotype. As an alternative, we silenced and overexpressed the Ae. aegypti tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (AeTIMP in the mosquito midgut. AeTIMP was highly upregulated in the midgut during bloodmeal digestion and was able to inhibit MMP activity in

  2. Organization of the Zone of Transition between the Pretectum and the Thalamus, with Emphasis on the Pretectothalamic Lamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Márquez-Legorreta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The zone of transition between the pretectum, derived from prosomere 1, and the thalamus, derived from prosomere 2, is structurally complex and its understanding has been hampered by cytoarchitectural and terminological confusion. Herein, using a battery of complementary morphological approaches, including cytoarchitecture, myeloarchitecture and the expression of molecular markers, we pinpoint the features or combination of features that best characterize each nucleus of the pretectothalamic transitional zone of the rat. Our results reveal useful morphological criteria to identify and delineate, with unprecedented precision, several [mostly auditory] nuclei of the posterior group of the thalamus, namely the pretectothalamic lamina (PTL; formerly known as the posterior limitans nucleus, the medial division of the medial geniculate body (MGBm, the suprageniculate nucleus (SG, and the ethmoid, posterior triangular and posterior nuclei of the thalamus. The PTL is a sparsely-celled and fiber rich flattened nucleus apposed to the lateral surface of the anterior pretectal nucleus that marks the border between the pretectum and the thalamus; this structure stains selectively with the Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA, and is essentially immunonegative for the calcium binding protein parvalbumin. The MGBm, located medial to the ventral division of the medial geniculate body, can be unequivocally identified by the large size of many of its neurons, its dark immunostaining for parvalbumin, and its rather selective staining for WFA. The SG, which extends for a considerable caudorostral distance and deviates progressively from the MGB, is characterized by its peculiar cytoarchitecture, the paucity of myelinated fibers, and the conspicuous absence of staining for calretinin; indeed, in many calretinin-stained sections, the SG stands out as a blank spot. Because most of these nuclei are small and show unique anatomical relationships, the information provided

  3. Clinical Factors Associated with Lamina Cribrosa Thickness in Patients with Glaucoma, as Measured with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Omodaka

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of various risk factors on thinning of the lamina cribrosa (LC, as measured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT; Topcon.This retrospective study comprised 150 eyes of 150 patients: 22 normal subjects, 28 preperimetric glaucoma (PPG patients, and 100 open-angle glaucoma patients. Average LC thickness was determined in a 3 x 3 mm cube scan of the optic disc, over which a 4 x 4 grid of 16 points was superimposed (interpoint distance: 175 μm, centered on the circular Bruch's membrane opening. The borders of the LC were defined as the visible limits of the LC pores. The correlation of LC thickness with Humphrey field analyzer-measured mean deviation (MD; SITA standard 24-2, circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT, the vertical cup-to-disc (C/D ratio, and tissue mean blur rate (MBR was determined with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The relationship of LC thickness with age, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP, MD, the vertical C/D ratio, central corneal thickness (CCT, and tissue MBR was determined with multiple regression analysis. Average LC thickness and the correlation between LC thickness and MD were compared in patients with the glaucomatous enlargement (GE optic disc type and those with non-GE disc types, as classified with Nicolela's method.We found that average LC thickness in the 16 grid points was significantly associated with overall LC thickness (r = 0.77, P < 0.001. The measurement time for this area was 12.4 ± 2.4 minutes. Average LC thickness in this area had a correlation coefficient of 0.57 with cpRNFLT (P < 0.001 and 0.46 (P < 0.001 with MD. Average LC thickness differed significantly between the groups (normal: 268 ± 23 μm, PPG: 248 ± 13 μm, OAG: 233 ± 20 μm. Multiple regression analysis showed that MD (β = 0.29, P = 0.013, vertical C/D ratio (β = -0.25, P = 0.020 and tissue MBR (β = 0.20, P = 0.034 were independent variables significantly

  4. An IFNG SNP with an estrogen-like response element selectively enhances promoter expression in peripheral but not lamina propria T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsky, R; Deem, R L; Bream, J H; Young, H A; Targan, S R

    2006-07-01

    This study examines mucosa-specific regulatory pathways involved in modulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in lamina propria T cells. Previous studies identified mucosa-specific CD2 cis-elements within the -204 to -108 bp IFNG promoter. Within this region, a single-site nucleotide polymorphism, -179G/T, imparts tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation of IFNG in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and is linked with accelerated AIDS progression. We discovered a putative estrogen response element (ERE) introduced by the -179T, which displays selective activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) vs lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC). Transfection of PBMC with constructs containing the -179G or -179T site revealed CD2-mediated enhancement of the -179T compared to -179G allele, although, in LPMC, a similar level of expression was detected. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) analysis demonstrated CD2-mediated nucleoprotein binding to the -179T but not the -179G in PBMC. In LPMC, binding is constitutive to both -179G and -179T regions. Sequence and EMSA analysis suggests that the -179T allele creates an ERE-like binding site capable of binding recombinant estrogen receptor. Estrogen response element transactivation is enhanced by CD2 signaling, but inhibited by estrogen in PBMC but not in LPMC, although expression of estrogen receptor was similar. This is the first report to describe a potential molecular mechanism responsible for selectively controlling IFN-gamma production in LPMC.

  5. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  6. Nuclear envelope breakdown induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 involves the activity of viral fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Martina; Haugo, Alison C; Dauer, William; Johnson, David; Roller, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Herpesvirus infection reorganizes components of the nuclear lamina usually without loss of integrity of the nuclear membranes. We report that wild-type HSV infection can cause dissolution of the nuclear envelope in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts that do not express torsinA. Nuclear envelope breakdown is accompanied by an eight-fold inhibition of virus replication. Breakdown of the membrane is much more limited during infection with viruses that lack the gB and gH genes, suggesting that breakdown involves factors that promote fusion at the nuclear membrane. Nuclear envelope breakdown is also inhibited during infection with virus that does not express UL34, but is enhanced when the US3 gene is deleted, suggesting that envelope breakdown may be enhanced by nuclear lamina disruption. Nuclear envelope breakdown cannot compensate for deletion of the UL34 gene suggesting that mixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents is insufficient to bypass loss of the normal nuclear egress pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eosinophils from Murine Lamina Propria Induce Differentiation of Naïve T Cells into Regulatory T Cells via TGF-β1 and Retinoic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hu Chen

    Full Text Available Treg cells play a crucial role in immune tolerance, but mechanisms that induce Treg cells are poorly understood. We here have described eosinophils in lamina propria (LP that displayed high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH activity, a rate-limiting step during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA synthesis, and expressed TGF-β1 mRNA and high levels of ATRA. Co-incubation assay confirmed that LP eosinophils induced the differentiation of naïve T cells into Treg cells. Differentiation promoted by LP eosinophils were inhibited by blocked either TGF-β1 or ATRA. Peripheral blood (PB eosinophils did not produce ATRA and could not induce Treg differentiation. These data identifies LP eosinophils as effective inducers of Treg cell differentiation through a mechanism dependent on TGF-β1 and ATRA.

  8. A-type nuclear lamins act as transcriptional repressors when targeted to promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Damian C.; Welton, K. Linnea; Smith, Erica D.; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    Regions of heterochromatin are often found at the periphery of the mammalian nucleus, juxtaposed to the nuclear lamina. Genes in these regions are likely maintained in a transcriptionally silent state, although other locations at the nuclear periphery associated with nuclear pores are sites of active transcription. As primary components of the nuclear lamina, A- and B-type nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that interact with DNA, histones and known transcriptional repressors, leading to speculation that they may promote establishment of repressive domains. However, no direct evidence of a role for nuclear lamins in transcriptional repression has been reported. Here we find that human lamin A, when expressed in yeast and cultured human cells as a fusion protein to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain (DBD), can mediate robust transcriptional repression of promoters with Gal4 binding sites. Full repression by lamin A requires both the coiled-coil rod domain and the C-terminal tail domain. In human cells, other intermediate filament proteins such as lamin B and vimentin are unable to confer robust repression as Gal4-DBD fusions, indicating that this property is specific to A-type nuclear lamins. These findings indicate that A-type lamins can promote transcriptional repression when in proximity of a promoter

  9. IgA class switch occurs in the organized nasopharynx- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, but not in the diffuse lamina propria of airways and gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikina, Takashi; Hiroi, Takachika; Iwatani, Kohichi; Jang, Myoung Ho; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tamura, Manabu; Kubo, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hiromichi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2004-05-15

    Secretory IgA plays a crucial role in the host immune response as a first line of defense. A recent demonstration of in situ IgA class switching in intestinal lamina propria provided an opportunity to reconsider the model for the homing of IgA-committed B cells characterized by distinctive trafficking patterns to effector sites. Those effector sites depend on the organized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as their site of induction. In this report we show the preferential presence of IgM(+)B220(+) and IgA(+)B220(+) cells belonging to pre- and post-IgA isotype class-switched cells in the organized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, such as nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues, isolated lymphoid follicles, and Peyer's patches, and the defect of those populations in the diffuse effector tissues, such as the nasal passage and intestinal lamina propria. Consistent with these findings, the expressions of a series of IgA isotype class switch recombination-related molecules, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase, Ialpha-C micro circle transcripts, and Ialpha-C micro circle transcripts, were selectively detected in these organized mucosa-associated lymphoid structures, but not in the diffuse mucosal effector sites. Taken together, these findings suggest that IgA isotype class switching occurs only in the organized mucosa-associated lymphoid organs (e.g., nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissues, isolated lymphoid follicles, and Peyer's patches), but not in the diffuse effector tissues of the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.

  10. Ultrastructral studies of epidermis in acute radiation dermatitis. Basal lamina thickening and coated vesicles. [X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguchi, M.; Komura, J.; Ofuji, S.

    1978-06-29

    Fine structural changes of keratinocytes by x-ray were examined in normal skin area around a lesion of Bowen's disease. The area was exposed to about 600 r over 28 days. The findings were: a decreased number of desmosomes and microvilli, formation of cytoplasmic vaculoes with or without membrane, perinuclear aggregation of tonofibrils, intracytoplasmic desmosomes and gap junction, cytoplasmic occurrence of dense bodies, lipid droplet and glycogen particles, changes in mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and deep invagination of the nuclear membrane. Possible exocytotic nature of coated vesicles in x-ray irradiated keratinocytes is discussed.

  11. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  12. Old foes, new understandings: nuclear entry of small non-enveloped DNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nikta; Panté, Nelly

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear import of viral genomes is an important step of the infectious cycle for viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. Although most viruses use the cellular nuclear import machinery or some components of this machinery, others have developed sophisticated ways to reach the nucleus. Some of these have been known for some time; however, recent studies have changed our understanding of how some non-enveloped DNA viruses access the nucleus. For example, parvoviruses enter the nucleus through small disruptions of the nuclear membranes and nuclear lamina, and adenovirus tugs at the nuclear pore complex, using kinesin-1, to disassemble their capsids and deliver viral proteins and genomes into the nucleus. Here we review recent findings of the nuclear import strategies of three small non-enveloped DNA viruses, including adenovirus, parvovirus, and the polyomavirus simian virus 40. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  14. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  15. Nuclear positioning rather than contraction controls ordered rearrangements of immunoglobulin loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Magdalena B; Palstra, Robert-Jan; Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; van Kester, Kevin A M; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Hendriks, Rudi W; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Murre, Cornelis; van Zelm, Menno C

    2016-01-08

    Progenitor-B cells recombine their immunoglobulin (Ig) loci to create unique antigen receptors. Despite a common recombination machinery, the Ig heavy and Ig light chain loci rearrange in a stepwise manner. We studied pre-pro-B cells and Rag(-/-) progenitor-B cells to determine whether Ig locus contraction or nuclear positioning is decisive for stepwise rearrangements. We found that both Ig loci were contracted in pro-B and pre-B cells. Igh relocated from the nuclear lamina to central domains only at the pro-B cell stage, whereas, Igκ remained sequestered at the lamina, and only at the pre-B cell stage located to central nuclear domains. Finally, in vitro induced re-positioning of Ig alleles away from the nuclear periphery increased germline transcription of Ig loci in pre-pro-B cells. Thus, Ig locus contraction juxtaposes genomically distant elements to mediate efficient recombination, however, sequential positioning of Ig loci away from the nuclear periphery determines stage-specific accessibility of Ig loci. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Use of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI) to distinguish vascular and "pseudovascular" invasion in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder with lamina propria invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M P; Steinberg, G D; Brendler, C B; Epstein, J I

    1990-01-01

    We used Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEAI)-immunoperoxidase staining of endothelium to study the accuracy of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) diagnosis, occurrence, and significance of lymphvascular invasion in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder invading the lamina propria (Stage T1). Original histologic slides from cases (1967 to 1985) with and without vascular invasion were destained and restained with UEAI-immunoperoxidase. Only 5 of 36 biopsies originally diagnosed with lymphvascular invasion had tumor nests within endothelium-lined spaces. The 31 negative biopsies had extensive retraction artifacts lined by connective tissue and fibroblasts around tumor nests. Thirty-five control biopsies remained negative for lymphvascular invasion. Clinical follow-up of the five patients with proven lymphvascular invasion found three without progression of disease 3 to 10 yr postbiopsy, one dead of a local recurrence of TCC 1.67 yr postbiopsy, and one lost to follow-up. Based on this study, we feel that lymphvascular invasion by TCC in Stage T1 tumors is unusual, is frequently misdiagnosed on H&E stain, and does not necessarily portend a poor prognosis.

  17. CXCL14-like Immunoreactivity Exists in Somatostatin-containing Endocrine Cells, and in the Lamina Propria and Submucosal Somatostatinergic Nervous System of Mouse Alimentary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamada, Kentaro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Onozuka, Minoru; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2017-12-26

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells and neurons in mouse alimentary tract by immunohistochemistry. CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were found as closed-type cells in the stomach and open-type cells in the small intestine. The immunostaining of these endocrine cells corresponded with that of the somatostatin-containing endocrine cells. Only a few CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were seen in the large intestine. CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the muscular layer from the stomach to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum. Many CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lamina propria and submucosal layer from the duodenum to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum; these fibers corresponded to the somatostatin-containing nerve fibers. Some CXCL14 immunoreactive neuronal somata that were also immuno-positive for somatostatin, were noted in the submucosal layer of the rectum. However, the remaining parts of the alimentary tract presented with almost negligible immunoreactive somata. The co-localization of CXCL14 and somatostatin suggests that CXCL14 contributes to the function of somatostatin, which include the inhibition of other endocrine and exocrine cells and the enteric nervous systems.

  18. Role of the nuclear envelope in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christopher; Bermeo, Sandra; Fatkin, Diane; Duque, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is the most important border in the eukaryotic cell. The role of the nuclear envelope in cell differentiation and function is determined by a constant interaction between the elements of the nuclear envelope and the transcriptional regulators involved in signal transcription pathways. Among those components of the nuclear envelope, there is a growing evidence that changes in the expression of A-type lamins, which are essential components of the nuclear lamina, are associated with age-related changes in bone affecting the capacity of differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, favoring adipogenesis and affecting the function and survival of the osteocytes. Overall, as A-type lamins are considered as the 'guardians of the soma', these proteins are also essential for the integrity and quality of the bone and pivotal for the longevity of the musculoskeletal system. PMID:23951459

  19. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  20. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  2. Several nuclear events during apoptosis depend on caspase-3 activation but do not constitute a common pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Trisciuoglio

    Full Text Available A number of nuclear events occur during apoptosis, including DNA laddering, nuclear lamina breakdown, phosphorylation of histones H2B and histone H2AX, and the tight binding to chromatin of HMGB1 and CAD, the nuclease responsible for DNA laddering. We have performed an epistasis analysis to investigate whether these events cluster together in pathways. We find that all depend directly or indirectly on caspase-3 activation. CAD activation, H2AX phosphorylation and DNA laddering cluster together into a pathway, but all other events appear to be independent of each other downstream of caspase-3, and likely evolved subject to different functional pressures.

  3. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  4. NaCl and osmolarity produce different responses in organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis neurons, sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, Brian J; Browning, Kirsteen N; Stocker, Sean D

    2017-09-15

    Changes in extracellular osmolarity stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion through a central osmoreceptor; however, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater sympathoexcitatory and pressor response than infusion of hypertonic mannitol/sorbitol. Neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) sense changes in extracellular osmolarity and NaCl. In this study, we discovered that intracerebroventricular infusion or local OVLT injection of hypertonic NaCl increases lumbar sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure whereas equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol did not alter any variable. In vitro whole-cell recordings demonstrate the majority of OVLT neurons are responsive to hypertonic NaCl or mannitol. However, hypertonic NaCl stimulates a greater increase in discharge frequency than equi-osmotic mannitol. Intracarotid or intracerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic NaCl evokes a greater increase in OVLT neuronal discharge frequency than equi-osmotic sorbitol. Collectively, these novel data suggest that subsets of OVLT neurons respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity and subsequently regulate body fluid homeostasis. These responses probably reflect distinct cellular mechanisms underlying NaCl- versus osmo-sensing. Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. First, intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion (5 μl/10 min) of 1.0 m NaCl produced a significantly greater

  5. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  6. Measuring in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo the 3D deformation of the lamina cribrosa microstructure under elevated intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junchao; Yang, Bin; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Tran, Huong; Brazile, Bryn; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel; Smith, Matthew A.; Wollstein, Gadi; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-02-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) deforms the lamina cribrosa (LC), a structure within the optic nerve head (ONH) in the back of the eye. Evidence suggests that these deformations trigger events that eventually cause irreversible blindness, and have therefore been studied in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ex-vivo using OCT and a diversity of techniques. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no in-situ ex-vivo studies of LC mechanics. Our goal was two-fold: to introduce a technique for measuring 3D LC deformations from OCT, and to determine whether deformations of the LC induced by elevated IOP differ between in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo conditions. A healthy adult rhesus macaque monkey was anesthetized and IOP was controlled by inserting a 27- gauge needle into the anterior chamber of the eye. Spectral domain OCT was used to obtain volumetric scans of the ONH at normal and elevated IOPs. To improve the visibility of the LC microstructure the scans were first processed using a novel denoising technique. Zero-normalized cross-correlation was used to find paired corresponding locations between images. For each location pair, the components of the 3D strain tensor were determined using non-rigid image registration. A mild IOP elevation from 10 to 15mmHg caused LC effective strains as large as 3%, and about 50% larger in-vivo than in-situ ex-vivo. The deformations were highly heterogeneous, with substantial 3D components, suggesting that accurate measurement of LC microstructure deformation requires high-resolution volumes. This technique will help improve understanding of LC biomechanics and how IOP contributes to glaucoma.

  7. Shifts in renin-angiotensin system components, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress-related protein expression in the lamina cribrosa region of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaobing; Lin, Leilei; Zong, Yao; Yuan, Yongguang; Dong, Yanmin; Fu, Yue; Shao, Wanwen; Li, Yujie; Gao, Qianying

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to analyse shifts in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, angiogenesis, and oxidative stress-related protein expression in the lamina cribrosa (LC) region in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Six months after diabetes induction, the retinal vessels of male C57BL/6 J mice were observed by colour photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), and immunofluorescent staining following incubation with CD31. Immunofluorescence for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA),and NG2 was also performed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), renin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), and haeme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression levels were confirmed by immunohistochemical and western blotting analyses. Compared with control mice, diabetic mice had significantly higher blood glucose concentrations (p diabetic mice; however, immunostaining of whole-mount retinas revealed an increased number of retinal vessels. Furthermore, histopathological staining showed significant reduction in the whole retinal thickness. GFAP expression was slightly higher, whereas fewer NG2 + pericytes were observed in diabetic mice than in control mice. ACE1, AT1R, renin, HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, and HO-1 expression were up-regulated in the LC of the STZ-induced diabetic mice. Collectively, ACE 1, AT1R, HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGFR2, and HO-1 activation in the LC region in diabetic mice may be involved in diabetes via the RAS and induction of angiogenesis and oxidative stress.

  8. Regulatory role of NKG2D+ NK cells in intestinal lamina propria by secreting double-edged Th1 cytokines in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Peng, Pai-Lan; Lin, Xue; Chang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Nie, Jia-Yan; Dong, Wei-Guo; Zhao, Qiu; Li, Jin

    2017-11-17

    The role of intestinal lamina propria (LP) NKG2D+ NK cells is unclear in regulating Th1/Th2 balance in ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, we investigated the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells in DSS-induced colitis model and intestinal mucosal samples of UC patients, as well as the secretion of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in NK cell lines after MICA stimulation. The role of Th1 cytokines in UC was validated by bioinformatics analysis. We found that DSS-induced colitis in mice was characterized by a Th2-mediated process. In acute phrase, the frequency of LP NKG2D+ lymphocytes increased significantly and decreased in remission, while the frequency of LP NKG2D+ NK cells decreased significantly in acute phase and increased in remission. No obvious change was found in the frequency of total LP NK cells. Similarly, severe UC patients had a higher expression of mucosal NKG2D and a lower number of NKG2D+ NK cells than mild to moderate UC. In NK cell lines, the MICA stimulation could induce a predominant secretion of Th1 cytokines (TNF, IFN-γ). Furthermore, in bioinformatics analysis, mucosal Th1 cytokine of TNF, showed a double-edged role in UC when compared to the Th1-mediated disease of Crohn's colitis. In conclusion, LP NKG2D+ NK cells partially played a regulatory role in UC through secreting Th1 cytokines to regulate the Th2-predominant Th1/Th2 imbalance, despite of the concomitant pro-inflammatory effects of Th1 cytokines.

  9. Photosynthesis-related characteristics of the midrib and the interveinal lamina in leaves of the C3-CAM intermediate plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuźniak, Elżbieta; Kornas, Andrzej; Kaźmierczak, Andrzej; Rozpądek, Piotr; Nosek, Michał; Kocurek, Maciej; Zellnig, Günther; Müller, Maria; Miszalski, Zbigniew

    2016-06-01

    Leaf veins are usually encircled by specialized bundle sheath cells. In C4 plants, they play an important role in CO2 assimilation, and the photosynthetic activity is compartmentalized between the mesophyll and the bundle sheath. In C3 and CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) plants, the photosynthetic activity is generally attributed to the leaf mesophyll cells, and the vascular parenchymal cells are rarely considered for their role in photosynthesis. Recent studies demonstrate that enzymes required for C4 photosynthesis are also active in the veins of C3 plants, and their vascular system contains photosynthetically competent parenchyma cells. However, our understanding of photosynthesis in veins of C3 and CAM plants still remains insufficient. Here spatial analysis of photosynthesis-related properties were applied to the midrib and the interveinal lamina cells in leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a C3-CAM intermediate plant. The midrib anatomy as well as chloroplast structure and chlorophyll fluorescence, diurnal gas exchange profiles, the immunoblot patterns of PEPC (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) and RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), H2O2 localization and antioxidant enzyme activities were compared in the midrib and in the interveinal mesophyll cells in leaves of C3 and CAM plants. Leaf midribs were structurally competent to perform photosynthesis in C3 and CAM plants. The midrib chloroplasts resembled those in the bundle sheath cells of C4 plants and were characterized by limited photosynthetic activity. The metabolic roles of midrib chloroplasts differ in C3 and CAM plants. It is suggested that in leaves of C3 plants the midrib chloroplasts could be involved in the supply of CO2 for carboxylation, and in CAM plants they could provide malate to different metabolic processes and mediate H2O2 signalling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  10. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  11. Microscopic Colitis Evolved Into Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Is Characterized by Increased Th1/Tc1 Cells in Colonic Mucosal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Yan, Yuchu; Meng, Ziran; Liu, Shuhong; Beck, Paul L; Ghosh, Subrata; Qian, Jiaming; Gui, Xianyong

    2017-10-01

    An association between microscopic colitis (MC), i.e., lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) has been noticed. A subset of MC cases may evolve into IBD, and IBD in remission may present as MC in a histologic pattern. Moreover, MC and IBD may coexist in different regions of the bowel. A link between MC and IBD in their pathogenesis is, therefore, suggested. Abnormal mucosal immunity is likely the key. We reviewed 2324 MC cases in Calgary over 14 years and identified 20 cases evolved into IBD (IBD transformers). 13 of them were further investigated for colonic mucosal lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMNCs), as opposed to 22 cases whose MC resolved. On their index colonic biopsy immunohistochemistry was performed to detect major T cell subsets characterized by key cytokines and master transcription factors (IFNγ and T-bet for Th1/Tc1, GATA-3 for Th2/Tc2, IL-17 and RORc for Th17/Tc17, FoxP3 for Treg/Tcreg) as well as TNFα + cells (partly representing Th1). LPMNCs positive for each marker were counted (average number per high-power field). IBD transformers had increased IFNγ + , T-bet + , TNF-α + , and GATA-3 + LPMNCs compared to the MC-resolved cases. The LC-to-IBD subgroup had increased IFNγ + and GATA-3 + cells compared to the LC-resolved subgroup. The CC-to-IBD subgroup had increased T-bet + , TNF-α + , and GATA-3 + cells compared to the CC-resolved subgroup. Among MC-resolved patients, more TNF-α + and RORc + cells were seen in LC than in CC. Th1/Tc1- and TNFα-producing cells, and likely a subset of Th2/Tc2 cells as well, may be involved in the MC-to-IBD transformation.

  12. Expression of Leukemia-Associated Nup98 Fusion Proteins Generates an Aberrant Nuclear Envelope Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Martinelli, Valérie; Nilles, Nadine; Fruhmann, Gernot; Chatel, Guillaume; Juge, Sabine; Sauder, Ursula; Di Giacomo, Danika; Mecucci, Cristina; Schwaller, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the nucleoporin NUP98 have been described in several hematopoietic malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the resulting chimeric proteins, Nup98's N-terminal region is fused to the C-terminal region of about 30 different partners, including homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. While transcriptional targets of distinct Nup98 chimeras related to immortalization are relatively well described, little is known about other potential cellular effects of these fusion proteins. By comparing the sub-nuclear localization of a large number of Nup98 fusions with HD and non-HD partners throughout the cell cycle we found that while all Nup98 chimeras were nuclear during interphase, only Nup98-HD fusion proteins exhibited a characteristic speckled appearance. During mitosis, only Nup98-HD fusions were concentrated on chromosomes. Despite the difference in localization, all tested Nup98 chimera provoked morphological alterations in the nuclear envelope (NE), in particular affecting the nuclear lamina and the lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α). Importantly, such aberrations were not only observed in transiently transfected HeLa cells but also in mouse bone marrow cells immortalized by Nup98 fusions and in cells derived from leukemia patients harboring Nup98 fusions. Our findings unravel Nup98 fusion-associated NE alterations that may contribute to leukemogenesis.

  13. Desempenho animal em pasto de aveia e azevém com distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares Animal performance in oat and Italian ryegrass pastures under leaf lamina biomass levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de biomassas de lâminas foliares no desempenho animal. Utilizou-se mistura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., para determinar quantidades adequadas de sua biomassa no manejo da pastagem. Foram realizados dois experimentos, na estação fria de 2002 e 2003. Na avaliação de 2002, os valores de biomassa de lâminas foliares foram de 360 kg ha-1 (baixa e 630 kg ha-1 (alta. Em 2003, foram obtidas biomassas de 352, 422 e 507 kg ha-1, classificadas como baixa, média e alta, respectivamente. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variada; os animais utilizados foram terneiros da raça Charolês e cruzados com Nelore, com idade inicial de nove meses. As variáveis de produção animal avaliadas, nos dois anos, foram: ganho médio diário, carga animal e ganho de peso vivo por área. As distintas biomassas de lâminas foliares mantidas não são fatores limitantes ao desempenho animal.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different leaf lamina biomass over animal performance. A mixture of oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was used to determine adequate levels of leaf lamina biomass for pasture management. Two trials were made, in 2002 and 2003 cool seasons. In 2002 evaluation, leaf lamina biomass values were of 360 kg ha-1 (low and 630 kg ha-1 (high. In 2003, values obtained for leaf lamina biomasses were of 352, 422 and 507 kg ha-1, being classified as low, medium and high, respectively. Grazing method was continuous, with variable stocking rate; testing animals were calves of Charolais breed and its crosses with Nelore breed, with initial age of nine months. Evaluated variables in animal production, in both years, were: average daily gain, stocking rate and live weight gain per area. Leaf lamina biomasses evaluated are not limiting factors to animal performance.

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  15. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2 + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg-0.18 × age (years-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups.In the normal population (n = 12,069, the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15, but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636. Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16.TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.

  16. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet answers specific questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant number sign 1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  17. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report answers questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant No.1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  18. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  19. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  20. Nuclear resisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet contains six papers by different authors, under the headings: dangers along the nuclear fuel cycle; the nuclear profiteers; the nuclear state is a police state; a non-disposable future (renewable energy sources, energy conservation); nuclear weapons - out of control; man made madness. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  2. Subdiffraction Multicolor Imaging of the Nuclear Periphery with 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermelleh, Lothar; Carlton, Peter M.; Haase, Sebastian; Shao, Lin; Winoto, Lukman; Kner, Peter; Burke, Brian; Cardoso, M. Cristina; Agard, David A.; Gustafsson, Mats G. L.; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Sedat, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence light microscopy allows multicolor visualization of cellular components with high specificity, but its utility has until recently been constrained by the intrinsic limit of spatial resolution. We applied three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) to circumvent this limit and to study the mammalian nucleus. By simultaneously imaging chromatin, nuclear lamina, and the nuclear pore complex (NPC), we observed several features that escape detection by conventional microscopy. We could resolve single NPCs that colocalized with channels in the lamin network and peripheral heterochromatin. We could differentially localize distinct NPC components and detect double-layered invaginations of the nuclear envelope in prophase as previously seen only by electron microscopy. Multicolor 3D-SIM opens new and facile possibilities to analyze subcellular structures beyond the diffraction limit of the emitted light. PMID:18535242

  3. Non-tip auditory-nerve responses that are suppressed by low-frequency bias tones originate from reticular lamina motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hui; Guinan, John J

    2017-12-14

    Recent cochlear mechanical measurements show that active processes increase the motion response of the reticular lamina (RL) at frequencies more than an octave below the local characteristic frequency (CF) for CFs above 5 kHz. A possible correlate is that in high-CF (>5 kHz) auditory-nerve (AN) fibers, responses to frequencies 1-3 octaves below CF ("tail" frequencies) can be inhibited by medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents. These results indicate that active processes enhance the sensitivity of tail-frequency RL and AN responses. Perhaps related is that some apical low-CF AN fibers have tuning-curve (TC) "side-lobe" response areas at frequencies above and below the TC-tip that are MOC inhibited. We hypothesized that the tail and side-lobe responses are enhanced by the same active mechanisms as CF cochlear amplification. If responses to CF, tail-frequency, and TC-side-lobe tones are all enhanced by prestin motility controlled by outer-hair-cell (OHC) transmembrane voltage, then they should depend on OHC stereocilia position in the same way. To test this, we cyclically changed the OHC-stereocilia mechano-electric-transduction (MET) operating point with low-frequency "bias" tones (BTs) and increased the BT level until the BT caused quasi-static OHC MET saturation that reduced or "suppressed" the gain of OHC active processes. While measuring cat AN-fiber responses, 50 Hz BT level series, 70-120 dB SPL, were run alone and with CF tones, or 2.5 kHz tail-frequency tones, or side-lobe tones. BT-tone-alone responses were used to exclude BT sound levels that produced AN responses that might obscure BT suppression. Data were analyzed to show the BT phase that suppressed the tone responses at the lowest sound level. We found that AN responses to CF, tail-frequency, and side-lobe tones were suppressed at the same BT phase in almost all cases. The data are consistent with the enhancement of responses to CF, tail-frequency, and side-lobe tones all being due to the same

  4. Sun-mediated mechanical LINC between nucleus and cytoskeleton regulates βcatenin nuclear access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Gunes; Bas, Guniz; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Birks, Scott; Olcum, Melis; McGrath, Cody; Styner, Maya; Rubin, Janet

    2018-06-06

    βcatenin acts as a primary intracellular signal transducer for mechanical and Wnt signaling pathways to control cell function and fate. Regulation of βcatenin in the cytoplasm has been well studied but βcatenin nuclear trafficking and function remains unclear. In a previous study we showed that, in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), mechanical blockade of adipogenesis relied on inhibition of βcatenin destruction complex element GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) to increase nuclear βcatenin as well as the function of Linker of Cytoskeleton and Nucleoskeleton (LINC) complexes, suggesting that these two mechanisms may be linked. Here we show that shortly after inactivation of GSK3β due to either low intensity vibration (LIV), substrate strain or pharmacologic inhibition, βcatenin associates with the nucleoskeleton, defined as the insoluble nuclear fraction that provides structure to the integrated nuclear envelope, nuclear lamina and chromatin. Co-depleting LINC elements Sun-1 and Sun-2 interfered with both nucleoskeletal association and nuclear entry of βcatenin, resulting in decreased nuclear βcatenin levels. Our findings reveal that the insoluble structural nucleoskeleton actively participates in βcatenin dynamics. As the cytoskeleton transmits applied mechanical force to the nuclear surface to influence the nucleoskeleton and its LINC mediated interaction, our results suggest a pathway by which LINC mediated connectivity may play a role in signaling pathways that depend on nuclear access of βcatenin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  6. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  7. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  9. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  13. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  14. Nuclear alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Anti-nuclear demonstrations against the deployment of new US missiles were held in Nato Europe. As no agreement has yet been reached at the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces talks in Geneva, the deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe has started

  15. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  16. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  19. Transmission electron microscope studies of the nuclear envelope in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Merav; Tzur, Yonatan B; Neufeld, Esther; Feinstein, Naomi; Delannoy, Michael R; Wilson, Katherine L; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear membranes and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are conserved in both animals and plants. However, the lamina composition and the dimensions of NPCs vary between plants, yeast, and vertebrates. In this study, we established a protocol that preserves the structure of Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic cells for high-resolution studies with thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We show that the NPCs are bigger in C. elegans embryos than in yeast, with dimensions similar to those in higher eukaryotes. We also localized the C. elegans nuclear envelope proteins Ce-lamin and Ce-emerin by pre-embedding gold labeling immunoelectron microscopy. Both proteins are present at or near the inner nuclear membrane. A fraction of Ce-lamin, but not Ce-emerin, is present in the nuclear interior. Removing the nuclear membranes leaves both Ce-lamin and Ce-emerin associated with the chromatin. Eliminating the single lamin protein caused cell death as visualized by characteristic changes in nuclear architecture including condensation of chromatin, clustering of NPCs, membrane blebbing, and the presence of vesicles inside the nucleus. Taken together, these results show evolutionarily conserved protein localization, interactions, and functions of the C. elegans nuclear envelope.

  20. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  2. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  3. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  4. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  5. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  6. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  7. Condensins Exert Force on Chromatin-Nuclear Envelope Tethers to Mediate Nucleoplasmic Reticulum Formation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozler, Julianna; Nguyen, Huy Q.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Although the nuclear envelope is known primarily for its role as a boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes, it plays a vital and dynamic role in many cellular processes. Studies of nuclear structure have revealed tissue-specific changes in nuclear envelope architecture, suggesting that its three-dimensional structure contributes to its functionality. Despite the importance of the nuclear envelope, the factors that regulate and maintain nuclear envelope shape remain largely unexplored. The nuclear envelope makes extensive and dynamic interactions with the underlying chromatin. Given this inexorable link between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, it is possible that local and global chromatin organization reciprocally impact nuclear envelope form and function. In this study, we use Drosophila salivary glands to show that the three-dimensional structure of the nuclear envelope can be altered with condensin II-mediated chromatin condensation. Both naturally occurring and engineered chromatin-envelope interactions are sufficient to allow chromatin compaction forces to drive distortions of the nuclear envelope. Weakening of the nuclear lamina further enhanced envelope remodeling, suggesting that envelope structure is capable of counterbalancing chromatin compaction forces. Our experiments reveal that the nucleoplasmic reticulum is born of the nuclear envelope and remains dynamic in that they can be reabsorbed into the nuclear envelope. We propose a model where inner nuclear envelope-chromatin tethers allow interphase chromosome movements to change nuclear envelope morphology. Therefore, interphase chromatin compaction may be a normal mechanism that reorganizes nuclear architecture, while under pathological conditions, such as laminopathies, compaction forces may contribute to defects in nuclear morphology. PMID:25552604

  8. Condensins exert force on chromatin-nuclear envelope tethers to mediate nucleoplasmic reticulum formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozler, Julianna; Nguyen, Huy Q; Rogers, Gregory C; Bosco, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    Although the nuclear envelope is known primarily for its role as a boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes, it plays a vital and dynamic role in many cellular processes. Studies of nuclear structure have revealed tissue-specific changes in nuclear envelope architecture, suggesting that its three-dimensional structure contributes to its functionality. Despite the importance of the nuclear envelope, the factors that regulate and maintain nuclear envelope shape remain largely unexplored. The nuclear envelope makes extensive and dynamic interactions with the underlying chromatin. Given this inexorable link between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, it is possible that local and global chromatin organization reciprocally impact nuclear envelope form and function. In this study, we use Drosophila salivary glands to show that the three-dimensional structure of the nuclear envelope can be altered with condensin II-mediated chromatin condensation. Both naturally occurring and engineered chromatin-envelope interactions are sufficient to allow chromatin compaction forces to drive distortions of the nuclear envelope. Weakening of the nuclear lamina further enhanced envelope remodeling, suggesting that envelope structure is capable of counterbalancing chromatin compaction forces. Our experiments reveal that the nucleoplasmic reticulum is born of the nuclear envelope and remains dynamic in that they can be reabsorbed into the nuclear envelope. We propose a model where inner nuclear envelope-chromatin tethers allow interphase chromosome movements to change nuclear envelope morphology. Therefore, interphase chromatin compaction may be a normal mechanism that reorganizes nuclear architecture, while under pathological conditions, such as laminopathies, compaction forces may contribute to defects in nuclear morphology. Copyright © 2015 Bozler et al.

  9. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  10. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  11. CD4+ T regulatory cells from the colonic lamina propria of normal mice inhibit proliferation of enterobacteria-reactive, disease-inducing Th1-cells from scid mice with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, M; Brimnes, J; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2003-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells into scid mice leads to a chronic colitis in the recipients. The transferred CD4+ T cells accumulate in the intestinal lamina propria (LP), express an activated Th1 phenotype and proliferate vigorously when exposed ex vivo to enteric bacterial antigens. As LP CD4......+ T cells from normal BALB/c mice do not respond to enteric bacterial antigens, we have investigated whether colonic LP-derived CD4+ T cells from normal mice suppress the antibacterial response of CD4+ T cells from scid mice with colitis. LP-derived CD4+ T cells cocultured with bone marrow......-derived dendritic cells effectively suppress the antibacterial proliferative response of CD4+ T cells from scid mice with colitis. The majority of these LP T-reg cells display a nonactivated phenotype and suppression is independent of antigen exposure, is partly mediated by soluble factor(s) different from IL-10...

  12. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  13. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  14. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The following motion was put before the United Kingdom House of Commons on 3rd February 1992 and agreed; that this House, recognising the potential dangers of the rapidly changing world order, welcomes the recent proposals for substantial reductions in nuclear weaponry, the growing support for the non-proliferation treaty and progress in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions concerning the dismantling of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities; urges the Government to play their full part in helping the relevant authorities in the Commonwealth of Independent States to dismantle their nuclear devices, to safeguard their nuclear components and to discourage the proliferation of nuclear expertise; and believes it is of the first importance that Britain retains an effective and credible minimum nuclear deterrent as security in a world where there remain many sources of instability. The record of arguments for and against the motion in the debate is presented. (author)

  15. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  17. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  18. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  19. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  20. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  1. Mitotic defects lead to pervasive aneuploidy and accompany loss of RB1 activity in mouse LmnaDhe dermal fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Herbert Pratt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamin A (LMNA is a component of the nuclear lamina and is mutated in several human diseases, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD; OMIM ID# 181350 and the premature aging syndrome Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS; OMIM ID# 176670. Cells from progeria patients exhibit cell cycle defects in both interphase and mitosis. Mouse models with loss of LMNA function have reduced Retinoblastoma protein (RB1 activity, leading to aberrant cell cycle control in interphase, but how mitosis is affected by LMNA is not well understood.We examined the cell cycle and structural phenotypes of cells from mice with the Lmna allele, Disheveled hair and ears (Lmna(Dhe. We found that dermal fibroblasts from heterozygous Lmna(Dhe (Lmna(Dhe/+ mice exhibit many phenotypes of human laminopathy cells. These include severe perturbations to the nuclear shape and lamina, increased DNA damage, and slow growth rates due to mitotic delay. Interestingly, Lmna(Dhe/+ fibroblasts also had reduced levels of hypophosphorylated RB1 and the non-SMC condensin II-subunit D3 (NCAP-D3, a mitosis specific centromere condensin subunit that depends on RB1 activity. Mitotic check point control by mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1 also was perturbed in Lmna(Dhe/+ cells. Lmna(Dhe/+ fibroblasts were consistently aneuploid and had higher levels of micronuclei and anaphase bridges than normal fibroblasts, consistent with chromosome segregation defects.These data indicate that RB1 may be a key regulator of cellular phenotype in laminopathy-related cells, and suggest that the effects of LMNA on RB1 include both interphase and mitotic cell cycle control.

  2. Mitotic Defects Lead to Pervasive Aneuploidy and Accompany Loss of RB1 Activity in Mouse LmnaDhe Dermal Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, C. Herbert; Curtain, Michelle; Donahue, Leah Rae; Shopland, Lindsay S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Lamin A (LMNA) is a component of the nuclear lamina and is mutated in several human diseases, including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD; OMIM ID# 181350) and the premature aging syndrome Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS; OMIM ID# 176670). Cells from progeria patients exhibit cell cycle defects in both interphase and mitosis. Mouse models with loss of LMNA function have reduced Retinoblastoma protein (RB1) activity, leading to aberrant cell cycle control in interphase, but how mitosis is affected by LMNA is not well understood. Results We examined the cell cycle and structural phenotypes of cells from mice with the Lmna allele, Disheveled hair and ears (LmnaDhe). We found that dermal fibroblasts from heterozygous LmnaDhe (LmnaDhe/+) mice exhibit many phenotypes of human laminopathy cells. These include severe perturbations to the nuclear shape and lamina, increased DNA damage, and slow growth rates due to mitotic delay. Interestingly, LmnaDhe/+ fibroblasts also had reduced levels of hypophosphorylated RB1 and the non-SMC condensin II-subunit D3 (NCAP-D3), a mitosis specific centromere condensin subunit that depends on RB1 activity. Mitotic check point control by mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (MAD2L1) also was perturbed in LmnaDhe /+ cells. LmnaDhe /+ fibroblasts were consistently aneuploid and had higher levels of micronuclei and anaphase bridges than normal fibroblasts, consistent with chromosome segregation defects. Conclusions These data indicate that RB1 may be a key regulator of cellular phenotype in laminopathy-related cells, and suggest that the effects of LMNA on RB1 include both interphase and mitotic cell cycle control. PMID:21464947

  3. Nuclear Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Joseph; Tarleton, Gael

    2004-01-01

    .... This event was an opportunity for policy makers, security analysts, nuclear scientists and engineers, regional experts, and military planners to share perspectives and identify those issues requiring...

  4. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and software, including myocardial perfusion imaging, offer increased accuracy in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  6. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  7. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  9. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  10. Generation of micronuclei during interphase by coupling between cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and nuclear budding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh-ichi Utani

    Full Text Available Micronucleation, mediated by interphase nuclear budding, has been repeatedly suggested, but the process is still enigmatic. In the present study, we confirmed the previous observation that there are lamin B1-negative micronuclei in addition to the positive ones. A large cytoplasmic bleb was found to frequently entrap lamin B1-negative micronuclei, which were connected to the nucleus by a thin chromatin stalk. At the bottom of the stalk, the nuclear lamin B1 structure appeared broken. Chromatin extrusion through lamina breaks has been referred to as herniation or a blister of the nucleus, and has been observed after the expression of viral proteins. A cell line in which extrachromosomal double minutes and lamin B1 protein were simultaneously visualized in different colors in live cells was established. By using these cells, time-lapse microscopy revealed that cytoplasmic membrane blebbing occurred simultaneously with the extrusion of nuclear content, which generated lamin B1-negative micronuclei during interphase. Furthermore, activation of cytoplasmic membrane blebbing by the addition of fresh serum or camptothecin induced nuclear budding within 1 to 10 minutes, which suggested that blebbing might be the cause of the budding. After the induction of blebbing, the frequency of lamin-negative micronuclei increased. The budding was most frequent during S phase and more efficiently entrapped small extrachromosomal chromatin than the large chromosome arm. Based on these results, we suggest a novel mechanism in which cytoplasmic membrane dynamics pulls the chromatin out of the nucleus through the lamina break. Evidence for such a mechanism was obtained in certain cancer cell lines including human COLO 320 and HeLa. The mechanism could significantly perturb the genome and influence cancer cell phenotypes.

  11. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  12. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  13. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  14. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  15. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  18. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  19. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  20. Nuclear facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: the case for using nuclear energy (Britain's energy needs; energy policy); safety; transport of spent fuel; radiation (natural radioactivity); environment (land use of nuclear power plants; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes). (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  2. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  3. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  4. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  5. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  6. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  8. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  9. Nuclear haematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjhur, J S

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used {sup 32}P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used {sup 32}P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  10. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  11. GTP-binding proteins in rat liver nuclear envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubins, J.B.; Benditt, J.O.; Dickey, B.F.; Riedel, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear transport as well as reassembly of the nuclear envelope (NE) after completion of mitosis are processes that have been shown to require GTP and ATP. To study the presence and localization of GTP-binding proteins in the NE, we have combined complementary techniques of [alpha-32P]GTP binding to Western-blotted proteins and UV crosslinking of [alpha-32P]GTP with well-established procedures for NE subfractionation. GTP binding to blotted NE proteins revealed five low molecular mass GTP-binding proteins of 26, 25, 24.5, 24, and 23 kDa, and [alpha-32P]GTP photoaffinity labeling revealed major proteins with apparent molecular masses of 140, 53, 47, 33, and 31 kDa. All GTP-binding proteins appear to localize preferentially to the inner nuclear membrane, possibly to the interface between inner nuclear membrane and lamina. Despite the evolutionary conservation between the NE and the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the GTP-binding proteins identified differed between these two compartments. Most notably, the 68- and 30-kDa GTP-binding subunits of the signal recognition particle receptor, which photolabeled with [alpha-32P]GTP in the rough endoplasmic reticulum fraction, were totally excluded from the NE fraction. Conversely, a major 53-kDa photolabeled protein in the NE was absent from rough endoplasmic reticulum. Whereas Western-blotted NE proteins bound GTP specifically, all [alpha-32P]GTP photolabeled proteins could be blocked by competition with ATP, although with a competition profile that differed from that obtained with GTP. In comparative crosslinking studies with [alpha-32P]ATP, we have identified three specific ATP-binding proteins with molecular masses of 160, 78, and 74 kDa. The localization of GTP- and ATP-binding proteins within the NE appears appropriate for their involvement in nuclear transport and in the GTP-dependent fusion of nuclear membranes

  12. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  13. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  15. Nuclear inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the East-West confronting, the nuclear weapon issue has been focused in an international debate with obvious repercussions in Europe, because it is the European continent which indicated first the significance of nuclear deterrence. This debate refers first upon the past, as the German unification allowed capturing numerous documents of Warsaw treaty which revealed the intentions and the plans of Soviet Union during the cold war, and secondly concerns the future, since the role of nuclear weapons must be re-thought in a new context. This is the subject of this book, which refers also to the problem of the nuclear proliferation in the world and evolution of different countries in a political and regional context. The extension of the non-proliferation treaty for an undefined duration, in May 1995, is a incontestable victory because this treaty rules the renouncement to nuclear weapons of 185 countries. However, it does not solve most sensible problems like the Iraq case, for which a specific inspection regime has been instituted, or the case of Iran, which is suspected to acquire the bomb, although no clear evidence has been provided up to now. This is also the case of Israel, India and Pakistan which allege plainly their willingness of keeping open, from security reasons, their nuclear option. The content is displayed in five chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The role of the nuclear weapons after the cold war; 3. The nuclear proliferation at crossroads; 4. Undefined extension of the NPT, a striking but fragile victory; 5. Conclusions. An appendix containing the text of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and a chronology are added

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  17. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  18. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  19. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  20. Rotterdam Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In 1965 Rotterdam Nuclear received an order for the design, supply of materials, manufacture, testing, inspection and preparation for shipment of one 450MW Boiling Water Reactor pressure vessel. This was one of the first orders for a reactor pressure vessel, ever obtained by a European Manufacturer. The Company has since supplied 19 reactor pressure vessels for nuclear power stations, having a total weight of about 10,000,000kg. The nuclear power stations in which these are installed represent an electrical output of about 15,000MW and they are located in seven different countries (USA, Spain, Switzerland, Argentina, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands). (Auth.)

  1. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  2. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  3. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  4. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  5. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  7. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  8. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  9. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

  10. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  11. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  13. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  14. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  16. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  17. Nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% from the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed

  18. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  19. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  4. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  8. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  9. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  10. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.C.C. de.

    1978-04-01

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  11. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  12. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  13. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  15. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  17. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  18. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  19. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  20. Nuclear cardiac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques

  1. Nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1967-01-01

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.

  2. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  3. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  4. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  5. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  6. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  7. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  8. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  9. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Nuclear watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Parish, T.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979 the accident at Three Mile Island brought nuclear power to the forefront of national attention. Over the last five years there have been no new orders for nuclear plants, construction costs and lead times have increased drastically, and numerous plants have been cancelled. In the coming years many new plants will come on line, and the first round of nuclear plant retirements will begin. Thus, the new set of issues faced by utilities are whether to complete plants currently under construction, how to recover the cost of abandoned plants, how to handle the potential rate shock of bringing costly plants into rate base, and how to accomplish decommissioning and retirement of nuclear plants. This paper presents and analyzes these issues. First, the history of the nuclear electric generation industry is reviewed. Next a case study illustrating the cost momentum built into nuclear power plant construction is presented. The issues involved in plant cancellation are discussed. Finally, a case study involving rate phase-in strategies is analyzed. 1 reference, 7 figures

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Christian E; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-03-10

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell's nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein.

  14. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eKimura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1 and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1.

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  16. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  17. Nuclear recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speth, G.

    1978-01-01

    The private sector's growing doubts about nuclear power plants, as reflected in the decline in new orders and the number of rescinded orders, will result in an estimated total of under 300 nuclear power plants by the year 2000 rather than the 1200 to 1500 that were projected several years ago. The decline is a result of construction and equipment costs and a lower operating efficiency than anticipated. The growth of electricity demand also declined after 1974 and, although it is increasing again, there are concerns about future growth rates. Besides its noncompetitive position relative to coal, nuclear plant construction suffers from restrictive policies based on the uncertainties of safety, security, waste disposal, and proliferation. Unless these problems can be resolved, many consider nuclear power to be an impractical option as an energy source. The Council on Environmental Quality supports policies that will permit further nuclear or coal development only after a clear demonstration of technical and institutional capacity to handle these problems. A commitment to solar technology is urged

  18. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  19. Computation of the lamina stacking sequence effect on elastic moduli of a plain-weave Nicalon/SiC laminated composite with a [0/30/60] lay-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Yu Niann-i

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of the elastic modulus is important in engineering design. One difference between CFCCs (continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites), and CMCs (whisker, particulate, or short fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites), is that the anisotropic behavior of CFCCs plays an important role in affecting their mechanical behavior. This feature may also contribute to the variation of elastic properties and strengths of CFCC. In this paper, a Fortran program is developed to quantify the lamina stacking sequence effect on the effective elastic moduli of the laminated CFCCs. The material for modeling is a plain-weave Nicalon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (Nicalon/SiC) CFCCs. Results show that various stacking sequences within the CFCC (a [0/30/60] lay-up) will give different effective elastic moduli of the CFCCs. This trend leads to a variation of the slope of the linear portion on the flexural stress-strain curve, i.e., changing the position of the starting point of the non-linear portion, and the shape of the whole curve, which gives a different value of the peak stress in the curve. (orig.)

  20. Planejamento e controle da produção de cilindros para laminação: um estudo de caso quantitativo Production management of rolling mill rolls: a quantitative study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte José Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um modelo de otimização-simulação aplicado em um estudo de caso real no setor de cilindros para laminação de uma siderúrgica, buscando melhorar o gerenciamento da área/equipamento gargalo da linha de produção. A simulação atuou em conjunto com um modelo de otimização da programação linear inteira (PLI para melhorar o atendimento de prazo junto aos clientes em uma produção não seriada. Como resultado deste procedimento combinado da PLI e simulação, o processo produtivo foi otimizado e as filas de espera e o lead-time foram reduzidos, melhorando o atendimento aos clientes.This article presents a simulation-optimization model application for a real case study in the rolling mill roll sector of a steel plant. The purpose of this study was to get a better area/equipment bottleneck management in the production line. The simulation was used together with an ILP (Integer Linear Programming optimization model, in order to improve customer service in a made-to-order production. As a result of this ILP and Simulation combined approach, the productive process was optimized and both queues and lead-time were reduced, improving customer service.

  1. Planejamento e controle da produção de cilindros para laminação: um estudo de caso quantitativo Production management of rolling mill rolls: a quantitative study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte José Fernandes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um modelo de otimização-simulação aplicado em um estudo de caso real no setor de cilindros para laminação de uma siderúrgica, buscando melhorar o gerenciamento da área/equipamento gargalo da linha de produção. A simulação atuou em conjunto com um modelo de otimização da programação linear inteira (PLI para melhorar o atendimento de prazo junto aos clientes em uma produção não seriada. Como resultado deste procedimento combinado da PLI e simulação, o processo produtivo foi otimizado e as filas de espera e o lead-time foram reduzidos, melhorando o atendimento aos clientes.This article presents a simulation-optimization model application for a real case study in the rolling mill roll sector of a steel plant. The purpose of this study was to get a better area/equipment bottleneck management in the production line. The simulation was used together with an ILP (Integer Linear Programming optimization model, in order to improve customer service in a made-to-order production. As a result of this ILP and Simulation combined approach, the productive process was optimized and both queues and lead-time were reduced, improving customer service.

  2. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  3. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  4. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  5. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  7. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  8. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  9. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Tony.

    1986-01-01

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.

    Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit. On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war.

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  12. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, T.M.; Shaffer, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The birth of nuclear cardiology has generally been attributed to a 1927 experiment during which a radium salt was injected in one arm vein and the circulation time calculated by recording the arrival of the radioactivity in the opposite arm. This simple experiment lead to the radiocardiogram in the late 1940s that was used to measure left ventricular function and, later, cardiac output. This chapter provides a brief overview of nuclear cardiology. Methodology is presented when it is important for the understanding of test results. The use of these studies in the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease is emphasized

  13. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  14. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  15. The nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of knowledge and technical aspects regarding nuclear energy. It presents the phenomenon of radioactivity and its measurement and thresholds, describes the fuel cycle, presents the different principles and types of nuclear reactors, and more precisely the pressurized water reactors and their various models (900, 1300, 1400 and 1600 MW). It presents other reactors: boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature reactors, fourth generation reactors. It addresses the issues of wastes and releases, presents the OSPAR convention, the issues of management and safety. It presents the national safety bodies (ASN, IRSN, HCTISM) and international bodies

  16. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  17. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  18. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  19. Nuclear crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Ferchland, B.

    1993-01-01

    The article discusses the legal provisions (Criminal Code (StGB), weapons Control Act) applicable in Germany to combat illegal trading of nuclear fuels and other readioactive materials. The authors conclude that part of the provisions are not in live with the rights and duties of the police, and they evolve near-practice proposals for remedy and legal improvement. (hP) [de

  20. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  3. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman B, O.; Vallejo M, J.I.; Cardenas C, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A historical review of the evolution of the Nuclear Physics Section at the IAN is presented along the 30 years of existence of the Institute. Objectives, structure, programs and goal are historically examined. Present status of the section and its projection on national development is also analyzed

  5. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  6. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  7. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  8. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  10. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  11. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  12. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  13. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  14. Nuclear power without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.; Klein, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study leading experts summarize the work of a working group meeting during several years, and they represent the state of the art of the international discussion about the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The technical basis of proliferation, the relations between energy policy and nuclear energy, as well as the development of the non-proliferation system up to the present are thoroughly studied. Special attention is paid to the further development of the instruments of the non-proliferation policy, and approaches and ways to improving the control of the fuel cycle, e.g. by means of multinational methods or by improving the control requirements are analyzed. Also the field of positive inducements and negative sanctions to prevent the proliferation as well as the question of ensured supply are elucidated in detail. A further section then analyzes the functions of the international organizations active in this field and the nuclear policy of the most important western industrial nations, the RGW-states and the threshold countries of the Third World. This volume pays special attention to the nuclear policy of the Federal Republic of Germany and to the possibilities and necessities of a further development of the non-proliferation policy. (orig.) [de

  15. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  16. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Depletion of nuclear import protein karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7) induces mitotic defects and deformation of nuclei in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Elisa M; Rajala, Nina K; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Kallioniemi, Anne

    2018-03-27

    Nucleocytoplasmic transport is a tightly regulated process carried out by specific transport machinery, the defects of which may lead to a number of diseases including cancer. Karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), the newest member of the karyopherin alpha nuclear importer family, is expressed at a high level during embryogenesis, reduced to very low or absent levels in most adult tissues but re-expressed in cancer cells. We used siRNA-based knock-down of KPNA7 in cancer cell lines, followed by functional assays (proliferation and cell cycle) and immunofluorescent stainings to determine the role of KPNA7 in regulation of cancer cell growth, proper mitosis and nuclear morphology. In the present study, we show that the silencing of KPNA7 results in a dramatic reduction in pancreatic and breast cancer cell growth, irrespective of the endogenous KPNA7 expression level. This growth inhibition is accompanied by a decrease in the fraction of S-phase cells as well as aberrant number of centrosomes and severe distortion of the mitotic spindles. In addition, KPNA7 depletion leads to reorganization of lamin A/C and B1, the main nuclear lamina proteins, and drastic alterations in nuclear morphology with lobulated and elongated nuclei. Taken together, our data provide new important evidence on the contribution of KPNA7 to the regulation of cancer cell growth and the maintenance of nuclear envelope environment, and thus deepens our understanding on the impact of nuclear transfer proteins in cancer pathogenesis.

  18. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  20. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  1. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  6. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Aitken, T.W.; Rowley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The many diverse programmes of fundamental research and technical development at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) have continued at their usual hectic pace throughout the period 1988/89. An overview of the overall programme and of the Facility has been presented in the first volume of this report, along with an expanded discussion of some of the highlights of the year's work. This second volume presents the more technical and detailed reports on the progress and results of individuals proposals and hence will be of most interest to the more expert reader. The reports are grouped in terms of experimental studies aimed at probing the structure of individual nuclei or series of nuclei, studies devoted to probing the primary nuclear reaction mechanism itself, theoretical work and research devoted to the development of the accelerator, and experimental equipment/techniques. Overall, they provide a concise summary of the year's work at the NSF. (author)

  7. Logística reversa numa empresa de laminação de vidros: um estudo de caso Reverse logistics in a glass lamination industry: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eduardo Gonçalves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma aplicação da Logística Reversa numa empresa multinacional que atua na área de laminação de vidros no Brasil. Na empresa estudada, a sucata gerada pelos seus clientes pode ser usada para realimentar o seu processo de produção. Inicialmente, são discutidos os principais aspectos relacionados ao tema, tais como, definição de Logística Reversa, ciclo de vida do produto, motivos e destinos do retorno, além dos fatores que influenciam a eficiência de um processo de Logística Reversa. A seguir, ilustradas pelo estudo de caso, são apresentadas e comentadas as etapas para uma implementação de um sistema de Logística Reversa ser bem sucedida. Finalmente, comentam-se as dificuldades, ganhos e vantagens competitivas obtidas por empresas que adotaram soluções da Logística Reversa, em particular na empresa em que o estudo de caso foi desenvolvido.This paper introduces a Reverse Logistics application in a multinational plastic film industry in Brazil, where the waste generated by its customers can reload the production process. Firstly, the main features concerning the theme and the factors that influence an efficient process of Reverse Logistics are discussed. Afterwards, using a case study, the steps focusing on the implementation of Reverse Logistics, which were successful in a company, are introduced and discussed. Finally, the difficulties, gains and competitive advantages obtained by the companies that have adopted Reverse Logistic solutions, particularly the company where the case study was developed, are commented upon.

  8. Nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrampres, J.

    2010-01-01

    Close cooperation with the Ministry of Industry with representation from the UNESA Safeguards Group, has meant that, after almost two years of intense meetings and negotiations, Spain has a specific plant to plant agreement for the application of Safeguards under this new method. This is an agreement which aims to be a benchmark for all other EU countries, as the IAEA tends to apply a generic agreement that, in many cases, majority interferes in the nuclear power plants own processes. (Author).

  9. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, T.; Price, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    The appendix to the Daresbury Annual report contains detailed summaries of experiments carried out, or in progress, for the period 1983/84, using the Nuclear Structure Facility tandem accelerator. The experimental work is carried out by University groups from the UK and abroad, and Daresbury Staff. Developments in instrumentation, and a report on the first year of scheduled operation of the Facility, are also given. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  11. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.

    1998-01-01

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  12. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  13. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown (Australia))

    1983-05-14

    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed.

  14. Nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, L.; Prendergast, P.; Prendergast, E.J.; Prendergast, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    An underground nuclear shelter, fabricated from a series of transverse metal hoop frames connected by longitudinal metal members and plates, is described. The shelter chamber has two hatches in the roof each with a shaft fitted with a shield cover. One shaft houses an air inlet and filter, the other is used for access. Two or more shelter units can be linked. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-02-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level.

  16. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  17. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, P.; Davidson, D.F.; Thatcher, G.

    1980-01-01

    The cooling system of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor of the pool kind is described. It has an intermediate heat exchange module comprising a tube-in-shell heat exchanger and an electromagnetic flow coupler in the base region of the module. Primary coolant is flowed through the heat exchanger being driven by electromagnetic interaction with secondary liquid metal coolant flow effected by a mechanical pump. (author)

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batheja, P.; Huber, R.; Rau, P.

    1985-01-01

    Particularly for nuclear reactors of small output, the reactor pressure vessel contains at least two heat exchangers, which have coolant flowing through them in a circuit through the reactor core. The circuit of at least one heat exchanger is controlled by a slide valve, so that even for low drive forces, particularly in natural circulation, the required even loading of the heat exchanger is possible. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Nuclear therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Henry

    1977-01-01

    Having first recalled the biological action of ionizing radiations, the main problems relating to the therapeutical use of radioelements were analyzed. Stressing the good results recorded with this method for the treatment of some diseases, the present limits were also defined, stating however that the progress made in biochemistry in the direction of metabolism, combined with the progress made in nuclear medicine, still allows some hope [fr

  20. Nuclear Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyard, P

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: (preface) the new resistance; (1) the weapons connection; (2) the AGR - a bungled programme; (3) reactor choice - a fearful dilemma; (4) the deadly atom (uranium - mining, processing, enrichment of U-235, political and international aspects); (5) the fast reactor - how safe; (6) radiation risk and cancer; (7) atomic waste - the industry's Achilles Heel; (8) accidents - the ever-present threat; (9) the growing opposition; (10) the nuclear state.

  1. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.; Farmer, F.R.; Gaines, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Correspondence section of this issue of Nature three letters are published each of which has a bearing on the article by P. Taylor in the issue of 22 February. In that article Taylor calls for changes in the way decisions are taken on nuclear energy matters. The three articles are by H.J. Dunster of the UKAEA Health and Safety Executive, F.R. Farmer, Safety Adviser to the UKAEA, and M.J. Gaines, National Radiological Protection Board. (UK)

  2. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    2 1/2 years ago a consultation group was formed to help the Section for Social Questions of the Council of Churches in the Netherlands, to answer questions in the area of nuclear energy. During this time the character of the questions has changed considerably. In the beginning people spoke of fear and anxiety over the plans for the application of this new technical development but later this fear and anxiety turned to protest and opposition. This brochure has been produced to enlighten people and try and answer their alarm, by exploring the many facets of the problems. Some of these problems are already being deeply discussed by the public, others play no role in the forming of public opinion. The points of view of the churches over nuclear energy are not expressed, the brochure endeavours to express that nuclear energy problems are a concern for the churches. Technical and economic information and the most important social questions are discussed. (C.F.)

  3. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  4. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacre, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book fills a gap in current literature by covering the increasing nuclear physics content of various A-level syllabuses. In section 1 we outline the background and early development of the subject, in section 2 we deal with nuclear properties and theories at a level suitable for the pre-university student. The majority of topics have been treated with the limited use of mathematics, this necessitating some simplification which we hope to have accomplished without undue error. A few topics have been developed mathematically, to some extent, e.g. series decay. While it is the purpose of a book at this level to introduce the reader to the facts and theories of nuclear physics, we have to recognise that any teacher of science, at any level, must attempt to instill in the young scientist a sense of responsibility and an understanding of the problems attendant on the technological applications are important. These problems have been touched on in the text but we hope the student will be persuaded to read further; for this purpose we have added a short list of suggested additional reading. A selection of A-level past paper questions has been included. (author)

  5. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 15 events were recorded on the first grade and 1 on the second grade of the INES scale. The second grade event is in fact a re-classification of an incident that occurred on the second april 2001 at Dampierre power plant. This event happened during core refueling, a shift in the operation sequence led to the wrong positioning of 113 assemblies. A preliminary study of this event shows that this wrong positioning could have led, in other circumstances, to the ignition of nuclear reactions. Even in that case, the analysis made by EDF shows that the consequences on the staff would have been limited. Nevertheless a further study has shown that the existing measuring instruments could not have detected the power increase announcing the beginning of the chain reaction. The investigation has shown that there were deficiencies in the control of the successive operations involved in refueling. EDF has proposed a series of corrective measures to be implemented in all nuclear power plants. The other 15 events are described in the article. During this period 121 inspections have been made in nuclear facilities. (A.C.)

  6. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is one of the key component of a nuclear reactor. Inside it, the fission reactions of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium, take place. It is located in the core of the reactor, but also in the core of the whole nuclear system. Its design and properties influence the behaviour, the efficiency and the safety of the reactor. Even if it represents a weak share of the generated electricity cost, its proper use represents an important economic stake. Important improvements remain to be made to increase its residence time inside the reactor, to supply more energy, and to improve its robustness. Beyond the economical and safety considerations, strategical questions have to find an answer, like the use of plutonium, the management of resources and the management of nuclear wastes and real technological challenges have to be taken up. This monograph summarizes the existing knowledge about the nuclear fuel, its behaviour inside the reactor, its limits of use, and its R and D tracks. It illustrates also the researches in progress and presents some key results obtained recently. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - The fuel of water-cooled reactors: aspect, fabrication, behaviour of UO 2 and MOX fuels inside the reactor, behaviour in loss of tightness situation, microscopic morphology of fuel ceramics and evolution under irradiation - migration and localisation of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices, modeling of fuels behaviour - modeling of defects and fission products in the UO 2 ceramics by ab initio calculations, cladding and assembly materials, pellet-cladding interaction, advanced UO 2 and MOX ceramics, mechanical behaviour of the fuel assembly, fuel during a loss of coolant accident, fuel during a reactivity accident, fuel during a serious accident, fuel management inside reactor cores, fuel cycle materials balance, long-term behaviour of the spent fuel, fuel of boiling water reactors; 3 - the fuel of liquid metal fast reactors: fast neutrons radiation

  7. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaby, F

    1998-01-01

    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  8. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  9. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  10. Nuclear danger and nuclear history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, M.

    1988-01-01

    This article makes a review of the books Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years written by McGeorge Bundy, and War and Peace in the Nuclear Age written by John Newhouse. A history of political decisions on weapon development is given, along with a what if analysis of other options. The lesson of these two books is that it has proved considerably easier to live with nuclear weapons and the Soviet Union than anyone expected forty years ago. It is all the easier if arms control issues, based on worst case analyses, are kept in their place, which is firmly in the background of the overall conduct of foreign policy

  11. Nuclear Law: A Key Against Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, P.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the legal instruments in the war against nuclear terrorism. Control of radioactive sources. Elements of Nuclear Law: Definition: it is the body of special legislation that regulates the pacific uses of nuclear energy and the conduct of the persons engaged in activities related to fissionable materials and ionizing radiation . Objective: to provide a legal framework in order to protect individuals , property and the environment against the harmful effects of the use of nuclear energy and ionising radiation. Principles of nuclear energy legislation: safety principle, exclusively operator responsibility, authorization, independence of the regulatory body, inspections and enforcement, nuclear damage compensation, international cooperation. National regulatory infrastructure. Establishment of special law in Emergency Preparedness for nuclear or radiological disaster. IAEA Conventions. Transportation of nuclear material. IAEA regulations on radioactive material. Compensation for nuclear damage. Nuclear safety, security and terrorism. International and domestic instruments. Anti terrorism acts. International agreements on Safety Cooperation. (Author)

  12. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  13. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  14. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  15. Optimized constitutive distributions visualized by lamina formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2017-01-01

    For optimal design most parameters may be classified in size, shape, and topology, such as simple density variables and parameters for surface description. Density and surface can be rather directly visualized. Extending the design to material design in sense of design of distributions of constit......For optimal design most parameters may be classified in size, shape, and topology, such as simple density variables and parameters for surface description. Density and surface can be rather directly visualized. Extending the design to material design in sense of design of distributions...

  16. Glossary of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Du Hwan

    1987-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of explanations of terminologies concerning to nuclear energy such as analysis of financial safety of nuclear energy, radwaste disposal, fast breeder reactor, nuclear reactor and device, nuclear fuel and technique for concentration, using of nuclear energy radiation and measurement, plan for development of nuclear energy and international institution. This book includes 160 terms on nuclear energy and arranges in Korean alphabetical order.

  17. Nuclear energy - some aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-01

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy

  18. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA) [fr

  19. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  20. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  1. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.

    1976-01-01

    An improvement of the accessibility of that part of a nuclear reactor serving for biological shield is proposed. It is intended to provide within the biological shield, distributed around the circumference of the reactor pressure vessel, several shielding chambers filled with shielding material, which are isolated gastight from the outside by means of glass panes with a given bursting strength. It is advantageous that, on the one hand, inspection and maintenance will be possible without great effort and, on the other, a large relief cross section will be at desposal if required. (UWI) [de

  2. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  3. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Single Channel Trip System for the Dungeness B AGRs in the United Kingdom has enabled Nuclear Electric to enhance the performance of each of the twin reactors progressively towards the design figure of 660MW. The unique self-testing dynamic nature of the microprocessor-based ISAT system was one of the key factors in satisfying the UK Regulator that the system met the demanding requirements of the Dungeness B application, and current operational and maintenance experience is very encouraging. Systems based on the ISAT principle have application in reactor protection systems throughout the world. (Author)

  4. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable.

  5. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear stethoscope consisting of radiocardiography and data processing by a microcomputer was introduced with respect to its outline, reliability and clinical application. Ejection fractions (EF) obtained by this device showed a satisfactory correlation with values obtained by the cardiac pool multigate (MUGA) method using a scinticamera and minicomputer, with a slight tendency to overestimation. They showed a good correlation with left ventriculography, accompanied by a slight tendency to underestimation. The reproducibility of this device was also satisfactory. Clinically, EF values during exercise in ischemic heart disease were well correlated with those obtained by the MUGA method. This device permitted real time evaluation of left ventricular function and was highly reliable. (Chiba, N.)

  6. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, P.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor core of nuclear reactors usually is composed of individual elongated fuel elements that may be vertically arranged and through which coolant flows in axial direction, preferably from bottom to top. With their lower end the fuel elements gear in an opening of a lower support grid forming part of the core structure. According to the invention a locking is provided there, part of which is a control element that is movable along the fuel element axis. The corresponding locking element is engaged behind a lateral projection in the opening of the support grid. The invention is particularly suitable for breeder or converter reactors. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  8. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-01-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  9. Nuclear dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, Kathleen M

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear dualism is a characteristic feature of the ciliated protozoa. Tetrahymena have two different nuclei in each cell. The larger, polyploid, somatic macronucleus (MAC) is the site of transcriptional activity in the vegetatively growing cell. The smaller, diploid micronucleus (MIC) is transcriptionally inactive in vegetative cells, but is transcriptionally active in mating cells and responsible for the genetic continuity during sexual reproduction. Although the MICs and MACs develop from mitotic products of a common progenitor and reside in a common cytoplasm, they are different from one another in almost every respect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the Department of Energy's (DOE) procedures for annually assessing the adequacy of the fee that utilities pay for disposal of spent (used) nuclear fuel. In a June 1990 report, it was recommended, among other things, that the Congress authorize DOE to automatically adjust the fee each year on the basis of an inflation index. At that time, DOE also favored fee indexing; however, it subsequently reversed its position. Because of this change, it is now believe that Congress should require DOE to index the fee to the rate of inflation

  11. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gruber, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor with control rods in channels between fuel assemblies wherein the fuel assemblies incorporate guide rods which protrude outwardly into the control rod channels to prevent the control rods from engaging the fuel elements. The guide rods also extend back into the fuel assembly such that they are relatively rigid members. The guide rods are tied to the fuel assembly end or support plates and serve as structural members which are supported independently of the fuel element. Fuel element spacing and support means may be attached to the guide rods. 9 claims

  12. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with two topics in nuclear cardiology. In the first, left ventricular wall motion assessment using Fourier transform of local left ventricular time-activity curves in gated blood pool studies is evaluated. In the second, the interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigrams is assessed which are obtained with thallium-201 or with another radiopharmaceutical with different physical, but identical biological properties. In all these investigations data acquisition and analysis by computer played an essential role. In chapter 1 the desirable properties of a nuclear medicine computer system are given and the computer system used for this work is described. Wall motion analysis of the left ventricle using Fourier transform of local time-activity curves in the left ventricular region in gated blood pool studies is described in chapter 2. In chapter 3 detection of non-perfused lesions in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201 is described. Detection of partly perfused lesions and the influence of scatter and photon energy on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is described in chapter 4. (Auth.)

  13. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to auxiliary means of cooling the nuclear fuel clusters used in light or heavy water cooled nuclear reactors. One method is to provide one or more spray cooling tubes. From holes in the side walls of those tubes coolant water may be sprayed laterally into the cluster against the rods. The flow of main coolant may thus be supplemented or even replaced by the auxiliary coolant. A difficulty, however, is that only those fuel rods close to a spray cooling tube can readily be reached by the auxiliary coolant. In the arrangement described, where the fuel rods are spaced apart by transverse grids, at least one of the interspaces between the grids is provided with an axially extending auxiliary coolant conduit having lateral holes through which an auxiliary coolant is sprayed into the cluster. A deflector is provided that extends from a transverse grid into a position in front of the holes and deflects auxiliary coolant on to parts of the fuel rods otherwise inaccessible to the auxiliary coolant. The construction of the deflector is described. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor has an upper and a lower grid plate. Protrusions project from the upper grid plate. Fuel assemblies having end fittings fit between the grid plates. An arrangement is provided for accepting axial forces generated during the operation of the nuclear reactor by the flow of the cooling medium and thermal expansion and irradiation-induced growth of the fuel assembly, which comprises rods. Each fuel assembly rests on the lower grid plate and its upper end is elastically supported against the upper grid plate by the above-mentioned arrangement. The arrangement comprises four (for example) torsion springs each having a torsion tube and a torsion bar nested within the torsion tube and connected at one end thereto. The other end of the torsion bar is connected to an associated one of four lever arms. The torsion tube is rigidly connected to the other end fitting and the springs are disposed such that the lever arms are biassed against the protrusions. (author)

  15. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  16. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  17. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  18. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  19. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelley, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book is aimed at undergraduates in their final year, to give the student a thorough understanding of the principal features of nuclei, nuclear decays and nuclear reactions. Several models are described and used to explain nuclear properties with many illustrative examples. Sections follow on α-, β- and γ-decay, fission, thermonuclear fusion, reactions, nuclear forces and nuclear collective motion. (author)

  20. Nuclear energy basic knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkmer, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Atoms, nuclear decays and radioactivity, energy, nuclear fission and the chain reaction, controlled nuclear fission, nuclear power plants, safety installations in nuclear power plants, fuel supply and disposal, radiation measurement and radiation exposition of man. (HSI)

  1. The nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Colin.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses nuclear war, disarmament and national defence policies. The author argues that in spite of the obvious advantages of nuclear power in many parts of the world, the world cannot afford the risk of continuing with it because of the demonstrated close and deadly association of nuclear power and nuclear reactors with nuclear weapons

  2. Nuclear energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Data is the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of basic statistics on electricity generation and nuclear power in OECD countries. The reader will find quick and easy reference to the present status of and projected trends in total electricity generating capacity, nuclear generating capacity, and actual electricity production as well as on supply and demand for nuclear fuel cycle services [fr

  3. Nuclear safety and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovitz, A.

    1983-01-01

    To an extent, public opinion is against Koeberg, inspite of the fact that Escom, Koeberg's prospective licensee, are liable for damages caused in the event of an accident, that they carry public liability insurance bought in the market place to the maximum of ten million rand, and if that is not enough the government will take over responsibility for the rest. A question is put that if this kind of protection carries on, won't there always be a minority of the public who will find nuclear power socially, psychologically and politically unacceptable

  4. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  5. Nuclear dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Sizewell 'B' Nuclear Power Station, the first in a new family of PWR (Pressurised Water Reactor) stations in the UK, is currently under construction on the Suffolk coast. One of the first civil engineering tasks associated with the power station construction was the necessity to lower the water table by 17-18 m over an area of approximately 8 hectares to allow the excavation for the foundations to be carried out in the dry. The way chosen to do this was to construct a diaphragm wall around the site area. This had the least effect on surrounding sites -the Sizewell-A station and various nature reserves and wetlands. The reasons for the choice of method are discussed. Following the construction of the wall the water was pumped out from within the diaphragm wall in January 1988. (author)

  6. Nuclear prophecy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that there are at least four instances known of reasonably accurate forecasts of the benefits and dangers of nuclear energy. H.G. Wells' atomic bomb of 1914, A.W. Stewart's chain reaction of 1923, Olaf Stapeldon's mushroom cloud of 1930 and Hans Dominik's tactical atomic weapon of 1927 are briefly reviewed as well as a forecast of the Three Mile island accident. These examples show that although the trained imagination of writers can approach the truth none can claim accuracy in predicting the facts. Where they do approach the truth is in the prediction of the consequences of the discoveries, social as well as military, of unlimited energy and of unlimited disasters. (U.K.)

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment vessel faced internally with a metal liner is provided with thermal insulation for the liner, comprising one or more layers of compressible material such as ceramic fiber, such as would be conventional in an advanced gas-cooled reactor and also a superposed layer of ceramic bricks or tiles in combination with retention means therefor, the retention means (comprising studs projecting from the liner, and bolts or nuts in threaded engagement with the studs) being themselves insulated from the vessel interior so that the coolant temperatures achieved in a High-Temperature Reactor or a Fast Reactor can be tolerated with the vessel. The layer(s) of compressible material is held under a degree of compression either by the ceramic bricks or tiles themselves or by cover plates held on the studs, in which case the bricks or tiles are preferably bedded on a yielding layer (for example of carbon fibers) rather than directly on the cover plates

  9. Nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F; George, B V; Baglin, C J

    1978-05-10

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given.

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The Administrative Court of Braunschweig judges the Ordinance on Advance Funding of Repositories (EndlagervorausleistungsVO) to be void. The Hannover Regional Court passes a basic judgment concerning the Gorleben salt mine (repository) and an action for damages. The Federal Administrative Court dismisses actions against part-permits for the Hanau fuel element fabrication plant. The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court dismisses actions against a part-permit for the Muelheim-Kaerlich reactor. 31st Amendment of the German Criminal Code passed, involving amendments in environmental criminal code, defined in the 2nd amendment to the Act on Unlowful Practices Causing Damage to the Environment (UKG); here: Amendments to the law relating to the criminal code and penal provisions governing unlawful conduct in the operation of nuclear installations. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  12. Nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2000-1065) of the 25. of October 2000 reporting the publication of the convention between the Government of the French Republic and the CERN concerning the safety of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) and the SPS (Proton Supersynchrotron) facilities, signed in Geneva on July 11, 2000. By this convention, the CERN undertakes to ensure the safety of the LHC and SPS facilities and those of the operations of the LEP decommissioning. The French legislation and regulations on basic nuclear facilities (concerning more particularly the protection against ionizing radiations, the protection of the environment and the safety of facilities) and those which could be decided later on apply to the LHC, SPS and auxiliary facilities. (O.M.)

  13. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Reference is made to thermal insulation on the inner surfaces of containment vessels of fluid cooled nuclear reactors and particularly in situations where the thermal insulation must also serve a structural function and transmit substantial load forces to the surface which it covers. An arrangement is described that meets this requirement and also provides for core support means that favourably influences the flow of hot coolant from the lower end of the core into a plenum space in the hearth of the reactor. The arrangement comprises a course of thermally insulating bricks arranged as a mosaic covering a wall of the reactor and a course of thermally insulating tiles arranged as a mosaic covering the course of bricks. Full constructional details are given. (UK)

  14. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.F.; McLaughlin, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the pressure vessel of the water-cooled nuclear reactor there is provided an internal flange on which the one- or two-part core barrel is hanging by means of an external flange. A cylinder is extending from the reactor vessel closure downwards to a seat on the core cupport structure and serves as compression element for the transmission of the clamping load from the closure head to the core barrel (upper guide structure). With the core barrel, subject to tensile stress, between the vessel internal flange and its seat on one hand and the compression of the cylinder resp. hold-down element between the closure head and the seat on the other a very strong, elastic sprung structure is obtained. (DG) [de

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate and accelerate a leakage test of valves of a main steam pipe by adding a leakage test partition valve thereto. Constitution: A leakage testing partition valve is provided between a pressure vessel for a nuclear reactor and the most upstream side valve of a plurality of valves to be tested for leakage, a testing branch pipe is communicated with the downstream side of the partition valve, and the testing water for preventing leakage is introduced thereto through the branch pipe. Since main steam pipe can be simply isolated by closing the partition valve in the leakage test, the leakage test can be conducted without raising or lowering the water level in the pressure vessel, and since interference with other work in the reactor can be eliminated, the leakage test can be readily conducted parallel with other work in the reactor in a short time. Clean water can be used without using reactor water as the test water. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Bock, H.W.; Struensee, S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the use of burnable poisons in a nuclear reactor, especially in PWRs, in order to improve the controllability of the reactor. An unsymmetrical arrangement in the lattice is provided, if necessary also by insertion of special rods for these additions. It is proposed to arrange the burnable poisons in fuel elements taken over from a previous burn-up cycle and to distribute them, going out from the side facing the control rods, over not more than 20% of the lenth of the fuel elements. It seems sufficient, for the burnable poisons to bind an initial reactivity of only 0.1% and to become ineffective after normal operation of 3 to 4 months. (ORU) [de

  17. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweiger, F.; Glahe, E.

    1976-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor of the kind which is charged with spherical reaction elements and in which control rods are arranged to be thrust directly into the charge, each control rod has at least one screw thread on its external surface so that as the rod is thrust into the charge it is caused to rotate and thus make penetration easier. The length of each control rod may have two distinct portions, a latter portion which carries a screw thread and a lead-in portion which is shorter than the latter portion and which may carry a thread of greater pitch than that on the latter portion or may have a number of axially extending ribs instead of a thread

  18. Nuclear cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuaron, A

    1993-12-31

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures 15 figs, 14 tabs

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  20. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuaron, A.

    1992-01-01

    Today, nuclear medicine techniques are routinely used in cardiological practice. They include procedures for the atraumatic investigation of different physiological processes in the various structures included in the central circulation: pericardium, myocardium, myocardial adrenergic innervation, cardiac chambers and valves, coronary microcirculation, and great vessels. Beside these in-Vivo procedures, they also comprise of in-Vitro methods for the detection and measurement in blood of various biological molecules of significance in the management of cardiac diseases. A common feature in this collection of in-Vivo and in-Vitro techniques is their ability to provide helpful clinical information for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of cardiac diseases. Their simplicity and safety for the patient allow their repeated use in the follow up of the progress of disease and in the assessment of the efficacy of the therapeutic measures

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a nuclear reactor and especially a high-temperature reactor in which provision is made within a pressure vessel for a main cavity containing the reactor core and a series of vertical cylindrical pods arranged in spaced relation around the main cavity and each adapted to communicate with the cavity through two collector ducts or headers for the primary fluid which flows downwards through the reactor core. Each pod contains two superposed steam-generator and circulator sets disposed in substantially symmetrical relation on each side of the hot primary-fluid header which conveys the primary fluid from the reactor cavity to the pod, the circulators of both sets being mounted respectively at the bottom and top ends of the pod

  3. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  4. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The German Nuclear Power Plant Insurance (DKVG) Association was able to increase its net capacity in property insurance to 637 million marks in 1993 (1992: 589 million). The reinsurance capacity of the other pools included, the total amount covered now amounts to 2 billion marks in property incurance and 200 million marks in liability incurance. As in the year before the pool can reckon with a stable gross premium yield around 175 million marks. The revival of the US dollar has played a decisive role in this development. In 1993 in the domestic market, the DKVG offered policies for 22 types of property risk and 43 types to third-party risk, operating with a gross target premium of 65 million marks and 16 million marks, respectively. The DKVG also participated in 540 foreign insurance contracts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  6. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  7. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  8. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear ... nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x-rays ...

  10. NATO's Nuclear Glue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horton, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    .... nuclear weapons prepositioned in Europe? This paper reviews the past and current role of US nuclear forces in NATO, considers future nuclear policy options, and discusses potential consequences of those decisions...

  11. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  12. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  13. Nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemard, B.

    1978-01-01

    After having described the nuclear partners in Japan, the author analyzes the main aspects of Japan's nuclear energy: nuclear power plants construction program; developping of light water reactors; fuel cycle politics [fr

  14. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  15. Essay about nuclear right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    1994-01-01

    The present essay treat about all Uruguaian Nuclear Energy legislation. Nuclear energy history, international treaties, agreements, national programs, nuclear government politics, radiation protection regulations, wastes, radioactive materials transport, environment and safeguards has been given in this compilation

  16. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  17. Nuclear reaction data and nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paver, N [University of Trieste (Italy); Herman, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Gandini, A [ENEA, Rome (Italy)

    2001-12-15

    These two volumes contain the lecture notes of the workshop 'Nuclear Reaction Data and Nuclear Reactors: Physics, Design and Safety', which was held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in the Spring of 2000. The workshop consisted of five weeks of lecture courses followed by practical computer exercises on nuclear data treatment and design of nuclear power systems. The spectrum of topics is wide enough to timely cover the state-of-the-art and the perspectives of this broad field. The first two weeks were devoted to nuclear reaction models and nuclear data evaluation. Nuclear data processing for applications to reactor calculations was the subject of the third week. On the last two weeks reactor physics and on-going projects in nuclear power generation, waste disposal and safety were presented.

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  19. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  20. The Iranian nuclear diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    While assuming that civil nuclear means progress, and that military nuclear means danger, the author explains why Iran had decided to perform nuclear research and to implement electro-nuclear science, why Iran emphasises its willingness to develop uranium enrichment, what is the Iranian policy in terms of civil nuclear industry, why Iran does not want any shift of its nuclear programme towards military purposes

  1. Loss of the integral nuclear envelope protein SUN1 induces alteration of nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ayaka; Sakamoto, Chiyomi; Matsumori, Haruka; Katahira, Jun; Yasuda, Yoko; Yoshidome, Katsuhide; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Goldberg, Ilya G; Matsuura, Nariaki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Hieda, Miki

    2016-01-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, which is qualified for image classification and analyzing similarities, is based on multiple discriminative morphological features that are automatically assembled during the learning processes. The algorithm is suitable for population-based analysis of images of biological materials that are generally complex and heterogeneous. Here we used the algorithm wndchrm to quantify the effects on nucleolar morphology of the loss of the components of nuclear envelope in a human mammary epithelial cell line. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, an assembly of nuclear envelope proteins comprising mainly members of the SUN and nesprin families, connects the nuclear lamina and cytoskeletal filaments. The components of the LINC complex are markedly deficient in breast cancer tissues. We found that a reduction in the levels of SUN1, SUN2, and lamin A/C led to significant changes in morphologies that were computationally classified using wndchrm with approximately 100% accuracy. In particular, depletion of SUN1 caused nucleolar hypertrophy and reduced rRNA synthesis. Further, wndchrm revealed a consistent negative correlation between SUN1 expression and the size of nucleoli in human breast cancer tissues. Our unbiased morphological quantitation strategies using wndchrm revealed an unexpected link between the components of the LINC complex and the morphologies of nucleoli that serves as an indicator of the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells.

  2. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-01

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  3. Nuclear Deterrence in a New Nuclear Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miraillet, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Within an unstable international environment and an unpredictable future, nuclear weapons will continue to play a major role in defense policies. Indeed, since disarmament currently seems an unlikely objective, nuclear weapons remain as a security guarantee. Within this context, talk of the global abolition of nuclear weapons remains essentially rhetorical and the supposed link between disarmament and non-proliferation is a tenuous one. The foremost purpose of both disarmament and nuclear deterrence must be security

  4. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    The report is the second report in a new series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2004 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-01

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  6. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.

    2009-06-01

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  7. Nuclear standardization development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jianjun

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear industry is the important part of national security and national economic development is key area of national new energy supported by government. nuclear standardization is the important force for nuclear industry development, is the fundamental guarantee of nuclear safe production, is the valuable means of China's nuclear industry technology to the world market. Now nuclear standardization faces to the new development opportunity, nuclear standardization should implement strategy in standard system building, foreign standard research, company standard building, and talented people building to meet the requirement of nuclear industry development. (author)

  8. Nuclear safety and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hho Jung

    2000-03-01

    This book contains 12 chapters, which are atom and radiation, nuclear reactor and kinds of nuclear power plant, safeguard actuation system and stability evaluation for rock foundation of nuclear power plant, nuclear safety and principle, safety analysis and classification of incident, probabilistic safety assessment and major incident, nuclear safety regulation, system of nuclear safety regulation, main function and subject of safety regulation in nuclear facilities, regulation of fuel cycle and a nuclear dump site, protection of radiation and, safety supervision and, safety supervision and measurement of environmental radioactivity.

  9. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  10. [Cyclotron based nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Heavy ion reactors, nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; atomic and materials studies; nuclear theory; and superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  11. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  12. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Nuclear energy. Economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    This document present 43 slides of a power point presentation containing detailed data on economical and cost data for nuclear energy and nuclear power plants: evolution from 1971 to 2007 of world total primary energy supply, development of nuclear energy in the world, nuclear power plants in the world in 2009, service life of nuclear power plants and its extension; nuclear energy market and perspectives at 2030, the EPR concept (generation III) and its perspectives at 2030 in the world; cost assessment (power generation cost, nuclear power generation cost, costs due to nuclear safety, comparison of investment costs for gas, coal and nuclear power generation, costs for building a nuclear reactor and general cost; cost for the entire fuel cycle, the case of the closed cycle with recycling (MOX); costs for radioactive waste storage; financial costs and other costs such as environmental impacts, strategic stocks, comparative evaluation of the competitiveness of nuclear versus coal and gas

  14. Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  15. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  16. NuMA and nuclear lamins are cleaved during viral infection - inhibition of caspase activity prevents cleavage and rescues HeLa cells from measles virus-induced but not from rhinovirus 1B-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimen, Pekka; Berghaell, Heidi; Vainionpaeae, Raija; Kallajoki, Markku

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear matrix is a structural framework of important nuclear processes. We studied the effect of two different types of viral infections on nuclear matrix. HeLa cells were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV 1B) or measles virus (MV), and Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus protein (NuMA) and lamins A/C and B were used as markers for internal nuclear matrix and peripheral nuclear lamina, respectively. We show that NuMA, lamins, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 are cleaved during viral infection in a virus family-specific manner suggesting that these viruses activate different sets of proteases. Morphologically, NuMA was excluded from the condensed chromatin, lamins showed a folded distribution, and both proteins finally remained around the nuclear fragments. A general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) prevented the nuclear disintegration and the cleavage of the proteins studied. Interestingly, z-VAD-FMK rescued MV-infected but not HRV 1B-infected cells from cell death. These results show for the first time that NuMA and lamins are specific target proteins during virus-induced programmed cell death

  17. Nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Because of an accidental release in 1986 of low-level waste stored at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, several individuals inhaled small amounts of a radioactive substance. GAO examined the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's oversight of the Department of Defense's use, handling, and disposal of radioactive material and found that no comprehensive DOD waste disposal program exists and none of the three services knows the full extent of its low-level radioactive waste disposal problems. Throughout the 1980s, the Army and the Air Force had, on occasion, been banned from disposal sites for failing to comply with federal and state requirements. By December 1992, two of the three sites now used by DOD to disposed of waste will close, and only a limited number of new sites may be available for several years. In the interim, DID will pay substantial surcharges to dispose of waste. After January 1993, DOD will have to comply with disposal requirements for as many as 16 sites or store waste on-site pending the availability of new sites. This report discusses how GAO believes DOD needs to take full advantage of the time between now and January 1993 to establish a low-level radioactive waste disposal program. DOD also needs to work with other federal agencies, compacts, and states to determine the feasibility of dedicating a portion of one or more disposal sites for the government's use

  18. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of the present state of knowledge in nuclear fusion research. In the first part, potential thermonuclear reactions, basic energy balances of the plasma (Lawson criterion), and the main criteria to be observed in the selection of appropriate thermonuclear reactions are dealt with. This is followed by a discussion of the problems encountered in plasma physics (plasma confinement and heating, transport processes, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities and plasma diagnostics) and by a consideration of the materials problems involved, such as material of the first wall, fuel inlet and outlet, magnetic field generation, as well as repair work and in-service inspections. Two main methods have been developed to tackle these problems: reactor concepts using the magnetic pinch (stellarator, Tokamak, High-Beta reactors, mirror machines) on the one hand, and the other concept using the inertial confinement (laser fusion reactor). These two approaches and their specific problems as well as past, present and future fusion experiments are treated in detail. The last part of the work is devoted to safety and environmental aspects of the potential thermonuclear aspects of the potential thermonuclear reactor, discussing such problems as fusion-specific hazards, normal operation and potential hazards, reactor incidents, environmental pollution by thermal effluents, radiological pollution, radioactive wastes and their disposal, and siting problems. (orig./GG) [de

  19. Nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that despite their crucial importance to national security, safeguards at the Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons facilities may be falling short. DOE security inspections have identified many weaknesses, including poor performance by members of DOE's security force, poor accountability for quantities of nuclear materials, and the inability of personnel to locate documents containing classified information. About 13 percent of the 2,100 identified weakness resulted in DOE inspectors giving out unsatisfactory security ratings; another 38 percent led to marginal ratings. In addition, DOE's centralized safeguards and security information tracking system lacks current data on whether DOE field offices have corrected the identified weaknesses. Without reliable information, DOE has no way of knowing whether timely action was taken to correct problems, nor can it determine whether weaknesses are systematic. DOE has tried to minimize the impact of these security weaknesses at its facilities by establishing multiple layers of protection measures and instituting interim and compensatory measures for identified weaknesses. DOE is planning enhancements to the centralized tracking system that should improve its reliability and increase its effectiveness

  20. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, R.F.; George, B.V.; Baglin, C.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor (e.g. one having coolant down-flow through a core to a hearth below) thermal insulation (e.g. of a floor of the hearth) comprises a layer of bricks and a layer of tiles thereon, with smaller clearances between the tiles than between the bricks but with the bricks being of reduced cross-section immediately adjacent the tiles so as to be surrounded by interconnected passages, of relatively large dimensions, constituting a continuous chamber extending behind the layer of tiles. By this arrangement, lateral coolant flow in the inter-brick clearances is much reduced. The reactor core is preferably formed of hexagonal columns, supported on diamond-shaped plates each supported on a pillar resting on one of the hearth-floor tiles. Each plate has an internal duct, four upper channels connecting the duct with coolant ducts in four core columns supported by the plate, and lower channels connecting the duct to a downwardly-open recess common to three plates, grouped to form a hexagon, at their mutually-adjacent corners. This provides mixing, and temperature-averaging, of coolant from twelve columns

  1. Nuclear standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1981-01-01

    This compilation of all nuclear standards available to the authors by mid 1980 represents the third, carefully revised edition of a catalogue which was first published in 1975 as EUR 5362. In this third edition several changes have been made. The title has been condensed. The information has again been carefully up-dated, covering all changes regarding status, withdrawal of old standards, new projects, amendments, revisions, splitting of standards into several parts, combination of several standards into one, etc., as available to the authors by mid 1980. The speed with which information travels varies and requires in many cases rather tedious and cumbersome inquiries. Also, the classification scheme has been revised with the goal of better adjustment to changing situations and priorities. Whenever it turned out to be difficult to attribute a standard to a single subject category, multiple listings in all relevant categories have been made. As in previous editions, within the subcategories the standards are arranged by organization (in Categorie 2.1 by country) alphabetically and in ascending numerical order. It covers all relevant areas of power reactors, the fuel cycle, radiation protection, etc., from the basic laws and governmental regulations, regulatory guides, etc., all the way to voluntary industrial standards and codes of pratice. (orig./HP)

  2. Nuclear stethoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A built-up image illustrating heart activity within the cardiac cycle is produced by simultaneously displaying a plurality of memory channels which accumulate respectively the amount of radioactivity detected within a cardiac chamber during successive intervals throughout the cardiac cycle. The parallel lines of a raster scan display correspond respectively to the memory channels. The count stored in a particular memory channel causes the video signal for the corresponding line to be maintained at a binary level for a corresponding time interval thus generating a bar graph in which the length of each bar indicates the amount of radioactivity sensed during the corresponding interval of the cardiac cycle. As each memory channel accumulates radioactivity data with each successive cardiac cycle, each bar displayed in the bar graph lengthens to indicate the cumulative activity until an interpretable curve is obtained. The invention relates generally to the field of nuclear medicine and, more specifically, to diagnostic techniques of analyzing blood flow through the heart by detecting radioactivity from radioisotopes injected into the bloodstream

  3. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Michiko.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain an optimum structural arrangement of IRM having a satisfactory responsibility to the inoperable state of a nuclear reactor and capable of detecting the reactor power in an averaged manner. Constitution: As the structural arrangement of IRM, from 6 to 16 even number of IRM are bisected into equial number so as to belong two trip systems respectively, in which all of the detectors are arranged at an equal pitch along a circumference of a circle with a radius rl having the center at the position of the central control rod in one trip system, while one detector is disposed near the central control rod and other detectors are arranged substantially at an equal pitch along the circumference of a circle with a radius r2 having the center at the position for the central control rod in another trip system. Furthermore, the radius r1 and r2 are set such that r1 = 0.3 R, r2 = 0.5 R in the case where there are 6 IRM and r1 = 0.4 R and R2 = 0.8 R where there are eight IRM where R represents the radius of the reactor core. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Topics covered include: mass asymmetry and total kinetic energy release in the spontaneous fission of 262 105; calculation of spontaneous fission properties of very heavy nuclei - 98 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106 and 150 less than or equal to N less than or equal to 164; energy losses for 84 Kr ions in nickel, aluminium and titanium; differences in compound nuclei formed with 40 Ar and 84 Kr projectiles; measurement of the energy division vs. mass in highly damped reactions; ambiguities in the inference of precompound emission from excitation function analysis; selective laser one-atom detection of neutral prompt fission fragments; laser induced nuclear polarization - application to the study of spontaneous fission isomers; quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations in the actinide nuclei; high-spin states in 164 Yb; contrasting behavior of h/sub 9/2/ and i/sub 13/2/ bands in 185 Au; multiple band crossings in 164 Er; recoil-distance measurement of lifetimes of rotational states in 164 Dy, lifetimes of ground-band states in 192 Pt and 194 Pt and application of the rotation-alignment model; coulomb excitation of vibrational nuclei with heavy ions; surface structure of deformed nuclei; valency contribution to neutron capture in 32 S; neutron capture cross section of manganese; search for superheavy elements in natural samples by neutron multiplicity counting; and gamma-ray studies on the geochemistry of achondritic meteorites

  5. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    The spleen is a sinusoidal vascular filter that is an integral part of the reticuloendothelial system and is the largest single lymphoid organ in the body. Thus it has important scavenging and immunologic functions in humans. It is also a site for normal hematopoiesis in humans during the third to sixth months of gestation. Solenic hematopoiesis does occur normally in adult animals of other species (for instance, mouse, rat, rabbit), but it is seen postnatally in humans only when they have certain hematologic disorders such as myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia and severe hemolytic anemias. In its role as a reticuloendothelial organ the adult human spleen serves as a vascular scavenger. Arterial blood filters through a network of arterioles, cords, and sinuses in a closed system that requires the blood cells to be pliable and brings them into intimate contact with macrophages suspended on the reticulin stroma of the cords. Erythrocyte culling and pitting functions as described by Crosby result in a transient retention of immature circulating erythroid cells until residual intracellular nuclear fragments have been extruded. The increased risk for overwhelming infection in children and adults whose spleen have been removed for reasons other than acute trauma would appear to be caused by the loss of both its phagocytic and its immunologic (antibody-producing) contributions to the monitoring of the circulating blood. This paper reports that the ability of the spleen to phagocytose intravascular foreign particles and to recognize and destroy damaged erythrocytes is the basis for the current use of radiopharmaceuticals in spleen scintigraphy

  6. Nuclear decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1991-01-01

    This attempts to identify the role of judgmental processes in various nuclear arms/war decisions. That task analysis is done with some confidence. The next two steps, diagnosing potential weaknesses in those judgments and suggesting ameliorative procedures, are done with increasing timidity. The empirical research base is not (ever) as large as one would like. It is particularly weak with regard to studies of experts forced to go beyond hard data and rely on intuitive judgments within their field of expertise. further evidence is needed to substantiate the claim that experts think like everyone else unless they have had the opportunity to master a particular kind of judgment as a learned skill. Although there is both theoretical and empirical reason to believe that various forms of decision aiding are possible, the high stakes involved mandate caution before proposing any intervention. Ineffective steps may make matters worse if they raise confidence without improving performance, or if they disrupt the cognitive ecology within which decision makers are accustomed to functioning, so that they lose touch with their own imperfect intuitions without acquiring viable alternatives

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The state of Nevada opposed DOE's development of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As a result, disputes have arisen over how Nevada has spent financial assistance provided by DOE to pay the state's repository program costs. This report reviews Nevada's use of about $32 million in grant funds provided by DOE through June 1989 and found that Nevada improperly spent about $1 million. Nevada used as much as $683,000 for lobbying and litigation expenses that were unauthorized or were expressly prohibited by law, court decision, or grant terms; exceeded a legislative spending limit on socioeconomic studies by about $96,000; and used, contrary to grant terms, about $275,000 from one grant period to pay expenses incurred in the prior year. Also, Nevada did not always exercise adequate internal controls over grant funds, such as timely liquidation of funds advanced to contractors. A permissive approach to grant administration by DOE contributed to Nevada's inappropriate use of grant funds

  8. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy crisis, high fuel costs and slow progress in the development of alternative energy sources, e.g. solar energy have given further impetus to nuclear power generation. The Swiss nuclear energy programme is discussed and details are given of nuclear station in operation, under construction, in the project stage and of Swiss participation in foreign nuclear stations. Reference is made to the difficulties, delays and resulting cost increases caused by local and regional opposition to nuclear power stations. The significant contributions made by Swiss industry and Swiss consulting engineers are discussed. (P.G.R.)

  9. Nuclear disarmament and peaceful nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, it remains to be seen whether nuclear disarmament can reduce the risks of nuclear war sufficiently for the residual risks to be acceptable to a majority of the world's population, while at the same time vigorous growth in the world's dependence on nuclear energy for peaceful purposes continues. This paper discusses how use of nuclear materials from dismantled weapons as fuel for peaceful purposes may help progress to be made towards that goal, by stimulating considerable improvements in the effectiveness of arrangements for preventing diversion of the materials from peaceful to military purposes, while at the same time eliminating large numbers of nuclear weapons

  10. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  11. Chemical screening identifies ROCK as a target for recovering mitochondrial function in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Tae; Park, Joon Tae; Choi, Kobong; Choi, Hyo Jei Claudia; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Gyu Ree; Lee, Young-Sam; Park, Sang Chul

    2017-06-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) constitutes a genetic disease wherein an aging phenotype manifests in childhood. Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in HGPS phenotype progression. Thus, pharmacological reduction in ROS levels has been proposed as a potentially effective treatment for patient with this disorder. In this study, we performed high-throughput screening to find compounds that could reduce ROS levels in HGPS fibroblasts and identified rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor (Y-27632) as an effective agent. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of ROCK in regulating ROS levels, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen and discovered that ROCK1 interacts with Rac1b. ROCK activation phosphorylated Rac1b at Ser71 and increased ROS levels by facilitating the interaction between Rac1b and cytochrome c. Conversely, ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 abolished their interaction, concomitant with ROS reduction. Additionally, ROCK activation resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction, whereas ROCK inactivation with Y-27632 induced the recovery of mitochondrial function. Furthermore, a reduction in the frequency of abnormal nuclear morphology and DNA double-strand breaks was observed along with decreased ROS levels. Thus, our study reveals a novel mechanism through which alleviation of the HGPS phenotype is mediated by the recovery of mitochondrial function upon ROCK inactivation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Unique Preservation of Neural Cells in Hutchinson- Gilford Progeria Syndrome Is Due to the Expression of the Neural-Specific miR-9 MicroRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Nissan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One puzzling observation in patients affected with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, who overall exhibit systemic and dramatic premature aging, is the absence of any conspicuous cognitive impairment. Recent studies based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from HGPS patient cells have revealed a lack of expression in neural derivatives of lamin A, a major isoform of LMNA that is initially produced as a precursor called prelamin A. In HGPS, defective maturation of a mutated prelamin A induces the accumulation of toxic progerin in patient cells. Here, we show that a microRNA, miR-9, negatively controls lamin A and progerin expression in neural cells. This may bear major functional correlates, as alleviation of nuclear blebbing is observed in nonneural cells after miR-9 overexpression. Our results support the hypothesis, recently proposed from analyses in mice, that protection of neural cells from progerin accumulation in HGPS is due to the physiologically restricted expression of miR-9 to that cell lineage.

  13. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  14. Nuclear theory progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research performed at University of Washington in nuclear theory. Some of the topics discussed are: nuclear astrophysics; symmetry; time reversal invariance; quark matter; superallowed beta decay; exclusive reactions; nuclear probes; soliton model; relativistic heavy ion collisions; supernova explosions; neutrino processes in dense matter; field theories; weak interaction physics; and nuclear structure

  15. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  16. Nuclear power publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This booklet lists 69 publications on nuclear energy available free from some of the main organisations concerned with its development and operation in the UK. Headings are: general information; the need for nuclear energy; the nuclear industry; nuclear power stations; fuel cycle; safety; waste management. (U.K.)

  17. Nuclear energy and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, Thomas E.; Sanders, Thomas L.; Eagan, Robert J.; Baker, Arnold B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity

  18. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  19. Review of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.; Anttila, M.; Pirilae, P.; Vuori, S.

    1997-05-01

    The report is an overview on the production of the nuclear energy all over the world. The amount of production at present and in future, availability of the nuclear fuel, development of nuclear technology, environmental and safety issues, radioactive waste management and commissioning of the plants and also the competitivity of nuclear energy compared with other energy forms are considered. (91 refs.)

  20. Nuclear literacy - Hungarian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, E.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants and the related environmental sentiments make basic nuclear education to a precondition of modern democratic decision making. Nuclear chapters of the curriculum used to treat the topics in historical and descriptive, thus less convincing way. The question arises: how to offer nuclear literacy to the youth in general, to show its empirical aspects and relevance to citizens. (author)