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Sample records for hgii-dtt-merb complex qualitatively

  1. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

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    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  3. A Qualitative Method to Estimate HSI Display Complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Jacques; Gertman, David

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that complex computer system displays in control rooms contribute to cognitive complexity and, thus, to the probability of human error. Research shows that reaction time increases and response accuracy decreases as the number of elements in the display screen increase. However, in terms of supporting the control room operator, approaches focusing on addressing display complexity solely in terms of information density and its location and patterning, will fall short of delivering a properly designed interface. This paper argues that information complexity and semantic complexity are mandatory components when considering display complexity and that the addition of these concepts assists in understanding and resolving differences between designers and the preferences and performance of operators. This paper concludes that a number of simplified methods, when combined, can be used to estimate the impact that a particular display may have on the operator's ability to perform a function accurately and effectively. We present a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach and a method for complexity estimation

  4. A Qualitative Method to Estimate HSI Display Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques; Gertman, David [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho (United States)

    2013-04-15

    There is mounting evidence that complex computer system displays in control rooms contribute to cognitive complexity and, thus, to the probability of human error. Research shows that reaction time increases and response accuracy decreases as the number of elements in the display screen increase. However, in terms of supporting the control room operator, approaches focusing on addressing display complexity solely in terms of information density and its location and patterning, will fall short of delivering a properly designed interface. This paper argues that information complexity and semantic complexity are mandatory components when considering display complexity and that the addition of these concepts assists in understanding and resolving differences between designers and the preferences and performance of operators. This paper concludes that a number of simplified methods, when combined, can be used to estimate the impact that a particular display may have on the operator's ability to perform a function accurately and effectively. We present a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach and a method for complexity estimation.

  5. Qualitative aspects of nonlinear wave motion: Complexity and simplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, J.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear wave processes possess many qualitative properties which cannot be described by linear theories. In this presentation, an attempt is made to systematize the main aspects of this fascinating area. The sources of nonlinearities are analyzed in order to understand why and how the nonlinear mathematical models are formulated. The technique of evolution equations is discussed then as a main mathematical tool to separate multiwave processes into single waves. The evolution equations give concise but in many cases sufficient description of wave processes in solids permitting to analyze spectral changes, phase changes and velocities, coupling of waves, and interaction of nonlinearities with other physical effects of the same order. Several new problems are listed. Knowing the reasons, the seemingly complex problems can be effectively analyzed. 61 refs

  6. Qualitative Reasoning about Relative Directions : Computational Complexity and Practical Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae Hee

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative spatial reasoning (QSR) enables cognitive agents to reason about space using abstract symbols. Among several aspects of space (e.g., topology, direction, distance) directional information is useful for agents navigating in space. Observers typically describe their environment by specifying the relative directions in which they see other objects or other people from their point of view. As such, qualitative reasoning about relative directions, i.e., determining whether a given stat...

  7. Qualitative analysis and control of complex neural networks with delays

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhanshan; Zheng, Chengde

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the stability of the dynamical neural system, synchronization of the coupling neural system and their applications in automation control and electrical engineering. The redefined concept of stability, synchronization and consensus are adopted to provide a better explanation of the complex neural network. Researchers in the fields of dynamical systems, computer science, electrical engineering and mathematics will benefit from the discussions on complex systems. The book will also help readers to better understand the theory behind the control technique and its design.

  8. What qualitative research can contribute to a randomized controlled trial of a complex community intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Geoffrey; Macnaughton, Eric; Goering, Paula

    2015-11-01

    Using the case of a large-scale, multi-site Canadian Housing First research demonstration project for homeless people with mental illness, At Home/Chez Soi, we illustrate the value of qualitative methods in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a complex community intervention. We argue that quantitative RCT research can neither capture the complexity nor tell the full story of a complex community intervention. We conceptualize complex community interventions as having multiple phases and dimensions that require both RCT and qualitative research components. Rather than assume that qualitative research and RCTs are incommensurate, a more pragmatic mixed methods approach was used, which included using both qualitative and quantitative methods to understand program implementation and outcomes. At the same time, qualitative research was used to examine aspects of the intervention that could not be understood through the RCT, such as its conception, planning, sustainability, and policy impacts. Through this example, we show how qualitative research can tell a more complete story about complex community interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of qualitative parameters of solid fuel using complex neutron gamma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrovskij, V.P.; Ajtsev, N.I.; Ryashchikov, V.I.; Frolov, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on complex neutron gamma method for simultaneous analysis of carbon content, ash content and humidity of solid fuel according to gamma radiation of inelastic fast neutron scattering and radiation capture of thermal neutrons. Metrological characteristics of pulse and stationary neutron gamma methods for determination of qualitative solid fuel parameters were analyzed, taking coke breeze as an example. Optimal energy ranges of gamma radiation detection (2-8 MeV) were determined. The advantages of using pulse neutron generator for complex analysis of qualitative parameters of solid fuel in large masses were shown

  10. Using a Qualitative Vignette to Explore a Complex Public Health Issue.

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    Jackson, Michaela; Harrison, Paul; Swinburn, Boyd; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses how qualitative vignettes were combined with interviews to explore a complex public health issue; that is, promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. It outlines how the technique was applied in practice and the combination of vignette-based interviews with a broader approach involving Gadamerian hermeneutics. Twenty-one participants from the public health community and the marketing and food and beverage industries took part in vignette-based interviews between March and September 2012. Overall, the qualitative vignette method afforded an efficient, generally well-received technique that effectively explored the issue of promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. The vignette provided structure to interviews but allowed certain responses to be investigated in greater depth. Through this research, we argue that qualitative vignettes allow researchers to explore complex public health issues. This article also provides a valuable resource for researchers seeking to explore this technique. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Capturing the experiences of patients across multiple complex interventions: a meta-qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Fiona; Christian, Jennifer; Mansfield, Elizabeth; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Hawker, Gillian; Levinson, Wendy; Naglie, Gary; Pham, Thuy-Nga; Rose, Louise; Schull, Michael; Sinha, Samir; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Upshur, Ross; Wilson, Lynn

    2015-09-08

    The perspectives, needs and preferences of individuals with complex health and social needs can be overlooked in the design of healthcare interventions. This study was designed to provide new insights on patient perspectives drawing from the qualitative evaluation of 5 complex healthcare interventions. Patients and their caregivers were recruited from 5 interventions based in primary, hospital and community care in Ontario, Canada. We included 62 interviews from 44 patients and 18 non-clinical caregivers. Our team analysed the transcripts from 5 distinct projects. This approach to qualitative meta-evaluation identifies common issues described by a diverse group of patients, therefore providing potential insights into systems issues. This study is a secondary analysis of qualitative data; therefore, no outcome measures were identified. We identified 5 broad themes that capture the patients' experience and highlight issues that might not be adequately addressed in complex interventions. In our study, we found that: (1) the emergency department is the unavoidable point of care; (2) patients and caregivers are part of complex and variable family systems; (3) non-medical issues mediate patients' experiences of health and healthcare delivery; (4) the unanticipated consequences of complex healthcare interventions are often the most valuable; and (5) patient experiences are shaped by the healthcare discourses on medically complex patients. Our findings suggest that key assumptions about patients that inform intervention design need to be made explicit in order to build capacity to better understand and support patients with multiple chronic diseases. Across many health systems internationally, multiple models are being implemented simultaneously that may have shared features and target similar patients, and a qualitative meta-evaluation approach, thus offers an opportunity for cumulative learning at a system level in addition to informing intervention design and

  12. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

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    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  13. A framework for complexity in palliative care: A qualitative study with patients, family carers and professionals.

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    Pask, Sophie; Pinto, Cathryn; Bristowe, Katherine; van Vliet, Liesbeth; Nicholson, Caroline; Evans, Catherine J; George, Rob; Bailey, Katharine; Davies, Joanna M; Guo, Ping; Daveson, Barbara A; Higginson, Irene J; Murtagh, Fliss Em

    2018-02-01

    Palliative care patients are often described as complex but evidence on complexity is limited. We need to understand complexity, including at individual patient-level, to define specialist palliative care, characterise palliative care populations and meaningfully compare interventions/outcomes. To explore palliative care stakeholders' views on what makes a patient more or less complex and insights on capturing complexity at patient-level. In-depth qualitative interviews, analysed using Framework analysis. Semi-structured interviews across six UK centres with patients, family, professionals, managers and senior leads, purposively sampled by experience, background, location and setting (hospital, hospice and community). 65 participants provided an understanding of complexity, which extended far beyond the commonly used physical, psychological, social and spiritual domains. Complexity included how patients interact with family/professionals, how services' respond to needs and societal perspectives on care. 'Pre-existing', 'cumulative' and 'invisible' complexity are further important dimensions to delivering effective palliative and end-of-life care. The dynamic nature of illness and needs over time was also profoundly influential. Adapting Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory, we categorised findings into the microsystem (person, needs and characteristics), chronosystem (dynamic influences of time), mesosystem (interactions with family/health professionals), exosystem (palliative care services/systems) and macrosystem (societal influences). Stakeholders found it acceptable to capture complexity at the patient-level, with perceived benefits for improving palliative care resource allocation. Our conceptual framework encompasses additional elements beyond physical, psychological, social and spiritual domains and advances systematic understanding of complexity within the context of palliative care. This framework helps capture patient-level complexity and target

  14. Implementing a complex rehabilitation intervention in a stroke trial: a qualitative process evaluation of AVERT.

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    Luker, Julie A; Craig, Louise E; Bennett, Leanne; Ellery, Fiona; Langhorne, Peter; Wu, Olivia; Bernhardt, Julie

    2016-05-10

    The implementation of multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation interventions is challenging, even when the intervention is evidence-based. Very little is known about the implementation of complex interventions in rehabilitation clinical trials. The aim of study was to better understand how the implementation of a rehabilitation intervention in a clinical trial within acute stroke units is experienced by the staff involved. This qualitative process evaluation was part of a large Phase III stroke rehabilitation trial (AVERT). A descriptive qualitative approach was used. We purposively sampled 53 allied health and nursing staff from 19 acute stroke units in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone, voice-internet, or face to face. Digitally recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by two researchers using rigorous thematic analysis. Our analysis uncovered ten important themes that provide insight into the challenges of implementing complex new rehabilitation practices within complex care settings, plus factors and strategies that assisted implementation. Themes were grouped into three main categories: staff experience of implementing the trial intervention, barriers to implementation, and overcoming the barriers. Participation in the trial was challenging but had personal rewards and improved teamwork at some sites. Over the years that the trial ran some staff perceived a change in usual care. Barriers to trial implementation at some sites included poor teamwork, inadequate staffing, various organisational barriers, staff attitudes and beliefs, and patient-related barriers. Participants described successful implementation strategies that were built on interdisciplinary teamwork, education and strong leadership to 'get staff on board', and developing different ways of working. The AVERT stroke rehabilitation trial required commitment to deliver an intervention that needed strong collaboration between nurses and

  15. Primary care providers' experiences caring for complex patients in primary care: a qualitative study.

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    Loeb, Danielle F; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Candrian, Carey; deGruy, Frank V; Binswanger, Ingrid A

    2016-03-22

    Complex patients are increasingly common in primary care and often have poor clinical outcomes. Healthcare system barriers to effective care for complex patients have been previously described, but less is known about the potential impact and meaning of caring for complex patients on a daily basis for primary care providers (PCPs). Our objective was to describe PCPs' experiences providing care for complex patients, including their experiences of health system barriers and facilitators and their strategies to enhance provision of effective care. Using a general inductive approach, our qualitative research study was guided by an interpretive epistemology, or way of knowing. Our method for understanding included semi-structured in-depth interviews with internal medicine PCPs from two university-based and three community health clinics. We developed an interview guide, which included questions on PCPs' experiences, perceived system barriers and facilitators, and strategies to improve their ability to effectively treat complex patients. To focus interviews on real cases, providers were asked to bring de-identified clinical notes from patients they considered complex to the interview. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to develop categories from the raw data, which were then conceptualized into broad themes after team-based discussion. PCPs (N = 15) described complex patients with multidimensional needs, such as socio-economic, medical, and mental health. A vision of optimal care emerged from the data, which included coordinating care, preventing hospitalizations, and developing patient trust. PCPs relied on professional values and individual care strategies to overcome local and system barriers. Team based approaches were endorsed to improve the management of complex patients. Given the barriers to effective care described by PCPs, individual PCP efforts alone are unlikely to meet the needs of complex patients. To fulfill PCP's expressed concepts of

  16. Meta-analysis, complexity, and heterogeneity: a qualitative interview study of researchers’ methodological values and practices

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    Theo Lorenc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study aimed to understand researchers’ understanding of complexity and heterogeneity and the factors which may influence the choices researchers make in synthesising complex data. Methods We conducted interviews with a purposive sample of researchers (N = 19 working in systematic review or meta-analysis across a range of disciplines. We analysed data thematically using a framework approach. Results Participants reported using a broader range of methods and data types in complex reviews than in traditional reviews. A range of techniques are used to explore heterogeneity, but there is some debate about their validity, particularly when applied post hoc. Conclusions Technical considerations of how to synthesise complex evidence cannot be isolated from questions of the goals and contexts of research. However, decisions about how to analyse data appear to be made in a largely informal way, drawing on tacit expertise, and their relation to these broader questions remains unclear.

  17. Meta-analysis, complexity, and heterogeneity: a qualitative interview study of researchers' methodological values and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Theo; Felix, Lambert; Petticrew, Mark; Melendez-Torres, G J; Thomas, James; Thomas, Sian; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Richardson, Michelle

    2016-11-16

    Complex or heterogeneous data pose challenges for systematic review and meta-analysis. In recent years, a number of new methods have been developed to meet these challenges. This qualitative interview study aimed to understand researchers' understanding of complexity and heterogeneity and the factors which may influence the choices researchers make in synthesising complex data. We conducted interviews with a purposive sample of researchers (N = 19) working in systematic review or meta-analysis across a range of disciplines. We analysed data thematically using a framework approach. Participants reported using a broader range of methods and data types in complex reviews than in traditional reviews. A range of techniques are used to explore heterogeneity, but there is some debate about their validity, particularly when applied post hoc. Technical considerations of how to synthesise complex evidence cannot be isolated from questions of the goals and contexts of research. However, decisions about how to analyse data appear to be made in a largely informal way, drawing on tacit expertise, and their relation to these broader questions remains unclear.

  18. A student's perspective of managing data collection in a complex qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Eileen Mary; van der Riet, Pamela; Keatinge, Diana Rosemary

    2014-11-01

    To highlight from a doctoral student's perspective some of the unexpected and challenging issues that may arise when collecting data in a complex, qualitative study. Using a qualitative approach to undertaking a PhD requires commitment to the research topic, the acquisition of a variety of research skills and the development of expertise in writing. Despite close research supervision and guidance, the first author of this paper experienced unexpected hurdles when collecting data. This article highlights these hurdles and compares them with similar and dissimilar challenges raised by a social researcher with 30 years' experience (White 2012). The first author's experience of field research during her PhD candidature. Informed by a critical theoretical perspective, a snowballing technique was used to examine issues related to data collection by a doctoral student in a qualitative research study. The first author found the logistics of qualitative data collection, concerns about transparency, role confusion and power differentials with participants, and the effective use of video recording technology, unexpectedly challenging. Many of these issues are highlighted in the literature and/or during research supervision. However, the student researcher remains a novice when entering the field. It is often only on reflection after encountering the hurdle that the student recognises future pre-emptive or alternative methods of data collection. The challenges faced as a doctoral student managing the data collection phase of the study concurred with White's discussion of some of the 'real life challenges that novice researchers might face' (2012). Specific guidance and prudence are needed by research students to know when enough data have been collected for manageable analysis within the limits of candidature. Use of reflexivity and mindfulness practised by the student during this phase assisted the ability to reflect, respond and learn from issues as they arose and aim for a

  19. Una nota sobre complejidad y paradigma cualitativo (A Note Regarding Complexity and Qualitative Paradigm

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    Roberto Bueno Cuadra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En las ciencias sociales el tema de la complejidad se presenta con frecuencia en el marco de la discusión entre los paradigmas cuantitativo y cualitativo y en ese debate, casi siempre, es asociado con este último, sobre la base de que la complejidad implica, necesariamente, asumir un enfoque holístico, idiográfico, no reduccionista y comprensivo en las ciencias sociales. El presente artículo se propone argumentar en contra de ese supuesto mostrando que no se requiere ningún desplazamiento paradigmático hacia el enfoque cualitativo para asumir una visión compleja en las ciencias sociales. ABSTRACT: n social sciences, the subject of complexity arises frequently in the context of the discussion between the quantitative and qualitative paradigms and in that debate, it is almost always associated with the latter, on the basis, that complexty necessarily implies, taking a holistic, idiographic approach, not reductionist or comprehensive in the social sciences. This article intends to argue against that assumption, showing that any paradigm shift towards the qualitative approach is not required to assume a complex vision in social sciences.

  20. Implementing a complex rehabilitation intervention in a stroke trial: a qualitative process evaluation of AVERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Luker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation interventions is challenging, even when the intervention is evidence-based. Very little is known about the implementation of complex interventions in rehabilitation clinical trials. The aim of study was to better understand how the implementation of a rehabilitation intervention in a clinical trial within acute stroke units is experienced by the staff involved. This qualitative process evaluation was part of a large Phase III stroke rehabilitation trial (AVERT. Methods A descriptive qualitative approach was used. We purposively sampled 53 allied health and nursing staff from 19 acute stroke units in Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted by phone, voice-internet, or face to face. Digitally recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by two researchers using rigorous thematic analysis. Results Our analysis uncovered ten important themes that provide insight into the challenges of implementing complex new rehabilitation practices within complex care settings, plus factors and strategies that assisted implementation. Themes were grouped into three main categories: staff experience of implementing the trial intervention, barriers to implementation, and overcoming the barriers. Participation in the trial was challenging but had personal rewards and improved teamwork at some sites. Over the years that the trial ran some staff perceived a change in usual care. Barriers to trial implementation at some sites included poor teamwork, inadequate staffing, various organisational barriers, staff attitudes and beliefs, and patient-related barriers. Participants described successful implementation strategies that were built on interdisciplinary teamwork, education and strong leadership to ‘get staff on board’, and developing different ways of working. Conclusions The AVERT stroke rehabilitation trial required commitment to deliver

  1. Cancer treatment decision-making processes for older patients with complex needs: a qualitative study.

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    Bridges, Jackie; Hughes, Jane; Farrington, Naomi; Richardson, Alison

    2015-12-14

    Although older people can experience complex health and social care needs alongside a primary cancer diagnosis, little is understood about how cancer treatment decisions are made for this population. This study aimed to investigate how cancer treatment decisions are formulated for older people with complex health and social care needs and the factors that shape these processes. Qualitative study involving semistructured interviews and non-participant observations. Framework approach used for data analysis. Breast and colorectal cancer services in five English NHS hospital trusts. Interviews: purposive sample of 22 clinicians directly involved in a face-to-face clinical role with patients regarding cancer treatment and care, maximising variation across clinical roles, tumour types and trusts. purposive sample of five cancer multidisciplinary meetings, maximising variation across location, team size and tumour type. The initial stages of cancer treatment decision-making are team-based, medically dominated and focused on the cancer. For patients with complex health and social care needs that extend beyond cancer pathology, later and less visible stages in the decision-making process are more haphazard and may result in less effective and workable treatment plans, as individual clinicians struggle to devise and deliver these plans without breaching time-based targets. Service targets that focus resources solely on the presenting disease can disadvantage older patients with complex health and social care needs that extend beyond this primary diagnosis. Care should be taken to ensure time-based targets do not disincentivise thorough and timely assessment that can lead to the formulation of treatment plans tailored to individual needs and circumstances. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Qualitative Survey of the Effluent from the Olefin Unit of Bandar-e-Imam Petrochemical Complex

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    Sima Sabzalipour

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the qualitative parameters of the wastewater from the Olefin Unit of Bandar-e-Imam Petrochemical Complex in an attempt to identify the problems and to develop solutions. All the oily wastes generated in the unit under study are directed to the CPI and DAF systems where they are deoiled, diverted into the Eastern Pond, and, finally, discharged into the sea after a primary treatment process. In this study, information was collected on the process and on the effluent contaminant spreading sources in order to determined the sampling spots. Sampling was performed over 6 months and the effluent quality parameters (pH, TDS, BOD, COD, Oil, SO4=, PO4≡, and NO− were measured. Changes in the parameters were recorded on monthly, weekly, and daily bases. Combined samples were additionally used to ensure measurement accuracy. The results showed that the concentration levels of the parameters BOD, COD, oil, and phosphate ion in the effluent from the CPI system were beyond the national standards. Pollution load estimations for the relevant parameters also confirmed these results. Investigations revealed that COD and oil removal efficiencies in the CPI system were 17% and 10%, respectively, which cannot be desirable (paired sample t-test. Another problem observed was the effluent from the caustic wash tower. This effluent, which contains considerable quantities of caustic, polymer, yellow oil, and water, is discharged into the waste neutralization pond to leave the complex without further neutralization.

  3. Exploring the usefulness of comprehensive care plans for children with medical complexity (CMC: a qualitative study

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    Adams Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Home model recommends that Children with Special Health Care Needs (CSHCN receive a medical care plan, outlining the child’s major medical issues and care needs to assist with care coordination. While care plans are a primary component of effective care coordination, the creation and maintenance of care plans is time, labor, and cost intensive, and the desired content of the care plan has not been studied. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the usefulness and desired content of comprehensive care plans by exploring the perceptions of parents and health care providers (HCPs of children with medical complexity (CMC. Methods This qualitative study utilized in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. HCPs (n = 15 and parents (n = 15 of CMC who had all used a comprehensive care plan were recruited from a tertiary pediatric academic health sciences center. Themes were identified through grounded theory analysis of interview and focus group data. Results A multi-dimensional model of perceived care plan usefulness emerged. The model highlights three integral aspects of the care plan: care plan characteristics, activating factors and perceived outcomes of using a care plan. Care plans were perceived as a useful tool that centralized and focused the care of the child. Care plans were reported to flatten the hierarchical relationship between HCPs and parents, resulting in enhanced reciprocal information exchange and strengthened relationships. Participants expressed that a standardized template that is family-centered and includes content relevant to both the medical and social needs of the child is beneficial when integrated into overall care planning and delivery for CMC. Conclusions Care plans are perceived to be a useful tool to both health care providers and parents of CMC. These findings inform the utility and development of a comprehensive care plan template as well as a model of how

  4. Using qualitative comparative analysis in a systematic review of a complex intervention.

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    Kahwati, Leila; Jacobs, Sara; Kane, Heather; Lewis, Megan; Viswanathan, Meera; Golin, Carol E

    2016-05-04

    Systematic reviews evaluating complex interventions often encounter substantial clinical heterogeneity in intervention components and implementation features making synthesis challenging. Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a non-probabilistic method that uses mathematical set theory to study complex phenomena; it has been proposed as a potential method to complement traditional evidence synthesis in reviews of complex interventions to identify key intervention components or implementation features that might explain effectiveness or ineffectiveness. The objective of this study was to describe our approach in detail and examine the suitability of using QCA within the context of a systematic review. We used data from a completed systematic review of behavioral interventions to improve medication adherence to conduct two substantive analyses using QCA. The first analysis sought to identify combinations of nine behavior change techniques/components (BCTs) found among effective interventions, and the second analysis sought to identify combinations of five implementation features (e.g., agent, target, mode, time span, exposure) found among effective interventions. For each substantive analysis, we reframed the review's research questions to be designed for use with QCA, calibrated sets (i.e., transformed raw data into data used in analysis), and identified the necessary and/or sufficient combinations of BCTs and implementation features found in effective interventions. Our application of QCA for each substantive analysis is described in detail. We extended the original review findings by identifying seven combinations of BCTs and four combinations of implementation features that were sufficient for improving adherence. We found reasonable alignment between several systematic review steps and processes used in QCA except that typical approaches to study abstraction for some intervention components and features did not support a robust calibration for QCA. QCA was

  5. Navigating the complexities of qualitative comparative analysis: case numbers, necessity relations, and model ambiguities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiem, Alrik

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the method of Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) has been enjoying increasing levels of popularity in evaluation and directly neighboring fields. Its holistic approach to causal data analysis resonates with researchers whose theories posit complex conjunctions of conditions and events. However, due to QCA's relative immaturity, some of its technicalities and objectives have not yet been well understood. In this article, I seek to raise awareness of six pitfalls of employing QCA with regard to the following three central aspects: case numbers, necessity relations, and model ambiguities. Most importantly, I argue that case numbers are irrelevant to the methodological choice of QCA or any of its variants, that necessity is not as simple a concept as it has been suggested by many methodologists, and that doubt must be cast on the determinacy of virtually all results presented in past QCA research. By means of empirical examples from published articles, I explain the background of these pitfalls and introduce appropriate procedures, partly with reference to current software, that help avoid them. QCA carries great potential for scholars in evaluation and directly neighboring areas interested in the analysis of complex dependencies in configurational data. If users beware of the pitfalls introduced in this article, and if they avoid mechanistic adherence to doubtful "standards of good practice" at this stage of development, then research with QCA will gain in quality, as a result of which a more solid foundation for cumulative knowledge generation and well-informed policy decisions will also be created. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Complex young lives: a collective qualitative case study analysis of young fatherhood and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Jennifer; Hansen, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Of all births in Australia, 10 % are to young fathers aged less than 24 years. How young fathers experience any breastfeeding and how this is shaped by their social context is poorly understood. Our aim is to increase understanding of the lived experience of young fathers (aged less than 24 years) and to explore the way they speak about breastfeeding in the context of their lives and parenting. This collective case study analysis uses qualitative data from interviews and focus groups with young fathers (aged less than 24 years) and community support staff. The research was undertaken in Tasmania, Australia, March to December 2013. Young fathers in our study had complex social and emotional circumstances that meant breastfeeding was not a high priority despite them valuing the health benefits of breastfeeding for their babies. If supported by peers and their community they appear to have a more positive parenting experience. Breastfeeding although understood by the young fathers in our study as healthy and desirable is not a priority in their lives. Learning to be a parent and support their partners to breastfeed may be more effectively gained through mentoring and father-to-father localized community based support services.

  7. Navigating the Complexity of Qualitative Research in Postmodern Contexts: Assemblage, Critical Reflexivity, and Communion as Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina

    2015-01-01

    For graduate students and other emerging qualitative researchers, the ever-evolving and sometimes conflicting perspectives, methodologies, and practices within various post-positivist frameworks (e.g. feminist, critical, Indigenous, participatory) can be overwhelming. Qualitative researchers working within postmodern contexts of multiplicity and…

  8. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment initiation.

  9. Factors that lessen the burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgeway JL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Ridgeway,1,2 Jason S Egginton,1,2 Kristina Tiedje,3 Mark Linzer,4,5 Deborah Boehm,4 Sara Poplau,6 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,7 Laura Odell,8 Victor M Montori,2,9 David T Eton1,2 1The Mayo Clinic Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, 2Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 3Department of Anthropology, Université Lumière Lyon 2, Lyon, France; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, Hennepin County Medical Center, 5University of Minnesota Medical School, 6Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 7Department of Social Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; 8Pharmacy Services, 9Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Patients with multiple chronic conditions (multimorbidity often require ongoing treatment and complex self-care. This workload and its impact on patient functioning and well-being are, together, known as treatment burden. This study reports on factors that patients with multimorbidity draw on to lessen perceptions of treatment burden. Patients and methods: Interviews (n=50 and focus groups (n=4 groups, five to eight participants per group were conducted with patients receiving care in a large academic medical center or an urban safety-net hospital. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative framework analysis methods, and themes and subthemes were used to identify factors that mitigate burden. Focus groups were held to confirm these findings and clarify any new issues. This study was part of a larger program to develop a patient-reported measure of treatment burden. Results: Five major themes emerged from the interview data. These included: 1 problem-focused strategies, like routinizing self-care, enlisting support of others, planning for the future, and using technology; 2 emotion-focused coping strategies, like

  10. Interdisciplinarity, Qualitative Research, and the Complex Phenomenon: Toward an Integrative Approach to Intercultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Phillip; Kurtz, Jill Sornsen; Carter, Deanne; Pester, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a collaboration by the lead faculty member in a Masters program in Intercultural Studies and students who completed the program under his aegis. This article presents the program's approach to its research course sequence, an approach involving the integration of interdisciplinary and qualitative research. The authors first provide…

  11. Rapid qualitative research methods during complex health emergencies: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger A; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted both the successes and limitations of social science contributions to emergency response operations. An important limitation was the rapid and effective communication of study findings. A systematic review was carried out to explore how rapid qualitative methods have been used during global heath emergencies to understand which methods are commonly used, how they are applied, and the difficulties faced by social science researchers in the field. We also asses their value and benefit for health emergencies. The review findings are used to propose recommendations for qualitative research in this context. Peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were identified through six online databases. An initial search was carried out in July 2016 and updated in February 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the reporting of methods and findings. The articles were assessed for quality using the MMAT and AACODS checklist. From an initial search yielding 1444 articles, 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Thirteen of the articles were qualitative studies and nine used a mixed-methods design. The purpose of the rapid studies included: the identification of causes of the outbreak, and assessment of infrastructure, control strategies, health needs and health facility use. The studies varied in duration (from 4 days to 1 month). The main limitations identified by the authors were: the low quality of the collected data, small sample sizes, and little time for cross-checking facts with other data sources to reduce bias. Rapid qualitative methods were seen as beneficial in highlighting context-specific issues that need to be addressed locally, population-level behaviors influencing health service use, and organizational challenges in response planning and implementation. Recommendations for carrying out rapid qualitative research in this context included the early designation of community leaders as a point of

  12. Balancing the Quantitative and Qualitative Aspects of Social Network Analysis to Study Complex Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Danny; Spekkink, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Social Network Analysis (SNA) can be used to investigate complex social systems. SNA is typically applied as a quantitative method, which has important limitations. First, quantitative methods are capable of capturing the form of relationships (e.g. strength and frequency), but they are less suitable for capturing the content of relationships (e.g. interests and motivations). Second, while complex social systems are highly dynamic, the representations that SNA creates of such systems are ofte...

  13. Computer aided approach to qualitative and quantitative common cause failure analysis for complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cate, C.L.; Wagner, D.P.; Fussell, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Common cause failure analysis, also called common mode failure analysis, is an integral part of a complete system reliability analysis. Existing methods of computer aided common cause failure analysis are extended by allowing analysis of the complex systems often encountered in practice. The methods aid in identifying potential common cause failures and also address quantitative common cause failure analysis

  14. Successfully carrying out complex learning-tasks through guiding teams' qualitative and quantitative reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof, B.; Erkens, G.; Kirschner, P. A.; Janssen, J.; Jaspers, J. G. M.

    This study investigated whether and how scripting learners' use of representational tools in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)-environment fostered their collaborative performance on a complex business-economics task. Scripting the problem-solving process sequenced and made its

  15. Successfully Carrying out Complex Learning-Tasks through Guiding Teams' Qualitative and Quantitative Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slof, B.; Erkens, G.; Kirschner, P. A.; Janssen, J.; Jaspers, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether and how scripting learners' use of representational tools in a computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL)-environment fostered their collaborative performance on a complex business-economics task. Scripting the problem-solving process sequenced and made its phase-related part-task demands explicit, namely…

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-05-11

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  17. A Qualitative Investigation of Deposition Velocities of a Non-Newtonian Slurry in Complex Pipeline Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2009-01-01

    The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review's executive summary, ''Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.'' To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 (micro)m in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.

  18. Disentangling the Complexity of HGF Signaling by Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza A D'Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Signaling pathways are characterized by crosstalk, feedback and feedforward mechanisms giving rise to highly complex and cell-context specific signaling networks. Dissecting the underlying relations is crucial to predict the impact of targeted perturbations. However, a major challenge in identifying cell-context specific signaling networks is the enormous number of potentially possible interactions. Here, we report a novel hybrid mathematical modeling strategy to systematically unravel hepatocyte growth factor (HGF stimulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, which critically contribute to liver regeneration. By combining time-resolved quantitative experimental data generated in primary mouse hepatocytes with interaction graph and ordinary differential equation modeling, we identify and experimentally validate a network structure that represents the experimental data best and indicates specific crosstalk mechanisms. Whereas the identified network is robust against single perturbations, combinatorial inhibition strategies are predicted that result in strong reduction of Akt and ERK activation. Thus, by capitalizing on the advantages of the two modeling approaches, we reduce the high combinatorial complexity and identify cell-context specific signaling networks.

  19. A qualitative inquiry into the challenges and complexities of research supervision: viewpoints of postgraduate students and faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Alireza; Bazrafkan, Leila; Yamani, Nikoo

    2015-07-01

    The supervision of academic theses at the Universities of Medical Sciences is one of the most important issues with several challenges. The aim of the present study is to discover the nature of problems and challenges of thesis supervision in Iranian universities of medical sciences. The study was conducted with a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Nineteen faculty members, using purposive sampling, and 11 postgraduate medical sciences students (Ph.D students and residents) were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and field observations in Shiraz and Isfahan universities of medical sciences from September 2012 to December 2014. The qualitative content analysis was used with a conventional approach to analyze the data. While experiencing the nature of research supervision process, faculties and the students faced some complexities and challenges in the research supervision process. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes Based on the characteristics; included "contextual problem", "role ambiguity in thesis supervision", "poor reflection in supervision" and "ethical problems". The result of this study revealed that there is a need for more attention to planning and defining the supervisory, and research supervision. Also, improvement of the quality of supervisor and students relationship must be considered behind the research context improvement in research supervisory area.

  20. Trauma complexity and child abuse: A qualitative study of attachment narratives in adult refugees with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify trauma types over the life course among adult refugees and to explore their accounts of childhood maltreatment. A sample of 43 Arabic-speaking refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) attending a treatment context in Denmark were interviewed. Using a "Trauma Coding Manual" developed for this study, trauma types were identified in interview transcripts. In both men and women with Iraqi and Palestinian-Lebanese backgrounds, high levels of trauma complexity and high rates of childhood maltreatment were found (63%, n = 27). A number of concepts and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information for refugee trauma treatment providers.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex temperature-programmed desorption data by multivariate curve resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.; Brown, Steven D.

    2010-10-01

    The substantial amount of information carried in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments is often difficult to mine due to the occurrence of competing reaction pathways that produce compounds with similar mass spectrometric features. Multivariate curve resolution (MCR) is introduced as a tool capable of overcoming this problem by mathematically detecting spectral variations and correlations between several m/z traces, which is later translated into the extraction of the cracking pattern and the desorption profile for each desorbate. Different from the elegant (though complex) methods currently available to analyze TPD data, MCR analysis is applicable even when no information regarding the specific surface reaction/desorption process or the nature of the desorbing species is available. However, when available, any information can be used as constraints that guide the outcome, increasing the accuracy of the resolution. This approach is especially valuable when the compounds desorbing are different from what would be expected based on a chemical intuition, when the cracking pattern of the model test compound is difficult or impossible to obtain (because it could be unstable or very rare), and when knowing major components desorbing from the surface could in more traditional methods actually bias the quantification of minor components. The enhanced level of understanding of thermal processes achieved through MCR analysis is demonstrated by analyzing three phenomena: i) the cryogenic desorption of vinyltrimethylsilane from silicon, an introductory system where the known multilayer and monolayer components are resolved; ii) acrolein hydrogenation on a bimetallic Pt-Ni-Pt catalyst, where a rapid identification of hydrogenated products as well as other desorbing species is achieved, and iii) the thermal reaction of Ti[N(CH 3) 2] 4 on Si(100), where the products of surface decomposition are identified and an estimation of the surface composition after the

  2. Qualitative and quantitative validation of the SINBAD code on complex HPGe gamma-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohee, E.; Coulon, R.; Normand, S.; Carrel, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures electroniques, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Dautremer, T.; Barat, E.; Montagu, T. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Modelisation, Simulation et Systemes, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Jammes, C. [CEA/DEN/SPEx/LDCI, Centre de Cadarache, F-13109 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Radionuclides identification and quantification is a serious concern for many applications as safety or security of nuclear power plant or fuel cycle facility, CBRN risk identification, environmental radioprotection and waste measurements. High resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe detectors is a performing solution for all these topics. During last decades, a great number of software has been developed to improve gamma spectra analysis. However, some difficulties remain in the analysis when photoelectric peaks are folded together with a high ratio between theirs amplitudes, when the Compton background is much larger compared to the signal of a single peak and when spectra are composed of a great number of peaks. This study deals with the comparison between conventional methods in radionuclides identification and quantification and the code called SINBAD ('Spectrometrie par Inference Non parametrique Bayesienne Deconvolutive'). For many years, SINBAD has been developed by CEA LIST for unfolding complex spectra from HPGe detectors. Contrary to conventional methods using fitting procedures, SINBAD uses a probabilistic approach with Bayesian inference to describe spectrum data. This conventional fitting method founded for example in Genie 2000 is compared with the nonparametric SINBAD approach regarding some key figures of merit as the peak centroid evaluation (identification) and peak surface evaluation (quantification). Unfriendly cases are studied for nuclides detection with closed gamma-rays energies and high photoelectric peak intensity differences. Tests are performed with spectra from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for gamma spectra analysis software benchmark and with spectra acquired at the laboratory. Results show that SINBAD and Genie 2000 performances are quite similar with sometimes best results for SINBAD with the important difference that to achieve same performances the nonparametric method is user-friendly compared

  3. Applying mass spectrometry-based qualitative proteomics to human amygdaloid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín eFernández-Irigoyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The amygdaloid complex is a key brain structure involved in the expression of behaviours and emotions such as learning, fear, and anxiety. Brain diseases including depression, epilepsy, autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer`s disease, have been associated with amygdala dysfunction. For several decades, neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, volumetric, and cognitive approaches have been the gold standard techniques employed to characterize the amygdala functionality. However, little attention has been focused specifically on the molecular composition of the human amygdala from the perspective of proteomics. We have performed a global proteome analysis employing protein and peptide fractionation methods followed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS, detecting expression of at least 1820 protein species in human amygdala, corresponding to 1814 proteins which represent a 9-fold increase in proteome coverage with respect to previous proteomic profiling of the rat amygdala. Gene ontology analysis were used to determine biological process represented in human amygdala highlighting molecule transport, nucleotide binding, and oxidoreductase and GTPase activities. Bioinformatic analyses have revealed that nearly 4% of identified proteins have been previously associated to neurodegenerative syndromes, and 26% of amygdaloid proteins were also found to be present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. In particular, a subset of amygdaloid proteins was mainly involved in axon guidance, synaptic vesicle release, L1CAM interactome, and signaling pathways transduced by NGF and NCAM1. Taken together, our data contributes to the repertoire of the human brain proteome, serving as a reference library to provide basic information for understanding the neurobiology of the human amygdala.

  4. A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Laura; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Adams, Sherri; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore; Cohen, Eyal

    2014-06-30

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to

  5. The Challenges of a Complex and Innovative Telehealth Project: A Qualitative Evaluation of the Eastern Quebec Telepathology Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Hassane; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Pollender, Hugo; Têtu, Bernard; Tanguay, France

    2017-09-13

    The Eastern Quebec Telepathology Network (EQTN) has been implemented in the province of Quebec (Canada) to support pathology and surgery practices in hospitals that are lack of pathologists, especially in rural and remote areas. This network includes 22 hospitals and serves a population of 1.7 million inhabitants spread over a vast territory. An evaluation of this network was conducted in order to identify and analyze the factors and issues associated with its implementation and deployment, as well as those related to its sustainability and expansion. Qualitative evaluative research based on a case study using: (1) historical analysis of the project documentation (newsletters, minutes of meetings, articles, ministerial documents, etc); (2) participation in meetings of the committee in charge of telehealth programs and the project; and (3) interviews, focus groups, and discussions with different stakeholders, including decision-makers, clinical and administrative project managers, clinicians (pathologists and surgeons), and technologists. Data from all these sources were cross-checked and synthesized through an integrative and interpretative process. The evaluation revealed numerous socio-political, regulatory, organizational, governance, clinical, professional, economic, legal and technological challenges related to the emergence and implementation of the project. In addition to technical considerations, the development of this network was associated with major changes and transformations of production procedures, delivery and organization of services, clinical practices, working methods, and clinicaladministrative processes and cultures (professional/organizational). The EQTN reflects the complex, structuring, and innovative projects that organizations and health systems are required to implement today. Future works should be more sensitive to the complexity associated with the emergence of telehealth networks and no longer reduce them to technological

  6. Resolving complex research data management issues in biomedical laboratories: Qualitative study of an industry-academia collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Sahiti; Patel, Vimla L; Bova, G Steven; Wang, Jian; Ackerman, Christopher F; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Chen, Steve H; Lindvall, Mikael; Zack, Donald J

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a distributed collaborative effort between industry and academia to systematize data management in an academic biomedical laboratory. Heterogeneous and voluminous nature of research data created in biomedical laboratories make information management difficult and research unproductive. One such collaborative effort was evaluated over a period of four years using data collection methods including ethnographic observations, semi-structured interviews, web-based surveys, progress reports, conference call summaries, and face-to-face group discussions. Data were analyzed using qualitative methods of data analysis to (1) characterize specific problems faced by biomedical researchers with traditional information management practices, (2) identify intervention areas to introduce a new research information management system called Labmatrix, and finally to (3) evaluate and delineate important general collaboration (intervention) characteristics that can optimize outcomes of an implementation process in biomedical laboratories. Results emphasize the importance of end user perseverance, human-centric interoperability evaluation, and demonstration of return on investment of effort and time of laboratory members and industry personnel for success of implementation process. In addition, there is an intrinsic learning component associated with the implementation process of an information management system. Technology transfer experience in a complex environment such as the biomedical laboratory can be eased with use of information systems that support human and cognitive interoperability. Such informatics features can also contribute to successful collaboration and hopefully to scientific productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assisting a child with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a qualitative deep analysis of parents’ experience and caring needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Bosio, Caterina; Cecchini, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to explore parents’ experience of assisting children affected by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) manifestation, in order to understand their caring needs and expectation of support. Setting and procedure The study was designed according to the qualitative method of interpretative description and implied two sequential phases of data collection. The first phase was based on in-depth interviews with 18 Italian caregivers of children living with TSC. The second phase of the research was based on an online forum with 30 caregivers of children living with TSC. Participants 48 Italian caregivers, assisting patients with TSC with SEGA manifestation have been involved in the study. Results When a TSC diagnosis is made, the whole family is affected psychologically. TSC has a great impact on families’ quality of life and on their ability to cope with the disease and support the child's ability to recover and reach an acceptable level of well-being. Caregivers report the experience of losing control and the feeling of loneliness and abandon from the healthcare system. Conclusion and practice implications Families of children affected by TSC need targeted psychosocial assistance in order to support patients and caregivers and facilitate their social integration. PMID:24319280

  8. Assisting a child with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC): a qualitative deep analysis of parents' experience and caring needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Bosio, Caterina; Cecchini, Isabella

    2013-12-06

    This study was aimed to explore parents' experience of assisting children affected by tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) with subependymal giant-cell astrocytoma (SEGA) manifestation, in order to understand their caring needs and expectation of support. The study was designed according to the qualitative method of interpretative description and implied two sequential phases of data collection. The first phase was based on in-depth interviews with 18 Italian caregivers of children living with TSC. The second phase of the research was based on an online forum with 30 caregivers of children living with TSC. 48 Italian caregivers, assisting patients with TSC with SEGA manifestation have been involved in the study. When a TSC diagnosis is made, the whole family is affected psychologically. TSC has a great impact on families' quality of life and on their ability to cope with the disease and support the child's ability to recover and reach an acceptable level of well-being. Caregivers report the experience of losing control and the feeling of loneliness and abandon from the healthcare system. Families of children affected by TSC need targeted psychosocial assistance in order to support patients and caregivers and facilitate their social integration.

  9. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrrigan, Mairead

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. METHODS: In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23) and four with staff (N = 29) informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients) and 10 interviews (staff). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising administration

  10. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leathem Claire S

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD. It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. Methods In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23 and four with staff (N = 29 informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients and 10 interviews (staff. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising

  11. The contribution of qualitative research in designing a complex intervention for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in two different healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrrigan, Mairead; Cupples, Margaret E; Smith, Susan M; Byrne, Molly; Leathem, Claire S; Clerkin, Pauline; Murphy, Andrew W

    2006-07-18

    Developing complex interventions for testing in randomised controlled trials is of increasing importance in healthcare planning. There is a need for careful design of interventions for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). It has been suggested that integrating qualitative research in the development of a complex intervention may contribute to optimising its design but there is limited evidence of this in practice. This study aims to examine the contribution of qualitative research in developing a complex intervention to improve the provision and uptake of secondary prevention of CHD within primary care in two different healthcare systems. In four general practices, one rural and one urban, in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland, patients with CHD were purposively selected. Four focus groups with patients (N = 23) and four with staff (N = 29) informed the development of the intervention by exploring how it could be tailored and integrated with current secondary prevention activities for CHD in the two healthcare settings. Following an exploratory trial the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were discussed in four focus groups (17 patients) and 10 interviews (staff). The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Integrating qualitative research into the development of the intervention provided depth of information about the varying impact, between the two healthcare systems, of different funding and administrative arrangements, on their provision of secondary prevention and identified similar barriers of time constraints, training needs and poor patient motivation. The findings also highlighted the importance to patients of stress management, the need for which had been underestimated by the researchers. The qualitative evaluation provided depth of detail not found in evaluation questionnaires. It highlighted how the intervention needed to be more practical by minimising administration, integrating role plays into behaviour

  12. Exploring representations and experiences of case-management users: towards difficulties and solutions to leading qualitative interviews with older people with complex living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balard, Frédéric; Corre, Stéphanie Pin Le; Trouvé, Hélène; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    By matching needs to resource services, case management could be a useful tool for improving the care of older people with complex living conditions. Collecting and analysing the users' experiences represents a good way to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of a case-management service. However, in the literature, fieldwork is very rarely considered and the users included in qualitative research seem to be the most accessible. This study was undertaken to describe the challenges of conducting qualitative research with older people with complex living conditions in order to understand their experiences with case-management services. Reflective analysis was applied to describe the process of recruiting and interviewing older people with complex living conditions in private homes, describing the protocol with respect to fieldwork chronology. The practical difficulties inherent in this type of study are addressed, particularly in terms of defining a sample, the procedure for contacting the users and conducting the interview. The users are people who suffer from a loss of autonomy because of cognitive impairment, severe disease and/or psychiatric or social problems. Notably, most of them refuse care and assistance. Reflective analysis of our protocol showed that the methodology and difficulties encountered constituted the first phase of data analysis. Understanding the experience of users of case management to analyse the outcomes of case-management services requires a clear methodology for the fieldwork.

  13. Impact of terminal cleaning and disinfection on isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii complex from inanimate surfaces of hospital rooms by quantitative and qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, Farrin A; Griesnauer, Sandra; Senkel, Diane

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative broth cultures were obtained from hospital rooms newly vacated by patients positive for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) before and after terminal cleaning and disinfection. Of 10 ABC-positive precleaned room surfaces, 6 (60%) remained culture-positive after terminal cleaning and disinfection. Of a total of 16 room surfaces with detectable ABC by the quantitative method, 5 (31.2%; 95% confidence interval, 13.9%-55.8%) were also culture-positive by the qualitative technique. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustaining complex interventions in long-term care: a qualitative study of direct care staff and managers

    OpenAIRE

    Col?n-Emeric, Cathleen; Toles, Mark; Cary, Michael P.; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Yap, Tracey; Song, Yuting; Hall, Rasheeda; Anderson, Amber; Burd, Andrew; Anderson, Ruth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the sustainability of behavioral change interventions in long-term care (LTC). Following a cluster randomized trial of an intervention to improve staff communication (CONNECT), we conducted focus groups of direct care staff and managers to elicit their perceptions of factors that enhance or reduce sustainability in the LTC setting. The overall aim was to generate hypotheses about how to sustain complex interventions in LTC. Methods In eight facilities, we cond...

  15. Qualitative and Quantitative Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins from Complex Matrices: Results of the First International Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU project EQuATox, a first international proficiency test (PT on the detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT was conducted. Sample materials included BoNT serotypes A, B and E spiked into buffer, milk, meat extract and serum. Different methods were applied by the participants combining different principles of detection, identification and quantification. Based on qualitative assays, 95% of all results reported were correct. Successful strategies for BoNT detection were based on a combination of complementary immunological, MS-based and functional methods or on suitable functional in vivo/in vitro approaches (mouse bioassay, hemidiaphragm assay and Endopep-MS assay. Quantification of BoNT/A, BoNT/B and BoNT/E was performed by 48% of participating laboratories. It turned out that precise quantification of BoNT was difficult, resulting in a substantial scatter of quantitative data. This was especially true for results obtained by the mouse bioassay which is currently considered as “gold standard” for BoNT detection. The results clearly demonstrate the urgent need for certified BoNT reference materials and the development of methods replacing animal testing. In this context, the BoNT PT provided the valuable information that both the Endopep-MS assay and the hemidiaphragm assay delivered quantitative results superior to the mouse bioassay.

  16. Sustaining complex interventions in long-term care: a qualitative study of direct care staff and managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Toles, Mark; Cary, Michael P; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Yap, Tracey; Song, Yuting; Hall, Rasheeda; Anderson, Amber; Burd, Andrew; Anderson, Ruth A

    2016-07-16

    Little is known about the sustainability of behavioral change interventions in long-term care (LTC). Following a cluster randomized trial of an intervention to improve staff communication (CONNECT), we conducted focus groups of direct care staff and managers to elicit their perceptions of factors that enhance or reduce sustainability in the LTC setting. The overall aim was to generate hypotheses about how to sustain complex interventions in LTC. In eight facilities, we conducted 15 focus groups with 83 staff who had participated in at least one intervention session. Where possible, separate groups were conducted with direct care staff and managers. An interview guide probed for staff perceptions of intervention salience and sustainability. Framework analysis of coded transcripts was used to distill insights about sustainability related to intervention features, organizational context, and external supports. Staff described important factors for intervention sustainability that are particularly challenging in LTC. Because of the tremendous diversity in staff roles and education level, interventions should balance complexity and simplicity, use a variety of delivery methods and venues (e.g., group and individual sessions, role-play/storytelling), and be inclusive of many work positions. Intervention customizability and flexibility was particularly prized in this unpredictable and resource-strapped environment. Contextual features noted to be important include addressing the frequent lack of trust between direct care staff and managers and ensuring that direct care staff directly observe manager participation and support for the program. External supports suggested to be useful for sustainability include formalization of changes into facility routines, using "train the trainer" approaches and refresher sessions. High staff turnover is common in LTC, and providing materials for new staff orientation was reported to be important for sustainability. When designing or

  17. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eton, David T; Ramalho de Oliveira, Djenane; Egginton, Jason S; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Odell, Laura; May, Carl R; Montori, Victor M

    2012-01-01

    Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure. We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy), and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes. Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26-85 years) were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles. We identified several key domains and issues of burden of treatment amenable to future measurement and organized them into a conceptual framework. Further development work on this conceptual framework will inform the derivation of a patient-reported measure of burden of treatment.

  18. Implementing a complex intervention to support personal recovery: a qualitative study nested within a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamy, Mary; Clarke, Eleanor; Le Boutillier, Clair; Bird, Victoria; Janosik, Monika; Sabas, Kai; Riley, Genevieve; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2014-01-01

    To investigate staff and trainer perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to implementing a complex intervention to help staff support the recovery of service users with a primary diagnosis of psychosis in community mental health teams. Process evaluation nested within a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT). 28 interviews with mental health care staff, 3 interviews with trainers, 4 focus groups with intervention teams and 28 written trainer reports. 14 community-based mental health teams in two UK sites (one urban, one semi-rural) who received the intervention. The factors influencing the implementation of the intervention can be organised under two over-arching themes: Organisational readiness for change and Training effectiveness. Organisational readiness for change comprised three sub-themes: NHS Trust readiness; Team readiness; and Practitioner readiness. Training effectiveness comprised three sub-themes: Engagement strategies; Delivery style and Modelling recovery principles. Three findings can inform future implementation and evaluation of complex interventions. First, the underlying intervention model predicted that three areas would be important for changing practice: staff skill development; intention to implement; and actual implementation behaviour. This study highlighted the importance of targeting the transition from practitioners' intent to implement to actual implementation behaviour, using experiential learning and target setting. Second, practitioners make inferences about organisational commitment by observing the allocation of resources, Knowledge Performance Indicators and service evaluation outcome measures. These need to be aligned with recovery values, principles and practice. Finally, we recommend the use of organisational readiness tools as an inclusion criteria for selecting both organisations and teams in cluster RCTs. We believe this would maximise the likelihood of adequate implementation and hence reduce waste in research

  19. Implementing a complex intervention to support personal recovery: a qualitative study nested within a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Leamy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate staff and trainer perspectives on the barriers and facilitators to implementing a complex intervention to help staff support the recovery of service users with a primary diagnosis of psychosis in community mental health teams. DESIGN: Process evaluation nested within a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT. PARTICIPANTS: 28 interviews with mental health care staff, 3 interviews with trainers, 4 focus groups with intervention teams and 28 written trainer reports. SETTING: 14 community-based mental health teams in two UK sites (one urban, one semi-rural who received the intervention. RESULTS: The factors influencing the implementation of the intervention can be organised under two over-arching themes: Organisational readiness for change and Training effectiveness. Organisational readiness for change comprised three sub-themes: NHS Trust readiness; Team readiness; and Practitioner readiness. Training effectiveness comprised three sub-themes: Engagement strategies; Delivery style and Modelling recovery principles. CONCLUSIONS: Three findings can inform future implementation and evaluation of complex interventions. First, the underlying intervention model predicted that three areas would be important for changing practice: staff skill development; intention to implement; and actual implementation behaviour. This study highlighted the importance of targeting the transition from practitioners' intent to implement to actual implementation behaviour, using experiential learning and target setting. Second, practitioners make inferences about organisational commitment by observing the allocation of resources, Knowledge Performance Indicators and service evaluation outcome measures. These need to be aligned with recovery values, principles and practice. Finally, we recommend the use of organisational readiness tools as an inclusion criteria for selecting both organisations and teams in cluster RCTs. We believe this would

  20. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available David T Eton,1 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,2,3 Jason S Egginton,1 Jennifer L Ridgeway,1 Laura Odell,4 Carl R May,5 Victor M Montori1,61Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Medication Therapy Management Program, Fairview Pharmacy Services LLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 4Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 6Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy, and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes.Results: Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26–85 years were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles

  1. Patient safety and technology-driven medication - A qualitative study on how graduate nursing students navigate through complex medication administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbæk, Janne; Gaard, Mette; Fabricius, Pia; Lefevre, Rikke S; Møller, Tom

    2015-05-01

    The technology-driven medication process is complex, involving advanced technologies, patient participation and increased safety measures. Medication administration errors are frequently reported, with nurses implicated in 26-38% of in-hospital cases. This points to the need for new ways of educating nursing students in today's medication administration. To explore nursing students' experiences and competences with the technology-driven medication administration process. 16 pre-graduate nursing students were included in two focus group interviews which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the systematic horizontal phenomenological-hermeneutic template methodology. The interviews uncovered that understanding the technologies; professionalism and patient safety are three crucial elements in the medication process. The students expressed positivity and confidence in using technology, but were fearful of committing serious medication errors. From the nursing students' perspective, experienced nurses deviate from existing guidelines, leaving them feeling isolated in practical learning situations. Having an unclear nursing role model for the technology-driven medication process, nursing students face difficulties in identifying and adopting best practices. The impact of using technology on the frequency, type and severity of medication errors; the technologies implications on nursing professionalism and the nurses ability to secure patient adherence to the medication process, still remains to be studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative study of health care providers' perceptions and experiences of working together to care for children with medical complexity (CMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Lisa; Zurynski, Yvonne; Breen, Christie; Hoffmann, Tim; Woolfenden, Susan

    2018-01-31

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) have a wide range of long term health problems and disabilities that have an adverse impact on their quality of life. They have high levels of family identified health care needs and health care utilisation. There is no Australian literature on the experiences of health care providers working in the Australian tertiary, secondary and primary health care system, whilst managing CMC. This information is essential to inform the design of integrated health care systems for these children. We address this knowledge gap by exploring the perceptions and experiences of health care providers on the provision of health care for CMC aged 0 to 18 years. A qualitative research study was undertaken. Stakeholder forums, group and individual in depth interviews were undertaken using a semi-structured interview guide. The stakeholder forums were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Field notes of the stakeholder forums, group and individual interviews were taken. Inductive thematic analysis was undertaken to identify key themes. One hundred and three providers took part in the stakeholder forums and interviews across 3 local health districts, a tertiary paediatric hospital network, and primary health care organisations. Providers expressed concern regarding family capacity to negotiate the system, which was impacted by the medical complexity of the children and psychosocial complexity of their families. Lack of health care provider capacity in terms of their skills, time and availability to manage CMC was also a key problem. These issues occurred within a health system that had impaired capacity in terms of fragmentation of care and limited communication among health care providers. When designing integrated care models for CMC, it is essential to understand and address the challenges experienced by their health care providers. This requires adequate training of providers, additional resources and time for coordination of care, improved

  3. Qualitative and quantitative multiplexed proteomic analysis of complex yeast protein fractions that modulate the assembly of the yeast prion Sup35p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Redeker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aggregation of the baker's yeast prion Sup35p is at the origin of the transmissible [PSI(+] trait. We and others have shown that molecular chaperones modulate Sup35p aggregation. However, other protein classes might be involved in [PSI(+] formation. RESULTS: We designed a functional proteomic study that combines two techniques to identify modulators of Sup35p aggregation and describe the changes associated to [PSI(+] formation. The first allows measuring the effect of fractionated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytosolic extracts from [PSI(+] and [psi(-] yeast cells on Sup35p assembly. The second is a multiplex qualitative and quantitative comparison of protein composition of active and inactive fractions using a gel-free and label-free LC-MS approach. We identify changes in proteins involved in translation, folding, degradation, oxido-reduction and metabolic processes. CONCLUSION: Our functional proteomic study provides the first inventory list of over 300 proteins that directly or indirectly affect Sup35p aggregation and [PSI(+] formation. Our results highlight the complexity of the cellular changes accompanying [PSI(+] formation and pave the way for in vitro studies aimed to document the effect of individual and/or combinations of proteins identified here, susceptible of affecting Sup35p assembly.

  4. An embedded longitudinal multi-faceted qualitative evaluation of a complex cluster randomized controlled trial aiming to reduce clinically important errors in medicines management in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cresswell Kathrin M

    2012-06-01

    . However, important concerns were identified about the likely sustainability of this new model of delivering care, in the absence of an appropriate support network for pharmacists and career development pathways. Conclusions This embedded qualitative inquiry has helped to understand the complex organizational and social environment in which the trial was undertaken and the PINCER intervention was delivered. The longitudinal element has given insight into the dynamic changes and developments over time. Medication errors and ways to address these are high on stakeholders’ agendas. Our results further indicate that pharmacists were, because of their professional standing and skill-set, able to engage with the complex general practice environment and able to identify and manage many clinically important errors in medicines management. The transferability of the PINCER intervention approach, both in relation to other prescribing errors and to other practices, is likely to be high.

  5. "It's a complex mesh"- how large-scale health system reorganisation affected the delivery of the immunisation programme in England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantler, Tracey; Lwembe, Saumu; Saliba, Vanessa; Raj, Thara; Mays, Nicholas; Ramsay, Mary; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2016-09-15

    The English health system experienced a large-scale reorganisation in April 2013. A national tri-partite delivery framework involving the Department of Health, NHS England and Public Health England was agreed and a new local operational model applied. Evidence about how health system re-organisations affect constituent public health programmes is sparse and focused on low and middle income countries. We conducted an in-depth analysis of how the English immunisation programme adapted to the April 2013 health system reorganisation, and what facilitated or hindered the delivery of immunisation services in this context. A qualitative case study methodology involving interviews and observations at national and local level was applied. Three sites were selected to represent different localities, varying levels of immunisation coverage and a range of changes in governance. Study participants included 19 national decision-makers and 56 local implementers. Two rounds of interviews and observations (immunisation board/committee meetings) occurred between December 2014 and June 2015, and September and December 2015. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and written accounts of observed events compiled. Data was imported into NVIVO 10 and analysed thematically. The new immunisation programme in the new health system was described as fragmented, and significant effort was expended to regroup. National tripartite arrangements required joint working and accountability; a shift from the simpler hierarchical pre-reform structure, typical of many public health programmes. New local inter-organisational arrangements resulted in ambiguity about organisational responsibilities and hindered data-sharing. Whilst making immunisation managers responsible for larger areas supported equitable resource distribution and strengthened service commissioning, it also reduced their ability to apply clinical expertise, support and evaluate immunisation providers' performance

  6. Qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  7. Effects of complex interventions in 'skin cancer prevention and treatment': protocol for a mixed-method systematic review with qualitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beifus, Karolina; Breitbart, Eckhard; Köberlein-Neu, Juliane

    2017-09-05

    Occurring from ultraviolet radiation combined with impairing ozone levels, uncritical sun exposure and use of tanning beds an increasing number of people are affected by different types of skin cancer. But preventive interventions like skin cancer screening are still missing the evidence for effectiveness and therefore are criticised. Fundamental for an appropriate course of action is to approach the defined parameters as measures for effectiveness critically. A prerequisite should be the critical application of used parameter that are defined as measures for effectiveness. This research seeks to establish, through the available literature, the effects and conditions that prove the effectiveness of prevention strategies in skin cancer. A mixed-method approach is employed to combine quantitative to qualitative methods and answer what effects can display effectiveness considering time horizon, perspective and organisational level and what are essential and sufficient conditions to prove effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in skin cancer prevention strategies. A systematic review will be performed to spot studies from any design and assess the data quantitatively and qualitatively. Included studies from each key question will be summarised by characteristics like population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design, endpoints, effect estimator and so on. Beside statistical relevancies for a systematic review the qualitative method of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) will be performed. The estimated outcomes from this review and QCA are the accomplishment and absence of effects that are appropriate for application in effectiveness assessments and further cost-effectiveness assessment. Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews number CRD42017053859. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  8. Understanding the complex interplay of barriers to physical activity amongst black and minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom: a qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshoedo, Sejlo A; Paul-Ebhohimhen, Virginia A; Jepson, Ruth G; Watson, Margaret C

    2015-07-12

    To conduct a meta-ethnographic analysis of qualitative studies to identify barriers to Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) individuals engaging in physical activity in the UK context. A qualitative synthesis using meta-ethnographic methods to synthesis studies of barriers to engaging in physical activity among BME groups in the UK. A comprehensive search strategy of multiple databases was employed to identify qualitative research studies published up to October 2012. The eleven searched databases included ASSIA, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Health Technology Assessment (HTA), NHS Scotland Library, Physical Activity Health Alliance (PAHA), PsyINFO, Social Services Abstract, Sport discuss and Web of Science. The Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach was undertaken to develop an inductive and interpretive form of knowledge synthesis. Fourteen papers met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis indicated that barriers to physical activity among BME individuals were influenced by four main concepts: perceptions; cultural expectations; personal barriers; and factors limiting access to facilities. BME individuals had different understandings of physical activity were influenced by migration history, experiences, cultural and health beliefs. This in turn may have a disempowering effect on BME individuals in terms of adopting or maintaining physical activity. These barriers to physical activity were explained at a higher conceptual level by a socio-ecological model. The social construct 'individual perception and understanding of physical activity' was particularly relevant to theoretical models and interventions. Interventions to promote engagement with physical activity need to address perceptions of this behaviour. The elicited concepts and contexts could be used to enhance the development of tailored effective health promotion interventions for BME individuals.

  9. Situating methodology within qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Kile, Marnie L

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative nurse researchers are required to make deliberate and sometimes complex methodological decisions about their work. Methodology in qualitative research is a comprehensive approach in which theory (ideas) and method (doing) are brought into close alignment. It can be difficult, at times, to understand the concept of methodology. The purpose of this research column is to: (1) define qualitative methodology; (2) illuminate the relationship between epistemology, ontology and methodology; (3) explicate the connection between theory and method in qualitative research design; and 4) highlight relevant examples of methodological decisions made within cardiovascular nursing research. Although there is no "one set way" to do qualitative research, all qualitative researchers should account for the choices they make throughout the research process and articulate their methodological decision-making along the way.

  10. Revealing the complexity of quitting smoking: a qualitative grounded theory study of the natural history of quitting in Australian ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-11-23

    To explore the quitting histories of Australian ex-smokers in order to develop an understanding of the varied contribution of smoking cessation assistance (either pharmacotherapy or professionally mediated behavioural support) to the process of quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study; in-depth interviews. 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 men, 22 women) who quit in the past 6-24 months. Although participants' individual quitting histories and their overall experiences of quitting were unique, when the 37 quitting histories were compared it was clear two experiences were common to almost all participants: almost no one quit at their first quit attempt and almost everyone started out quitting unassisted. Furthermore, distinct patterns existed in the timing and use of assistance, in particular the age at which assistance was first used, how some participants were resolutely uninterested in assistance, and how assistance might have contributed to the process of successful quitting even if not used on the final quit attempt. Importantly, three patterns in use of assistance were identified: (1) only ever tried to quit unassisted (n=13); (2) started unassisted, tried assistance but reverted back to unassisted (n=13); (3) started unassisted, tried assistance and quit with assistance (n=11). For most participants, insight into what quitting would require was only gained through prior quitting experiences with and without assistance. For a number of participants, interest in assistance was at its lowest when the participant was most ready to quit. Quitting should be viewed as a process drawing on elements of assisted and unassisted quitting rather than a stand-alone event that can be labelled as strictly assisted or unassisted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...... and the process of thinking, e.g. the ontology and the epistemology. Keywords: qualitative, interaction, process, organizing, thinking, perspective, epistemology....

  12. The complexity of self-regulating food intake in weight loss maintenance. A qualitative study among short- and long-term weight loss maintainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Sniethotta, Falko F.; Sainsbury, Kirby

    2018-01-01

    Rationale Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under-researched. Object......Rationale Whether self-regulation of food intake in weight loss maintenance (WLM) differs between being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) and a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining at least 12 months) is under......-researched. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the self-regulatory strategies and self-efficacy beliefs applied by short- and long-term maintainers to the complex set of behaviours comprising food intake in WLM, and to obtain a better understanding of their challenges in the various food-intake processes...... in WLM. Method Individual interviews (14 female/4 male) were conducted with nine Danish short- and nine long-term weight loss maintainers. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied post-hoc to organise data and support analyses, since the approach focuses on both the cognitions (e.g., self...

  13. Qualitative cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatnikov, I.M.; Belinskij, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    Application of the qualitative theory of dynamic systems to analysis of homogeneous cosmological models is described. Together with the well-known cases, requiring ideal liquid, the properties of cosmological evolution of matter with dissipative processes due to viscosity are considered. New cosmological effects occur, when viscosity terms being one and the same order with the rest terms in the equations of gravitation or even exceeding them. In these cases the description of the dissipative process by means of only two viscosity coefficients (volume and shift) may become inapplicable because all the rest decomposition terms of dissipative addition to the energy-momentum in velocity gradient can be large application of equations with hydrodynamic viscosty should be considered as a model of dissipative effects in cosmology

  14. How can we cope with the complexity of the environment? A "Learning by modelling" approach using qualitative reasoning for developing causal models and simulations with focus on Sustainable River Catchment Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Michaela; Zitek, Andreas; Salles, Paulo; Bredeweg, Bert; Muhar, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    The education system needs strategies to attract future scientists and practitioners. There is an alarming decline in the number of students choosing science subjects. Reasons for this include the perceived complexity and the lack of effective cognitive tools that enable learners to acquire the expertise in a way that fits its qualitative nature. The DynaLearn project utilises a "Learning by modelling" approach to deliver an individualised and engaging cognitive tool for acquiring conceptual knowledge. The modelling approach is based on qualitative reasoning, a research area within artificial intelligence, and allows for capturing and simulating qualitative systems knowledge. Educational activities within the DynaLearn software address topics at different levels of complexity, depending on the educational goals and settings. DynaLearn uses virtual characters in the learning environment as agents for engaging and motivating the students during their modelling exercise. The DynaLearn software represents an interactive learning environment in which learners are in control of their learning activities. The software is able to coach them individually based on their current progress, their knowledge needs and learning goals. Within the project 70 expert models on different environmental issues covering seven core topics (Earth Systems and Resources, The Living World, Human population, Land and Water Use, Energy Resources and Consumption, Pollution, and Global Changes) will be delivered. In the context of the core topic "Land and Water Use" the Institute of Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management has developed a model on Sustainable River Catchment Management. River systems with their catchments have been tremendously altered due to human pressures with serious consequences for the ecological integrity of riverine landscapes. The operation of hydropower plants, the implementation of flood protection measures, the regulation of flow and sediment regime and intensive

  15. Collective Analysis of Qualitative Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Friberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    What. Many students and practitioners do not know how to systematically process qualitative data once it is gathered—at least not as a collective effort. This chapter presents two workshop techniques, affinity diagramming and diagnostic mapping, that support collective analysis of large amounts...... of qualitative data. Affinity diagramming is used to make collective analysis and interpretations of qualitative data to identify core problems that need to be addressed in the design process. Diagnostic mapping supports collective interpretation and description of these problems and how to intervene in them. We....... In particular, collective analysis can be used to identify, understand, and act on complex design problems that emerge, for example, after the introduction of new tech- nologies. Such problems might be hard to clarify, and the basis for the analysis often involves large amounts of unstructured qualitative data...

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  17. A note regarding complexity and qualitative paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno Cuadra, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN: En las ciencias sociales el tema de la complejidad se presenta con frecuencia en el marco de la discusión entre los paradigmas cuantitativo y cualitativo y en ese debate, casi siempre, es asociado con este último, sobre la base de que la complejidad implica, necesariamente, asumir un enfoque holístico, idiográfico, no reduccionista y comprensivo en las ciencias sociales. El presente artículo se propone argumentar en contra de ese supuesto mostrando que no se requiere ningún desplazam...

  18. A quantitative and qualitative comparison of illumina MiSeq and 454 amplicon sequencing for genotyping the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in a non-model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Haslina; O'Connor, Emily; Drews, Anna; Burke, Terry; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-28

    High-throughput sequencing enables high-resolution genotyping of extremely duplicated genes. 454 amplicon sequencing (454) has become the standard technique for genotyping the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in non-model organisms. However, illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing (MiSeq), which offers a much higher read depth, is now superseding 454. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the performance of MiSeq in relation to 454 for genotyping MHC class I alleles using a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) dataset with pedigree information. House sparrows provide a good study system for this comparison as their MHC class I genes have been studied previously and, consequently, we had prior expectations concerning the number of alleles per individual. We found that 454 and MiSeq performed equally well in genotyping amplicons with low diversity, i.e. amplicons from individuals that had fewer than 6 alleles. Although there was a higher rate of failure in the 454 dataset in resolving amplicons with higher diversity (6-9 alleles), the same genotypes were identified by both 454 and MiSeq in 98% of cases. We conclude that low diversity amplicons are equally well genotyped using either 454 or MiSeq, but the higher coverage afforded by MiSeq can lead to this approach outperforming 454 in amplicons with higher diversity.

  19. Qualitative Research on Emergency Medicine Physicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltved, Charlotte; Musaeus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to systematically review the qualitative research studying Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians in Emergency Departments (ED). Background: Qualitative research aims to study complex social phenomena. EM is a highly complex medical and social environment that can be investigated...... with qualitative research. Methods: Electronic databases of English peer-reviewed articles were searched from 1971 to 2012 using Medline through PubMed and PsychINFO. This search was supplemented with hand-searches of Academic Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medicine Journal from 1999 to 2012 and cross references...... and training, communication, professional roles, and organizational factors, and into 12 sub-themes. Conclusion: The strength of qualitative research is its ability to grasp and operationalize complex relations within EM. Although qualitative research methodologies have gained in rigour in recent years and few...

  20. Priority research directions in the area of qualitative methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Melnikova, Olga; Khoroshilov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The basic directions of modern theoretical and practical research in the area of qualitative methodology in Russia are discussed in the article. The complexity of research is considered from three points of view: the development of methodology of qualitative analysis, qualitative methods, and verbal and nonverbal projective techniques. The authors present an integrative model of the qualitative analysis, the research on specificity of the use of discourse-analysis method and projective techni...

  1. Qualitative Tourism Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; Martini, Annaclaudia; Garcia, Luis-Manuel; Lowry, Linda

    Conducting qualitative research in tourism studies entails engaging with an entire approach, a set of methods that shape project design, conceptual frameworks, data analysis, and anticipated outcomes. Standard qualitative methods are individual interviews, focus groups and ethnography. Solicited

  2. Qualitative Data Analysis Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    A set of concept maps for qualitative data analysis strategies, inspired by Corbin, JM & Strauss, AL 2008, Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 3rd edn, Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.

  3. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  4. Qualitative feature extractions of chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicha, T.; Dohnal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of chaos offers useful tools for systems analysis. However, models of complex systems are based on a network of inconsistent, space and uncertain knowledge items. Traditional quantitative methods of chaos analysis are therefore not applicable. The paper by the same authors [Vicha T, Dohnal M. Qualitative identification of chaotic systems behaviours. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press, [Log. No. 601019] ] presents qualitative interpretation of some chaos concepts. There are only three qualitative values positive/increasing, negative/decreasing and zero/constant. It means that any set of qualitative multidimensional descriptions of unsteady state behaviours is discrete and finite. A finite upper limit exists for the total number of qualitatively distinguishable scenarios. A set of 21 published chaotic models is solved qualitatively and 21 sets of all existing qualitative scenarios are presented. The intersection of all 21 scenario sets is empty. There is no such a behaviour which is common for all 21 models. The set of 21 qualitative models (e.g. Lorenz, Roessler) can be used to compare chaotic behaviours of an unknown qualitative model with them to evaluate if its chaotic behaviours is close to e.g. Lorenz chaotic model and how much

  5. Qualitative methods textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Barndt, William

    2003-01-01

    Over the past few years, the number of political science departments offering qualitative methods courses has grown substantially. The number of qualitative methods textbooks has kept pace, providing instructors with an overwhelming array of choices. But how to decide which text to choose from this exhortatory smorgasbord? The scholarship desperately needs evaluated. Yet the task is not entirely straightforward: qualitative methods textbooks reflect the diversity inherent in qualitative metho...

  6. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  7. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  8. Qualitative research, tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    of qualitative research has meant a need to question and redefine criteria and research standards otherwise used in tourism research, as qualitative approach does not (seek to) conform to ideals such as truth, objectivity, and validity retrieved in the positivist sciences. In order to develop new ways by which......, the understanding of qualitative research as unable (or rather unwilling) to deliver the types of outcome which “explain and predict” tourism, has impacted upon its ability to gain general acceptance. Only slowly has tourism research made room for the changes in social and cultural sciences, which since the 1960s......Qualitative research, tourism Qualitative research refers to research applying a range of qualitative methods in order to inductively explore, interpret, and understand a given field or object under study. Qualitative research in tourism takes its inspiration primarily from the cultural and social...

  9. Computer supported qualitative research

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Luís; Sousa, Francislê; Moreira, António; Lamas, David

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis , discourse analysis , thematic analysis , narrative analysis , etc.); Innovative processes of Qualitative ...

  10. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  11. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Lub

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate), the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of con...

  12. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  13. The qualitative research proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Klopper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative research in the health sciences has had to overcome many prejudices and a number of misunderstandings, but today qualitative research is as acceptable as quantitative research designs and is widely funded and published. Writing the proposal of a qualitative study, however, can be a challenging feat, due to the emergent nature of the qualitative research design and the description of the methodology as a process. Even today, many sub-standard proposals at post-graduate evaluation committees and application proposals to be considered for funding are still seen. This problem has led the researcher to develop a framework to guide the qualitative researcher in writing the proposal of a qualitative study based on the following research questions: (i What is the process of writing a qualitative research proposal? and (ii What does the structure and layout of a qualitative proposal look like? The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of writing the qualitative research proposal, as well as describe the structure and layout of a qualitative research proposal. The process of writing a qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the most important questions that need to be answered in your research proposal with consideration of the guidelines of being practical, being persuasive, making broader links, aiming for crystal clarity and planning before you write. While the structure of the qualitative research proposal is discussed with regards to the key sections of the proposal, namely the cover page, abstract, introduction, review of the literature, research problem and research questions, research purpose and objectives, research paradigm, research design, research method, ethical considerations, dissemination plan, budget and appendices.

  14. What Is Qualitative Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The article is an in-depth explanation of qualitative research, an approach increasingly prevalent among today's research communities. After discussing its present spread within the health sciences, the author addresses: 1. Its definition. 2. Its characteristics, as well as its theoretical and procedural background. 3. Its procedures. 4. Differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. 5. Mixed methods incorporating quantitative research. And in conclusion: 6. The importance of establishing an epistemological perspective in qualitative research.

  15. Principles of qualitative analysis in the chromatographic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, M; Cárdenas, S; Simonet, B M; Carrillo-Carrión, C

    2007-07-27

    This article presents the state of the art of qualitative analysis in the framework of the chromatographic analysis. After establishing the differences between two main classes of qualitative analysis (analyte identification and sample classification/qualification) the particularities of instrumental qualitative analysis are commented on. Qualitative chromatographic analysis for sample classification/qualification through the so-called chromatographic fingerprint (for complex samples) or the volatiles profile (through the direct coupling headspace-mass spectrometry using the chromatograph as interface) is discussed. Next, more technical exposition of the qualitative chromatographic information is presented supported by a variety of representative examples.

  16. Overview of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are a robust tool for chaplaincy research questions. Similar to much of chaplaincy clinical care, qualitative research generally works with written texts, often transcriptions of individual interviews or focus group conversations and seeks to understand the meaning of experience in a study sample. This article describes three common methodologies: ethnography, grounded theory, and phenomenology. Issues to consider relating to the study sample, design, and analysis are discussed. Enhancing the validity of the data, as well reliability and ethical issues in qualitative research are described. Qualitative research is an accessible way for chaplains to contribute new knowledge about the sacred dimension of people's lived experience.

  17. Validity in Qualitative Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Lub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a discussion on the question of validity in qualitative evaluation. Although validity in qualitative inquiry has been widely reflected upon in the methodological literature (and is still often subject of debate, the link with evaluation research is underexplored. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Guba and Lincoln and Creswell and Miller, the article explores aspects of validity of qualitative research with the explicit objective of connecting them with aspects of evaluation in social policy. It argues that different purposes of qualitative evaluations can be linked with different scientific paradigms and perspectives, thus transcending unproductive paradigmatic divisions as well as providing a flexible yet rigorous validity framework for researchers and reviewers of qualitative evaluations.

  18. QUAGOL: a guide for qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris; Bryon, Els; Denier, Yvonne

    2012-03-01

    Data analysis is a complex and contested part of the qualitative research process, which has received limited theoretical attention. Researchers are often in need of useful instructions or guidelines on how to analyze the mass of qualitative data, but face the lack of clear guidance for using particular analytic methods. The aim of this paper is to propose and discuss the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL), a guide that was developed in order to be able to truly capture the rich insights of qualitative interview data. The article describes six major problems researchers are often struggling with during the process of qualitative data analysis. Consequently, the QUAGOL is proposed as a guide to facilitate the process of analysis. Challenges emerged and lessons learned from own extensive experiences with qualitative data analysis within the Grounded Theory Approach, as well as from those of other researchers (as described in the literature), were discussed and recommendations were presented. Strengths and pitfalls of the proposed method were discussed in detail. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven (QUAGOL) offers a comprehensive method to guide the process of qualitative data analysis. The process consists of two parts, each consisting of five stages. The method is systematic but not rigid. It is characterized by iterative processes of digging deeper, constantly moving between the various stages of the process. As such, it aims to stimulate the researcher's intuition and creativity as optimal as possible. The QUAGOL guide is a theory and practice-based guide that supports and facilitates the process of analysis of qualitative interview data. Although the method can facilitate the process of analysis, it cannot guarantee automatic quality. The skills of the researcher and the quality of the research team remain the most crucial components of a successful process of analysis. Additionally, the importance of constantly moving between the various stages

  19. Qualitative knowledge engineering for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae H.; Kim, Ko R.; Lee, Jae C.

    1996-01-01

    After the TMI nuclear power plant accident, the two topics of plant safety and operational efficiency became more important areas of artificial intelligence, which have difference characteristics. Qualitative deep model is the recently prospective technology of AI, that can overcome several handicaps of the existing expert systems such as lack of common sense reasoning. The application of AI to the large and complex system like nuclear power plants is typically and effectively done through a module-based hierarchical system. As each module has to be built with suitable AI system. Through the experiences of hierarchical system construction, we aimed to develop basic AI application schemes for the power plant safety and operational efficiency as well as basic technologies for autonomous power plants. The goal of the research is to develop qualitative reasoning technologies for nuclear power plants. For this purpose, the development of qualitative modeling technologies and qualitative behaviour prediction technologies of the power plant are accomplished. In addition, the feasibility of application of typical qualitative reasoning technologies to power plants is studied . The goal of the application is to develop intelligent control technologies of power plants, support technologies. For these purposes, we analyzed the operation of power plants according to its operation purpose: power generation operation, shut-down and start-up operation. As a result, qualitative model of basic components were sketched, including pipes, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. Finally, plant behaviour prediction technologies through qualitative plant heat transfer model and design support technologies through 2nd-order differential equation were developed. For the construction of AI system of power plants, we have studied on the mixed module based hierarchical software. As a testbed, we have considered the spent fuel system and the feedwater system. We also studied the integration

  20. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  1. Qualitative research methods in renal medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Selman, Lucy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methodologies are becoming increasingly widely used in health research. However, within some specialties, including renal medicine, qualitative approaches remain under-represented in the high-impact factor journals. Qualitative research can be undertaken: (i) as a stand-alone research method, addressing specific research questions; (ii) as part of a mixed methods approach alongside quantitative approaches or (iii) embedded in clinical trials, or during the development of complex interventions. The aim of this paper is to introduce qualitative research, including the rationale for choosing qualitative approaches, and guidance for ensuring quality when undertaking and reporting qualitative research. In addition, we introduce types of qualitative data (observation, interviews and focus groups) as well as some of the most commonly encountered methodological approaches (case studies, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, thematic analysis, framework analysis and content analysis). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out in Adami Tulu District of East Shoa Zone – the ... to enhance teaching learning at CBE sites and facilitate ..... on good nutrition”. ... not observing any misbehavior: “The behavior of the.

  3. Scaling Qualitative Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are different approaches to qualitative probability, which includes subjective probability. We developed a representation of qualitative probability based on relational systems, which allows modeling uncertainty by probability structures and is more coherent than existing approaches. This setting makes it possible proving that any comparative probability is induced by some probability structure (Theorem 2.1), that classical probability is a probability structure (Theorem 2.2) and that i...

  4. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  5. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society...... in the form of 7 individual vignette interviews with municipal mid-level managers and professional consultants in five Danish municipalities. The study finds that the regulation is more complex than it looks, and that the complexity is handled through simplifying decision-making patterns that can be seen...

  6. Qualitative Robustness in Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasser

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of   qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.

  7. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  8. Disciplining Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the…

  9. Qualitative factors in the healthcare services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu CICEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the efficiency of medical services is a broad social and economic concept, influenced by both numerical-quantitative and non-numerical-qualitative factors. The dynamic nature of technical progress and the accelerated pace of scientific discoveries in the field of health, enhances the size and complexity of economic issues related to assessing the efficiency of these social activities.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    V?zquez Navarrete, M. Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Research in the area of health has been traditionally dominated by quantitative research. However, the complexity of ill-health, which is socially constructed by individuals, health personnel and health authorities have motivated the search for other forms to approach knowledge. Aim To discuss the complementarities of qualitative and quantitative research methods in the generation of knowledge. Contents The purpose of quantitative research is to measure the magnitude of an event,...

  11. Qualitative Research in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattah Hanurawan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Qualitative  research  is  a  research  method    studying  subjective meaning of participant’s world about  an object researched. Steps of qualitative research  in  psychology  are:  researchers  select  research  topic,  researchers formulate  research  questions,  researchers  design  the  study,  researchers  collect data, researchers analyses  data,  researchers  generate  findings,  researchers validate findings, and researchers write research report. Some of the qualitative research  designs  are  grounded  research,  phenomenology  research,  case  study research,  and  ethnography  research.  In  some  situations,  researchers  often  meet questions  that  reach  beyond  the  prescription  of  the  APA  ethical  guidelines concerning  human  participants.  Researchers  of  qualitative  research  in psychology  can  generalize  their  research  findings  to  other  people,  times,  or treatments  to  the  degree  to  which  they  are  similar to  other  people,  times,  or treatments in the original research (naturalistic generalization. There are some strategies  for  expanding  qualitative  research  as  a research  approach  so  the methodology  can  be  accepted  as  one  significant  method  in  understanding psychological phenomena. Keywords:qualitative research, psychology.

  12. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2007-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often ...

  13. Interviews in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  14. Qualitative Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    solving common sense reasoning mathematical reasoning naive physics aritificial intelligence * 20. ABSTRACT (Continue o,, reverse side Ift necessary and...AD-A148 987 QUALITATIVE PROCESS THEORY(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF 1/2 TEEH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB K D FORBUS JUL 84 RI-TR-789 N88814-80...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STAN ARDS IJ% A 4 I .7 Technical Report 789 Q[-----Qualitative• Process M° Theory . Kenneth Dale Forbus MIT Artificial Intelligence

  15. Section for qualitative methods (Letter)

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Z.; Madill, A.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research methods are increasingly used in all areas of psychology. We have proposed a new Section – the Qualitative Methods in Psychology Section – for anyone with an interest in using these research methods.

  16. Database searches for qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, David

    2002-01-01

    Interest in the role of qualitative research in evidence-based health care is growing. However, the methods currently used to identify quantitative research do not translate easily to qualitative research. This paper highlights some of the difficulties during searches of electronic databases for qualitative research. These difficulties relate to the descriptive nature of the titles used in some qualitative studies, the variable information provided in abstracts, and the differences in the ind...

  17. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Integrated Modeling for Stochastic Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation and optimization of an actual physics system are usually constructed based on the stochastic models, which have both qualitative and quantitative characteristics inherently. Most modeling specifications and frameworks find it difficult to describe the qualitative model directly. In order to deal with the expert knowledge, uncertain reasoning, and other qualitative information, a qualitative and quantitative combined modeling specification was proposed based on a hierarchical model structure framework. The new modeling approach is based on a hierarchical model structure which includes the meta-meta model, the meta-model and the high-level model. A description logic system is defined for formal definition and verification of the new modeling specification. A stochastic defense simulation was developed to illustrate how to model the system and optimize the result. The result shows that the proposed method can describe the complex system more comprehensively, and the survival probability of the target is higher by introducing qualitative models into quantitative simulation.

  19. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  20. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  1. Chaotic systems in complex phase space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    figure 1, a qualitative change in the complex behaviour is quite evident in ..... [19] S Fishman, Quantum Localization in Quantum Chaos, Proc. of the International ... of the 44th Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics, Stirling, August ...

  2. Qualitative methodology in developmental psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Mey, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing rec...... in qualitative research offers a promising avenue to advance the field in this direction.......Qualitative methodology presently is gaining increasing recognition in developmental psychology. Although the founders of developmental psychology to a large extent already used qualitative procedures, the field was long dominated by a (post) positivistic quantitative paradigm. The increasing...

  3. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economistís model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  4. The Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Johansen, Søren; Rahbek, Anders

    We introduce the Qualitative Expectations Hypothesis (QEH) as a new approach to modeling macroeconomic and financial outcomes. Building on John Muth's seminal insight underpinning the Rational Expectations Hypothesis (REH), QEH represents the market's forecasts to be consistent with the predictions...... of an economist's model. However, by assuming that outcomes lie within stochastic intervals, QEH, unlike REH, recognizes the ambiguity faced by an economist and market participants alike. Moreover, QEH leaves the model open to ambiguity by not specifying a mechanism determining specific values that outcomes take...

  5. Prototyping qualitative controllers for fuzzy-logic controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Jabedar-Maralani, P.

    1999-05-01

    Qualitative controls can be designed for linear and nonlinear models with the same computational complexity. At the same time they show the general form of the proper control. These properties can help ease the design process for quantitative controls. In this paper qualitative controls are used as prototypes for the design of linear or nonlinear, and in particular Sugeno-type fuzzy, controls. The LMS identification method is used to approximate the qualitative control with the nearest fuzzy control. The method is applied to the problem of position control in a permanent magnet synchronous motor; moreover, the performance and the robustness of the two controllers are compared

  6. A Qualitative Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Ackerman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT. The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients' needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child.

  7. Introducing Evidence Through Research "Push": Using Theory and Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morden, Andrew; Ong, Bie Nio; Brooks, Lauren; Jinks, Clare; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Dziedzic, Krysia S

    2015-11-01

    A multitude of factors can influence the uptake and implementation of complex interventions in health care. A plethora of theories and frameworks recognize the need to establish relationships, understand organizational dynamics, address context and contingency, and engage key decision makers. Less attention is paid to how theories that emphasize relational contexts can actually be deployed to guide the implementation of an intervention. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential role of qualitative research aligned with theory to inform complex interventions. We detail a study underpinned by theory and qualitative research that (a) ensured key actors made sense of the complex intervention at the earliest stage of adoption and (b) aided initial engagement with the intervention. We conclude that using theoretical approaches aligned with qualitative research can provide insights into the context and dynamics of health care settings that in turn can be used to aid intervention implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Ethics and the practice of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2016-01-01

    Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted......Ethics and the practice of qualitative research? Qualitative Social Work 7 (4): 400-414. Reprinted...

  9. [Qualitative research: which priority for scientific journals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodella, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative and qualitative approaches in scientific research should not be looked at as separate or even opposed fields of thinking and action, but could rather offer complementary perspectives in order to build appropriate answers to increasingly complex research questions. An open letter recently published by the BMJ and signed by 76 senior academics from 11 countries invite the editors to reconsider their policy of rejecting qualitative research on the grounds of low priority and challenge the journal to develop a proactive, scholarly and pluralistic approach to research that aligns with its stated mission. The contents of the letter, the many voices raised by almost fifty rapid responses and the severe but not closed responses of the editors outline a stimulating debate and hopefully prelude some "change in emphasis", ensuring that all types of research relevant to the mission of the BMJ (as well as other core journals) are considered for publication and providing an evolving landmark for scientific and educational purposes.

  10. Qualitative experiments in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I explore the meaning of experiments in early twentieth century psychology, focusing on the qualitative experimental methodology of psychologist Frederic BARTLETT. I begin by contextualizing BARTLETT's experiments within the continental research tradition of his time, which...... was in a state of transition from a focus on elements (the concern of psychophysics) to a focus on wholes (the concern of Gestalt psychology). The defining feature of BARTLETT's early experiments is his holistic treatment of human responses, in which the basic unit of analysis is the active person relating...... to some material within the constraints of a social and material context. This manifests itself in a number of methodological principles that contrast with contemporary understandings of experimentation in psychology. The contrast is further explored by reviewing the history of "replications...

  11. Qualitative quark confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared limit in asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories using recently developed non-perturbative methods which allow derivation of zero momentum theorems for Green's functions and vertices is described. These low-energy theorems are compared to the infrared behavior predicted from the renormalization group equation when the existence of an infrared fixed point is assumed. A set of objects is exhibited whose low energy theorems violate the scaling behavior predicted by the renormalization group. This shows that the assumed fixed point cannot exist and that in the Landau gauge the effective charge becomes infinite in the infrared. Qualitatively this implies that as an attempt is made to separate elementary quanta the interaction between the quanta becomes arbitrarily strong. This indicates at least that the theories studied are capable of color confinement. Results are true only for theories with large numbers of quarks. This opens the possibility that large numbers of quarks are actually necessary for confinement

  12. Mind mapping in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Christopher; Powell, Julia; Stroud, James; Pringle, Jan

    We tested a theory that mind mapping could be used as a tool in qualitative research to transcribe and analyse an interview. We compared results derived from mind mapping with those from interpretive phenomenological analysis by examining patients' and carers' perceptions of a new nurse-led service. Mind mapping could be used to rapidly analyse simple qualitative audio-recorded interviews. More research is needed to establish the extent to which mind mapping can assist qualitative researchers.

  13. Designing a qualitative methods syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Kier, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    After some initial trepidation, I was excited about teaching a graduate seminar in qualitative methods. It could hardly be a more interesting time. The publication of King, Keohane, and Verba’s Designing Social Inquiry reinvigorated interest in qualitative methods, and I wanted to design the course to profit from this emerging debate. Whereas KKV appealed to qualitative researchers to do their best to adopt quantitative methodological guidelines, I wanted to encourage students to think about ...

  14. Using Qualitative Metasummary to Synthesize Qualitative and Quantitative Descriptive Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Barroso, Julie; Voils, Corrine I.

    2008-01-01

    The new imperative in the health disciplines to be more methodologically inclusive has generated a growing interest in mixed research synthesis, or the integration of qualitative and quantitative research findings. Qualitative metasummary is a quantitatively oriented aggregation of qualitative findings originally developed to accommodate the distinctive features of qualitative surveys. Yet these findings are similar in form and mode of production to the descriptive findings researchers often present in addition to the results of bivariate and multivariable analyses. Qualitative metasummary, which includes the extraction, grouping, and formatting of findings, and the calculation of frequency and intensity effect sizes, can be used to produce mixed research syntheses and to conduct a posteriori analyses of the relationship between reports and findings. PMID:17243111

  15. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    the transition process. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple, longitudinal case study method is used to examine the transition towards PCP. The study deploys rich qualitative data sets by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings and organisational reports and documents. Findings...... and relational challenges they need to master when facing higher levels of performance and infrastructural complexity. Originality/value – The study adds to the limited empirical and conceptual understanding on the nature of long-term public-private interactions in PCP. It contributes through a rare focus...

  16. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  17. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  18. Complexity in physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, Manuel S

    1992-01-01

    A system is loosely defined as complex if it is composed of a large number of elements, interacting with each other, and the emergent global dynamics is qualitatively different from the dynamics of each one of the parts. The global dynamics may be either ordered or chaotic and among the most interesting emergent global properties are those of learning and adaptation.Complex systems, in the above sense, appear in many fields ranging from physics and technology to life and social sciences. Research in complex systems involves therefore a wide range of topics, studied in seemingly disparate field

  19. Ecological Applications of Qualitative Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredeweg, B.; Salles, P.; Neumann, M.; Recknagel, F.

    2006-01-01

    Representing qualitative ecological knowledge is of great interest for ecological modelling. QR provides means to build conceptual models and to make qualitative knowledge explicit, organized and manageable by means of symbolic computing. This chapter discusses the main characteristics of QR using

  20. Qualitative data collection with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, Regena; Coke, Sallie; Minick, Ptlene

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative researchers have clear methods to guide them in data collection with adult participants, but little is known about effective interview techniques with children. The findings from this methodological study on qualitative interviews with children indicate that children are able to articulate their experiences in interviews. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. What can acute medicine learn from qualitative methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasman, Brett; Reader, Tom W

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of qualitative methods to evidence-based medicine is growing, with qualitative studies increasingly used to examine patient experience and unsafe organizational cultures. The present review considers qualitative research recently conducted on teamwork and organizational culture in the ICU and also other acute domains. Qualitative studies have highlighted the importance of interpersonal and social aspects of healthcare on managing and responding to patient care needs. Clear/consistent communication, compassion, and trust underpin successful patient-physician interactions, with improved patient experiences linked to patient safety and clinical effectiveness across a wide range of measures and outcomes. Across multidisciplinary teams, good communication facilitates shared understanding, decision-making and coordinated action, reducing patient risk in the process. Qualitative methods highlight the complex nature of risk management in hospital wards, which is highly contextualized to the demands and resources available, and influenced by multilayered social contexts. In addition to augmenting quantitative research, qualitative investigations enable the investigation of questions on social behaviour that are beyond the scope of quantitative assessment alone. To develop improved patient-centred care, health professionals should therefore consider integrating qualitative procedures into their existing assessments of patient/staff satisfaction.

  2. Shared Journaling as Peer Support in Teaching Qualitative Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…

  3. qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concludes that an integration of both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches may provide a better platform for unraveling the complex phenomenon of suicide in the elderly. Keywords: Psychological autopsy, Suicidal behaviours, Thematic analysis, Phenomenology the population, or a systematically generated ...

  4. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of glenohumeral motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A M; Bull, A M J; Wallace, A L; Johnson, G R

    2008-02-01

    Joint modelling plays an important role in qualitative and quantitative descriptions of both normal and abnormal joints, as well as predicting outcomes of alterations to joints in orthopaedic practice and research. Contemporary efforts in modelling have focussed upon the major articulations of the lower limb. Well-constrained arthrokinematics can form the basis of manageable kinetic and dynamic mathematical predictions. In order to contain computation of shoulder complex modelling, glenohumeral joint representations in both limited and complete shoulder girdle models have undergone a generic simplification. As such, glenohumeral joint models are often based upon kinematic descriptions of inadequate degrees of freedom (DOF) for clinical purposes and applications. Qualitative descriptions of glenohumeral motion range from the parody of a hinge joint to the complex realism of a spatial joint. In developing a model, a clear idea of intention is required in order to achieve a required application. Clinical applicability of a model requires both descriptive and predictive output potentials, and as such, a high level of validation is required. Without sufficient appreciation of the clinical intention of the arthrokinematic foundation to a model, error is all too easily introduced. Mathematical description of joint motion serves to quantify all relevant clinical parameters. Commonly, both the Euler angle and helical (screw) axis methods have been applied to the glenohumeral joint, although concordance between these methods and classical anatomical appreciation of joint motion is limited, resulting in miscommunication between clinician and engineer. Compounding these inconsistencies in motion quantification is gimbal lock and sequence dependency.

  6. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  7. Mixing quantitative with qualitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Viller, Stephen; Heck, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    with or are considering, researching, or working with both quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods (in academia or industry), join us in this workshop. In particular, we look at adding quantitative to qualitative methods to build a whole picture of user experience. We see a need to discuss both quantitative...... and qualitative research because there is often a perceived lack of understanding of the rigor involved in each. The workshop will result in a White Paper on the latest developments in this field, within Australia and comparative with international work. We anticipate sharing submissions and workshop outcomes...

  8. Qualitative methods: beyond the cookbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, G; Gantley, M

    1998-02-01

    Qualitative methods appear increasingly in vogue in health services research (HSR). Such research, however, has utilized, often uncritically, a 'cookbook' of methods for data collection, and common-sense principles for data analysis. This paper argues that qualitative HSR benefits from recognizing and drawing upon theoretical principles underlying qualitative data collection and analysis. A distinction is drawn between problem-orientated and theory-orientated research, in order to illustrate how problem-orientated research would benefit from the introduction of theoretical perspectives in order to develop the knowledge base of health services research.

  9. Introduction: Qualitative Research in Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Meuser

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins with a brief overview of research traditions that paved the way for qualitative methods in criminological research (labeling approach and critical criminology. In addition, it outlines recent trends in qualitative criminology. The potentials and the limits of a perspective of "understanding from within" ("Verstehen" on deviance and social control are discussed. The contributions to the volume—examples of qualitative criminological research from German speaking countries—are introduced in reference to some current trends of conceptual and methodological discussions in criminology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201129

  10. Qualitative Methodology in Unfamiliar Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    on a qualitative methodology, conscious reflection on research design and objectivity is important when doing fieldwork. This case study discusses such reflections. Emphasis throughout is given to applied qualitative methodology and its contributions to the social sciences, in particular having to do......This case study discusses qualitative fieldwork in Malaysia. The trends in higher education led to investigating how and why young Indians and Chinese in Malaysia are using the university to pursue a life strategy. Given the importance of field context in designing and analysing research based...

  11. Quality assurance of qualitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ríos, Ángel; Barceló, Damiá; Buydens, Lutgarde

    2003-01-01

    The European Commission has supported the G6MA-CT-2000-01012 project on "Metrology of Qualitative Chemical Analysis" (MEQUALAN), which was developed during 2000-2002. The final result is a document produced by a group of scientists with expertise in different areas of chemical analysis, metrology...... and quality assurance. One important part of this document deals, therefore, with aspects involved in analytical quality assurance of qualitative analysis. This article shows the main conclusions reported in the document referring to the implementation of quality principles in qualitative analysis...

  12. Exploring Performativity and Resistance in Qualitative Research Interviews: A Play in Four Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaunae, Cathrine; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2011-01-01

    This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitative research interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…

  13. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  14. Methodological Issues and Practices in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses methodological issues concerning qualitative research and describes research practices that qualitative researchers use to address these methodological issues. Topics discussed include the researcher as interpreter, the emergent nature of qualitative research, understanding the experience of others, trustworthiness in qualitative…

  15. Qualitative Forschung in der Technikpsychologie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schraube, Ernst; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Die qualitative Erforschung der Beziehungen zwischen Mensch und Technik wird zunehmend ein Thema in der Psychologie. Das Kapitel beschreibt die Entstehung psychologischer Technikforschung, den Stellenwert qualitativer Forschung in deren Entwicklung, sowie unterschiedliche theoretische und...

  16. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen interviews with doctors working at different public and private hospitals in. Islamabad and ... problems due to polypharmacy, overuse of antibiotics ... Study design. A qualitative ..... drug selection, procurement and dispensing he is the ...

  17. Qualitative analysis of homogeneous universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Araujo, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The qualitative behaviour of cosmological models is investigated in two cases: Homogeneous and isotropic Universes containing viscous fluids in a stokesian non-linear regime; Rotating expanding universes in a state which matter is off thermal equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  18. Qualitative Approaches to Evaluating Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses qualitative research and its application to educational evaluation. Approaches discussed include the following: (1) ethnography; (2) naturalistic inquiry; (3) generic pragmatic (sociological) inquiry; (4) connoisseurship/criticism; (5) metaphors; and (6) phenomenography. (FMW)

  19. A conceptual framework to model long-run qualitative change in the energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Ebersberger, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual framework to model long-run qualitative change in the energy system / A. Pyka, B. Ebersberger, H. Hanusch. - In: Evolution and economic complexity / ed. J. Stanley Metcalfe ... - Cheltenham [u.a.] : Elgar, 2004. - S. 191-213

  20. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  1. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  2. Latina food patterns in the United States: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerchow, Lauren; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Squires, Allison; Nicholson, Joey; Savarimuthu, Stella M; Gutnick, Damara; Jay, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects Latinas living in the United States, and cultural food patterns contribute to this health concern. The aim of this study was to synthesize the qualitative results of research regarding Latina food patterns in order to (a) identify common patterns across Latino culture and within Latino subcultures and (b) inform future research by determining gaps in the literature. A systematic search of three databases produced 13 studies (15 manuscripts) that met the inclusion criteria for review. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool and the recommendations of Squires for evaluating translation methods in qualitative research were applied to appraise study quality. Authors coded through directed content analysis and an adaptation of the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument coding template to extract themes. Coding focused on food patterns, obesity, population breakdown, immigration, acculturation, and barriers and facilitators to healthy eating. Other themes and categories emerged from this process to complement this approach. Major findings included the following: (a) Immigration driven changes in scheduling, food choice, socioeconomic status, and family dynamics shape the complex psychology behind healthy food choices for Latina women; (b) in Latina populations, barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle choices around food are complex; and (c) there is a clear need to differentiate Latino populations by country of origin in future qualitative studies on eating behavior. Healthcare providers need to recognize the complex influences behind eating behaviors among immigrant Latinas in order to design effective behavior change and goal-setting programs to support healthy lifestyles.

  3. Success factors of Service innovation: a qualitative study of the development of complex service in the collaborative context Fatores de sucesso na inovação em serviços: um estudo qualitativo do desenvolvimento de complexos serviços no contexto colaborativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Zaninelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available New Service Development (NSD has become increasingly complex, involving a network of partners that work together along the process. Several factors contribute to NSD success, but the role these factors play and their evolution along the different stages of the NSD process are not well understood. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study of four shopping mall projects in different stages of the NSD process. This study analyzes how NSD success factors evolve along its different stages from the perspectives of both developer company and partners in the network. The study results indicate that some NSD success factors cross cut all stages of the process, whereas other change. Study findings also show that NSD success factors are viewed differently from developer and partner companies. These findings indicate that networks should evolve along the NSD project.O Desenvolvimento de Novos Serviços (DNS tem se tornado cada vez mais complexo, envolvendo uma rede de empresas parceiras que trabalham em conjunto ao longo de todo o processo de DNS. Vários fatores contribuem para o sucesso do DNS, mas o papel que estes fatores desempenham bem como a sua evolução ao longo das diferentes fases do processo, ainda não são bem compreendidos. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo qualitativo em quatro projetos de shopping centers em diferentes estágios do processo de desenvolvimento. Este estudo analisa como os fatores críticos de sucesso evoluem ao longo das diferentes fases do DNS a partir das perspectivas tanto da empresa desenvolvedora e parceiras na rede. Os resultados do estudo indicam que alguns fatores de sucesso cortam todas as fases do processo, enquanto que outros são específicos de cada única fase. Os resultados do estudo mostram também que os fatores de sucesso do DNS são vistos diferentemente pela empresa desenvolvedora e pelas parceiras. Esses resultados indicam que as redes devem evoluir ao longo de complexos

  4. Softball Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jim

    1977-01-01

    The Parks and Recreation Department of Montgomery, Alabama, has developed a five-field softball complex as part of a growing community park with facilities for camping, golf, aquatics, tennis, and picnicking. (MJB)

  5. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and ... Results: The UV and IR spectra of the complex showed an additive effect of polydatin-lecithin, in which .... Monochromatic Cu Ka radiation (wavelength =.

  6. Physical Complexity and Cognitive Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Peter

    Our intuition tells us that there is a general trend in the evolution of nature, a trend towards greater complexity. However, there are several definitions of complexity and hence it is difficult to argue for or against the validity of this intuition. Christoph Adami has recently introduced a novel measure called physical complexity that assigns low complexity to both ordered and random systems and high complexity to those in between. Physical complexity measures the amount of information that an organism stores in its genome about the environment in which it evolves. The theory of physical complexity predicts that evolution increases the amount of `knowledge' an organism accumulates about its niche. It might be fruitful to generalize Adami's concept of complexity to the entire evolution (including the evolution of man). Physical complexity fits nicely into the philosophical framework of cognitive biology which considers biological evolution as a progressing process of accumulation of knowledge (as a gradual increase of epistemic complexity). According to this paradigm, evolution is a cognitive `ratchet' that pushes the organisms unidirectionally towards higher complexity. Dynamic environment continually creates problems to be solved. To survive in the environment means to solve the problem, and the solution is an embodied knowledge. Cognitive biology (as well as the theory of physical complexity) uses the concepts of information and entropy and views the evolution from both the information-theoretical and thermodynamical perspective. Concerning humans as conscious beings, it seems necessary to postulate an emergence of a new kind of knowledge - a self-aware and self-referential knowledge. Appearence of selfreflection in evolution indicates that the human brain reached a new qualitative level in the epistemic complexity.

  7. Commentary: Writing and evaluating qualitative research reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of qualitative methods is provided, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals ...

  8. The Epistemology of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard S. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses questions that are relevant to the epistemology of qualitative research. In order to do so, the presumed dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research is discussed and challenged. According to the author, the similarities between these methods are more relevant than its differences. Both methods strive to describe the social reality and thus have the same epistemological basis, even though they emphasize different questions. To shed light in such dichotomy, the author explores the origins of epistemology as a discipline and its philosophical character. Finally, the particularities and advantages of qualitative research are discussed, especially ethnography and field research, through an analysis of some of its main aspects for observing social reality: its focus on the point of view of the actor; the observation of the everyday world and the full and thick description. 

  9. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  10. The Qualitative Other: An Autoethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen

    2018-01-01

    This autoethnography uses the author’s own experiences and observations as well as selected scholarly sources to reflect on the current state of qualitative research in Asia. It draws on the experiences of doing a qualitative PhD in a primarily quantitative (Asian) environment. The study finds...... that qualitative research in Asia is currently challenged and provides three types of reasons why this is the case: pragmatic and systematic reasons, which show how a strong focus on outcome over process has influenced academic methods in Asia; ontological and epistemological reasons, which show how Asian...... researchers tend to prefer “methodological rule following” over more exploratory approaches; and, finally, reproduction of these ideas is shown to be a reason why significant change to methodological preferences is difficult to achieve. The chapter also reflects on the increasing acceptance and respect...

  11. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  12. Qualitative methods in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maslov, Dmitrii

    2018-01-01

    This book comprises a set of tools which allow researchers and students to arrive at a qualitatively correct answer without undertaking lengthy calculations. In general, Qualitative Methods in Theoretical Physics is about combining approximate mathematical methods with fundamental principles of physics: conservation laws and symmetries. Readers will learn how to simplify problems, how to estimate results, and how to apply symmetry arguments and conduct dimensional analysis. A comprehensive problem set is included. The book will appeal to a wide range of students and researchers.

  13. Sensitive Interviewing in Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  15. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  16. Innovation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-11-01

    Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications. Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations. Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations. Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment.

  17. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  18. A writer's guide to education scholarship: Qualitative education scholarship (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa M; Ting, Daniel K; Hall, Andrew Koch; Murnaghan, Aleisha; Thoma, Brent; McEwen, Jill; Yarris, Lalena M

    2018-03-01

    Education scholarship can be conducted using a variety of methods, from quantitative experiments to qualitative studies. Qualitative methods are less commonly used in emergency medicine (EM) education research but are well-suited to explore complex educational problems and generate hypotheses. We aimed to review the literature to provide resources to guide educators who wish to conduct qualitative research in EM education. We conducted a scoping review to outline: 1) a list of journals that regularly publish qualitative educational papers; 2) an aggregate set of quality markers for qualitative educational research and scholarship; and 3) a list of quality checklists for qualitative educational research and scholarship. We found nine journals that have published more than one qualitative educational research paper in EM. From the literature, we identified 39 quality markers that were grouped into 10 themes: Initial Grounding Work (preparation, background); Goals, Problem Statement, or Question; Methods (general considerations); Sampling Techniques; Data Collection Techniques; Data Interpretation and Theory Generation; Measures to Optimize Rigour and Trustworthiness; Relevance to the Field; Evidence of Reflective Practice; Dissemination and Reporting. Lastly, five quality checklists were found for guiding educators in reporting their qualitative work. Many problems that EM educators face are well-suited to exploration using qualitative methods. The results of our scoping review provide publication venues, quality indicators, and checklists that may be useful to EM educators embarking on qualitative projects.

  19. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  20. Generation method of educational materials using qualitative reasoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Yamada, Shigeo; Fujisawa, Noriyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has developed a nuclear power plant educational system in which educational materials for several events are included. The system effectively teaches operators by tailoring the event explanations to their knowledge levels of understanding. The preparation of the educational materials, however, is laborious and this becomes one of the problems in the practical use of the system. Discussed in the present paper is a basic explanation generation method using qualitative reasoning. This has been developed to solve the problem. Qualitative equations describing a recirculation pumps trip were transformed into production rules. These were stored in the knowledge base of an event explanation generation system together with explanation sentences. When an operator selects a certain variable's time-interval in which he wants to know the reasons for a variable change, the inference engine searches for the rule which satisfies both the qualitative value and qualitative differential value concerned with this time-interval. Then the event explanation generation section provides explanations by combining the explanation sentences attached to the rules. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to apply qualitative reasoning to such complex reactor systems, and also that explanations can be generated using the simulation results from a transient analysis code. (author)

  1. Qualitative Research in Educational Gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Steven Lozano

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative methods such as logical positivism often view nondominant groups as deviant and purport to be objective. Qualitative methods such as ethnography help educational gerontologists understand diverse elderly populations and allow elders to participate in the process of defining reality and producing knowledge. (SK)

  2. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore medical practitioners' perceptions towards irrational malaria treatment practices in Pakistan. Methods: A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of medical practitioners regarding antimalarial prescribing practices in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital) and ...

  3. Contradictions in qualitative management research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Richard; Dorland, Jens

    2016-01-01

    and remove them from the analytical work. The purpose of this paper is to re-visit and re-introduce a dissensus-based management research strategy in order to analytically be able to work with what appear to be contradictions and misinformation in qualitative research accounts, and give them a more profound...

  4. THE FUNCTION OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEYINK, JW; TYMSTRA, T

    Due to the prevailing positivistic view on science, qualitative research has only a modest place within the social sciences. There is, however, a growing awareness that a purely quantitative approach is not always satisfactory. This is for instance the case in the field of research into the quality

  5. Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheu-Jey George

    2012-01-01

    This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

  6. Thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling of complex macroscopic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, M.; Sacripanti, A.

    1996-11-01

    Gross qualitative/quantitative analysis about thermodynamical properties and thermoelastic coupling (or elastocaloric effect) of complex macroscopic structure (running shoes) is performed by infrared camera. The experimental results showed the achievability of a n industrial research project

  7. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  8. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  9. The Affinity between Qualitative Methods and Community Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Jarg Bergold

    2000-01-01

    Basically community psychology is not associated with a certain methodology but there are good reasons why qualitative methods are chosen in many investigations in community psychology. Characteristic features of the community psychology approach are nearness to everyday life, multiperspectivity, partiality, and process orientation. These characteristics become relevant if complex psycho-social processes like empowerment, social networks etc. are investigated. In this contribution I will disc...

  10. C-quence: a tool for analyzing qualitative sequential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Starkey; Collier, Nicholson T

    2002-02-01

    C-quence is a software application that matches sequential patterns of qualitative data specified by the user and calculates the rate of occurrence of these patterns in a data set. Although it was designed to facilitate analyses of face-to-face interaction, it is applicable to any data set involving categorical data and sequential information. C-quence queries are constructed using a graphical user interface. The program does not limit the complexity of the sequential patterns specified by the user.

  11. Qualitative and Asymptotic Theory of Detonations

    KAUST Repository

    Faria, Luiz

    2014-11-09

    Shock waves in reactive media possess very rich dynamics: from formation of cells in multiple dimensions to oscillating shock fronts in one-dimension. Because of the extreme complexity of the equations of combustion theory, most of the current understanding of unstable detonation waves relies on extensive numerical simulations of the reactive compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations. Attempts at a simplified theory have been made in the past, most of which are very successful in describing steady detonation waves. In this work we focus on obtaining simplified theories capable of capturing not only the steady, but also the unsteady behavior of detonation waves. The first part of this thesis is focused on qualitative theories of detonation, where ad hoc models are proposed and analyzed. We show that equations as simple as a forced Burgers equation can capture most of the complex phenomena observed in detonations. In the second part of this thesis we focus on rational theories, and derive a weakly nonlinear model of multi-dimensional detonations. We also show, by analysis and numerical simulations, that the asymptotic equations provide good quantitative predictions.

  12. 1989 lectures in complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jen, E.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Lectures on a Theory of Computation and Complexity over the Reals; Algorithmic Information Content, Church-Turing Thesis, Physical Entroph, and Maxwell's Demon; Physical Measures of Complexity; An Introduction to Chaos and Prediction; Hamiltonian Chaos in Nonlinear Polarized Optical Beam; Chemical Oscillators and Nonlinear Chemical Dynamics; Isotropic Navier-Stokes Turbulence. I. Qualitative Features and Basic Equations; Isotropic Navier-Stokes Turbulence. II. Statistical Approximation Methods; Lattice Gases; Data-Parallel Computation and the Connection Machine; Preimages and Forecasting for Cellular Automata; Lattice-Gas Models for Multiphase Flows and Magnetohydrodynamics; Probabilistic Cellular Automata: Some Statistical Mechanical Considerations; Complexity Due to Disorder and Frustration; Self-Organization by Simulated Evolution; Theoretical Immunology; Morphogenesis by Cell Intercalation; and Theoretical Physics Meets Experimental Neurobiology

  13. Dynamics in Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah

    Understanding the dynamics of a material provides detailed information about the self-assembly, structure, and intermolecular interactions present in a material. While rheological methods have long been used for the characterization of complex coacervate-based materials, it remains a challenge to predict the dynamics for a new system of materials. Furthermore, most work reports only qualitative trends exist as to how parameters such as charge stoichiometry, ionic strength, and polymer chain length impact self-assembly and material dynamics, and there is little information on the effects of polymer architecture or the organization of charges within a polymer. We seek to link thermodynamic studies of coacervation phase behavior with material dynamics through a carefully-controlled, systematic study of coacervate linear viscoelasticity for different polymer chemistries. We couple various methods of characterizing the dynamics of polymer-based complex coacervates, including the time-salt superposition methods developed first by Spruijt and coworkers to establish a more mechanistic strategy for comparing the material dynamics and linear viscoelasticity of different systems. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  14. Innovation in a complex environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: As our world becomes more global and competitive yet less predictable, the focus seems to be increasingly on looking to innovation activities to remain competitive. Although there is little doubt that a nation’s competitiveness is embedded in its innovativeness, the complex environment should not be ignored. Complexity is not accounted for in balance sheets or reported in reports; it becomes entrenched in every activity in the organisation. Innovation takes many forms and comes in different shapes.Objectives: The study objectives were, firstly, to establish the determinants for complexity and how these can be addressed from a design point of view in order to ensure innovation success and, secondly, to determine how this changes innovation forms and applications.Method: Two approaches were offered to deal with a complex environment – one allowing for complexity for organisational innovation and the other introducing reductionism to minimise complexity. These approaches were examined in a qualitative study involving case studies, open-ended interviews and content analysis between seven developing economy (South African organisations and seven developed economy (US organisations.Results: This study presented a proposed framework for (organisational innovation in a complex environment versus a framework that minimises complexity. The comparative organisational analysis demonstrated the importance of initiating organisational innovation to address internal and external complexity, with the focus being on the leadership actions, their selected operating models and resultant organisational innovations designs, rather than on technological innovations.Conclusion: This study cautioned the preference for technological innovation within organisations and suggested alternative innovation forms (such as organisational and management innovation be used to remain competitive in a complex environment. 

  15. Stochastic transport through complex comb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaburdaev, V. Yu.; Popov, P. V.; Romanov, A. S.; Chukbar, K. V.

    2008-01-01

    A unified rigorous approach is used to derive fractional differential equations describing subdiffusive transport through comb structures of various geometrical complexity. A general nontrivial effect of the initial particle distribution on the subsequent evolution is exposed. Solutions having qualitative features of practical importance are given for joined structures with widely different fractional exponents

  16. Writing a qualitative research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Philip

    2004-07-01

    A research project in nursing or nursing education is probably only complete once the findings have been published. This paper offers a format for writing a qualitative research report for publication. It suggests, at least, the following sections: introduction, aims of the study, review of the literature, sample, data collection methods, data analysis methods, findings, discussion, conclusion, abstract. Each of these sections is addressed along with many written-out examples. In some sections, alternative approaches are suggested. The aim of the paper is to help the neophyte researcher to structure his or her report and for the experienced researcher to reflect on his or her current practice. References to other source material on qualitative research are given.

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  18. Qualitative methods in nonhomogeneous cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, G.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of qualitative dynamical systems are introduced in the study of general gravitational fields near the initial singularity. Using a synchronous reference frame it is proved that any cosmological singularity in a globally hyperbolic spacetime contains in its neighborhood a region where the metric tensor is close to a generalized Kasner universe. Consequences of this result in the description of the behaviour of Einstein's equations near the singularity are emphasized. (Author) [pt

  19. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: A tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, L.V.; Laplante-Levesque, A.; Jones, L.; Preminger, J.E.; Nielsen, C.; Lunner, T.; Hickson, L.; Naylor, G.; Kramer, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. Design:

  20. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  1. Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empirical Phenomenology: A Qualitative Research Approach (The Cologne Seminars) ... and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. ... and considers its implications for qualitative methods such as interviewing ...

  2. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  3. Qualitative Methods in Drug Utilization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....

  4. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  5. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  6. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  7. Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

  8. Qualitative Education Management Based on Information Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Natal'ya M. Obolyaeva

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the qualitative education management through information technologies. Different approaches to defining the quality of education are considered. The interpretation for qualitative assessment of education is analyzed. The qualitative education management in details on the basis of information technologies is shown. The key advantages of appliance such technologies at the institutions of higher learning are analyzed.

  9. Qualitative Education Management Based on Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya M. Obolyaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the qualitative education management through information technologies. Different approaches to defining the quality of education are considered. The interpretation for qualitative assessment of education is analyzed. The qualitative education management in details on the basis of information technologies is shown. The key advantages of appliance such technologies at the institutions of higher learning are analyzed.

  10. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  11. Teaching Qualitative Research Methods Using "Undercover Boss"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, LaKresha; Schuwerk, Tara J.

    2017-01-01

    Course(s): Research Methods, Qualitative Research Methods, Organizational Communication, Business Communication. Objectives: After completing this class exercise, students should be able to identify the major components of a qualitative research study, along with the ethical dilemmas that come with doing qualitative research.

  12. [Teaching and learning the science of qualitative research in the health area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Qualitative research constitutes a necessary perspective of knowledge within the field of health services. Healthcare always occurs in complex contexts and its enhancement requires research methodologies that address this complexity. Nevertheless, the knowledge and use of qualitative research in health services is still very limited. Among the different factors that affect its development, the teaching and learning of qualitative research proves to be fundamental, even beyond undergraduate education. Healthcare professionals and health services present certain specific aspects that must be considered in the design and development of the teaching and learning of qualitative research. Based on an eight-year online training experience with Primary Healthcare professionals, the main challenges are indentified and discussed.

  13. Are There Ways out of the Self-inflicted Irrelevance of the Qualitative Off-stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Groeben

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative paradigm is relatively irrelevant in psychological research and teaching, which is not only due to the hegemony of the quantitative paradigm. This irrelevance also arises from the fragmentation within the qualitative research paradigm, which is a result of the principle of a close interdependence of research object and method; this fragmentation is evident in the lack of a systematic approach to the concept of method. The conviction to conduct a superior psychological approach leads to destructive competition both within the qualitative paradigm and in relation to the quantitative paradigm. Instead, I recommend the pursuit of approaches that attempt to integrate qualitative and quantitative research methods on the basis of the idea of ontological layers, clearly distinct from esoteric approaches. Above all, the development of sophisticated and complex methods of statistical analysis appears a promising way to overcome the self-inflicted irrelevance of the qualitative research paradigm. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604347

  14. InterviewStreamliner, a minimalist, free, open source, relational approach to computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D. Pruijt (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInterviewStreamliner is a free, open source, minimalist alternative to complex computer-assisted qualitative data analysis packages. It builds on the flexibility of relational database management technology.

  15. Brokering leadership in complex environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study, set in the United States, presents an in-depth analysis of leadership in schools and community-based organizations that helped connect students and families to vital education resources. Data were collected from 132 interviews with those who experienced the social and organizational complexities of homelessness. The findings suggest that brokering leadership supports learning, symbolism, identity development, and responsibility. The study indicates that brokering leadership has promise for cultivating opportunities for those who are traditionally disconnected from important resources and relationships.

  16. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    OpenAIRE

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundQualitative research methods are increasingly used within trials to address broader research questions than quantitative methods can address alone. Qualitative methods enable health professionals, service users and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences when evaluating health care treatments, interventions or policies. They can influence trial design, allowing for a fuller engagement with research questions, aims and objectives and clarify the complexities of p...

  17. Analysing the significance of silence in qualitative interviewing: questioning and shifting power relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....

  18. Qualitative Secondary Analysis: A Case Exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Judith Ann; Happ, Mary Beth

    Qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) is the use of qualitative data that was collected by someone else or was collected to answer a different research question. Secondary analysis of qualitative data provides an opportunity to maximize data utility, particularly with difficult-to-reach patient populations. However, qualitative secondary analysis methods require careful consideration and explicit description to best understand, contextualize, and evaluate the research results. In this article, we describe methodologic considerations using a case exemplar to illustrate challenges specific to qualitative secondary analysis and strategies to overcome them. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  20. Qualitative insights on fundamental mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardari, Ghenadie N

    2007-01-01

    The gap between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics has an important interpretive implication: the Universe must have an irreducible fundamental level, which determines the properties of matter at higher levels of organization. We show that the main parameters of any fundamental model must be theory-independent. Moreover, such models must also contain discrete identical entities with constant properties. These conclusions appear to support the work of Kaniadakis on subquantum mechanics. A qualitative analysis is offered to suggest compatibility with relevant phenomena, as well as to propose new means for verification

  1. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    care services. Visions of shared use of (electronic) data for administrative purposes, for research purposes and for performing daily health care services push the IT-development and challenges the understanding of what health care work actually is. The Achilles of ICT-mediated health care...... that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...

  2. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  3. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. We describe some available qualitative methods for sampling, data collection, and analysis and we discuss the rationale for choosing particular methods. The focus is on four approaches which have all previously been applied to audiologic research: grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, conversational analysis, and qualitative content analysis. This article provides a review of methodological issues useful for those designing qualitative research projects in audiology or needing assistance in the interpretation of qualitative literature.

  4. Qualitative analysis of MTEM response using instantaneous attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Olalekan; Di, Qingyun

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces new technique for qualitative analysis of multi-transient electromagnetic (MTEM) earth impulse response over complex geological structures. Instantaneous phase and frequency attributes were used in place of the conventional common offset section for improved qualitative interpretation of MTEM data by obtaining more detailed information from the earth impulse response. The instantaneous attributes were used to describe the lateral variation in subsurface resistivity and the visible geological structure with respect to given offsets. Instantaneous phase attribute was obtained by converting the impulse response into a complex form using the Hilbert transform. Conversely, the polynomial phase difference (PPD) estimator was favored over the center finite difference (CFD) approximation method in calculating the instantaneous frequency attribute because it is computationally efficient and has the ability to give a smooth variation of the instantaneous frequency over a common offset section. The observed results from the instantaneous attributes were in good agreement with both the subsurface model used and the apparent resistivity section obtained from the MTEM earth impulse response. Hence, this study confirms the capability of both instantaneous phase and frequency attributes as highly effective tools for MTEM qualitative analysis.

  5. Qualitative phase space reconstruction analysis of supply-chain inventor time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Wu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The economy systems are usually too complex to be analysed, but some advanced methods have been developed in order to do so, such as system dynamics modelling, multi-agent modelling, complex adaptive system modelling and qualitative modelling. In this paper, we considered a supply-chain (SC system including several kinds of products. Using historic suppliers’ demand data, we firstly applied the phase space analysis method and then used qualitative analysis to improve the complex system’s performance. Quantitative methods can forecast the quantitative SC demands, but they cannot indicate the qualitative aspects of SC, so when we apply quantitative methods to a SC system we get only numerous data of demand. By contrast, qualitative methods can show the qualitative change and trend of the SC demand. We therefore used qualitative methods to improve the quantitative forecasting results. Comparing the quantitative only method and the combined method used in this paper, we found that the combined method is far more accurate. Not only is the inventory cost lower, but the forecasting accuracy is also better.

  6. [Feminism and qualitative nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun; Yih, Bong-Sook

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe feminism and to propose the integration of a feminist method into qualitative nursing methodology in order to expand the body of nursing knowledge. The world view of feminism including philosophy, epistemology and methodology was outlined, and a feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were suggested as a way of strengthening nursing research methodology using literature review. Four different philosophical perspectives of feminism, that is, liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxist feminism, and social feminism were described. Also epistemological perspectives including feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint, and postmodern feminism, were explained and were related to the methodology and methods of feminism. To enhance the strengths of nursing research within the feminist perspectives, feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were exemplified in the paradigm of qualitative nursing research. This paper suggested that incorporation of feminist approaches within nursing is a valuable attempt to expand the body of nursing knowledge and to enhance the quality of nursing care services by rectifying male-oriented knowledge and by empowering women in the care of other people as well as themselves.

  7. Text Complexity and Young Adult Literature: Establishing Its Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaus, Marci

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students for college and careers in the 21st century has shed light on text complexity as an important variable for consideration in English Language Arts. Authors of The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) define text complexity as broad, highlighting qualitative, rather than quantitative evaluations of narrative fiction as appropriate…

  8. Complexity or Meaning in Health Professional Education and Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Wendy Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Discourses of complexity have entered health professional education. This paper explores the meaning of complexity by asking how health professionals are educated and some of the consequences of that education. Design: A qualitative study was carried out drawing on reflexivity, discourse analysis and grounded methodology. Setting: Two…

  9. Qualitative data analysis for health services research: developing taxonomy, themes, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Devers, Kelly J

    2007-08-01

    To provide practical strategies for conducting and evaluating analyses of qualitative data applicable for health services researchers. DATA SOURCES AND DESIGN: We draw on extant qualitative methodological literature to describe practical approaches to qualitative data analysis. Approaches to data analysis vary by discipline and analytic tradition; however, we focus on qualitative data analysis that has as a goal the generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory germane to health services research. We describe an approach to qualitative data analysis that applies the principles of inductive reasoning while also employing predetermined code types to guide data analysis and interpretation. These code types (conceptual, relationship, perspective, participant characteristics, and setting codes) define a structure that is appropriate for generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory. Conceptual codes and subcodes facilitate the development of taxonomies. Relationship and perspective codes facilitate the development of themes and theory. Intersectional analyses with data coded for participant characteristics and setting codes can facilitate comparative analyses. Qualitative inquiry can improve the description and explanation of complex, real-world phenomena pertinent to health services research. Greater understanding of the processes of qualitative data analysis can be helpful for health services researchers as they use these methods themselves or collaborate with qualitative researchers from a wide range of disciplines.

  10. Qualitative environmental health research: an analysis of the literature, 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2011-10-01

    Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. This analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.

  11. Anomie in the Complex Socium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Mescheryakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the question of what changes should be made in the theory of social anomie, formulated by Emile Durkheim and developed by Robert Merton. This is necessary because modern society has entered a qualitatively new stage in its development and is characterized by the notion of a complex socium. Anomie in a simple socium can be defined as structural. Social system itself creates the conditions in which the destructive behavior is "normal" response to the social situation. Anomie of modern complex society can be defined as reflexive. Variety of value-normative systems leads to the fact that norms become an act of choice. Decision-making center has shifted to the level of the microcosm. They have become as unpredictable as social life in general.

  12. Spirituality, Religion, and Suicidality Among Veterans: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jaimie; Dobscha, Steven K; Kopacz, Marek; Ritchie, Mary Frances; Ono, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the relationship between veterans' spirituality/religion and suicide ideation and attempts. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 veterans who either endorsed chronic suicidal ideation or had made suicide attempt(s). Interviews explored the bi-directional relationship between spirituality/religion (e.g., beliefs, practices, and experiences), and suicide ideation and behaviors. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Veterans' responses indicate that spirituality/religion can discourage or permit suicidal ideation, help in coping with ideation, and facilitate meaning making and coping in the presence of self-perceived suffering. Veterans who survived a suicide attempt explored the impact of their spirituality/religion on their recovery. Findings highlight a complex and diverse relationship between spirituality/religion and suicidality. These findings may inform further research on treatment strategies that assess the function of spirituality/religion, and incorporate protective aspects of spirituality/religion into mental health treatment.

  13. Experiencia in qualitative methodology: History of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Borboa Quintero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From the commercial opening of Mexico the companies compete with transnational companies. In the municipality of Culiacan of the state of Sinaloa the small companies have been harmed mainly by his low level of productivity and competitiveness. Reason why to study two people who even with the complexity of the environment they haveinfluenced for the growth and development of its organization which is important for the local and state development. The intention of the present work, even though some results are included, is to show the method and the instruments used in the investigation. In the first place one poses the problem to investigate, the questions, objectives and hypotheses that orient this work, also includes the design of the field work, that contemplates relevance to use the qualitative method of the tradition life history, the collect and the storage of the data, its analysis and interpretation and some conclusions. The study allowed determining the characteristics and qualities that conform their personality of leader, as well as the identification of the management practices that have implemented.

  14. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  15. The qualitative orientation in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer Anne

    2017-06-01

    Qualitative research is very important in educational research as it addresses the "how" and "why" research questions and enables deeper understanding of experiences, phenomena and context. Qualitative research allows you to ask questions that cannot be easily put into numbers to understand human experience. Getting at the everyday realities of some social phenomenon and studying important questions as they are really practiced helps extend knowledge and understanding. To do so, you need to understand the philosophical stance of qualitative research and work from this to develop the research question, study design, data collection methods and data analysis. In this article, I provide an overview of the assumptions underlying qualitative research and the role of the researcher in the qualitative process. I then go on to discuss the type of research objectives which are common in qualitative research, then introduce the main qualitative designs, data collection tools, and finally the basics of qualitative analysis. I introduce the criteria by which you can judge the quality of qualitative research. Many classic references are cited in this article, and I urge you to seek out some of these further reading to inform your qualitative research program.

  16. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Unpacking the Complexity of Planning with Persons with Cognitive Disability and Complex Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Susan; Dew, Angela; Dowse, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Planners will engage with people with cognitive disability and complex support needs in the Australian National Disability Insurance Scheme, but the specific skills needed to build sustainable plans with this group are not yet known. Method: A qualitative study was conducted to explore the barriers and facilitators to planning with…

  18. Qualitative analysis in reliability and safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Burdick, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The qualitative evaluation of system logic models is described as it pertains to assessing the reliability and safety characteristics of nuclear systems. Qualitative analysis of system logic models, i.e., models couched in an event (Boolean) algebra, is defined, and the advantages inherent in qualitative analysis are explained. Certain qualitative procedures that were developed as a part of fault-tree analysis are presented for illustration. Five fault-tree analysis computer-programs that contain a qualitative procedure for determining minimal cut sets are surveyed. For each program the minimal cut-set algorithm and limitations on its use are described. The recently developed common-cause analysis for studying the effect of common-causes of failure on system behavior is explained. This qualitative procedure does not require altering the fault tree, but does use minimal cut sets from the fault tree as part of its input. The method is applied using two different computer programs. 25 refs

  19. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  20. Commentary: Writing and Evaluating Qualitative Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah; Aroian, Karen J.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Deatrick, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of qualitative methods, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. Methods A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. Results and Conclusions When producing qualitative research, individuals are encouraged to address the qualitative research considerations raised and to explicitly identify the systematic strategies used to ensure rigor in study design and methods, analysis, and presentation of findings. Increasing capacity for review and publication of qualitative research within pediatric psychology will advance the field’s ability to gain a better understanding of the specific needs of pediatric populations, tailor interventions more effectively, and promote optimal health. PMID:27118271

  1. HTA and synthesis of qualitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva Ulriksen; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Health technology assessment is no longer simply a question of efficacy and economics. Internationally there is growing interest in patient-related and organisational aspects and questions of why and how the technologies work. Qualitative research has established a role in answering...... these kinds of questions. Key challenges using qualitative research in HTA are related to the interpretive and small scale nature of qualitative research and how to synthesise qualitative research. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine and discuss the relevance of synthesis of qualitative...... research (SQR) in HTAs and to address its possibilities and limitations. Methods: SQR is described and discussed focusing on definition of synthesis and of qualitative versus quantitative methods, on questions of evidence and on the relevance for HTA. SQR is understood as an umbrella term for different...

  2. Commentary: Writing and Evaluating Qualitative Research Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P; Thompson, Deborah; Aroian, Karen J; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Deatrick, Janet A

    2016-06-01

    To provide an overview of qualitative methods, particularly for reviewers and authors who may be less familiar with qualitative research. A question and answer format is used to address considerations for writing and evaluating qualitative research. When producing qualitative research, individuals are encouraged to address the qualitative research considerations raised and to explicitly identify the systematic strategies used to ensure rigor in study design and methods, analysis, and presentation of findings. Increasing capacity for review and publication of qualitative research within pediatric psychology will advance the field's ability to gain a better understanding of the specific needs of pediatric populations, tailor interventions more effectively, and promote optimal health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Fibromyalgia Flares: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; Rhudy, Lori M

    2016-03-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia report periods of symptom exacerbation, colloquially referred to as "flares" and despite clinical observation of flares, no research has purposefully evaluated the presence and characteristics of flares in fibromyalgia. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe fibromyalgia flares in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia. Using seven open-ended questions, patients were asked to describe how they perceived fibromyalgia flares and triggers and alleviating factors associated with flares. Patients were also asked to describe how a flare differs from their typical fibromyalgia symptoms and how they cope with fibromyalgia flares. Content analysis was used to analyze the text. A total of 44 participants completed the survey. Responses to the seven open-ended questions revealed three main content areas: causes of flares, flare symptoms, and dealing with a flare. Participants identified stress, overdoing it, poor sleep, and weather changes as primary causes of flares. Symptoms characteristic of flares included flu-like body aches/exhaustion, pain, fatigue, and variety of other symptoms. Participants reported using medical treatments, rest, activity and stress avoidance, and waiting it out to cope with flares. Our results demonstrate that periods of symptom exacerbation (i.e., flares) are commonly experienced by patients with fibromyalgia and symptoms of flares can be differentiated from every day or typical symptoms of fibromyalgia. Our study is the first of its kind to qualitatively explore characteristics, causes, and management strategies of fibromyalgia flares. Future studies are needed to quantitatively characterize fibromyalgia flares and evaluate mechanisms of flares. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  5. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

  6. Stigma, HIV and health: a qualitative synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Lori A.; Rueda, Sergio; Baker, D. Nico; Wilson, Michael G.; Deutsch, Rachel; Raeifar, Elmira; Rourke, Sean B.; Team, The Stigma Review

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-related stigma continues to negatively impact the health and well-being of people living with HIV, with deleterious effects on their care, treatment and quality of life. A growing body of qualitative research has documented the relationship between HIV-related stigma and health. This review aims to synthesize qualitative evidence that explored the intersections of stigma and health for people with HIV. Methods A thematic summary was conducted that was guided by the qualitative ...

  7. Qualitative research: resurgence, institutionalisation and application

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, NG

    2005-01-01

    The way that the social sciences developed in respect of methodological preferences, and differences between European and North American approaches, helps us to understand why secondary analysis has until recently been a limited practice in qualitative research. To unravel the developments that explain the differing circumstances of secondary analysis in quantitative and qualitative research, we will initially consider the early days of qualitative method, and comment on its location in the f...

  8. Controller Synthesis using Qualitative Models and Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Ramamoorthy, Subramanian; Kuipers, Benjamin J

    2004-01-01

    Many engineering systems require the synthesis of global behaviors in nonlinear dynamical systems. Multiple model approaches to control design make it possible to synthesize robust and optimal versions of such global behaviors. We propose a methodology called Qualitative Heterogeneous Control that enables this type of control design. This methodology is based on a separation of concerns between qualitative correctness and quantitative optimization. Qualitative sufficient conditions are derive...

  9. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-01-01

    Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...

  10. The problem of appraising qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon-Woods, M; Shaw, R; Agarwal, S; Smith, J

    2004-01-01

    

 Qualitative research can make a valuable contribution to the study of quality and safety in health care. Sound ways of appraising qualitative research are needed, but currently there are many different proposals with few signs of an emerging consensus. One problem has been the tendency to treat qualitative research as a unified field. We distinguish universal features of quality from those specific to methodology and offer a set of minimally prescriptive prompts to assist with the assessme...

  11. Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of methacomposts of poultry in the nurseries aboveground. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences.

  12. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  13. New directions in qualitative research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology organized at Aalborg University, and several contributions that resulted from it.

  14. Qualitative research in travel behavior studies

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    Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)

  15. New Directions in Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative Research gains increasing popularity in the field of Psychology. With the renewed interest, there are, however, also some risks related to the overhomogenization and increasing standardization of qualitative methods. This special issue is dedicated to clarify some of the existing...... misconceptions of qualitative research and to discuss its potentials for the field of psychology in light of recent endeavors to overcome paradigmatic battles and a re-orientation to the specifities of psychology. The issue comprises a discussion from workshop on the future of qualitative research in psychology...

  16. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  17. [A call for qualitative research in Orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitschaky, O; Hofnung, T; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research is an umbrella term for an array of attitudes and strategies for conducting inquiries that are aimed at discerning how human beings understand, experience, and interpret the social world. It is employed in many different academic disciplines most particularly in the social sciences and humanities, however recently more and more qualitative research is being conducted under the medical sciences including dentistry and orthodontics. This is due to its nature of in-depth investigation, which can provide answers to questions that cannot be satisfactorily answered using quantitative methods alone. The aims of this article are to discuss the characteristics of qualitative research, to review the orthodontic English literature, and to highlight the advantages of qualitative research in orthodontics. The literature review yielded several important conclusions regarding qualitative research in orthodontics: 1. most of the qualitative research done in orthodontics chose to use semi structured in-depth interviews for data collection; 2. qualitative research highlights aspects that are very important, and sometimes crucial to everyday practice and long term treatment; 3. there is a lack of qualitative studies in the field of orthodontics. Taking into account the nature of the orthodontic treatment, which is a prolonged one, demanding of a good orthodontist-patient rapport, and a wide perspective on behalf of the clinician, filling the gap in the discipline through conducting more qualitative studies aimed at understanding the point of view of the patient, as well as that of the clinician, may be beneficial for the improvement of the treatment.

  18. Locating qualitative studies in dementia on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO: A comparison of search strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Morwenna; Bethel, Alison; Abbott, Rebecca

    2017-10-28

    Qualitative research in dementia improves understanding of the experience of people affected by dementia. Searching databases for qualitative studies is problematic. Qualitative-specific search strategies might help with locating studies. To examine the effectiveness (sensitivity and precision) of 5 qualitative strategies on locating qualitative research studies in dementia in 4 major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL). Qualitative dementia studies were checked for inclusion on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Five qualitative search strategies (subject headings, simple free-text terms, complex free-text terms, and 2 broad-based strategies) were tested for study retrieval. Specificity, precision and number needed to read were calculated. Two hundred fourteen qualitative studies in dementia were included. PsycINFO and CINAHL held the most qualitative studies out the 4 databases studied (N = 171 and 166, respectively) and both held unique records (N = 14 and 7, respectively). The controlled vocabulary strategy in CINAHL returned 96% (N = 192) of studies held; by contrast, controlled vocabulary in PsycINFO returned 7% (N = 13) of studies held. The broad-based strategies returned more studies (93-99%) than the other free-text strategies (22-82%). Precision ranged from 0.061 to 0.004 resulting in a number needed to read to obtain 1 relevant study ranging from 16 (simple free-text search in CINAHL) to 239 (broad-based search in EMBASE). Qualitative search strategies using 3 broad terms were more sensitive than long complex searches. The controlled vocabulary for qualitative research in CINAHL was particularly effective. Furthermore, results indicate that MEDLINE and EMBASE offer little benefit for locating qualitative dementia research if CINAHL and PSYCINFO are also searched. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Teacher Transformation from Complex Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Carolina Peña Lozada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a qualitative investigation of phenomenological interpretative paradigm, of documentary type; and seeks to analyze the transformation of the teacher from the complex thinking, centered on the teacher-student benefit, through a bibliographic documentary triangulation of the authors Edgar Morin and Matthew Lipman with the subject of complex thinking and the necessary knowledge for education, David Ausubel, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky with educational psychology, Pérez Esclarín with the humanization of education, and finally with contributions from Honore Bernard, UNESCO in the field of teacher transformation. Faced with the crisis and the evolution of education in Latin America requires an educational reform where innovation, creativity, training, vocation and love of teaching practices are contemplated, looking towards the adjustment profile of the current reality of apprentices, assuming in a continuous way the challenge of breaking barriers that obstruct the goal that is pursued in the multidimensional, professional, spiritual and human field, immersed in the complexity of their work, and interacting with all the interior and exterior elements of their humanity that are exposed in the challenge of complex thinking.

  20. Measuring the Complexity of Urban Form and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Boeing, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems have become a popular lens for conceptualizing cities, and complexity has substantial implications for urban performance and resilience. This paper develops a typology of methods and measures for assessing the complexity of the built form at the scale of urban design. It extends quantitative methods from urban planning, network science, ecosystems studies, fractal geometry, and information theory to the physical urban form and the analysis of qualitative human experience. Metr...

  1. Menstruation during a lifespan: A qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw

    2014-01-01

    Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.

  2. Qualitative approaches to use of the RE-AIM framework: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Rabin, Borsika A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2018-03-13

    There have been over 430 publications using the RE-AIM model for planning and evaluation of health programs and policies, as well as numerous applications of the model in grant proposals and national programs. Full use of the model includes use of qualitative methods to understand why and how results were obtained on different RE-AIM dimensions, however, recent reviews have revealed that qualitative methods have been used infrequently. Having quantitative and qualitative methods and results iteratively inform each other should enhance understanding and lessons learned. Because there have been few published examples of qualitative approaches and methods using RE-AIM for planning or assessment and no guidance on how qualitative approaches can inform these processes, we provide guidance on qualitative methods to address the RE-AIM model and its various dimensions. The intended audience is researchers interested in applying RE-AIM or similar implementation models, but the methods discussed should also be relevant to those in community or clinical settings. We present directions for, examples of, and guidance on how qualitative methods can be used to address each of the five RE-AIM dimensions. Formative qualitative methods can be helpful in planning interventions and designing for dissemination. Summative qualitative methods are useful when used in an iterative, mixed methods approach for understanding how and why different patterns of results occur. In summary, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to RE-AIM help understand complex situations and results, why and how outcomes were obtained, and contextual factors not easily assessed using quantitative measures.

  3. Qualitative environmental health research: an analysis of the literature, 1991-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2010-08-01

    Recent articles have advocated for the use of qualitative methods in environmental health research. Qualitative research uses nonnumeric data to understand people's opinions, motives, understanding, and beliefs about events or phenomena. In this analysis of the literature, I report the use of qualitative methods and data in the study of the relationship between environmental exposures and human health. A primary search on ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science for peer-reviewed journal articles dated from 1991 through 2008 included the following three terms: qualitative, environ*, and health. Inclusion and exclusion criteria are described. Searches resulted in 3,155 records. Data were extracted and findings of articles analyzed to determine where and by whom qualitative environmental health research is conducted and published, the types of methods and analyses used in qualitative studies of environmental health, and the types of information qualitative data contribute to environmental health. Ninety-one articles met inclusion criteria. These articles were published in 58 different journals, with a maximum of eight for a single journal. The results highlight a diversity of disciplines and techniques among researchers who used qualitative methods to study environmental health, with most studies relying on one-on-one interviews. Details of the analyses were absent from a large number of studies. Nearly all of the studies identified increased scientific understanding of lay perceptions of environmental health exposures. Qualitative data are published in traditionally quantitative environmental health studies to a limited extent. However, this analysis demonstrates the potential of qualitative data to improve understanding of complex exposure pathways, including the influence of social factors on environmental health, and health outcomes.

  4. Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Kristian

    2012-09-27

    Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic 'procedural' resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are 'unethical' but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of 'micro-ethics' based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of 'empirical ethics' as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.

  5. Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

    2011-01-01

    Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b = 3.688, P = 0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b = 6.847, Pqualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b = 1.776, P = 0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the

  6. Generic qualitative research: a design for qualitative research in emergency care?

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, S; Endacott, R

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of qualitative studies in the Emergency Medicine Journal, while still low, has increased over the last few years. All take a generic approach and rarely conform to established qualitative approaches such as phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory. This generic approach is no doubt selected for pragmatic reasons but can be weakened by a lack of rigor and understanding of qualitative research. This paper explores qualitative approaches and then focuses on “best practice” fo...

  7. Addressing the Challenges Related to Transforming Qualitative Into Quantitative Data in Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, de Debora; Vis, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    The use of qualitative data has so far received relatively little attention in methodological discussions on qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). This article addresses this lacuna by discussing the challenges researchers face when transforming qualitative data into quantitative data in QCA. By

  8. Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

    2008-01-01

    This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

  9. The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

  10. Ensuring validity in qualitative International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account for how the validity issue may be gasped within a qualitative apporach to the IB field......The purpose of this paper is to provide an account for how the validity issue may be gasped within a qualitative apporach to the IB field...

  11. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  12. Understanding Qualitative Research: A School Nurse Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    More school nurses are engaging in the generation of research, and their studies increasingly are using qualitative methods to describe various areas of practice. This article provides an overview of 4 major qualitative methods: ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historical research. Examples of school nursing research studies that…

  13. Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

    2011-01-01

    In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

  14. Computing in Qualitative Analysis: A Healthy Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lyn; Richards, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the potential impact of computers in qualitative health research. Describes the original goals, design, and implementation of NUDIST, a qualitative computing software. Argues for evaluation of the impact of computer techniques and for an opening of debate among program developers and users to address the purposes and power of computing…

  15. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  16. Qualitative Research and the Legitimization of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Brent; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Expresses concerns about importing qualitative research methods from education to family therapy. Argues that qualitative researchers cannot establish the trustworthiness of their findings, regardless of the methods they use. Further contends that the legitimacy of research knowledge cannot be determined by researchers, but rather requires the…

  17. Qualitative Research Designs: Selection and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Hanson, William E.; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Morales, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychologists face many approaches from which to choose when they conduct a qualitative research study. This article focuses on the processes of selecting, contrasting, and implementing five different qualitative approaches. Based on an extended example related to test interpretation by counselors, clients, and communities, this article…

  18. Handbook of Qualitative Research in Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Martin J., Ed.; Müller, Nicole, Ed.; Nelson, Ryan L., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders. The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the…

  19. Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

  20. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  1. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...

  2. A Rainbow of Qualitative Approaches and Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the seven papers presented at a symposium entitled "Perennial Issues in Qualitative Research," part of the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (San Francisco, California, 1986), and included in this issue. Discusses the demonstrated usefulness of qualitative methods in educational research, and also…

  3. Rigor or Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research: Perspectives, Strategies, Reconceptualization, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypress, Brigitte S

    Issues are still raised even now in the 21st century by the persistent concern with achieving rigor in qualitative research. There is also a continuing debate about the analogous terms reliability and validity in naturalistic inquiries as opposed to quantitative investigations. This article presents the concept of rigor in qualitative research using a phenomenological study as an exemplar to further illustrate the process. Elaborating on epistemological and theoretical conceptualizations by Lincoln and Guba, strategies congruent with qualitative perspective for ensuring validity to establish the credibility of the study are described. A synthesis of the historical development of validity criteria evident in the literature during the years is explored. Recommendations are made for use of the term rigor instead of trustworthiness and the reconceptualization and renewed use of the concept of reliability and validity in qualitative research, that strategies for ensuring rigor must be built into the qualitative research process rather than evaluated only after the inquiry, and that qualitative researchers and students alike must be proactive and take responsibility in ensuring the rigor of a research study. The insights garnered here will move novice researchers and doctoral students to a better conceptual grasp of the complexity of reliability and validity and its ramifications for qualitative inquiry.

  4. Hantavirus Outbreak: The Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86

  5. Confucianism and Qualitative Interviewing: Working Seoul to Soul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghee Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the internationalization of higher education, research settings and researcher backgrounds are becoming increasingly complex, further complicating disciplinary assumptions, traditions and techniques. This article highlights key practical and conceptual issues that arose during planning fieldwork, fieldwork conduct, subsequent analysis and writing up of a qualitative study carried out within a Confucian setting. Drawing on the experience with a detailed research study of a pay for performance scheme (involving 31 in-depth interviews undertaken by a South Korean researcher, this article explores conceptual and practical issues that emerged between Anglophone methods and countries with a Confucian heritage. It is discussed how processes of sampling/recruitment, ethics, fieldwork conduct (including insider relations, power hierarchies, and translation are complicated in such settings. The article seeks to expand our understandings of qualitative research vis-à-vis contemporary Confucian cultures, something which has previously not been well addressed and which is part of the ongoing project of "globalizing qualitative research." URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150274

  6. The Futures of Qualitative Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiner Keller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I begin by reviewing past views on the future of qualitative social research. In different ways, all of these views give the same account of a problematic present state which must be overcome by following their own particular "mandatory directives" for future developments. I then discuss four structural mechanisms from which current problems in the transmission of qualitative and interpretative designs or approaches originate. Recently, supporters of "post-qualitative research" have addressed such problems by arguing for a form of strong theorism in qualitative social research. However, this type of response can lead back to an outdated dominance of theory over research and empirical substance. In conclusion, some alternative options for navigating qualitative and interpretative research through post-positivist waters are discussed. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401165

  7. Qualitative data analysis: conceptual and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2009-08-01

    Qualitative inquiry requires that collected data is organised in a meaningful way, and this is referred to as data analysis. Through analytic processes, researchers turn what can be voluminous data into understandable and insightful analysis. This paper sets out the different approaches that qualitative researchers can use to make sense of their data including thematic analysis, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and semiotic analysis and discusses the ways that qualitative researchers can analyse their data. I first discuss salient issues in performing qualitative data analysis, and then proceed to provide some suggestions on different methods of data analysis in qualitative research. Finally, I provide some discussion on the use of computer-assisted data analysis.

  8. Qualitative data analysis a methods sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Matthew B; Saldana, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    The Third Edition of Miles & Huberman's classic research methods text is updated and streamlined by Johnny SaldaNa, author of The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Several of the data display strategies from previous editions are now presented in re-envisioned and reorganized formats to enhance reader accessibility and comprehension. The Third Edition's presentation of the fundamentals of research design and data management is followed by five distinct methods of analysis: exploring, describing, ordering, explaining, and predicting. Miles and Huberman's original research studies are profiled and accompanied with new examples from SaldaNa's recent qualitative work. The book's most celebrated chapter, "Drawing and Verifying Conclusions," is retained and revised, and the chapter on report writing has been greatly expanded, and is now called "Writing About Qualitative Research." Comprehensive and authoritative, Qualitative Data Analysis has been elegantly revised for a new generation of qualitative r...

  9. COST Training School on New Economic Complex Geography

    CERN Document Server

    Panchuk, Anastasiia; Radi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the lectures delivered during a short course held at Urbino University in summer 2015 on qualitative theory of dynamical systems, included in the activities of the COST Action IS1104 “The EU in the new economic complex geography: models, tools and policy evaluation”. It provides a basic introduction to dynamical systems and optimal control both in continuous and discrete time, as well as some numerical methods and applications in economic modelling. Economic and social systems are intrinsically dynamic, characterized by interdependence, nonlinearity and complexity, and these features can only be approached using a qualitative analysis based on the study of invariant sets (equilibrium points, limit cycles and more complex attractors, together with the boundaries of their basins of attraction), which requires a trade-off between analytical, geometrical and numerical methods. Even though the early steps of the qualitative theory of dynamical systems have been in continuous time models, in e...

  10. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research required to facilitate assessment within qualitative evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-08-01

    To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. "Ouch!" Recruitment of Overweight and Obese Adolescent Boys for Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Zachary; Gregory, David; Thibodeau, Steven; Copeland, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the complexities of recruiting overweight and obese adolescent boys for qualitative research, discuss specific recruitment considerations for this population, and offer guidance to researchers interested in recruiting overweight adolescent boys. Three overweight adolescent boys and six community…

  12. Disaggregating Qualitative Data from Asian American College Students in Campus Racial Climate Research and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Truong, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the utility of disaggregating qualitative research and assessment data on Asian American college students. Given the complexity of and diversity within the Asian American population, scholars have begun to underscore the importance of disaggregating data in the empirical examination of Asian Americans, but most of those…

  13. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  14. Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

  15. Pedagogical Considerations for Effectively Teaching Qualitative Research to Students in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Sara; Hill, Karlie

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research aims to understand both individual meaning as well as complex systemic interactions as they apply to social problems or individual experiences. This method of research is both inductive and flexible, allowing for a holistic approach that facilitates a rich understanding of the content examined. Past research identifies a…

  16. Qualitative Computing and Qualitative Research: Addressing the Challenges of Technology and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Cisneros Puebla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative computing has been part of our lives for thirty years. Today, we urgently call for an evaluation of its international impact on qualitative research. Evaluating the international impact of qualitative research and qualitative computing requires a consideration of the vast amount of qualitative research over the last decades, as well as thoughtfulness about the uneven and unequal way in which qualitative research and qualitative computing are present in different fields of study and geographical regions. To understand the international impact of qualitative computing requires evaluation of the digital divide and the huge differences between center and peripheries. The international impact of qualitative research, and, in particular qualitative computing, is the question at the heart of this array of selected papers from the "Qualitative Computing: Diverse Worlds and Research Practices Conference." In this article, we introduce the reader to the goals, motivation, and atmosphere at the conference, taking place in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2011. The dialogue generated there is still in the air, and this introduction is a call to spread that voice. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202285

  17. Illness perceptions in anorexia nervosa: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbed, Laurie; Fox, John R E

    2010-09-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by the egosyntonic nature of symptoms, denial of illness, and ambivalence about treatment engagement. Within the physical health literature, people's beliefs about their illness have been found to impact upon coping and treatment outcomes and this has largely been explored using the self-regulation model. This model has also been applied to mental health and more recently to AN, with beliefs about the disorder being associated with readiness to change. However, qualitative investigations have indicated that physical health models have limited applicability for assessing people's beliefs about mental illness. This may be particularly pertinent to AN, given the complexity of the disorder. Therefore, this study explored illness perceptions in AN using a qualitative design which was not restricted by a physical illness model but focused on personal models of AN from the perspective of those experiencing the disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen participants who were currently in treatment for AN. Interview transcripts were analysed using grounded theory methodology. An interpretative theory of illness perceptions in AN was developed and comprised four related categories: 'making sense of AN', 'the relationship between AN and the self', 'the recovery struggle', and 'coping with treatment'. Patient's accounts transcended the dimensions offered by physical illness models, with the implication that methods for assessing illness beliefs in AN require adaptation for a full understanding to be gained and the complexity of perceptions to be captured.

  18. Hierarchy Measure for Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mones, Enys; Vicsek, Lilla; Vicsek, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Nature, technology and society are full of complexity arising from the intricate web of the interactions among the units of the related systems (e.g., proteins, computers, people). Consequently, one of the most successful recent approaches to capturing the fundamental features of the structure and dynamics of complex systems has been the investigation of the networks associated with the above units (nodes) together with their relations (edges). Most complex systems have an inherently hierarchical organization and, correspondingly, the networks behind them also exhibit hierarchical features. Indeed, several papers have been devoted to describing this essential aspect of networks, however, without resulting in a widely accepted, converging concept concerning the quantitative characterization of the level of their hierarchy. Here we develop an approach and propose a quantity (measure) which is simple enough to be widely applicable, reveals a number of universal features of the organization of real-world networks and, as we demonstrate, is capable of capturing the essential features of the structure and the degree of hierarchy in a complex network. The measure we introduce is based on a generalization of the m-reach centrality, which we first extend to directed/partially directed graphs. Then, we define the global reaching centrality (GRC), which is the difference between the maximum and the average value of the generalized reach centralities over the network. We investigate the behavior of the GRC considering both a synthetic model with an adjustable level of hierarchy and real networks. Results for real networks show that our hierarchy measure is related to the controllability of the given system. We also propose a visualization procedure for large complex networks that can be used to obtain an overall qualitative picture about the nature of their hierarchical structure. PMID:22470477

  19. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, F.J. [School of Healthcare Professions, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: f.j.murphy@salford.ac.uk; Yielder, J. [Medical Imaging, School of Health Sciences, Unitec, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-02-15

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  20. Qualitative identification of chaotic systems behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicha, T.; Dohnal, M.

    2008-01-01

    There are only three qualitative values positive, negative and zero. This means that there is a maximal number of qualitatively distinguishable scenarios, prescribed by the number of variables and the highest qualitative derivative taken into consideration. There are several chaos related tasks, which can be solved with great difficulties on the numerical level if multidimensional problems are studied. One of them is the identification of all qualitatively different behaviours. To make sure that all distinctive qualitative scenarios are identified a qualitative interpretation of a classical quantitative phase portrait is used. The highest derivatives are usually the second derivatives as it is not possible to safely identify higher derivatives if tasks related to ecology or economics are studied. Two classical models are discussed - Damped oscillation (non chaotic) and Lorenz model (chaotic). There are 191 scenarios of the Lorenz model if only the second derivatives are considered. If the third derivatives are taken into consideration then the number of scenarios is 2619. Complete qualitative results are given in details

  1. Qualitative models for space system engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to investigate the implications of qualitative modeling techniques for problems arising in the monitoring, diagnosis, and design of Space Station subsystems and procedures; (2) to identify the issues involved in using qualitative models to enhance and automate engineering functions. These issues include representing operational criteria, fault models, alternate ontologies, and modeling continuous signals at a functional level of description; and (3) to develop a prototype collection of qualitative models for fluid and thermal systems commonly found in Space Station subsystems. Potential applications of qualitative modeling to space-systems engineering, including the notion of intelligent computer-aided engineering are summarized. Emphasis is given to determining which systems of the proposed Space Station provide the most leverage for study, given the current state of the art. Progress on using qualitative models, including development of the molecular collection ontology for reasoning about fluids, the interaction of qualitative and quantitative knowledge in analyzing thermodynamic cycles, and an experiment on building a natural language interface to qualitative reasoning is reported. Finally, some recommendations are made for future research.

  2. Establishing rigour in qualitative radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, F.J.; Yielder, J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of radiography research is subject to critique and evaluation from peers in order to justify the method and the outcome of the study. Within the quantitative domain, which the majority of medical imaging publications tend to fall into, there are prescribed methods for establishing scientific rigour and quality in order to critique a study. However, researchers within the qualitative paradigm, which is a developing area of radiography research, are often unclear about the most appropriate methods to measure the rigour (standards and quality) of a research study. This article considers the issues related to rigour, reliability and validity within qualitative research. The concepts of reliability and validity are briefly discussed within traditional positivism and then the attempts to use these terms as a measure of quality within qualitative research are explored. Alternative methods for research rigour in interpretive research (meanings and emotions) are suggested in order to compliment the existing radiography framework that exists for qualitative studies. The authors propose the use of an established model that is adapted to reflect the iterative process of qualitative research. Although a mechanistic approach to establishing rigour is rejected by many qualitative researchers, it is argued that a guide for novice researchers within a developing research base such as radiography is appropriate in order to establish the credibility and trustworthiness of a qualitative study.

  3. Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  4. Methodology Series Module 10: Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  5. The use of triangulation in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nancy; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; DiCenso, Alba; Blythe, Jennifer; Neville, Alan J

    2014-09-01

    Triangulation refers to the use of multiple methods or data sources in qualitative research to develop a comprehensive understanding of phenomena (Patton, 1999). Triangulation also has been viewed as a qualitative research strategy to test validity through the convergence of information from different sources. Denzin (1978) and Patton (1999) identified four types of triangulation: (a) method triangulation, (b) investigator triangulation, (c) theory triangulation, and (d) data source triangulation. The current article will present the four types of triangulation followed by a discussion of the use of focus groups (FGs) and in-depth individual (IDI) interviews as an example of data source triangulation in qualitative inquiry.

  6. Editorial: Qualitative Research and Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Otten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces to the thematic scope and the articles of this special issue and it explains some important terminological distinctions of the intercultural research field. The overall aim of this issue is to explore the manifold ways to apply and to reflect upon qualitative research methods in the context of intercultural communication. This implies both a discussion of genuine characteristics of intercultural qualitative research as well as attempts to identify common features and linkages of this special area with more general interpretative research traditions under the "umbrella" of qualitative social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901342

  7. Methodological pluralism as a vehicle of qualitative generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an innovative framework for making analytical generalizations in qualitative research. In order to achieve this purpose it contends that the multimethodological strategy, now readily accepted in many qualitative quarters, of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods by app...

  8. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  9. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  10. Qualitative research from start to finish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yin, Robert K

    2011-01-01

    .... Despite his stature as a world-renowned qualitative researcher, Yin's approach and writing style are so accessible that readers will feel like he is speaking directly to them in a small seminar...

  11. Qualitative methods: a research approach worth considering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative research forms part of the classical cycle of research. ... putting aside any preconceived ideas and “intuiting”- focusing on the ... that is, no new information is obtained. ... and communication with the scientific community are adhered.

  12. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-06-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as "qualitative psychologists", they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening "McDonaldization" of qualitative research, while the potentials are related to proliferation of new forms of inquiry and a transcending of disciplinary boundaries.

  13. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  14. Qualitative Research Literature: A Bibliographic Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Presents selected literature that exemplifies (in theory and in practice) four methodological frameworks that have found wide application in qualitative studies: symbolic interactionism, phenomenological description, constructivist hermeneutics, and critical studies. (Author/LRW)

  15. Contemporary Discourses in Qualitative Research: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sciences) to move beyond 'numbers' or statistical analysis in order to strengthen their ... approach and using the appropriate qualitative research methods in health research ... the foundation for social science research (Marvasti, 2004: 1).

  16. Perils and potentials in qualitative psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Famously, Ebbinghaus declared that psychology has a long past, but only a short history. Psychology, as something implicit to human conduct, is as old as the human race, but the science, as an explicit investigative reflection upon that conduct, is a recent invention. Within the short history...... of psychology, we find an even shorter history of qualitative psychology specifically. Although most founding fathers (Freud, Piaget, Bartlett etc.) worked as “qualitative psychologists”, they found no need to thematize their methods of inquiry in this manner. Since around 1980, however, a field has established...... itself that can be called qualitative psychology. In this paper, I discuss how this field can move sensibly into the future, and I highlight two perils and two potentials. The perils stem from neo-positivism and a threatening “McDonaldization” of qualitative research, while the potentials are related...

  17. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  18. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Terkildsen, Thomas Schjødt

    2015-01-01

    (Aalborg University) and Günter Mey (Stendal University of Applied Science). The discussion started out by addressing the specifics of qualitative research in the field of psychology, its historical development and the perils of recent trends of standardization and neo-positivistic orientations. In light......In May 2014, a workshop on ”The future of qualitative research in psychology” took place at Aalborg University, Department of Communication & Psychology organized by Carolin Demuth. Participants from Aalborg University engaged in a lively exchange with the two invited discussants Svend Brinkmann...... of the discrepancy of what could be potentially achieved with qualitative methods for psychological research and how they are actually currently applied, the need was stressed to return to an understanding of qualitative methods as a craft skill and to take into account the subjectivity of the researcher...

  19. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  20. Experiences of patients undergoing chemotherapy - a qualitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Using a qualitative descriptive design, seven in-patients with varying cancer diagnoses at the Uganda Cancer. Institute were ... tance of focusing research on persons with cancer in ... variety of cancer types were included.

  1. Cross-Cultural Research and Qualitative Inquiry

    OpenAIRE

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2010-01-01

    Cross-cultural research has become important in this postmodern world where many people have been made, and are still, marginalised and vulnerable by others in more powerful positions like colonial researchers. In this paper, I contend that qualitative research is particularly appropriate for cross-cultural research because it allows us to find answers which are more relevant to the research participants. Cross-cultural qualitative research must be situated within some theoretical frameworks....

  2. Qualitative Research Networking: FQS as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Mruck

    2000-01-01

    If one thinks about accessing and reusing qualitative data with an international and interdisciplinary perspective, this topic also contains organisational and networking tasks beyond the field of qualitative archiving in the narrow sense—some of them necessarily relying on the Internet and its tools. I had the chance to gain experiences within international networking while editing the online journal FQS and I would like to summarise some aspects, hopefully helpful also for the planned netwo...

  3. Soldier Readiness: Insights from Qualitative Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    domains interact and influence performance. From January to May 2016, the research team conducted three qualitative studies with Soldiers including... Research Questions UNCLASSIFIED 9 • From January to May 2016, the research team conducted a series of qualitative studies with Soldiers from the 82nd...that the Army’s current approach for providing these types of training is not always ideal. Specifically, the train-the-trainer method or use of

  4. Editorial: Qualitative Research and Intercultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Otten; Jens Allwood; Maria Assumpta Aneas; Dominic Busch; David M. Hoffman; Michele Schweisfurth

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces to the thematic scope and the articles of this special issue and it explains some important terminological distinctions of the intercultural research field. The overall aim of this issue is to explore the manifold ways to apply and to reflect upon qualitative research methods in the context of intercultural communication. This implies both a discussion of genuine characteristics of intercultural qualitative research as well as attempts to identify common features and l...

  5. The Necessity of Qualitative Materiality in Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Nurten

    2006-01-01

    Auditors have to make materiality judgments on every audit. Assessing materiality requires careful consideration of all relevant circumstances, both quantitative and qualitative considerations, as well as interaction of these considerations. This process is difficult because both quantitative and qualitative factors must evaluate.Audit standards on materiality do not provide sufficient formal guidance to quantify materiality. As a result, the auditors have been left to assess materiality base...

  6. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due

  7. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  8. Using visual information analysis to explore complex patterns in the activity of designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of complex interlinked datasets poses a significant problem for design researchers. This is addressed by proposing an information visualisation method for analysing patterns of design activity, qualitatively and quantitatively, with respect to time. This method visualises the tempora...

  9. Reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay E

    2012-03-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the use of reliability assessments in qualitative research in general, and health promotion research in particular. In this article, I examine the use of reliability assessments in qualitative health promotion research in response to health promotion researchers' commonly held misconception that reliability assessments improve the rigor of qualitative research. All qualitative articles published in the journal Health Promotion International from 2003 to 2009 employing reliability assessments were examined. In total, 31.3% (20/64) articles employed some form of reliability assessment. The use of reliability assessments increased over the study period, ranging from qualitative articles decreased. The articles were then classified into four types of reliability assessments, including the verification of thematic codes, the use of inter-rater reliability statistics, congruence in team coding and congruence in coding across sites. The merits of each type were discussed, with the subsequent discussion focusing on the deductive nature of reliable thematic coding, the limited depth of immediately verifiable data and the usefulness of such studies to health promotion and the advancement of the qualitative paradigm.

  10. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts.

  11. Assigning poetry reading as a way of introducing students to qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to explain how poetry reading can be used to teach interpretive analysis of qualitative data. A number of studies were located in the nursing literature that focused on using poetry to help students develop empathy for patients, to teach students to reflect on their own practice, and to assist them in developing self-understanding. No studies were found that described the use of poetry reading as a way of teaching the skill of interpretive analysis. There are, however, a number of parallels between the principles of poetry reading and qualitative analysis that suggest that this method of teaching would be successful. International papers published on PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL were reviewed to identify challenges facing educators and ways of teaching the process of qualitative data analysis using poetry reading. Using poetry reading to teach skills of qualitative data analysis helps motivate students, cultivates a reflective mindset, and develops the skill of working as a member of an interpretive group. Framing interpretive work as being like reading poetry helps students pick up more quickly on the art that is a major component of the work. This approach also helps students learn the importance of cultural and contextual particulars as they begin analyzing qualitative data. Using poetry reading to introduce students to the complex skill of qualitative data analysis is an effective pedagogical strategy.

  12. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  13. How theory is used and articulated in qualitative research: development of a new typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie; Herber, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    There is a long tradition within qualitative research of theory being central and of critical importance. Qualitative research theory often equates with the methodologies used but this is a complex relationship, plagued by lack of consensus among scholars regarding how theory and methodology are related. This article furthers the debates on how theories are used in qualitative research, how they might influence a study and how they are articulated in publications. The aim is to provide a framework through which the relationship between theory and qualitative research can be understood. We propose a five-point typology on the levels of theoretical visibility, testing this against a range of published research from five key international health, medicine and social science journals. The typology captures a range of visibility--from seemingly absent through to highly visible and applied throughout. There was a clear gradient in this assessment--only a minority appeared to use theory consistently throughout a study. We outline several challenges to consistently applying theory in qualitative research and suggest potential solutions. This article is based on the argument that lack of theory in qualitative research undermines its quality. The typology is offered to assist researchers in applying theory in their own research and critiquing its use in the work of others. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  15. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  16. Chaos, complexity, and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Hunter-Jones, Nicholas; Liu, Junyu; Yoshida, Beni

    2017-11-01

    Chaos and complexity entail an entropic and computational obstruction to describing a system, and thus are intrinsically difficult to characterize. In this paper, we consider time evolution by Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) Hamiltonians and analytically compute out-of-time-ordered correlation functions (OTOCs) and frame potentials to quantify scrambling, Haar-randomness, and circuit complexity. While our random matrix analysis gives a qualitatively correct prediction of the late-time behavior of chaotic systems, we find unphysical behavior at early times including an O(1) scrambling time and the apparent breakdown of spatial and temporal locality. The salient feature of GUE Hamiltonians which gives us computational traction is the Haar-invariance of the ensemble, meaning that the ensemble-averaged dynamics look the same in any basis. Motivated by this property of the GUE, we introduce k-invariance as a precise definition of what it means for the dynamics of a quantum system to be described by random matrix theory. We envision that the dynamical onset of approximate k-invariance will be a useful tool for capturing the transition from early-time chaos, as seen by OTOCs, to late-time chaos, as seen by random matrix theory.

  17. Sociology and Complexity Science A New Field of Inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This book is the first to identify and review the new field of study, sociology and complexity science—or SACS for short. SACS is comprised of five cutting-edge areas of research: computational sociology, the British-based School of Complexity (BBC), complex social network analysis (CSNA), sociocybernetics and the Luhmann School of Complexity (LSC). Together, these five areas represent the latest development in complexity science and sociological systems thinking, offering researchers a powerful, new set of tools for addressing the growing complexity of sociological inquiry. This book also showcases a new method for modeling social systems, called the SACS Toolkit. The SACS Toolkit comes with a theoretical framework (social complexity theory), procedural algorithm (assemblage) and recommended toolset for modeling social systems (qualitatively, historically or numerically) from the ground-up. In fact, this book uses the SACS Toolkit to review the new field of SACS. The third feature of this book is its compe...

  18. Finite Volumes for Complex Applications VII

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Rohde, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The methods considered in the 7th conference on "Finite Volumes for Complex Applications" (Berlin, June 2014) have properties which offer distinct advantages for a number of applications. The second volume of the proceedings covers reviewed contributions reporting successful applications in the fields of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, structural analysis, nuclear physics, semiconductor theory and other topics. The finite volume method in its various forms is a space discretization technique for partial differential equations based on the fundamental physical principle of conservation. Recent decades have brought significant success in the theoretical understanding of the method. Many finite volume methods preserve further qualitative or asymptotic properties, including maximum principles, dissipativity, monotone decay of free energy, and asymptotic stability. Due to these properties, finite volume methods belong to the wider class of compatible discretization methods, which preserve qualitative propert...

  19. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  20. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  1. Stigma, abortion, and disclosure--findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury-Ward, Edna; Parry, Odette; Carnwell, Ros

    2012-12-01

    This study qualitatively explores perceptions of women who have experienced abortion care. It explores women's journey through abortion from confirmation of pregnancy to post-abortion. The study seeks to understand the implications of these perceptions for policy and practice. A qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured interviews with 17 women, aged between 22 and 57 years, who had undergone legal induced abortion in the UK when they were 16 years or older. Participants were not recruited under the age of 16 because of the ethical and legal complexities of interviewing minors. Additionally, 16 years was deemed to be the most appropriate age as this is the legal age of consent in the UK. Participants were recruited from 12 community contraception and sexual health clinics in two NHS trusts, one in England and one in Wales. Participant recruitment was set at a minimum of 12 and participants were recruited on a "first come first served basis" (i.e., the first 12 who contacted the researcher). The number of participants was raised to seventeen as this was the number deemed to be the most suitable for data saturation in this particular qualitative research. Women in this study understood abortion as highly taboo and a potentially personally stigmatizing event. These perceptions continued to affect disclosure to others, long after the abortion, and affected women's perceptions of the response of others, including society in general, significant others, and health professionals. Women's experiences of abortion may be influenced by perceived negative social attitudes. Health professionals and abortion service providers might combat the perceived isolation of women undergoing abortion by attending not only to clinical/technical aspects of the procedure but also to women's psychological/emotional sensitivities surrounding the event. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Turning Points in Qualitative Research: Tying Knots in a Handkerchief. Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.

    The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…

  3. Addressing the challenges in using qualitative data in qualitative comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Block, Debora; Vis, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue that so far has received relatively little attention in methodological discussions about Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), namely the challenges researchers face when using qualitative data in QCA analyses. Building on a literature review of 22 empirical studies

  4. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Qualitative Data Analysis as a Metaphoric Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the second of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail argues the process can best be understood as a metaphoric process. From this orientation he suggests researchers follow Kenneth Burke's notion of metaphor and see qualitative data analysis as the analyst systematically considering the "this-ness" of…

  5. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Reading Line-by-Line, but Analyzing by Meaningful Qualitative Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail points out the challenges of determining units to analyze qualitatively when dealing with text. He acknowledges that although we may read a document word-by-word or line-by-line, we need to adjust our focus when processing the text for purposes of…

  6. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  8. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  9. Conducting Qualitative Data Analysis: Managing Dynamic Tensions within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    In the third of a series of "how-to" essays on conducting qualitative data analysis, Ron Chenail examines the dynamic tensions within the process of qualitative data analysis that qualitative researchers must manage in order to produce credible and creative results. These tensions include (a) the qualities of the data and the qualitative data…

  10. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  11. Nurse practitioner integration: Qualitative experiences of the change management process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Grainne; Plummer, Virginia; Boyd, Leanne

    2018-04-30

    The aim of this qualitative research was to explore perceptions of organisational change related to the integration of nurse practitioners from key nursing stakeholders. The ongoing delivery of effective and efficient patient services is reliant upon the development and sustainability of nurse practitioner roles. Examination of the factors contributing to the underutilization of nurse practitioner roles is crucial to inform future management policies. A change management theory is used to reveal the complexity involved. Qualitative interviews were undertaken using a purposive sampling strategy of key stakeholders. Thematic analysis was undertaken and key themes were correlated to the theoretical framework. The results confirm the benefits of nurse practitioner roles, but suggest organisational structures and embedded professional cultures present barriers to full role optimization. Complicated policy processes are creating barriers to the integration of nurse practitioner roles. The findings increase understanding of the links between strategic planning, human resource management, professional and organisational cultures, governance and politics in change management. Effective leadership drives the change process through the ability to align key components necessary for success. Sustainability of nurse practitioners relies on recognition of their full potential in the health care team. The results of this study highlight the importance of management and leadership in the promotion of advanced nursing skills and experience to better meet patient outcomes. The findings reinforce the potential of nurse practitioners to deliver patient centred, timely and efficient health care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ethnicity and the prostate cancer experience: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Matheson, Lauren; Nayoan, Johana; Glaser, Adam; Gavin, Anna; Wright, Penny; Wagland, Richard; Watson, Eila

    2016-10-01

    To summarize black and minority ethnic (BME) patients' and partners experiences of prostate cancer by examining the findings of existing qualitative studies. We undertook a systematic metasynthesis of qualitative studies using a modified version of Noblit and Hare's "meta-ethnography" approach, with a 2000-2015 search of 7 databases. Thirteen studies of men from US and UK BME groups were included. We explored constructs with BME-specific features. Health care provider relationships, formation of a spiritual alliance with God (which enhanced the participants' feeling of empowerment and ability to cope with the cancer), and living on for others (generally to increase cancer awareness), often connected to spiritual regrowth, were the 3 constructs most commonly reported. A magnified effect from erectile dysfunction was also common. Initially, this affected men's disclosure to others about their cancer and their sexual problems, but eventually men responded by shifting their conceptualizations of masculinity to sustain self and social identities. There was also evidence of inequality resulting from financial constraints and adversity that necessitated resilience in coping. The prostate cancer experience of BME men and their partners is affected by a complex intersection of ethnicity with other factors. Health care services should acknowledge this. If providers recognize the men's felt masculinities, social identities, and spiritual beliefs and their shifting nature, services could be improved, with community as well as individual benefits. More studies are needed in diverse ethnic groups. © 2016 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Airflow Patterns In Nuclear Workplace - Computer Simulation And Qualitative Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haim, M.; Szanto, M.; Weiss, Y.; Kravchick, T.; Levinson, S.; German, U.

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of airborne radioactive materials inside a room can vary widely from one location to another, sometimes by orders of magnitude even for locations that are relatively close. Inappropriately placed samplers can give misleading results and. therefore, the location of air samplers is important. Proper placement of samplers cannot be determined simply by observing the position of room air supply and exhaust vents. Airflow studies, such as the release of smoke aerosols, should be used. The significance of airflow pattern studies depends on the purpose of sampling - for estimating worker intakes, warning of high concentrations. defacing airborne radioactive areas, testing for confinement of sealed radioactive materials. etc. When sampling air in rooms with complex airflow patterns, it may be useful to use qualitative airflow studies with smoke tubes, smoke candles or isostatic bubbles. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission - Regulatory Guide 8.25 [1]. suggests that an airflow study should be conducted after any changes at work area including changes in the setup of work areas, ventilation system changes, etc. The present work presents an airflow patterns study conducted in a typical room using two methods: a computer simulation and a qualitative test using a smoke tube

  14. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  15. Balance between qualitative and quantitative verification methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidaira, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    The amount of inspection effort for verification of declared nuclear material needs to be optimized in the situation where qualitative and quantitative measures are applied. Game theory was referred to investigate the relation of detection probability and deterrence of diversion. Payoffs used in the theory were quantified for cases of conventional safeguards and integrated safeguards by using AHP, Analytical Hierarchy Process. Then, it became possible to estimate detection probability under integrated safeguards which had equivalent deterrence capability for detection probability under conventional safeguards. In addition the distribution of inspection effort for qualitative and quantitative measures was estimated. Although the AHP has some ambiguities in quantifying qualitative factors, its application to optimization in safeguards is useful to reconsider the detection probabilities under integrated safeguards. (author)

  16. Qualitative Research Networking: FQS as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available If one thinks about accessing and reusing qualitative data with an international and interdisciplinary perspective, this topic also contains organisational and networking tasks beyond the field of qualitative archiving in the narrow sense—some of them necessarily relying on the Internet and its tools. I had the chance to gain experiences within international networking while editing the online journal FQS and I would like to summarise some aspects, hopefully helpful also for the planned networking of qualitative archives within INQUADA. So let me first shortly introduce FQS—its origin and its current state—, and afterwards I will stress some opportunities and also some challenges, FQS and similar networking projects confront. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003346

  17. Transitioning from Clinical to Qualitative Research Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.

  18. Ontological and Epistemological Foundations of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vasilachis de Gialdino

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the primary and secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Finally, cognitive interaction and cooperative knowledge construction are considered as two fundamental features in the process of qualitative research grounded on the Epistemology of the Known Subject. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902307

  19. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  20. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate......Log data from smartphones have primarily been used in large-scale research designs to draw statistical inferences from hundreds or even thousands of participants. In this article, we argue that more qualitatively oriented designs can also benefit greatly from integrating these rich data sources...... serve as cues to instigate discussion and reflection as well as act as resources for contextualizing and organizing related empirical material. In the discussion, the advantages of a qualitative perspective for research designs are assessed in relation to issues of validity. Further perspectives...

  1. The contribution of embarrassment to phobic dental anxiety: a qualitative research study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.; Brødsgaard, I.; Rosenberg, N.

    2004-01-01

    . Qualitative findings were co-validated with tests of association between embarrassment intensity ratings, years of treatment avoidance, and mouth-hiding behavioral ratings. Embarrassment was a complaint in all but three cases. Chief complaints in the sample: 30% had fear of pain; 47% cited powerlessness...... status or perceived neglect, often (n = 9) with fear of negative social evaluation as chief complaint. These nine cases were qualitatively different from other cases with chief complaints of social powerlessness associated with conditioned distrust of dentists and their negative behaviors. The majority......-image/esteem and in some cases personality changes in a vicious circle of anxiety and avoidance. Embarrassment intensity ratings were positively correlated with years of avoidance and degree of mouth-hiding behaviors. Embarrassment is a complex dental anxiety manifestation with qualitative differences by complaint...

  2. Dialog on a country path: the qualitative research journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, Jeanne M; Cangelosi, Pamela R; Dinkins, Christine S

    2014-03-01

    There is little information in the literature describing how students learn qualitative research. This article describes an approach to learning that is based on the pedagogical approach of Dinkins' Socratic-Hermeneutic Shared Inquiry. This approach integrates shared dialog as an essential aspect of learning. The qualitative pedagogy described in this article focused on three questions: What is knowing in qualitative research? How do we come to know qualitative research? What can we do with qualitative research? Students learned the basics of qualitative research within a context that fostered interpretive inquiry. In this way, the course framework mirrored the combination of interviewing, storytelling, and journeying toward understanding that constitute qualitative research. © 2013.

  3. Concurrent analysis: towards generalisable qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Martin, Colin R

    2011-10-01

    This study develops an original method of qualitative analysis coherent with its interpretivist principles. The objective is to increase the likelihood of achieving generalisability and so improve the chance of the findings being translated into practice. Good qualitative research depends on coherent analysis of different types of data. The limitations of existing methodologies are first discussed to justify the need for a novel approach. To illustrate this approach, primary evidence is presented using the new methodology. The primary evidence consists of a constructivist grounded theory of how mental health nurses with prescribing authority integrate prescribing into practice. This theory is built concurrently from interviews, reflective accounts and case study data from the literature. Concurrent analysis. Ten research articles and 13 semi-structured interviews were sampled purposively and then theoretically and analysed concurrently using constructivist grounded theory. A theory of the process of becoming competent in mental health nurse prescribing was generated through this process. This theory was validated by 32 practising mental health nurse prescribers as an accurate representation of their experience. The methodology generated a coherent and generalisable theory. It is therefore claimed that concurrent analysis engenders consistent and iterative treatment of different sources of qualitative data in a manageable manner. This process supports facilitation of the highest standard of qualitative research. Concurrent analysis removes the artificial delineation of relevant literature from other forms of constructed data. This gives researchers clear direction to treat qualitative data consistently raising the chances of generalisability of the findings. Raising the generalisability of qualitative research will increase its chances of informing clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The Essence of Healing from Sexual Violence: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S; Ross, Ratchneewan; Cook, Christina Benson; Stidham, Andrea Warner; Mweemba, Prudencia

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative metasynthesis was conducted to identify the essence of healing from sexual violence, as described by adults who experienced it as children or as adults. Based on the findings of 51 reports, four domains of healing were identified: (a) managing memories, (b) relating to important others, (c) seeking safety, and (c) reevaluating self. The ways of healing within each domain reflected opposing responses. The dialectical process identified for each of the four domains include, respectively: (a) calling forth memories, (b) regulating relationships with others, (c) constructing an “as-safe-as-possible” lifeworld, and (d) restoring a sense of self. These complex processes resulted in a new reality for the participants that was based on a greater sense of agency and provided a more satisfying life course. PMID:19415681

  5. Immunizing Children: A Qualitative Analysis of Future Parental Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeleta, Hannah C; Beasley, Lana O; Ridings, Leigh E; Smith, Tyler J; Shields, Jennifer D

    2017-10-01

    Vaccinations are considered one of public health's greatest accomplishments. Despite evidence for vaccine effectiveness, uptake levels are still well below the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's guidelines. The immunization decision-making process for parents is complex and depends on factors associated with knowledge and experiences. This qualitative study sought to expand on a previous decision-making model for immunizations by examining how individuals receive vaccination information, determining the role of experience in influencing decisions, and understanding how young adults might locate vaccination information in the future. Three focus groups were conducted with 29 undergraduate students without children. Results suggest that young adults exhibit an awareness of information regarding vaccine use and effectiveness, value doctor opinions and recommendations, and desire more robust research on vaccinations. Implications of these results include the importance of (1) disseminating vaccination education to young adults, (2) enhancing consistency/trust between medical professionals and youth, and (3) expanding public policy to increase vaccine uptake.

  6. Approximating the Qualitative Vickrey Auction by a Negotiation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, Koen V.; Tykhonov, Dmytro; de Weerdt, Mathijs

    A result of Bulow and Klemperer has suggested that auctions may be a better tool to obtain an efficient outcome than negotiation. For example, some auction mechanisms can be shown to be efficient and strategy-proof. However, they generally also require that the preferences of at least one side of the auction are publicly known. However, sometimes it is very costly, impossible, or undesirable to publicly announce such preferences. It thus is interesting to find methods that do not impose this constraint but still approximate the outcome of the auction. In this paper we show that a multi-round multi-party negotiation protocol may be used to this end if the negotiating agents are capable of learning opponent preferences. The latter condition can be met by current state of the art negotiation technology. We show that this protocol approximates the theoretical outcome predicted by a so-called Qualitative Vickrey auction mechanism (even) on a complex multi-issue domain.

  7. Men of Mexican Origin Who Abuse Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra W; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Gangialla, Christyn

    2018-03-01

    Current literature indicates that intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon that exists worldwide. However, little is known about why some men of Mexican origin abuse women. This descriptive study was conducted to understand the experiences of men of Mexican origin who abuse their intimate partners. A qualitative research design was used to conduct this study in a south Texas border community adjacent to the United States-Mexico border. This study builds on existing research and furthers the knowledge related to the factors contributing to intimate partner violence, including cultural factors. The results also reinforce the negative impacts of intimate partner violence on children and the family structure. Further research is needed to support the development of a culturally appropriate prevention and intervention program for men of Mexican origin who abuse women and their families.

  8. Employing a Qualitative Description Approach in Health Care Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage. PMID:29204457

  9. Employing a Qualitative Description Approach in Health Care Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Carmel; Atkinson, Sandra; Doody, Owen

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage.

  10. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of detonation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Yun

    2005-01-01

    Different sampling and different injection method were used during analyzing unknown detonation products in a obturator. The sample analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrum. Qualitative analysis was used with CO, NO, C 2 H 2 , C 6 H 6 and so on, qualitative analysis was used with C 3 H 5 N, C 10 H 10 , C 8 H 8 N 2 and so on. The method used in the article is feasible. The results show that the component of detonation in the study is negative oxygen balance, there were many pollutants in the detonation products. (authors)

  12. Qualitative research and the modern library

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Valeda Dent

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative Research and the Modern Library examines the present-day role and provides suggestions for areas that might be suited to this type of research for the purposes of evaluation. The author discusses how the results from such research might be applied, and the overall impact of using this type of research to inform development of a more user-centred organisation. The book provides a thoughtful look at the implications of using qualitative research to inform decision-making processes within libraries and is written by an author and library researcher with international experience in var

  13. From conditional oughts to qualitative decision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Judea

    1994-01-01

    The primary theme of this investigation is a decision theoretic account of conditional ought statements (e.g., 'You ought to do A, if C') that rectifies glaring deficiencies in classical deontic logic. The resulting account forms a sound basis for qualitative decision theory, thus providing a framework for qualitative planning under uncertainty. In particular, we show that adding causal relationships (in the form of a single graph) as part of an epistemic state is sufficient to facilitate the analysis of action sequences, their consequences, their interaction with observations, their expected utilities, and the synthesis of plans and strategies under uncertainty.

  14. Using Q Method in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pnina Shinebourne PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author outlines the features of Q method and assesses its suitability as a qualitative research method. She discusses the process of using the method and its particular approach to researching the range and diversity of subjective understandings, beliefs, and experiences. Q method is particularly suitable for identifying commonality and diversity and has a powerful capacity for thematic identification and analysis. In the author's view, Q method makes a contribution to expanding the repertoire of qualitative research methods.

  15. Complexity of the AdS soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the holographic complexity conjectures in the context of the AdS soliton, which is the holographic dual of the ground state of a field theory on a torus with antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions on one cycle. The complexity is a non-trivial function of the size of the circle with antiperiodic boundary conditions, which sets an IR scale in the dual geometry. We find qualitative differences between the calculations of complexity from spatial volume and action (CV and CA). In the CV calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is smaller than for periodic, and decreases monotonically with increasing IR scale. In the CA calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic, and initially increases with increasing IR scale, eventually decreasing to zero as the IR scale becomes of order the UV cutoff. We compare these results to a simple calculation for free fermions on a lattice, where we find the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic.

  16. Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663

  17. Qualitative Research: A Grounded Theory Example and Evaluation Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2005-01-01

    The qualitative research paradigm, although occasionally applied, is not widely discussed in agribusiness and agricultural economics literature. The primary goals of this paper are (a) to present insights into qualitative research approaches and processes by outlining grounded theory as an example of a systematic and rigorous qualitative approach, and (b) to discuss criteria for scientific rigor applicable to qualitative research. In addition, assessing qualitative research is demonstrated by...

  18. Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, V.; Braun, V.

    2013-01-01

    For Chapter 1: This chapter introduces qualitative research to a reader new to the area, and sets the scene for the rest of the book. It clearly specifies what defines qualitative research, and differentiates the use of a whole qualitative paradigm, or Big Q approach, with the more limited use of qualitative data within a more positivist paradigm. It contextualises qualitative research – within psychology – by providing a brief history of the approach, and by locating it within the learning-c...

  19. Qualitative description – the poor cousin of health research?

    OpenAIRE

    Sondergaard Jens; Andersen Rikke; Olesen Frede; Neergaard Mette

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge and use of qualitative description as a qualitative research approach in health services research is limited. The aim of this article is to discuss the potential benefits of a qualitative descriptive approach, to identify its strengths and weaknesses and to provide examples of use. Discussion Qualitative description is a useful qualitative method in much medical research if you keep the limitations of the approach in mind. It is especially relevant in mixed m...

  20. Applying Behavior Change Theories and Qualitative Methods in Substance Misuse Implementation Research: Conceptualizing the Adoption of Breaking Free Online in Real-World Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Stephanie; Elison, Sarah; Davies, Glyn; Ward, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    There is insufficient research examining the implementation of complex novel interventions within health care. This may be due to a lack of qualitative research providing subjective insights into these implementation processes. The authors investigate the advantages of applying behavior change theories to conceptualize qualitative data describing the processes of implementation of complex interventions. Breaking Free Online (BFO), a digital treatment intervention for substance misuse, is described as an example of a complex intervention. The authors review previous qualitative research which explored initial diffusion, or spread, of the BFO program, and its subsequent normalization as part of standard treatment for substance misuse within the health and social care charity, "Change, Grow, Live" (CGL). The use of behavior change models to structure qualitative interview findings enabled identification of facilitators and barriers to the use of BFO within CGL. These findings have implications for the development of implementation research in novel health care interventions.

  1. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT CARGO COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Making the qualitative administrative decisions defining strategy and tactics of transport cargo complexes development, and also its subsystems, is possible only in the presence of flexible optimization model. This model has to consider multiparametricity and multicriteriality of the given task, uncertainty and vagueness of input information, and also to provide process automation of searching the best parameters of the given production facility. The purpose of the research is to develop procedures for the strategic management of complex with view of the most important factors and their stochastic nature, which will execute the improvement of technical equipment of TCC. Methodology. The problem of strategic management is based on solving the complex of issues of the optimal number of shunting locomotives, optimal processing capability of handling the front and rational capacity of warehouses. The problem is solved on the basis of the proposed optimality criterion – the specific set of profit per unit of capital assets of freight industry. The listed problems are solved using simulation modeling of the freight industry. Findings. The use of developed procedure allows one to improve the technical equipment of the freight stations and complexes. Originality. For the first time it was developed the procedure of strategic management of development. This procedure allows taking into account the probabilistic nature of demand for services of transport freight complexes and technological processes of client services on the complex stations. The proposed procedure can be applied during when planning the investments in the creation of transport freight complexes. Practical value. Use as a basic tool of simulation models of complex cargo operation allows estimating the effectiveness of the capital investments, the level of operating costs, as well as the quality of meeting the demands of potential customers in transportations at the stage of

  2. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  3. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin.

  4. ComplexRec 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  5. Conference Report: Circles within Circles—Qualitative Methodology and the Arts: The Researcher as Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wainwright

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This short report describes a qualitative research colloquium in Swansea, UK, supported by AstraZeneca. The meeting was chaired by Frances RAPPORT and Paul WAINWRIGHT and was attended by 40 participants, representing a range of professional and academic backgrounds from the UK and beyond. The colloquium, built on the idea of links between new qualitative methodologies and the arts, sought to explore what happens when researchers and artists talk to one another; the premise was that qualitative research and the arts have much in common. Presentations from qualitative methodologists and artists were scheduled to run in parallel with one another. Artists and researchers were encouraged to discuss their work in terms of the productive process and expressive representation and to share applications and ideas. Recurrent themes centred on form, structure, content and meaning. The message that emerged from the two days was that the artistic creative process and qualitative research are inextricably bound up with these concerns. Artist and researcher take experience and seek to translate it into a form that others can in turn experience and interpret. This requires an engagement on the part of researcher and artist, a commitment to being truthful rather than being on a quest for truth. Qualitative research and the creative or performative process thus have strong similarities, of process and outcome. However, there are also fundamental differences in the social complexities of the two practices, their goals and purposes, and the intentions that lie behind them. Nevertheless, artists, performers and qualitative researchers appear to have much in common and the possibilities for future collaborations of this kind look very exciting. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070358

  6. An Integrated Qualitative and Quantitative Biochemical Model Learning Framework Using Evolutionary Strategy and Simulated Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zujian; Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative model learning frameworks for biochemical systems have been studied in computational systems biology. In this research, after introducing two forms of pre-defined component patterns to represent biochemical models, we propose an integrative qualitative and quantitative modelling framework for inferring biochemical systems. In the proposed framework, interactions between reactants in the candidate models for a target biochemical system are evolved and eventually identified by the application of a qualitative model learning approach with an evolution strategy. Kinetic rates of the models generated from qualitative model learning are then further optimised by employing a quantitative approach with simulated annealing. Experimental results indicate that our proposed integrative framework is feasible to learn the relationships between biochemical reactants qualitatively and to make the model replicate the behaviours of the target system by optimising the kinetic rates quantitatively. Moreover, potential reactants of a target biochemical system can be discovered by hypothesising complex reactants in the synthetic models. Based on the biochemical models learned from the proposed framework, biologists can further perform experimental study in wet laboratory. In this way, natural biochemical systems can be better understood.

  7. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  8. Handbook of Qualitative Research. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.

    This handbook's second edition represents the state of the art for the theory and practice of qualitative inquiry. It features eight new topics, including autoethnography, critical race theory, applied ethnography, queer theory, and "testimonio"every chapter in the handbook has been thoroughly revised and updated. The book…

  9. Qualitative treatment of three-nucleon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made at consistent qualitative treatment of the three-nucleon system. The approach used is based on the physical concept of effective three-nucleon long-range interaction resulting from the existence of the deuteron and the virtual singlet deuteron. Within the framework of the approach, a qualitative treatment of the triton properties, nucleon-deuteron scattering, and triton-disintegration reactions is carried out. The following topics are dealt with: the Phillips line, the triton D-wave admixture, the doublet effective range of the n-d scattering, the triton virtual state, the anomaly of the n-d elastic cross section near the three-body threshold, and the partial cross sections of the inelastic n-d scattering and of the triton photo- and electrodisintegration. The discussion of these topics includes the evaluation of three-nucleon parameters and the qualitative interpretation of experimental data and calculation results; some predictions are also made. The results of our analysis lead to the conclusion that the concept of effective three-nucleon long-range interaction can indeed serve as grounds for consistent qualitative treatment of the three-nucleon phenomena. (orig.)

  10. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is often...

  11. Ethics of Qualitative Interviewing with Grieving Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    Illustrations from a recent study of farm families who had lost a family member are used to illuminate some of the ethical challenges in qualitative bereavement research. Included in the exploration are ethics involved in interview recruitment, causing pain, informed consent, the boundaries of research and therapy, family dysfunction, and…

  12. The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robley, Lois R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)

  13. Troubling Methods in Qualitative Inquiry and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This present paper troubles and literally ‘shakes’ the idea of methods as the founding ground of qualitative inquiry. It does so by addressing the real-time messiness of research and the retrospective character of research reports. While the paper is not as such opposed to methods, it does suggest...

  14. A Qualitative Ethnographic Portrait of Women's Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Julee L.

    2013-01-01

    In this research study, I sought to understand and describe the Women's and Gender Studies (WGS) Program at Berea College by exploring it through the experiences of students, faculty, administrators, and alumnae. I designed and implemented a feminist organizational ethnography. Organizational ethnography is a naturalistic, qualitative research…

  15. Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

  16. Qualitative models of global warming amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milošević, U.; Bredeweg, B.; de Kleer, J.; Forbus, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest from ecological experts to create qualitative models of phenomena for which numerical information is sparse or missing. We present a number of successful models in the field of environmental science, namely, the domain of global warming. The motivation behind the effort is

  17. Troubling qualitative research/Troubling empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    This presentation aims to trouble the concept of empathy in qualitative inquiry from two perspectives having a phenomenological approach. As a supervisor I see students regard interviews as untouchable and be reluctant to bring in theory in their analysis because of empathy towards the interviewees...

  18. A Qualitative Acceleration Model Based on Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester MARTINEZ-MARTIN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On the way to autonomous service robots, spatial reasoning plays a main role since it properly deals with problems involving uncertainty. In particular, we are interested in knowing people's pose to avoid collisions. With that aim, in this paper, we present a qualitative acceleration model for robotic applications including representation, reasoning and a practical application.

  19. Enhancing Institutional Assessment Efforts through Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Banta, Trudy W.

    2007-01-01

    Qualitative methods can do much to describe context and illuminate the why behind patterns encountered in institutional assessment. Alone, or in combination with quantitative methods, they should be the approach of choice for many of the most important assessment questions. (Contains 1 table.)

  20. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  1. Qualitative research across boundaries of language: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Qualitative methodology has a growing importance in primary care research, reflected in projects submitted for the degree of MFamMed at The Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa). These projects were completed in multilingual settings and sought highly subjective information. This paper aimed to ...

  2. a qualitative study of grandparents' experiences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grandparents are increasingly becoming the primary carers of children orphaned by the HIV epidemic in South Africa. Traditional family roles are being reversed as aging family members take responsibility for the physical and psychosocial needs of children. This study uses qualitative research to explore the experiences of ...

  3. a qualitative study of providers' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma management is challenging to patients as well as to the eye care providers.The study is aimed at describing the challenges faced by providers using qualitative methods. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with selected Ophthalmologists and resident doctors in ophthalmology at centres ...

  4. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  5. CHARACTERIZATION QUALITATIVE OF SOEL FOR A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 janv. 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The main objective of this study was to qualitatively characterize biomass of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (or SOEL) to highlight the essential alternatives its valorization. At first, we studied the potential of composting biomass of this plant. The physico-chemical characterization of biomass ...

  6. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 ...

  7. Why Students Procrastinate: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsieck, Katrin B.; Grund, Axel; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we adopted an impartial view on academic procrastination in order to gain new insights for the development of intervention programs. Following a qualitative approach, we thereby explored antecedents of procrastination by attending to the actual voices and experiences of 29 students. Students' subjective theories were in line…

  8. Qualitative Data Sharing Practices in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have been sharing data for a long time. Sharing qualitative data, however, has not become a common practice, despite the context of e-Research, information growth, and funding agencies' mandates on research data archiving and sharing. Since most systematic and comprehensive studies are based on quantitative data practices, little…

  9. Alternative quality standards in qualitative research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, Cindy Louise; Schildkamp, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative researchers often use other principles for judging the quality of their study than quantitative researchers. This inhibits a straightforward assessment of the quality and comparability of different types of studies, as well as decision-making about their usefulness for further research

  10. Qualitative interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the implication of the above findings towards hydrocarbon exploration within the offshore Niger Delta of the study area. The original raster map, obtained from the Nigeria Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) in half degree sheet, was subjected to qualitative data analysis using the WingLink geophysical and visualization ...

  11. Martini Qualitative Research: Shaken, Not Stirred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of qualitative research studies has boomed in recent years, close observation reveals that often the research designs and methodological considerations and approaches have developed a type of configuration that does not adhere to purist definitions of the labels attached. Very often so called interpretivist studies are not…

  12. Qualitative Description of College Students' Dinner Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Brown, Lora Beth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discover how college students conduct dinner groups and perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation. Design: Qualitative study conducted with 7 focus groups. Setting and Participants: A university campus, with 36 students participating in dinner groups, defined as a group of 3 people or more cooking for one another…

  13. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures,…

  14. Asian American Career Development: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Kantamneni, Neeta; Smothers, Melissa K.; Chen, Yung-Lung; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Terry, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This study used a modified version of consensual qualitative research design to examine how contextual, cultural, and personal variables influence the career choices of a diverse group of 12 Asian Americans. Seven domains of influences on career choices emerged including family, culture, external factors, career goals, role models, work values,…

  15. Auditing as Institutional Research: A Qualitative Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Internal institutional auditing can improve effectiveness and efficiency and protect an institution's assets. Many of the concepts and techniques used to analyze higher education institutions are qualitative in nature and suited to institutional research, including fiscal, operational, data-processing, investigative, management consulting,…

  16. Complex Correspondence Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  17. Uranium thiolate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverd, Pascal C.

    1994-01-01

    This research thesis proposes a new approach to the chemistry of uranium thiolate complexes as these compounds are very promising for various uses (in bio-inorganic chemistry, in some industrial processes like oil desulphurization). It more particularly addresses the U-S bond or more generally bonds between polarizable materials and hard metals. The author thus reports the study of uranium organometallic thiolates (tricyclo-penta-dienic and mono-cyclo-octa-tetraenylic complexes), and of uranium homoleptic thiolates (tetra-thiolate complexes, hexa-thiolate complexes, reactivity of homoleptic thiolate complexes) [fr

  18. Establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings: the plot thickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R; McKenna, H P

    1999-08-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly recognized and valued and its unique place in nursing research is highlighted by many. Despite this, some nurse researchers continue to raise epistemological issues about the problems of objectivity and the validity of qualitative research findings. This paper explores the issues relating to the representativeness or credibility of qualitative research findings. It therefore critiques the existing distinct philosophical and methodological positions concerning the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings, which are described as follows: quantitative studies should be judged using the same criteria and terminology as quantitative studies; it is impossible, in a meaningful way, for any criteria to be used to judge qualitative studies; qualitative studies should be judged using criteria that are developed for and fit the qualitative paradigm; and the credibility of qualitative research findings could be established by testing out the emerging theory by means of conducting a deductive quantitative study. The authors conclude by providing some guidelines for establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings.

  19. Foundations of Complex Systems Nonlinear Dynamics, Statistical Physics, and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, Gregoire

    2007-01-01

    Complexity is emerging as a post-Newtonian paradigm for approaching a large body of phenomena of concern at the crossroads of physical, engineering, environmental, life and human sciences from a unifying point of view. This book outlines the foundations of modern complexity research as it arose from the cross-fertilization of ideas and tools from nonlinear science, statistical physics and numerical simulation. It is shown how these developments lead to an understanding, both qualitative and quantitative, of the complex systems encountered in nature and in everyday experience and, conversely, h

  20. Extending Beyond Qualitative Interviewing to Illuminate the Tacit Nature of Everyday Occupation: Occupational Mapping and Participatory Occupation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte

    2015-07-01

    The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.

  1. Economic Recession, Job Vulnerability, and Tourism Decision Making: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Papatheodorou, A.; Pappas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Occupational uncertainty has a considerable effect upon consumer decisions during a recession, especially with respect to discretionary products and services such as tourism. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), the study examines the complex relations among job vulnerability, disposable income for tourism, marketing activities, and price and quality issues for Greek holiday makers returning from their vacations. The article also compares QCA with the two dominant linear methods of a...

  2. Qualités en conception, concourance et management de la qualité

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Debizet; Eric Henry

    2008-01-01

    La notion de qualités en conception renvoie au premier chef aux qualités de l'ouvrage pour les exploitants et les utilisateurs actuels et futurs dont les appréciations évoluent dans la durée. Il y a donc toujours une part d'incertitude et de controverse quant au jugement sur les qualités de l'ouvrage. La promesse de qualités formulée en début de processus est toujours assortie d'incertitudes et de risques tels que les définit P. Dehan [Dehan, 2001]. Et ceux qui en portent la responsabilité pr...

  3. Bracketing as a skill in conducting unstructured qualitative interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, Minna Anneli; Kiikkala, Irma; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2015-03-01

    To provide an overview of bracketing as a skill in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Researchers affect the qualitative research process. Bracketing in descriptive phenomenology entails researchers setting aside their pre-understanding and acting non-judgementally. In interpretative phenomenology, previous knowledge is used intentionally to create new understanding. A literature search of bracketing in phenomenology and qualitative research. This is a methodology paper examining the researchers' impact in creating data in creating data in qualitative research. Self-knowledge, sensitivity and reflexivity of the researcher enable bracketing. Skilled and experienced researchers are needed to use bracketing in unstructured qualitative research interviews. Bracketing adds scientific rigour and validity to any qualitative study.

  4. Review: Cornelia Behnke & Michael Meuser (1999). Geschlechterforschung und qualitative Methoden [Gender Research and Qualitative Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Döring

    2001-01-01

    In less than 100 pages Cornelia BEHNKE and Michael MEUSER explain how gender studies evolved from women's studies and what feminist methodology is all about. They also discuss the interrelation of qualitative research and gender studies. The great potential of qualitative research based on a constructivist gender concept is demonstrated with a group discussion study involving different men only groups. Finally the authors deal with the question of how the researcher's gender affects both data...

  5. Young children's communication and literacy: a qualitative study of language in the inclusive preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, C

    1995-06-01

    Interactive and literacy-based language use of young children within the context of an inclusive preschool classroom was explored. An interpretivist framework and qualitative research methods, including participant observation, were used to examine and analyze language in five preschool classes that were composed of children with and without disabilities. Children's language use included spoken, written, signed, and typed. Results showed complex communicative and literacy language use on the part of young children outside conventional adult perspectives. Also, children who used expressive methods other than speech were often left out of the contexts where spoken language was richest and most complex.

  6. Micro-navigation in complex periodic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamolly, Alexander; Ishikawa, Takuji; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Natural and artificial small-scale swimmers may often self-propel in environments subject to complex geometrical constraints. While most past theoretical work on low-Reynolds number locomotion addressed idealised geometrical situations, not much is known on the motion of swimmers in heterogeneous environments. We investigate theoretically and numerically the behaviour of a single spherical micro-swimmer located in an infinite, periodic body-centred cubic lattice consisting of rigid inert spheres of the same size as the swimmer. We uncover a surprising and complex phase diagram of qualitatively different trajectories depending on the lattice packing density and swimming actuation strength. These results are then rationalised using hydrodynamic theory. In particular we show that the far-field nature of the swimmer (pusher vs. puller) governs the behaviour even at high volume fractions. ERC Grant PhyMeBa (682754, EL); JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (17H00853, TI).

  7. Managing uncertainty for sustainability of complex projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reveal how management of uncertainty can enable sustainability of complex projects. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted from June 2014 to May 2015 using a qualitative deductive approach among operation and maintenance actors in offshore...... wind farms. The research contains a focus group interview with 11 companies, 20 individual interviews and a seminar presenting preliminary findings with 60 participants. Findings – The findings reveal the need for management of uncertainty through two different paths. First, project management needs...... to join efforts. Research limitations/implications – Further research is needed to reveal the generalisability of the findings in other complex project contexts containing “unknown unknowns”. Practical implications – The research leads to the development of a tool for uncertainty management...

  8. Dynamics of a complex quantum magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We have computed the low energy quantum states and low frequency dynamical susceptibility of complex quantum spin systems in the limit of strong interactions, obtaining exact results for system sizes enormously larger than accessible previously. The ground state is a complex superposition of a substantial fraction of all the classical ground states, and yet the dynamical susceptibility exhibits sharp resonances reminiscent of the behavior of single spins. These results show that strongly interacting quantum systems can organize to generate coherent excitations and shed light on recent experiments demonstrating that coherent excitations are present in a disordered spin liquid. The dependence of the energy spectra on system size differs qualitatively from that of the energy spectra of random undirected bipartite graphs with similar statistics, implying that strong interactions are giving rise to these unusual spectral properties

  9. Complex harmonic modal analysis of rotor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Complex harmonic analysis for rotor systems has been proposed from the strict complex modal analysis based upon Floquet theory. In this process the harmonic balance method is adopted, effectively associated with conventional eigenvalue analysis. Also, the harmonic coefficients equivalent to dFRFs in harmonic mode has been derived in practice. The modes are classified from identifying the modal characteristics, and the adaptation of harmonic balance method has been proven by comparing the results of the stability analyses from Floque theory and the eigen analysis. The modal features of each critical speed are depicted in quantitatively and qualitatively by showing that the strengths of each component of the harmonic coefficients are estimated from the order of magnitude analysis according to their harmonic patterns. This effectiveness has been verified by comparing with the numerical solutions

  10. Patterns of structural - qualitative changes in the development of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    S Holtier

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to outline, in an emancipatory fashion, a framework of thinking to deal with the general patterns of development. As decision problems in society are increasingly of a developmental nature compared with simple performance in equilibrium systems, the author pleads in favour of an operational approach centred on 'the algebra' of structural change. It is argued that for describing and understanding development patterns better we need a proper 'structural' and 'ontologica...

  11. Qualitative Inquiry with Women in Poverty in Mexico City: Reflections on the Emotional Responses of a Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Salgado, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    While conducting a qualitative inquiry involving in-depth interviews on the perceptions of health risks within a group of profoundly poor urban families in the southern part of Mexico City, Martinez-Salgado and her interdisciplinary team of women interviewers got involved in emotionally complex situations with the women participants in the study.…

  12. Voices of Hispanic College Students: A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research within the "Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlie, Cassandra A.; Moreno, Luis S.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe

    2014-01-01

    As Hispanic students continue to be an underrepresented cultural group in higher education, researchers are called to uncover the challenging and complex experience of this diverse group of students. Using the constant comparative method, these researchers conducted a content analysis of the qualitative research on the experiences of Hispanic…

  13. Understanding rural poverty and investment in agriculture: an assessment of integreated quantitative and qualitative research in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Place, F.; Adato, M.; Hebinck, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the methodological complexities inherent in researching poverty, examining how to differentiate the poor from other social groups, and how to assess the relationships between poverty and technology adoption and impact. The use of specific types of quantitative and qualitative

  14. Understanding rural poverty and investment in agriculture: an assessment of integrated quantitative and qualitative research in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Place, F.; Adato, M.; Hebinck, P.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the methodological complexities inherent in researching poverty, examining how to differentiate the poor from other social groups, and how to assess the relationships between poverty and technology adoption and impact. The use of specific types of quantitative and qualitative

  15. Rigor in Qualitative Supply Chain Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goffin, Keith; Raja, Jawwad; Claes, Björn

    2012-01-01

    , reliability, and theoretical saturation. Originality/value – It is the authors' contention that the addition of the repertory grid technique to the toolset of methods used by logistics and supply chain management researchers can only enhance insights and the building of robust theories. Qualitative studies......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' experiences of using the repertory grid technique in two supply chain management studies. The paper aims to demonstrate how the two studies provided insights into how qualitative techniques such as the repertory grid can be made more...... rigorous than in the past, and how results can be generated that are inaccessible using quantitative methods. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents two studies undertaken using the repertory grid technique to illustrate its application in supply chain management research. Findings – The paper...

  16. Ensuring validity in qualitative international business research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of how the validity issue related to qualitative research strategies within the IB field may be grasped from an at least partially subjectivist point of view. In section two, we will first assess via the aforementioned literature review the extent...... to which the validity issue has been treated in qualitative research contributions published in six leading English-language journals which publish IB research. Thereafter, in section three, we will discuss our findings and relate them to (a) various levels of a research project and (b) the existing...... literature on potential validity problems from a more subjectivist point of view. As a part of this step, we will demonstrate that the assumptions of objectivist and subjectivist ontologies and their corresponding epistemologies merit different canons for assessing research validity. In the subsequent...

  17. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-05-01

    Advances in technology have provided new approaches for data collection methods and analysis for researchers. Data collection is no longer limited to paper-and-pencil format, and numerous methods are now available through Internet and electronic resources. With these techniques, researchers are not burdened with entering data manually and data analysis is facilitated by software programs. Quantitative research is supported by the use of computer software and provides ease in the management of large data sets and rapid analysis of numeric statistical methods. New technologies are emerging to support qualitative research with the availability of computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS).CAQDAS will be presented with a discussion of advantages, limitations, controversial issues, and recommendations for this type of software use.

  18. Qualitative explanations for red giant formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar, R.; Nigam, A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent research on giant formation has focused on the need for qualitative explanations. The explanations have the following general, qualitative form: the polytrope n assumes a certain value, that makes (d ln r)/(d ln z) take on a very large value; large increases in r can then be explained in terms of small changes in the variable z. This form is applicable to all the explanations current in the literature: they all have (1) either implicitly or explicitly, both a hydrostatic component and a luminosity-opacity component, and (2) a reliance on singular solutions. Dimensional analysis reveals that power laws that assume the polytrope n to 5 are identical in both the hydrostatic and luminosity-based explanations. 12 refs

  19. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  20. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  1. Exploring Conflict Management Using Qualitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid, Zaleha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on qualitative methods in researching the area of conflict management, specifically in Self-Managed Project Team (SMPT). The research aims to explore the evolvement of conflict management strategies in SMPT as this type of team is given the responsibility to solve problems and make decision by themselves. The inductive approach will overcome the limitation of quantitative method in management research as one of its objectives is to explain the different elements of the expl...

  2. Qualitative techniques for managing operational risk

    OpenAIRE

    Delfiner, Miguel; Pailhé, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative techniques are essential tools for identifying and assessing operational risk (OR). Their relevance in assessing OR can be understood due to the lack of a quantitative static model capable of capturing the dynamic operational risk profile which is shaped by managerial decisions. An operational risk profile obtained solely from historical loss data could further change due to corrective actions implemented by the bank after the occurrence of those events. This document introduces s...

  3. The art of preceptorship. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Finderup, Jeanette; Brahe, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    was to investigate how preceptorship can be used in clinical practice to create learning and facilitate competence development. A qualitative study guided by a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and inspired by ethnographic fieldwork included 28 participant observations and 58 interviews. Data were analysed...... performed nursing together to obtain skills focusing on independence, practical skills and communication. Getting along together: Preceptee and preceptor together focused on the patient, relation, comfort and managing how to keep the balance between a professional and a personal relation. Precepetorship...

  4. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  5. Agricultural Economics and Qualitative Research: Incompatible Paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Bitsch

    2000-01-01

    The disciplinary paradigm of agricultural economics emphasizes rational behavior in a world constrained by scarce resources. The research practice focuses on the quantitative modeling of optimization behavior. These models, though, only offer limited support to practitioners in solving real-world problems. Qualitative research approaches contribute to this task, particularly with research in developing countries. Participatory action research was introduced in the seventies; case studies have...

  6. Shifting horizons: Reflections on qualitative methods

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges of developing methodologies which build on the insights of early feminist research and methods, but which also incorporate some of the new innovations in sociological, qualitative research. Feminist research has emphasized the need to capture the everyday lives of women (and others) but this is not so easy once it is realized how 'messy' everyday life may be and that we may also not have tools adequate to the art of listening and the task of 'story tellin...

  7. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  8. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  9. Lanthanide complexes with pivaloylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseeva, S.V.; Chugarov, N.V.; Kuz'mina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Nichiporuk, R.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Complexes Ln(pa) 3 ·2H 2 O (Ln=La, Gd, Lu, Hpa - pivaloylacetone) are synthesized and investigated by the methods of element, IR spectroscopic and thermal analyses. Behaviour of the complexes during heating in vacuum is compared with such one for acetylacetonates and dipivaloylmethanates. Structure of the complexes in solution is studied by 1 H NMR and MALDI-MS [ru

  10. Hermeneutic Constructivism: An Ontology for Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Blake; Mummery, Jane

    2018-02-01

    Qualitative research is entirely an operation with language, in language, and occasionally on language. This article suggests a tension between theoretical recognition of a multiplicity of human experience on one hand and a reliance upon practices of thematic representation that prioritize the common or the general over individualized experience. The fulcrum of this tension is the nature of language itself and its role in human experience and meaning-making. This article sets out the theoretical foundations of Hermeneutic Constructivism as one proposed approach to redress this problematic within many qualitative frameworks and open up an opportunity for a deeper and more nuanced understanding of human being. Within Hermeneutic Constructivism, a Fundamental Postulate and 11 elaborative corollaries detail a cogent relationship between language and the structures and processes of mental activity that support the human comportment toward understanding. The authors argue that this theoretical position is able to inform a model for qualitative research that makes possible an exploration of a person's experience at a deeper level of abstraction and that may provide an avenue for overcoming this identified tension.

  11. Design of Qualitative HRA Database Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2015-01-01

    HRA DB is to collect and store the data in a database form to manage and maintain them from the perspective of human reliability analysis. All information on the human errors taken by operators in the power plant should be systematically collected and documented in its management. KAERI is developing the simulator-based HRA data handbook. In this study, the information required to store and manage the data necessary to perform an HRA as to store the HRA data to be stored in the handbook is identified and summarized. Especially this study is to summarize the collection and classification of qualitative data as the raw data to organize the data required to draw the HEP and its DB process. Qualitative HRA DB is a storehouse of all sub-information needed to receive the human error probability for Pasa. In this study, the requirements for structural design and implementation of qualitative HRA DB must be implemented for HRA DB were summarized. The follow-up study of the quantitative HRA DB implementation should be followed to draw the substantial HEP

  12. Qualitative interviewing: methodological challenges in Arab settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena

    2014-01-01

    To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.

  13. Qualitative biomechanical principles for application in coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human movements in sport can be readily understood by Newtonian rigid-body mechanics. Many of these laws and biomechanical principles, however, are counterintuitive to a lot of people. There are also several problems in the application of biomechanics to sports, so the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport skills by many coaches has been limited. Biomechanics scholars have long been interested in developing principles that facilitate the qualitative application of biomechanics to improve movement performance and reduce the risk of injury. This paper summarizes the major North American efforts to establish a set of general biomechanical principles of movement, and illustrates how principles can be used to improve the application of biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of sport technique. A coach helping a player with a tennis serve is presented as an example. The standardization of terminology for biomechanical principles is proposed as an important first step in improving the application ofbiomechanics in sport. There is also a need for international cooperation and research on the effectiveness of applying biomechanical principles in the coaching of sport techniques.

  14. On Generalization in Qualitatively Oriented Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I open a debate about the importance and possibilities of generalization in qualitative oriented research. Generalization traditionally is seen as a central aim of science, as a process of theory formulation for further applications. Others criticize the concept in general, either because of the insufficiency of inductive arguments (POPPER, 1959 or because of context specificity of all scientific findings (LINCOLN & GUBA, 1985. In this paper, I argue that generalization is necessary in qualitative research, but we have to differentiate different aims of generalization: laws, rules, context specific statements, similarities and differences, and procedures. There are different possibilities to arrive at a generalization: analysis of total population, falsification, random or stratified samples, argumentative generalization, theoretical sampling, variation, and triangulation. Depending on the type of research or research design some of those strategies of generalization can be important for qualitative oriented research. This is discussed especially in respect to single case analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703262

  15. Rigour in qualitative case-study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2013-03-01

    To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.

  16. Review Essay: Does Qualitative Network Analysis Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis was formed and established in the 1970s as a way of analyzing systems of social relations. In this review the theoretical-methodological standpoint of social network analysis ("structural analysis" is introduced and the different forms of social network analysis are presented. Structural analysis argues that social actors and social relations are embedded in social networks, meaning that action and perception of actors as well as the performance of social relations are influenced by the network structure. Since the 1990s structural analysis has integrated concepts such as agency, discourse and symbolic orientation and in this way structural analysis has opened itself. Since then there has been increasing use of qualitative methods in network analysis. They are used to include the perspective of the analyzed actors, to explore networks, and to understand network dynamics. In the reviewed book, edited by Betina HOLLSTEIN and Florian STRAUS, the twenty predominantly empirically orientated contributions demonstrate the possibilities of combining quantitative and qualitative methods in network analyses in different research fields. In this review we examine how the contributions succeed in applying and developing the structural analysis perspective, and the self-positioning of "qualitative network analysis" is evaluated. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701287

  17. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradoz, Philippe

    1993-01-01

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes. [fr

  18. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-03-01

    In this book, GAO characterizes DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study as a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's safety and environmental problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies to use for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing the complex is still uncertain, and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making test decisions given the conflicting demands for scarce resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  19. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  20. The Diverse Worlds and Research Practices of Qualitative Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Fielding

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the way that digital research technologies and online environments increasingly support new forms of qualitative research that have emerged as a result of new user groups taking up the practice of social research. New practitioners of qualitative research have entered the field from societies where qualitative research is a newly-established practice, and new cadres of "citizen researchers" have turned to qualitative methods for non-academic purposes. These groups challenge accepted understandings of qualitative methods. The article uses the example of qualitative software as a case study of how qualitative research is enabled by new digital tools that help new user groups extend the application of qualitative research methods. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202124

  1. Ensuring rigour and trustworthiness of qualitative research in clinical pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; José Closs, S

    2016-06-01

    The use of qualitative research methodology is well established for data generation within healthcare research generally and clinical pharmacy research specifically. In the past, qualitative research methodology has been criticized for lacking rigour, transparency, justification of data collection and analysis methods being used, and hence the integrity of findings. Demonstrating rigour in qualitative studies is essential so that the research findings have the "integrity" to make an impact on practice, policy or both. Unlike other healthcare disciplines, the issue of "quality" of qualitative research has not been discussed much in the clinical pharmacy discipline. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of rigour in qualitative research, present different philosophical standpoints on the issue of quality in qualitative research and to discuss briefly strategies to ensure rigour in qualitative research. Finally, a mini review of recent research is presented to illustrate the strategies reported by clinical pharmacy researchers to ensure rigour in their qualitative research studies.

  2. Qualitative exploration of manifestations of HIV-related stigma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative exploration of manifestations of HIV-related stigma in Kano State, Nigeria. ... Methods: The study was descriptive and cross-sectional, that used qualitative ... Follow-up quantitative and intervention studies are recommended.

  3. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz; Kacperczyk, Anna; Marciniak, Łukasz

    2005-01-01

    Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,2005, 6(3) The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined.

  4. Kurdish women's preference for mode of birth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Roonak; Rezaei, Masomeh; Ranaei, Fariba; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh

    2014-06-01

    Choosing between a normal delivery and Caesarean section is a matter of critical importance for a pregnant woman. The third trimester is the time for her to think about methods of delivery. The study aims to gain insight into Kurdish pregnant women's birth preference and their perception of factors influencing this choice. In this qualitative study, 22 pregnant Kurdish women were interviewed during the third trimester of their pregnancies. The setting for the study included three public health-care centres of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, a centre of the Kurdistan province at the western part of Iran. Study participants were recruited from maternity units of health-care centres. A purposive sample was used initially and then theoretical sampling was used towards the end of the data analysis. Sample size was not predetermined but was determined when interviewing reached saturation, that is, when no new data emerged about categories. The sample size was restricted to 22, as no new data were generated after the 20th interview. The criteria required for inclusion in the study were being Kurdish women, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, no physical disability, no history of Caesarean section and interest in the study. A qualitative design was chosen, as it is particularly suited to studying complex phenomena or processes that are less understood. This study revealed that of the 22 participants, 18 preferred vaginal delivery and only four preferred Caesarean section. The reasons for choosing the vaginal delivery method were grouped into four categories: safety of baby, fear, previous experience and social support. This finding does not support the rate of Caesarean section among Kurdish women in Sanandaj. It might reflect the effect of other factors such as social, institutional, professional and quality of care on women's choice for delivery method. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. The weight-loss experience: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rogerson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight management consists of weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance, and weight-gain stages. Qualitative insights into weight management are now appearing in the literature however research appears to be biased towards explorations of weight-loss maintenance. The qualitative understanding of weight loss, which begets weight-loss maintenance and might establish the experiences and behaviours necessary for successful long-term weight management, is comparatively under-investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight-loss experiences of a sample of participants not aligned to clinical intervention research, in order to understand the weight-loss experiences of a naturalistic sample. Methods Participants (n = 8 with weight-loss (n = 4 and weight-maintenance experiences (n = 4 were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to understand the weight-loss experience. Interview data was analysed thematically using Framework Analysis and was underpinned by realist meta-theory. Results Weight loss was experienced as an enduring challenge, where factors that assisted weight loss were developed and experienced dichotomously to factors that hindered it. Participants described barriers to (dichotomous thinking, environments, social pressures and weight centeredness and facilitators of (mindfulness, knowledge, exercise, readiness to change, structure, self-monitoring and social support their weight-loss goals in rich detail, highlighting that weight loss was a complex experience. Conclusions Weight loss was a difficult task, with physical, social, behavioural and environmental elements that appeared to assist and inhibit weight-loss efforts concurrently. Health professionals might need to better understand the day-to-day challenges of dieters in order to provide more effective, tailored treatments. Future research should look to investigate the psycho-social consequences of weight-loss dieting, in

  6. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  7. Enhancing the trustworthiness of qualitative research in international business

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Penz, Elfriede; Ghauri, Pervez N.

    2008-01-01

    Reliability, validity, generalisability and objectivity are fundamental concerns for quantitative researchers. For qualitative research, however, the role of these dimensions is blurred. Some researchers argue that these dimensions are not applicable to qualitative research and a qualitative researcher's tool chest should be geared towards trustworthiness and encompass issues such as credibility, dependability, transferability and confirmability. This paper advocates the use of formalised and...

  8. An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

  9. Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

  10. Communicating Qualitative Analytical Results Following Grice's Conversational Maxims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Jan S.; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Conducting qualitative research can be seen as a developing communication act through which researchers engage in a variety of conversations. Articulating the results of qualitative data analysis results can be an especially challenging part of this scholarly discussion for qualitative researchers. To help guide investigators through this…

  11. Are Validity and Reliability "Relevant" in Qualitative Evaluation Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura D.; Goodwin, William L.

    1984-01-01

    The views of prominant qualitative methodologists on the appropriateness of validity and reliability estimation for the measurement strategies employed in qualitative evaluations are summarized. A case is made for the relevance of validity and reliability estimation. Definitions of validity and reliability for qualitative measurement are presented…

  12. Origins, Methods and Advances in Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Elizabeth; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research is a broad term encompassing many methods. Critiques of the field of qualitative research argue that while individual studies provide rich descriptions and insights, the absence of connections drawn between studies limits their usefulness. In response, qualitative meta-synthesis serves as a design to interpret and synthesise…

  13. Research Commentary: The Promise of Qualitative Metasynthesis for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunder, Kateri; Berry, Robert Q., III.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics education has benefited from qualitative methodological approaches over the past 40 years across diverse topics. Although the number, type, and quality of qualitative research studies in mathematics education has changed, little is known about how a collective body of qualitative research findings contributes to our understanding of a…

  14. Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

  15. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  16. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  17. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  18. Method of complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braendas, E.

    1986-01-01

    The method of complex scaling is taken to include bound states, resonances, remaining scattering background and interference. Particular points of the general complex coordinate formulation are presented. It is shown that care must be exercised to avoid paradoxical situations resulting from inadequate definitions of operator domains. A new resonance localization theorem is presented

  19. Is dense codeswitching complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorleijn, M.

    In this paper the question is raised to what extent dense code switching can be considered complex. Psycholinguistic experiments indicate that code switching involves cognitive costs, both in production and comprehension, a conclusion that could indicate that code switching is indeed complex. In

  20. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  1. Conference Report: Sixth Annual Meeting of Qualitative Psychology "Generalization in Qualitative Psychology"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Gürtler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This conference report gives an overview of the 6th Annual Conference of the Qualitative Psychology Initiative held in Velden, Austria from 21-23 October, 2005 sponsored by the Center for Qualitative Psychology (Tübingen. Only in its sixth year, the conference has already become a tradition and was once again attended by researchers from a wide variety of professions and different countries. This year the conference focused on the subject of generalization in qualitative psychology and looked at different ways in which generalization can be handled in qualitative research in psychology. This conference report aims to convey an impression of the conference as a whole, to situate it within the context of psychological research and to point towards current issues and trends in qualitative research that are related to generalization. The individual presentations are first briefly summarized in this context, but are also presented again in greater detail in the Appendix C. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604152

  2. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  3. Complexity of Forest Management: Exploring Perceptions of Dutch Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilske O. de Bruin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Challenges of contemporary forest management are frequently referred to as complex. This article empirically studies complexity in forest management decision-making. In contrast to what is often assumed in the literature, this article starts by assuming that complexity does not just consist of an external descriptive element, but also depends on how decision-makers perceive the system at hand. This “perceived complexity” determines decision-making. We used a straightforward interpretation of perceived complexity using two criteria: the number of factors considered and the uncertainty perceived about these factors. The results show that Dutch forest managers generally consider forest management decision-making to be complicated (many factors to consider rather than complex (many uncertain factors to consider. Differences in sources of complexity confirm the individual character of perceived complexity. The factors perceived to be most relevant for decision-making (the forest itself, the organization’s objective, the cost of management, public opinion, national policies and laws, and new scientific insights and ideas are generally seen as rather certain, although “complexity reduction” may play a role that can adversely affect the quality of decision-making. Additional use of more open-ended, forward-looking methods, such as qualitative foresight tools, might enable addressing uncertainty and complexity, and thereby enhance decision-making in forest management to prepare for increasing complexity in the future.

  4. Qualitative Research David Silverman Qualitative Research Sage Publications £26.99 464pp 9781849204170 1849204179 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    DAVID SILVERMAN'S latest book builds on previous editions to provide up-to-date development in qualitative research and offers an overview of theoretical and practical considerations. Unlike many other qualitative research methodology books there is an emphasis on the function of qualitative research to articulate meaning.

  5. Review: Aglaja Przyborski & Monika Wohlrab-Sahr (2009. Qualitative Sozialforschung. Ein Arbeitsbuch [Qualitative Research. A Textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Berli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The introductory textbook "Qualitative Sozialforschung [Qualitative Research]" by PRZYBORSKI and WOHLRAB-SAHR is addressed to students and teachers alike interested in methodology and methods. The authors aim to describe the research process as a whole in all its elements. The volume therefore includes comprehensive chapters concerning methodology, sampling procedures and displaying of results, as well as chapters dealing with special forms of generating and analyzing data (e.g. grounded theory. The authors compare the approaches presented and work out their similarities rather than differences. Although this textbook offers a sound introduction to qualitative research, in stressing similarities the authors tend to neglect important methodological differences. The chapter dealing with criteria for evaluating the quality of research is one such example of this tendency. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100325

  6. Co-creation of a pedagogical space to support qualitative inquiry: An advanced qualitative collective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Sarah; Kim, Su Kyung; Jacoby, Sara; Mooney-Doyle, Kim; Waite, Terease; Froh, Elizabeth; Sefcik, Justine S; Kim, Hyejin; Sowicz, Timothy Joseph; Kelly, Terri-Ann; Kagan, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Situated in a research-intensive School of Nursing, the Advanced Qualitative Collective (AQC) provides an innovative educational forum for the study of qualitative research by doctoral and postdoctoral scholars. This long-standing collective is guided by a faculty facilitator using a collaborative co-learning approach to address individual and group needs, from the conception of research projects through dissemination of completed qualitative research. This article describes the dynamics of the AQC and the ways a co-created pedagogical entity supports professional development among its diverse members. The informal, participatory style, and dynamic content used by the AQC resists a course structure typical of doctoral education in health sciences, and promotes engagement and self-direction. The AQC provides opportunities for members to examine theoretical frameworks and methodologies rarely addressed within a positivism-dominant learning environment while simultaneously serving as an alternative exemplar for the pedagogy of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. What do people do with porn? qualitative research into the consumption, use and experience of pornography and other sexually explicit media

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, F.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews qualitative research into the consumption of pornography and other sexually explicit media emerging from a range of subject areas. Taking a critique of quantitative methods and a focus on measuring sexual effects and attitudes as a starting point, it considers the proposition that qualitative work is more suited to an examination of the complex social, cultural and political constructions of sexuality. Examining studies into the way men, women and young people see, experi...

  8. Out of the frying pan? Streamlining the ethics review process of multisite qualitative research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick A M; Allen, Suellen; Britton, Kate; Hor, Suyin

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the ethics approval processes for two multicentre, nationwide, qualitative health service research projects. The paper explains that the advent of the National Ethics Application Form has brought many improvements, but that attendant processes put in place at local health network and Human Research Ethics Committee levels may have become significantly more complicated, particularly for innovative qualitative research projects. The paper raises several questions based on its analysis of ethics application processes currently in place. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? The complexity of multicentre research ethics applications for research in health services has been addressed by the introduction of the National Ethics Application Form. Uptake of the form across the country's human research ethics committees has been uneven. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper adds detailed insight into the ethics application process as it is currently enacted across the country. The paper details this process with reference to difficulties faced by multisite and qualitative studies in negotiating access to research sites, ethics committees' relative unfamiliarity with qualitative research , and apparent tensions between harmonisation and local sites' autonomy in approving research. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? Practitioners aiming to engage in research need to be aware that ethics approval takes place in an uneven procedural landscape, made up of variable levels of ethics approval harmonization and intricate governance or site-specific assessment processes.

  9. Literature search strategies for conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Johnson, E Diane

    2013-01-01

    To report literature search strategies for the purpose of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Qualitative systematic reviews lie on a continuum from knowledge-building and theory-generating to aggregating and summarizing. Different types of literature searches are needed to optimally support these dissimilar reviews. Articles published between 1989-Autumn 2011. These documents were identified using a hermeneutic approach and multiple literature search strategies. Redundancy is not the sole measure of validity when conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews. When conducting these types of reviews, literature searches should be consistent with the goal of fully explicating concepts and the interrelationships among them. To accomplish this objective, a 'berry picking' approach is recommended along with strategies for overcoming barriers to finding qualitative research reports. To enhance integrity of knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews, reviewers are urged to make literature search processes as transparent as possible, despite their complexity. This includes fully explaining and rationalizing what databases were used and how they were searched. It also means describing how literature tracking was conducted and grey literature was searched. In the end, the decision to cease searching also needs to be fully explained and rationalized. Predetermined linear search strategies are unlikely to generate search results that are adequate for purposes of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Instead, it is recommended that iterative search strategies take shape as reviews evolve. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coast, Joanna; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Sutton, Eileen J; Horrocks, Susan A; Vosper, A Jane; Swancutt, Dawn R; Flynn, Terry N

    2012-06-01

    Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Core Themes in Music Therapy Clinical Improvisation: An Arts-Informed Qualitative Research Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Anthony; Wimpenny, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Although clinical improvisation continues to be an important focus of music therapy research and practice, less attention has been given to integrating qualitative research in this area. As a result, this knowledge base tends to be contained within specific areas of practice rather than integrated across practices and approaches. This qualitative research synthesis profiles, integrates, and re-presents qualitative research focused on the ways music therapists and clients engage in, and make meaning from, clinical improvisation. Further, as a conduit for broadening dialogues, opening up this landscape fully, and sharing our response to the analysis and interpretation process, we present an arts-informed re-presentation of this synthesis. Following an eight-step methodological sequence, 13 qualitative studies were synthesized. This included reciprocal and refutational processes associated with synthesizing the primary studies, and additional steps associated with an arts-informed representation. Three themes, professional artistry, performing self, and meaning-making, are presented. Each theme is explored and exemplified through the selected articles, and discussed within a larger theoretical framework. An artistic re-presentation of the data is also presented. Music therapists use complex frameworks through which to engage clients in, and make meaning from, improvisational experiences. Artistic representation of the findings offers an added dimension to the synthesis process, challenging our understanding of representation, and thereby advancing synthesis methodology. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Qualitative Fault Isolation of Hybrid Systems: A Structural Model Decomposition-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregon, Anibal; Daigle, Matthew; Roychoudhury, Indranil

    2016-01-01

    Quick and robust fault diagnosis is critical to ensuring safe operation of complex engineering systems. A large number of techniques are available to provide fault diagnosis in systems with continuous dynamics. However, many systems in aerospace and industrial environments are best represented as hybrid systems that consist of discrete behavioral modes, each with its own continuous dynamics. These hybrid dynamics make the on-line fault diagnosis task computationally more complex due to the large number of possible system modes and the existence of autonomous mode transitions. This paper presents a qualitative fault isolation framework for hybrid systems based on structural model decomposition. The fault isolation is performed by analyzing the qualitative information of the residual deviations. However, in hybrid systems this process becomes complex due to possible existence of observation delays, which can cause observed deviations to be inconsistent with the expected deviations for the current mode in the system. The great advantage of structural model decomposition is that (i) it allows to design residuals that respond to only a subset of the faults, and (ii) every time a mode change occurs, only a subset of the residuals will need to be reconfigured, thus reducing the complexity of the reasoning process for isolation purposes. To demonstrate and test the validity of our approach, we use an electric circuit simulation as the case study.

  13. Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kehong

    Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator

  14. Selenophene transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Carter James [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-07-27

    This research shows that selenophene transition metal complexes have a chemistry that is similar to their thiophene analogs. Selenophene coordination has been demonstrated and confirmed by molecular structure in both the η5- and the η1(Se)-coordination modes. The reaction chemistry of selenophene complexes closely resembles that of the analogous thiophene complexes. One major difference, however, is that selenophene is a better donor ligand than thiophene making the selenophene complexes more stable than the corresponding thiophene complexes. The 77Se NMR chemical shift values for selenophene complexes fall within distinct regions primarily depending on the coordination mode of the selenophene ligand. In the final paper, the C-H bond activation of η1(S)-bound thiophenes, η1(S)-benzothiophene and η1(Se)-bound selenophenes has been demonstrated. The deprotonation and rearrangement of the η1(E)-bound ligand to the carbon bound L-yl complex readily occurs in the presence of base. Reprotonation with a strong acid gives a carbene complex that is unreactive towards nucleophilic attack at the carbene carbon and is stable towards exposure to air. The molecular structure of [Cp(NO)(PPh3)Re(2-benzothioenylcarbene)]O3SCF3 was determined and contains a Re-C bond with substantial double bond character. Methyl substitution for the thienylcarbene or selenylcarbene gives a carbene that rearranges thermally to give back the η1(E)-bound complex. Based on these model reactions, a new mechanism for the H/D exchange of thiophene over the hydrodesulfurization catalyst has been proposed.

  15. Comparative qualitative research in Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin; Fatigante, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide an approach that allows to study the interplay of culture and psychological human functioning in comparative study designs. Starting out with a brief overview of how qualitative, cultural, and comparative research is addressed in the field of psychology we...... will take a Cultural Psychology approach to suggest that the unit of analysis for comparative research needs to be situated social interaction. We will then suggest an integrative approach that allows us to study social interaction both on a micro- and on a macro-level by combining discourse analysis...... some criteria of validity that particularly apply to the field of comparative research in Cultural Psychology....

  16. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... of these criterions are weak. Based on the stability mechanism from the extended equal area criterion (EEAC) theory and combining with abundant simulations of real system, this paper analyzes the criterions in most literatures and finds that the results could be too conservative or too optimistic. It is concluded...

  17. Multiple social contexts in qualitative bereavement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Little research focuses on the ways that bereaved family members react to and make meaning of their experience of the death of an elderly father and husband. In a qualitative, ethnographic study of 34 bereaved families we examined how family members respond to two inter-related social contexts: 1. Social-cultural values and attitudes such as attitudes toward grieving for old persons, and 2. The inter-personal dyadic relationship between interviewer and interviewee. An underlying theme of uncertainty pervades the study participants’ views of what is normal and expected in their own process of bereavement. Implications for future bereavement research are suggested. PMID:22939542

  18. Qualitative Mapping of Structural Different Polypeptide Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Jensen, Jason; Castillo, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    that it is possible to distinguish between these three types of structures using this method. Further, an agreement between the detected signal and the structure of the hollow peptide was demonstrated; however only qualitative agreement with the mathematical expressing of the tubes is shown.......Biological self-assembled structures are receiving increasing focus within micro- and nanotechnology, for example, as sensing devices, due to the fact that they are cheap to produce and easy to functionalize. Therefore, methods for the characterization of these structures are much needed...

  19. Ontological and epistemological foundations of qualitative research

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilachis, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from the Epistemology of the Known Subject perspective I propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the epistemological grounds of this type of inquiry. I begin by following the path that leads from the Epistemology of the Knowing Subject to the Epistemology of the Known Subject, proposed as a new and non exclusive way of knowing. I pass on to describe the p...

  20. Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research: ENTREQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The syntheses of multiple qualitative studies can pull together data across different contexts, generate new theoretical or conceptual models, identify research gaps, and provide evidence for the development, implementation and evaluation of health interventions. This study aims to develop a framework for reporting the synthesis of qualitative health research. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search for guidance and reviews relevant to the synthesis of qualitative research, methodology papers, and published syntheses of qualitative health research in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and relevant organisational websites to May 2011. Initial items were generated inductively from guides to synthesizing qualitative health research. The preliminary checklist was piloted against forty published syntheses of qualitative research, purposively selected to capture a range of year of publication, methods and methodologies, and health topics. We removed items that were duplicated, impractical to assess, and rephrased items for clarity. Results The Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) statement consists of 21 items grouped into five main domains: introduction, methods and methodology, literature search and selection, appraisal, and synthesis of findings. Conclusions The ENTREQ statement can help researchers to report the stages most commonly associated with the synthesis of qualitative health research: searching and selecting qualitative research, quality appraisal, and methods for synthesising qualitative findings. The synthesis of qualitative research is an expanding and evolving methodological area and we would value feedback from all stakeholders for the continued development and extension of the ENTREQ statement. PMID:23185978